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    Mutation of PFN1 Gene in an Early Onset, Polyostotic Paget-like Disease. Merlotti Daniela,Materozzi Maria,Bianciardi Simone,Guarnieri Vito,Rendina Domenico,Volterrani Luca,Bellan Cristiana,Mingiano Christian,Picchioni Tommaso,Frosali Alessandro,Orfanelli Ugo,Cenci Simone,Gennari Luigi The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism CONTEXT:Paget disease of bone (PDB) is a metabolic bone disease whose genetic cause remains unknown in up to 50% of familial patients. OBJECTIVE:Our aim was to investigate the underlying genetic defect in a large pedigree with a severe, early onset, autosomal dominant form of PDB across 3 generations. METHODS:Whole exome sequencing was performed in affected and unaffected family members, and then mutation screening was replicated in a sample of PDB patients with early-onset, polyostotic PDB. RESULTS:We identified a frameshift D107Rfs*3 mutation in PFN1 (encoding for profilin 1, a highly conserved regulator of actin-polymerization and cell motility) causing the truncation of the C-terminal part of the protein. The mutation was also detected in a 17-year-old asymptomatic family member who upon biochemical and radiological analyses was indeed found to be affected. Sequencing of the entire PFN1 coding region in unrelated PDB patients identified the same mutation in 1 patient. All mutation carriers had a reduced response to bisphosphonates, requiring multiple zoledronate infusions to control bone pain and achieve biochemical remission over a long term. In vitro osteoclastogenesis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from mutation carriers showed a higher number of osteoclasts with PDB-like features. A similar phenotype was observed upon PFN1 silencing in murine bone marrow-derived monocytes, suggesting that the frameshift PFN1 mutation confers a loss of function in profilin 1 activity that induces PDB-like features in the osteoclasts, likely due to enhanced cell motility and actin ring formation. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that PFN1 mutation causes an early onset, polyostotic PDB-like disorder. 10.1210/clinem/dgaa252
    The Loss of Profilin 1 Causes Early Onset Paget's Disease of Bone. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a late-onset disorder frequently caused by mutations in the SQSTM1 gene, leading to hyperactive osteoclasts and resulting in bone pain, deformities, and fractures. However, some more severe forms of PDB-negative for SQSTM1 mutations-have been described, in which the disease degenerates into bone cancers and shows a poor prognosis. Osteosarcoma is the most frequent and aggressive tumor arising in PDB (OS/PDB), with a 5-year survival rate almost nil, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. Here, we investigated an extended pedigree with 11 individuals affected by early onset and polyostotic PDB, mainly interesting the appendicular skeleton. Interestingly, three members also developed secondary osteosarcoma. We performed exome sequencing and identified a 4-bp deletion in the PFN1 gene, resulting in the degradation of the mutant protein. Copy number screening on 218 PDB individuals of our biobank disclosed that four of them (~2%) carry a germline heterozygous deletion of PFN1. The identification of these subjects, who exhibit a particularly severe form of disease, emphasizes the diagnostic value of this genetic screening to identify PDB individuals predisposed to develop osteosarcoma. In fact, we detected allelic imbalance at PFN1 locus also in 8 of 14 (57%) sporadic OS/PDB, further proving its causative role. in vitro experiments also confirmed PFN1 involvement in this form of PDB. Indeed, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated Pfn1 knockout in pre-osteoclasts resulted into enhanced osteoclast differentiation and resorption, with the formation of large osteoclasts never described before in PDB. In addition, Pfn1 lacking pre-osteoblasts lost their differentiation capability and failed to efficiently mineralize bone. Moreover, they acquired features of malignant transformation, including loss of focal adhesions and increased invasion ability. In conclusion, these findings disclose PFN1 haploinsufficiency as the pathological mechanism in OS/PDB. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 10.1002/jbmr.3964
