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    Periodontitis is associated with diabetic retinopathy in non-obese adults. Song Su Jeong,Lee Seong-Su,Han Kyungdo,Park Jun-Beom Endocrine PURPOSE:Patients with diabetes retinopathy appear to show increased susceptibility to periodontal disease. This study was performed to assess the relationship between periodontitis and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in a large probability sample of the Korean population. A subgroup analysis was performed using body mass index <25 kg/m as the criterion to evaluate the effect of obesity on this relationship. METHODS:This study is based on data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the Korean population, conducted between 2008 and 2010. The presence of diabetic retinopathy in relation to demographic variables and anthropometric characteristics of the participants is presented as means with their standard errors. The presence of periodontitis and presence of retinopathy categorized by body mass index (<25 and ≥25 kg/m) were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between periodontitis and diabetic retinopathy after adjustment with variables, including age, sex, smoking, drinking, exercise, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, HbA1c, and duration of diabetes mellitus. RESULTS:There was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of periodontitis in individuals who had proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy were 1.193 [0.757-1.881] for the whole population after adjustments with confounding factors. Subgroup analysis after adjustments with confounding factors showed that the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] of prevalence were 2.206 [1.114-4.366] and 0.588 [0.326-1.061] among participants with body mass index <25 kg/m and body mass index 37 ≥25 kg/m, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The diabetic retinopathy was positively associated with the presence of periodontitis in non-obese diabetic Korean adults after adjustment with confounding variables. Our findings suggest that when a periodontist finds the presence of periodontitis in non-obese diabetic patients, timely evaluation of the patient's ophthalmic evaluation should be 44 recommended. 10.1007/s12020-016-1215-z
    Association of periodontitis and diabetic macular edema in various stages of diabetic retinopathy. Lindner Marlene,Arefnia Behrouz,Ivastinovic Domagoj,Sourij Harald,Lindner Ewald,Wimmer Gernot Clinical oral investigations OBJECTIVES:Periodontitis and diabetes are known to have a bidirectional relationship. Diabetic macular edema is a complication of diabetes that is strongly influenced by inflammatory pathways. However, it remains to be established whether inflammation at other locations, such as periodontitis, affects diabetic macular edema. Here, we investigated the prevalence of periodontitis in patients treated for diabetic macular edema. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Patients with diabetic macular edema were recruited for this cross-sectional study at the Medical University of Graz. Macular edema was documented by optical coherence tomography. Periodontal status was assessed by computerized periodontal probing and panoramic X-ray imaging. Bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, probing pocket depth, and plaque index were compared between different stages of diabetic retinopathy. RESULTS:Eighty-three eyes of 45 patients with diabetic macular edema were enrolled. Forty-four eyes (53.0%) had early stages of diabetic retinopathy (mild and moderate), and 39 eyes (47.0%) had late stages (severe and proliferative). Patients with mild or moderate DR were more likely to have more severe periodontal conditions than patients with severe or proliferative DR. Fourteen patients with mild DR (82.4%), 7 patients with moderate DR (87.5%), 4 patients with severe DR (100.0%), and 15 patients with proliferative DR (93.8%) had some degree of PD. The periodontal inflamed surface areas and the percentages of tooth sites that bled on probing were significantly higher in patients with early stages of diabetic retinopathy than in those with late stages of the disease (p < 0.05). Patients with periodontal inflamed surface areas of more than 500 mm required significantly more intravitreal injections in the last year than those with milder forms of periodontitis (n = 6.9 ± 3.1 versus n = 5.0 ± 3.5, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION:In patients with diabetic macular edema, periodontitis is more prevalent in early stages of diabetic retinopathy. We suggest regular dental check-ups for diabetic patients, especially when diabetic macular edema is already present. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Patients with diabetic macular edema should be screened for periodontitis and vice versa, particularly early in the course of diabetes. 10.1007/s00784-021-04028-x
