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    Incidence of C5 nerve root palsy after cervical surgery: A meta-analysis for last decade. Wang Tao,Wang Hui,Liu Sen,Ding Wen-Yuan Medicine PURPOSE:We aim to perform a meta-analysis on incidence of C5 nerve root palsy (C5 palsy) for patients after cervical surgery. METHODS:An extensive search of the literature was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, and WANFANG databases on incidence of C5 palsy from January 2007 to January 2017. Prevalence of C5 palsy related to different surgery methods was calculated and data analysis was conducted with STATA 12.0. RESULTS:A total of 61 studies containing 721 patients with C5 palsy in total 11,481 patients (6.3%) were included in our study. The incidences after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF), anterior corpectomy combined with discectomy (ACCDF), laminoplasty (LP) and laminectomy and fusion (LF) were 5.5%, 7.5%, 6%, 4.4%, and 12.2%, respectively. Compared with anterior approaches (5%), female patients (4%) and patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) (4.8%), posterior approaches (6.2%), male patients (5.7%) and patients with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) (8.1%) have a higher prevalence. In ACDF and LP, patients with OPLL (5.5%, 8.1%, respectively) have a higher incidence than those in patients with CSM (4.7%, 3.1%, respectively); however, in LF, patients with CSM and OPLL have similar incidence of C5 palsy (13% vs 13.1%). In most cases, C5 palsy was unilateral (74.5%). CONCLUSIONS:Based on our meta-analysis, posterior approaches, male patients and patients with OPLL have a higher incidence of C5 palsy. In ACDF and LP, patients with OPLL have a higher incidence of C5 palsy, but in LF, patients with CSM and OPLL have similar result. 10.1097/MD.0000000000008560
    Factors Associated With C5 Palsy Following Cervical Spine Surgery: A Systematic Review. Global spine journal STUDY DESIGN:Systematic review. OBJECTIVES:C5 palsy (C5P) is a not uncommon and disabling postoperative complication with a reported incidence varying between 0% and 30%. Among others, one explanation for its occurrence includes foraminal nerve root tethering. Although different risk factors have been reported, controversy about its causation and prevention persists. Inconsistent study findings contribute to the persistent ambiguity leading to an assumption of a multifactorial nature of the underlying C5P pathophysiology. Here, we report the results of a systematic review on C5P with narrow inclusion criteria in the hope of elucidating risk factors for C5P due to a common pathophysiological mechanism. METHODS:Electronic databases from inception to March 9, 2019 and references of articles were searched. Narrow inclusion criteria were applied to identify studies investigating demographic, clinical, surgical, and radiographic factors associated with postoperative C5P. RESULTS:Sixteen studies were included after initial screening of 122 studies. Eighty-four risk factors were analyzed; 27 in ≥2 studies and 57 in single studies. The pooled prevalence of C5P was 6.0% (range: 4.2%-24.1%) with no consistent evidence that C5P was associated with demographic, clinical, or specific surgical factors. Of the radiographic factors assessed, specifically decreased foraminal diameter and preoperative cord rotation were identified as risk factors for C5P. CONCLUSION:Although risk factors for C5P have been reported, ambiguity remains due to potentially multifactorial pathophysiology and study heterogeneity. We found foraminal diameter and cord rotation to be associated with postoperative C5P occurrence in our meta-analysis. These findings support the notion that factors contributing to, and acting synergistically with foraminal stenosis increase the risk of postoperative C5P. 10.1177/2192568219874771
    C5 nerve root palsy after posterior cervical spine surgery. Pan Fu-Min,Wang Shan-Jin,Ma Bin,Wu De-Sheng Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong) BACKGROUND:C5 palsy is a serious complication after cervical decompression surgery in which the patient shows a deterioration in power of the deltoid or biceps brachii by at least one grade in the manual muscle test without aggravation of lower extremity function. Although there are several hypotheses regarding the etiology of C5 palsy, the pathogenesis and preventive measures remain unidentified and many other controversies remain. OBJECTIVE:To systematically review the clinical features, risk factors, mechanism, and preventive measures of C5 palsy after posterior cervical decompression surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS:PubMed was searched to identify eligible studies that contained more than 10 cases and focused on C5 palsy. Microsoft Excel was used to analyze the data. Statistical comparisons were made when appropriate. RESULTS:Out of 718 papers involving C5 palsy, 28 met the inclusion criteria. The average incidence rate was 7.8% (range, 1.4-23.0%). Risk factors for C5 palsy included age, male gender, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, and stenosis of the C4-C5 intervertebral foramen. C5 palsy occurred from immediately to 2 months after surgery, and recovery time ranged from 48 h to 41 months. Hypotheses for the mechanism of C5 palsy included root involvement and spinal cord impairment. Foraminotomy and intraoperative neuromonitoring were the two main methods used to prevent C5 palsy. CONCLUSION:C5 palsy is a serious complication occurring at the early stage after cervical decompression surgery. Foraminotomy and intraoperative neuromonitoring were the two main methods to prevent C5 palsy. The incidence of C5 palsy is low, but it can place a serious burden on the patients' quality of life and finances. The risk factors and mechanism of C5 palsy are still controversial. However, under conservative therapy, the prognosis is usually good. Higher quality studies are necessary for drawing more reliable and convincing conclusions about this disease. 10.1177/2309499016684502
    [C5 palsy after multi-segmental cervical decompression : How can it be avoided?] Krieg S M,Meyer B Der Orthopade BACKGROUND:Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) as well as posterior instrumentation of the cervical spine are frequently performed surgeries for cervical disc prolapse or spinal stenosis. Surgery itself harbors a very low risk of adverse events. Postoperative palsy of the C5 nerve root, however, is a severe complication and its origin is still not fully understood. The risk of such a C5 palsy is reported to be between 0 and 30%; 5% on average according to the literature. OBJECTIVES:To describe underlying pathomechanisms and to recommend strategies for risk reduction. MATERIALS AND METHODS:An extensive literature research via Medline was performed. RESULTS:Potential risk factors are male gender, sagittal diameter below 5.6 mm, anterior approach, and higher age. CONCLUSIONS:Currently available data only originates from retrospective or anatomical studies. A prospective register study with the goal to put light on the pathogenesis is currently being performed. 10.1007/s00132-018-3565-0