[Anti-virus research of triterpenoids in licorice].
Pu Jie-Ying,He Li,Wu Si-Yu,Zhang Ping,Huang Xi
Bing du xue bao = Chinese journal of virology
Licorice is a leguminous plant of glycyrrhiza. It is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Triterpenoid is one of the mainly active components of licorice. In recent years, the broad-spectrum antiviral activity of many triterpenoids in licorice was confirmed, and these findings have become a hot spot of antiviral immunity. The triterpenoids of licorice has the potential to become a novel broad-spectrum antiviral medicine and will be widely used in the clinical treatment. This review provided a summary of the recent anti-virus research progress on several triterpenoids in licorice, such as glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives. The antiviral roles of triterpenoids in licorice against herpes virus, HIV, hepatitis virus, SARS coronavirus and influenza virus were briefly summarized.
Therapeutic potential of medicinal plants against COVID-19: The role of antiviral medicinal metabolites.
Khan Tariq,Khan Mubarak Ali,Mashwani Zia-Ur-Rehman,Ullah Nazif,Nadhman Akhtar
Biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology
There are numerous trials underway to find treatment for the COVID-19 through testing vaccines as well as existing drugs. Apart from the many synthetic chemical compounds, plant-based compounds could provide an array of \suitable candidates for testing against the virus. Studies have confirmed the role of many plants against respiratory viruses when employed either as crude extracts or their active ingredients in pure form. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the importance of phytomedicine against COVID-19. The main aim is to review the mechanistic aspects of most important phytochemical compounds that have showed potential against coronaviruses. Glycyrrhizin from the roots of has shown promising potential against the previously epidemic coronavirus, SARS-CoV. Other important plants such as , , , and spp. have been employed against SARS-CoV. Active ingredients (e.g. emodin, reserpine, aescin, myricetin, scutellarin, apigenin, luteolin, and betulonic acid) have shown promising results against the coronaviruses. Phytochemicals have demonstrated activity against the coronaviruses through mechanisms such as viral entry inhibition, inhibition of replication enzymes and virus release blockage. However, compared to synthetic drugs, phytomedicine are mechanistically less understood and should be properly evaluated before application. Nonetheless, phytochemicals reduce the tedious job of drug discovery and provide a less time-consuming alternative for drug testing. Therefore, along with other drugs currently tested against COVID-19, plant-based drugs should be included for speedy development of COVID-19 treatment.
Development of an inactivated vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2.
Gao Qiang,Bao Linlin,Mao Haiyan,Wang Lin,Xu Kangwei,Yang Minnan,Li Yajing,Zhu Ling,Wang Nan,Lv Zhe,Gao Hong,Ge Xiaoqin,Kan Biao,Hu Yaling,Liu Jiangning,Cai Fang,Jiang Deyu,Yin Yanhui,Qin Chengfeng,Li Jing,Gong Xuejie,Lou Xiuyu,Shi Wen,Wu Dongdong,Zhang Hengming,Zhu Lang,Deng Wei,Li Yurong,Lu Jinxing,Li Changgui,Wang Xiangxi,Yin Weidong,Zhang Yanjun,Qin Chuan
Science (New York, N.Y.)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in an unprecedented public health crisis. Because of the novelty of the virus, there are currently no SARS-CoV-2-specific treatments or vaccines available. Therefore, rapid development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. Here, we developed a pilot-scale production of PiCoVacc, a purified inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccine candidate, which induced SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice, rats, and nonhuman primates. These antibodies neutralized 10 representative SARS-CoV-2 strains, suggesting a possible broader neutralizing ability against other strains. Three immunizations using two different doses, 3 or 6 micrograms per dose, provided partial or complete protection in macaques against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, respectively, without observable antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. These data support the clinical development and testing of PiCoVacc for use in humans.
Polysaccharides derived from Chinese medicinal herbs: A promising choice of vaccine adjuvants.
Wan Xinhuan,Yin Yiming,Zhou Changzheng,Hou Lin,Cui Qinghua,Zhang Xiaoping,Cai Xiaoqing,Wang Yuliang,Wang Lizhu,Tian Jingzhen
Adjuvants have been used in vaccines for a long time to promote the body's immune response, reducing vaccine dosage and production costs. Although many vaccine adjuvants are developed, the use in human vaccines is limited because of either limited action or side effects. Therefore, the development of new vaccine adjuvants is required. Many studies have found that natural polysaccharides derived from Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) possess good immune promoting effects and simultaneously improve humoral, cellular and mucosal immunity. Recently polysaccharide adjuvants have attracted much attention in vaccine preparation because of their intrinsic characteristics: immunomodulation, biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity and safety. This review article systematically analysed the literature on polysaccharides possessing vaccine adjuvant activity from TCM plants, such as Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharide (RGP), Isatis indigotica root polysaccharides (IRPS), etc. and their derivatives. We believe that polysaccharide adjuvants can be used to prepare the vaccines for clinical use provided their mechanisms of action are studied in detail.