    Profilin1 regulates sternum development and endochondral bone formation. Miyajima Daisuke,Hayata Tadayoshi,Suzuki Takafumi,Hemmi Hiroaki,Nakamoto Tetsuya,Notomi Takuya,Amagasa Teruo,Böttcher Ralph T,Costell Mercedes,Fässler Reinhard,Ezura Yoichi,Noda Masaki The Journal of biological chemistry Bone development is a dynamic process that requires cell motility and morphological adaptation under the control of actin cytoskeleton. This actin cytoskeleton system is regulated by critical modulators including actin-binding proteins. Among them, profilin1 (Pfn1) is a key player to control actin fiber structure, and it is involved in a number of cellular activities such as migration. During the early phase of body development, skeletal stem cells and osteoblastic progenitor cells migrate to form initial rudiments for future skeletons. During this migration, these cells extend their process based on actin cytoskeletal rearrangement to locate themselves in an appropriate location within microenvironment. However, the role of Pfn1 in regulation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) during skeletal development is incompletely understood. Here we examined the role of Pfn1 in skeletal development using a genetic ablation of Pfn1 in MPCs by using Prx1-Cre recombinase. We found that Pfn1 deficiency in MPCs caused complete cleft sternum. Notably, Pfn1-deficient mice exhibited an absence of trabecular bone in the marrow space of appendicular long bone. This phenotype is location-specific, as Pfn1 deficiency did not largely affect osteoblasts in cortical bone. Pfn1 deficiency also suppressed longitudinal growth of long bone. In vitro, Pfn1 deficiency induced retardation of osteoblastic cell migration. These observations revealed that Pfn1 is a critical molecule for the skeletal development, and this could be at least in part associated with the retardation of cell migration. 10.1074/jbc.M111.329938
    Clinical, Biochemical, Radiological, and Genetic Analyses of a Patient with VCP Gene Variant-Induced Paget's Disease of Bone. Calcified tissue international Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a rare metabolic bone disorder, which is extremely rare in Asian population. This study aimed to investigate the phenotypes and the pathogenic mutations of woman with early-onset PDB. The clinical features, bone mineral density, x-ray, radionuclide bone scan, and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and β-carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type 1 collagen (β-CTX) were measured in detail. The pathogenic mutations were identified by whole-exon sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. We also evaluated the effects of intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid on the bones of the patient and summarized the phenotypic characteristics of reported patients with mutation at position 155 of the valosin-containing protein (VCP). The patient only exhibited bone pain as the initial manifestation with vertebral compression fracture and extremely elevated ALP, P1NP, and β-CTX levels; she had no inclusion body myopathy and frontotemporal dementia. The missense mutation in exon 5 of the VCP gene (p.Arg155His) was identified by whole-exome sequencing and further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. No mutation in candidate genes of PDB, such as SQSTM1, CSF1, TM7SF4, OPTN, PFN1, and TNFRSF11A, were identified in the patient by Sanger sequencing. Rapid relief of bone pain and a marked decline in ALP, P1NP, and β-CTX levels were observed after zoledronic acid treatment. Previously reported patients with VCP missense mutation at position 155 (R155H) always had myopathy, frontotemporal dementia, and PDB, but the patient in this study exhibited only PDB. This was the first report of R155H mutation-induced early-onset in the VCP gene in Asian population. PDB was the only manifestation having a favorable response to zoledronic acid treatment. We broadened the genetic and clinical phenotype spectra of the VCP mutation. 10.1007/s00223-021-00929-x
    Mutations in Profilin 1 Cause Early-Onset Paget's Disease of Bone With Giant Cell Tumors. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a late-onset chronic progressive bone disease characterized by abnormal activation of osteoclasts that results in bone pain, deformities, and fractures. PDB is very rare in Asia. A subset of PDB patients have early onset and can develop malignant giant cell tumors (GCTs) of the bone (PDB/GCTs), which arise within Paget bone lesions; the result is a significantly higher mortality rate. SQSTM1, TNFRSF11A, OPG, VCP, and HNRNPA2B1 have been identified as pathogenic genes of PDB, and ZNF687 is the only confirmed gene to date known to cause PDB/GCT. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PDB/GCT has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigate an extended Chinese pedigree with eight individuals affected by early-onset and polyostotic PDB, two of whom developed GCTs. We identified a heterozygous 4-bp deletion in the Profilin 1 (PFN1) gene (c.318_321delTGAC) by genetic linkage analysis and exome sequencing for the family. Sanger sequencing revealed another heterozygous 1-bp deletion in PFN1 (c.324_324delG) in a sporadic early-onset PDB/GCT patient, further proving its causative role. Interestingly, a heterozygous missense mutation of PFN1 (c.335 T > C) was identified in another PDB/GCT family, revealing that not only deletion but also missense mutations in PFN1 can cause PDB/GCT. Furthermore, we established a Pfn1-mutated mouse model (C57BL/6J mice) and successfully obtained Pagetic phenotypes in heterozygous mice, verifying loss of function of PFN1 as the cause of PDB/GCT development. In conclusion, our findings reveal mutations in PFN1 as the pathological mechanism in PDB/GCT, and we successfully established Pfn1-mutated mice as a suitable animal model for studying PDB-associated pathological mechanisms. The identification of PFN1 mutations has great diagnostic value for identifying PDB individuals predisposed toward developing GCTs. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR). 10.1002/jbmr.4275
