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    Use of a Novel Probiotic Formulation to Alleviate Lactose Intolerance Symptoms-a Pilot Study. Gingold-Belfer Rachel,Levy Sigal,Layfer Olga,Pakanaev Lea,Niv Yaron,Dickman Ram,Perets Tsachi Tsadok Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins Lactose intolerance is a common condition caused by lactase deficiency and may result in symptoms of lactose malabsorption (bloating, flatulence, abdominal discomfort, and change in bowel habits). As current data is limited, the aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of probiotics with a β-galactosidase activity on symptoms of lactose malabsorption and on the lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT). The study group comprised eight symptomatic female patients with a positive LHBT. Patients were treated for 6 months with a probiotic formula with β-galactosidase activity (Bio-25, Ambrosia-SupHerb, Israel). All patients completed a demographic questionnaire as well as a diary for the assessment of symptom severity and frequency at entry, every 8 weeks, and at the end of the treatment period. Measurements of hydrogen (H) levels (parts per million, ppm) at each of these time points were also performed. End points were a decrease of 50% in symptom severity or frequency, and the normalization (decrease below cutoff point of 20 ppm) of the breath test. Mean age and mean body mass index (BMI) were 36.4 ± 18.6 years and 23.2 kg/m, respectively. Compared to baseline scores, the frequency of most symptoms, and the severity of bloating and flatulence, improved after treatment. Normalization of LHBT was obtained in only two patients (25%). In this pilot study, Bio-25, a unique formulation of probiotics with β-galactosidase activity, demonstrated symptom resolution in most patients with lactose malabsorption. A larger randomized trial is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings. 10.1007/s12602-018-9507-7
    Recent advances on lactose intolerance: Tolerance thresholds and currently available answers. Corgneau M,Scher J,Ritie-Pertusa L,Le D T L,Petit J,Nikolova Y,Banon S,Gaiani C Critical reviews in food science and nutrition The genetically programmed reduction in lactase activity during adulthood affects 70% of the world adult population and can cause severe digestive disorders, which are the sign of lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerance symptoms vary depending on the residual lactase activity, the small bowel transit time, and especially the amount of ingested lactose. To formulate dairy products suitable for the vast majority of lactose intolerants, it is essential to define lactose intolerance threshold. A recent meta-analysis permitted to show that almost all lactose intolerants tolerate 12 g of lactose in one intake and approximately 18 g of lactose spread over the day. The prevalence and severity of lactose intolerance are probably overestimated by the general public. This misconception usually leads to an unnecessary reduction of dairy foodstuff consumption. Nevertheless, dairy products are essential for health mainly due to their calcium content and the positive influence of probiotic bacteria. The formulation of dairy products suitable for most intolerant and suspicious subjects seems necessary. The use of exogenous enzyme preparations, as well as the consumption of lactose-free products or products rich in probiotic bacteria are proposed as symptom-reducing strategies. 10.1080/10408398.2015.1123671
    Lactose intolerance: An update on its pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Catanzaro Roberto,Sciuto Morena,Marotta Francesco Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) Lactose intolerance has a high prevalence worldwide, ranging between 57% and 65%. It is caused by a reduction or loss of the activity of the intestinal enzyme lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, responsible for the digestion of lactose. This alteration determines an increased osmotic load in the small intestine and the fermentation of lactose by the bacterial flora, which leads to a high production of short-chain fatty acids and gas. This is followed by the onset of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and flatulence. In addition to these problems, it was found that subjects with lactose intolerance have an increased risk of developing various extra-intestinal diseases, including cancers. The diagnosis is essential to undertake an adequate treatment and, for this purpose, different methods have been tested. These include genetic test, hydrogen breath test (HBT), quick lactase test, and lactose tolerance test. HBT is the most used method because it is non-invasive, inexpensive, and highly sensitive and specific, as well as easy to perform. In clinical practice, the other methods are mainly used as HBT integration tests. There are also many therapeutic options. An appropriate intervention concerns the dietetic style, such as the consumption of lactose-free foods, but with nutritional characteristics comparable to dairy products. Other valid choices are represented by the use of exogenous enzymes, probiotics, prebiotics, the selection of milk containing specific types of beta-caseins. This review is intended to illustrate the diagnostic methods currently available and the possible therapeutic options for lactose intolerance. 10.1016/j.nutres.2021.02.003