    Association Between Diabetic Retinopathy and Periodontitis-A Systematic Review. Alvarenga María Olimpia Paz,Miranda Giza Hellen Nonato,Ferreira Railson Oliveira,Saito Miki Taketomi,Fagundes Nathália Carolina Fernandes,Maia Lucianne Cople,Lima Rafael Rodrigues Frontiers in public health Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication in diabetic patients and is considered the main cause of visual loss worldwide. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition, which compromises dental supporting tissues. The chronic bacterial challenge in periodontitis is a persistent source of inflammatory mediators that may be associated with insulin resistance, increasing the risk of complications of diabetes mellitus. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence in the association between diabetic retinopathy and periodontitis. This review was registered under the number CRD 42019142267. A search strategy in five electronic databases and a gray literature source was performed based on the PECO acronym. After data extraction, the qualitative synthesis and risk of bias analyses were performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The level of evidence of all studies taken together was evaluated through the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Out of the 253 citations screened, five cross-sectional studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the qualitative analysis, in which two were judged to be of good quality, one as fair quality, and two as poor quality. Among the included studies, a significant relationship between the severity of periodontitis (CAL > 5 mm) and the severity of diabetic retinopathy ( < ) was reported by four studies. Also, an association between both diseases in non-obese adults was found after adjustments [OR 2.206 (1.114-4.366); = 0.0232). However, the analysis of evidence by GRADE assessment was rated as low. Although the results of individual studies suggest an association between diabetic retinopathy and periodontitis, the quality of the body of evidence was judged to be low by the GRADE approach. Further studies with larger sample sizes, adequate models of cofounders' adjustments, and prospective analysis of periodontitis and diabetes conditions ought to be conducted to clarify this association. 10.3389/fpubh.2020.550614
    Periodontal conditions, retinopathy, and serum markers in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Widén Cecilia,Holmer Helene,Sättlin Susanna,Renvert Stefan,Lernmark Åke,Persson G Rutger Journal of periodontology BACKGROUND:The prevalence of diabetes is high and increasing. Periodontitis has been identified as a risk factor in both type 1 and 2 diabetes. The study purpose was to assess periodontal conditions, retinopathy, and serum glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) titers in relation to retinopathy in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS:The study is a case series. Adult individuals with a diagnosis of T1D (n = 85) monitored ≥5 years were recruited from an endocrinology clinic. Peripheral venous blood samples were analyzed including assessments of serum HbA1c levels and GADA titers. Medical and periodontal conditions were examined, and the data assessed. Independent t tests, binary and multivariate analyses, χ and odds ratios were employed. RESULTS:Gingivitis was found in 68.2%, periodontitis in 21.2%, and retinopathy in 64.7%, GADA (≥35 U/mL) in 54.1%, and serum HbA1c > 48 mmol/mol in 94.3% of the individuals. The unadjusted odds ratio for periodontitis to differentiate a diagnosis of retinopathy was 7.3 (95%CI 1.6, 4.4, P <0.01). Multivariate analyses identified the following dependent factors to differentiate retinopathy; age, T1D duration, gingivitis, periodontitis at P < 0.001, sex, and serum GADA at P < 0.01, and by the number of remaining teeth at P < 0.05. CONCLUSION:Retinopathy as a complication to T1D is linked to the duration of diabetes, age of the individual and with increasing severity to periodontitis. Periodontal intervention studies are warranted. 10.1002/JPER.19-0641
    Relationship between periodontitis and microangiopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. Zhang Xuexue,Wang Miaoran,Wang Xujie,Qu Hua,Zhang Rui,Gu Jiyu,Wu Yufei,Ni Tian,Tang Wei,Li Qiuyan Journal of periodontal research OBJECTIVE:Whether periodontitis increases the risk of diabetic microangiopathy remains controversial. The present meta-analysis aims to investigate the relationship between periodontitis and diabetic microangiopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS:PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, and WanFang data were searched without language restrictions. The methodological quality of the studies included was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale method, and meta-analysis was performed by Review Manager 5.3. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the risk of periodontitis for diabetic microangiopathy among patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS:Thirteen cross-sectional studies, covering 10 570 participants, were included in the present meta-analysis. The results demonstrated that periodontitis was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetic microangiopathy (OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.65-3.56), diabetic retinopathy (OR: 4.33, 95% CI: 2.19-8.55), and diabetic nephropathy (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.07-2.85), while periodontitis was not associated with diabetic neuropathy (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.19-5.12). Subgroup analysis among the studies in Asian (OR: 3.06, 95% CI: 1.94-4.84) and North American (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.08-1.86) populations confirmed the existed association between periodontitis and type 2 diabetic microangiopathy. The relationship still existed in groups with sample size larger than 500 (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.34-2.34) and smaller than 500 (OR: 3.33, 95% CI: 1.38-8.03). A sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of the results by excluding moderate quality studies or removing articles one after the other. CONCLUSION:Current evidences have proved that periodontitis is associated with increased risk of diabetic microangiopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This conclusion may provide useful evidence for correlated clinical researches. PROSPERO registration number CRD42021247773. 10.1111/jre.12916