    Profilin Expression Is Regulated by Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) in Osteoblastic Cells. Lin Wanting,Ezura Yoichi,Izu Yayoi,Aryal Smriti A C,Kawasaki Makiri,Chantida Pawaputanon Na Mahasarakham,Moriyama Keiji,Noda Masaki Journal of cellular biochemistry Profilin 1 (Pfn1) regulates cytoskeletal reorganization and migration, but its role in osteoblasts is not known. BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in osteoblastic differentiation and promotes bone regeneration and repair. Although several molecules are known to modulate BMP signaling, mechanisms that determine the levels of BMP action in osteoblastic function are still incompletely understood. We therefore examine the expression of Pfn1 in osteoblasts and its role in BMP-induced differentiation in osteoblasts. In osteoblastic MC3T3-E1(MC) cells, Pfn1 mRNA is expressed constitutively and its expression levels are declined during the culture in a time dependent manner in contrast to the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity revealing that Pfn1 expression is down regulated along with differentiation. To test the effects of osteoblastic differentiation on Pfn1expression further, MC cells are treated with BMP. BMP treatment suppresses the levels of Pfn1 mRNA. This suppressive effect of BMP is time dependent and further down regulation of Pfn1 mRNA levels is observed when the BMP treatment is continued for a longer period of time. Pfn1mRNA knock down (KD) by siRNAs enhances BMP-induced increase in alkaline phosphatase (Alp) activity in MC cells. To analyze the regulatory mechanism, Alp mRNA levels are examined and Pfn1 KD enhances the BMP-induced increase in the levels of Alp mRNA expression. Furthermore, Pfn1 KD enhances BMP-induced transcriptional expression of luciferase reporter activity via BMP response element in osteoblasts. These data indicate that Pfn1 is a novel target of BMP and suppresses BMP-induced differentiation of osteoblasts at least in part via transcriptional event. 10.1002/jcb.25310
    Profilin 1 Negatively Regulates Osteoclast Migration in Postnatal Skeletal Growth, Remodeling, and Homeostasis in Mice. Shirakawa Jumpei,Kajikawa Shuhei,Böttcher Ralph T,Costell Mercedes,Izu Yayoi,Hayata Tadayoshi,Noda Masaki,Ezura Yoichi JBMR plus Profilin 1 (Pfn1), a regulator of actin polymerization, controls cell movement in a context-dependent manner. Pfn1 supports the locomotion of most adherent cells by assisting actin-filament elongation, as has been shown in skeletal progenitor cells in our previous study. However, because Pfn1 has also been known to inhibit migration of certain cells, including T cells, by suppressing branched-end elongation of actin filaments, we hypothesized that its roles in osteoclasts may be different from that of osteoblasts. By investigating the osteoclasts in culture, we first verified that knockdown (KD) enhances bone resorption in preosteoclastic RAW264.7 cells, despite having a comparable number and size of osteoclasts. -KD in bone marrow cells showed similar results. Mechanistically, KD osteoclasts appeared more mobile than in controls. In vivo, the osteoclast-specific conditional -deficient mice (-cKO) by CathepsinK-Cre driver demonstrated postnatal skeletal phenotype, including dwarfism, craniofacial deformities, and long-bone metaphyseal osteolytic expansion, by 8 weeks of age. Metaphyseal and diaphyseal femurs were drastically expanded with suppressed trabecular bone mass as indicated by μCT analysis. Histologically, TRAP-positive osteoclasts were increased at endosteal metaphysis to diaphysis of -cKO mice. The enhanced movement of -cKO osteoclasts in culture was associated with a slight increase in cell size and podosome belt length, as well as an increase in bone-resorbing activity. Our study, for the first time, demonstrated that has critical roles in inhibiting osteoclast motility and bone resorption, thereby contributing to essential roles in postnatal skeletal homeostasis. Our study also provides novel insight into understanding skeletal deformities in human disorders. 10.1002/jbm4.10130