    Update on lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. Misselwitz Benjamin,Butter Matthias,Verbeke Kristin,Fox Mark R Gut Lactose is the main source of calories in milk, an essential nutriedigestion, patients with visceral hypersensitivity nt in infancy and a key part of the diet in populations that maintain the ability to digest this disaccharide in adulthood. Lactase deficiency (LD) is the failure to express the enzyme that hydrolyses lactose into galactose and glucose in the small intestine. The genetic mechanism of lactase persistence in adult Caucasians is mediated by a single C→T nucleotide polymorphism at the LCTbo -13'910 locus on chromosome-2. Lactose malabsorption (LM) refers to any cause of failure to digest and/or absorb lactose in the small intestine. This includes primary genetic and also secondary LD due to infection or other conditions that affect the mucosal integrity of the small bowel. Lactose intolerance (LI) is defined as the onset of abdominal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhoea after lactose ingestion by an individual with LM. The likelihood of LI depends on the lactose dose, lactase expression and the intestinal microbiome. Independent of lactose digestion, patients with visceral hypersensitivity associated with anxiety or the Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) are at increased risk of the condition. Diagnostic investigations available to diagnose LM and LI include genetic, endoscopic and physiological tests. The association between self-reported LI, objective findings and clinical outcome of dietary intervention is variable. Treatment of LI can include low-lactose diet, lactase supplementation and, potentially, colonic adaptation by prebiotics. The clinical outcome of these treatments is modest, because lactose is just one of a number of poorly absorbed carbohydrates which can cause symptoms by similar mechanisms. 10.1136/gutjnl-2019-318404
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) regulates lactase expression and activity in the gut. Fumery Mathurin,Speca Silvia,Langlois Audrey,Davila Anne-Marie,Dubuquoy Caroline,Grauso Marta,Martin Mena Anthony,Figeac Martin,Metzger Daniel,Rousseaux Christel,Colombel Jean-Frederic,Dubuquoy Laurent,Desreumaux Pierre,Bertin Benjamin EMBO molecular medicine Lactase (LCT) deficiency affects approximately 75% of the world's adult population and may lead to lactose malabsorption and intolerance. Currently, the regulation of LCT gene expression remains poorly known. Peroxisome proliferator activator receptorγ (PPARγ) is a key player in carbohydrate metabolism. While the intestine is essential for carbohydrate digestion and absorption, the role of PPARγ in enterocyte metabolic functions has been poorly investigated. This study aims at characterizing PPARγ target genes involved in intestinal metabolic functions. In microarray analysis, the LCT gene was the most upregulated by PPARγ agonists in Caco-2 cells. We confirmed that PPARγ agonists were able to increase the expression and activity of LCT both and in the proximal small bowel of rodents. The functional response element activated by PPARγ was identified in the promoter of the human LCT gene. PPARγ modulation was able to improve symptoms induced by lactose-enriched diet in weaned rats. Our results demonstrate that PPARγ regulates LCT expression, and suggest that modulating intestinal PPARγ activity might constitute a new therapeutic strategy for lactose malabsorption. 10.15252/emmm.201707795
    Peroral gene therapy of lactose intolerance using an adeno-associated virus vector. During M J,Xu R,Young D,Kaplitt M G,Sherwin R S,Leone P Nature medicine Gene therapy is usually reserved for severe and medically refractory disorders because of the toxicity, potential long-term risks and invasiveness of most gene transfer protocols. Here we show that an orally administered adeno-associated viral vector leads to persistent expression of a beta-galactosidase transgene in both gut epithelial and lamina propria cells, and that this approach results in long-term phenotypic recovery in an animal model of lactose intolerance. A gene 'pill' associated with highly efficient and stable gene expression might be a practical and cost-effective strategy for even relatively mild disorders, such as lactase deficiency. 10.1038/2625
    Efficacy of i3.1 Probiotic on Improvement of Lactose Intolerance Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial. Cano-Contreras Ana D,Minero Alfaro Isidro J,Medina López Víctor M,Amieva Balmori Mercedes,Remes Troche José M,Espadaler Mazo Jordi,Perez Lopez Nuria Journal of clinical gastroenterology GOAL:The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of probiotic i3.1 in improving lactose intolerance symptoms compared with placebo after 8 weeks of treatment. BACKGROUND:Probiotics are promising strategies to prevent and improve lactose intolerance symptoms, but previous studies have provided conflicting results. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled study was conducted at the Hospital Juárez de México. We recruited adult patients with lactose intolerance confirmed by a lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) ≥20 parts per million (ppm) and a lactose intolerance symptom score ≥6 both upon lactose challenge. We compared the change from baseline in the scores of a validated symptom questionnaire and the LHBT after 8 weeks of probiotic or placebo treatment. RESULTS:We included 48 patients: 33 receiving the probiotic and 15 receiving placebo (2:1 randomization). Demographic characteristics were homogeneous between groups. The reduction in total symptom score after a lactose challenge was significantly higher in the probiotic group versus the placebo group (-5.11 vs. -1.00; P<0.001). All the subscores significantly decreased from baseline in the probiotic group, except for vomiting, with significant differences between the probiotic and placebo groups for abdominal pain (P=0.045) and flatulence (P=0.004). The area under the curve of the LHBT was significantly reduced from baseline in the probiotic group (P=0.019), but differences between groups were not significant (P=0.621). Adverse events were mild without differences between groups, and no serious adverse event was registered. CONCLUSION:The i3.1 probiotic was safe and efficacious in reducing lactose intolerance symptoms in patients with lactose intolerance, but did not change the LHBT. 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001456