    Profilin 1 is essential for retention and metabolism of mouse hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow. Zheng Junke,Lu Zhigang,Kocabas Fatih,Böttcher Ralph T,Costell Mercedes,Kang Xunlei,Liu Xiaoye,Deberardinis Ralph J,Wang Qianming,Chen Guo-Qiang,Sadek Hesham,Zhang Cheng Cheng Blood How stem cells interact with the microenvironment to regulate their cell fates and metabolism is largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that the deletion of the cytoskeleton-modulating protein profilin 1 (pfn1) in hematopoietic stem cell (HSCs) led to bone marrow failure, loss of quiescence, and mobilization and apoptosis of HSCs in vivo. A switch from glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was also observed in HSCs on pfn1 deletion. Importantly, treatment of pfn1-deficient mice with the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine reversed the ROS level and loss of quiescence of HSCs, suggesting that the metabolism is mechanistically linked to the cell cycle quiescence of stem cells. The actin-binding and proline-binding activities of pfn1 are required for its function in HSCs. Our study provided evidence that pfn1 at least partially acts through the axis of pfn1/Gα13/EGR1 to regulate stem cell retention and metabolism in the bone marrow. 10.1182/blood-2013-04-498469
    Profilin-1 negatively controls osteoclast migration by suppressing the protrusive structures based on branched actin filaments. Journal of bone and mineral metabolism BACKGROUND:Profilin-1 (Pfn1), an evolutionarily conserved actin-binding protein, is an important regulator of the cytoskeleton. We previously reported the osteoclast-specific Pfn1-conditional knockout (cKO) mice had postnatal osteolytic phenotype with craniofacial and long-bone deformities associated with increased migration of cultured osteoclasts. We hypothesized the increased cellular processes structured with branched actin filaments may underlies the mechanism of increased bone resorption in these mutant mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The morphological structure and cell migration of the cultured osteoclasts were analyzed using fluorescent microscopy and time-lapse image capturing. Fractional migration distances, as well as the index of protrusive structures (%-PB) that evaluates relative border length of the protrusion were compared between the cells from control and Pfn1-cKO mice. RESULTS:Time-lapse image analysis showed that %-PB was significantly larger in Pfn1-cKO osteoclasts. In addition, the fractional migration distance was positively correlated with the index. When the branched actin filament organization was suppressed by chemical inhibitors, the osteoclast migration was declined. Importantly, the suppression was more extensive in Pfn1-cKO than in control osteoclasts. CONCLUSION:Our results indicated the causative involvement of the increased branched actin filament formation at least in part for their excessive migration. Our findings provide a mechanistic rationale for testing novel therapeutic approaches targeting branched actin filaments in osteolytic disorders. 10.1007/s00774-022-01320-y
    Profilin1 is expressed in osteocytes and regulates cell shape and migration. Lin Wanting,Izu Yayoi,Smriti Arayal,Kawasaki Makiri,Pawaputanon Chantida,Böttcher Ralph T,Costell Mercedes,Moriyama Keiji,Noda Masaki,Ezura Yoichi Journal of cellular physiology Osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone and regulate bone metabolism in coordination with osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, the molecules that control osteocytes are still incompletely understood. Profilin1 is an actin-binding protein that is involved in actin polymerization. Osteocytes possess characteristic dendritic process formed based on actin cytoskeleton. Here, we examined the expression of profilin1 and its function in osteocytes. Profilin1 mRNA was expressed in osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells and its levels were gradually increased along with the time in culture. With regard to functional aspect, knockdown of profilin1 by siRNA enhanced BMP-induced increase in alkaline phosphatase expression levels in MLO-Y4 cells. Profilin1 knockdown suppressed the levels of dendritic processes and migration of MLO-Y4 cells. Since aging causes an increase in ROS in the body, we further examined the effects of hydrogen peroxide on the expression of profilin1. Hydrogen peroxide treatment increased the levels of profilin1 mRNA in MLO-Y4 cells in contrast to the decline in alkaline phosphatase. Profilin1 was expressed not only in MLO-Y4cells but also in the primary cultures of osteocytes. Importantly, profilin1 mRNA levels in primary cultures of osteocytes were higher than those in primary cultures of osteoblasts. To examine in vivo role of profilin1 in osteocytes, profilin1 was conditionally knocked out by using DMP1-cre and profilin1 floxed mice. This conditional deletion of profilin1 specifically in osteocytes resulted in reduction in the levels of bone volume and bone mineral density. These data indicate that profilin1 is expressed in osteocytes and regulates cell shape, migration and bone mass. 10.1002/jcp.25872