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    Plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors are associated with cognitive performance in Parkinson's disease. Rocha Natália Pessoa,Teixeira Antônio Lúcio,Scalzo Paula Luciana,Barbosa Izabela Guimarães,de Sousa Mariana Soares,Morato Isabela Boechat,Vieira Erica Leandro Marciano,Christo Paulo Pereira,Palotás András,Reis Helton José Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society Inflammatory mechanisms have been implicated in a series of neuropsychiatric conditions, including behavioral disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and affective disorders. Accumulating evidence also strongly suggests their involvement in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to evaluate plasma levels of inflammatory biomarkers, and their association with cognitive performance and other non-motor symptoms of PD. PD patients and control individuals were subjected to various psychometric tests, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Biomarker plasma levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PD patients exhibited worse performance on MMSE and the programming task of FAB, and presented higher soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) plasma levels than control individuals. Among PD patients, increased sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 concentrations were associated with poorer cognitive test scores. After multiple linear regression, sTNFR1 and education remained a significant predictor for FAB scores. Our data suggest that PD is associated with a proinflammatory profile, and sTNFRs are putative biomarkers of cognitive performance, with elevated sTNFR1 levels predicting poorer executive functioning in PD patients. 10.1002/mds.25752
    Inflammatory markers and BDNF in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sleep medicine OBJECTIVE:Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) exacerbates Parkinson's disease (PD) manifestations including cognitive dysfunction. Both OSA and PD have been associated with inflammation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in cognitive function. We aimed to investigate inflammatory cytokines and BDNF in relation to OSA and PD symptoms. METHODS:In a prospective observational study, patients with PD underwent overnight polysomnography. Morning serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, and BDNF were quantified at baseline (n = 64) and 6 months (n = 38). Outcomes included non-motor and motor standard scores; Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); and Epworth Sleepiness scale (ESS). Associations were assessed using linear regression, adjusting for age, sex and body mass index. RESULTS:At baseline, IL-6 was associated with the Apnea-Hypopnea Index (β = 0.013, p = 0.03), and the Oxygen Desaturation Index (β = 0.028, p = 0.002). No other associations between cytokines and sleep parameters were found. Motor dysfunction was associated with IL-6 (β = 0.03, p = 0.001). ESS was associated non-significantly with IL-6 (β = 0.04, p = 0.07) and BDNF (β = 555, p = 0.06). At follow-up, change in IL-6 was associated with change in non-motor (β = 0.08, p = 0.007), and motor (β = 0.03, p = 0.001) symptoms. Change in BDNF was associated with change in ESS (β = 1450, p = 0.02). INTERPRETATION:We found an association between IL-6 levels and both OSA severity and PD motor dysfunction. At follow-up, increasing IL-6 correlated with deterioration of motor and non-motor PD symptoms. Increasing BDNF correlated with increasing sleepiness. Further work with a larger sample size is needed, but our results support the hypothesis that OSA-related inflammation plays a role in PD manifestations and progression. 10.1016/j.sleep.2021.11.018
    Comprehensive serum metabolic and proteomic characterization on cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. Annals of translational medicine BACKGROUND:Given the increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD) and the lack of accurate early diagnosis of PD with cognitive impairment (PD-CI), we compared the serum metabolomes and proteomes of 26 patients with PD without cognitive impairment (PD-N) and 31 patients with PD-CI by combining grade-dependent proteomics and metabolomics analyses. METHODS:Logistic and linear regression analyses were performed for differential metabolic indicators, cognition, and clinical diagnosis. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was used to identify metabolites linked to different pathways. Bioinformatics revealed 16 differentially expressed proteins and 32 metabolites. RESULTS:The positive metabolic indicators related to the differential proteins were one sphingolipid, five phosphatidylcholines, and five long-chain fatty acids. The obtained metabolic and proteomics IPA network highlighted the central term of this network was inflammation and abnormal lipid metabolism which are prominent in PD-CI. There was a strong negative correlation between the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)score and LPC (18:1). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of LPC (18:1) for PD-N and PD-CI showed that the area under the curve (AUC) value was 0.660 (P=0.039). CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, serum LPC (18:1) is inversely linked to cognition in PD and presented its potential clinical value in distinguishing the presence or absence of cognitive impairment in PD. The deeper implication of our discovery indicates abnormal lipid metabolism is associated with changes of cognitive status and suggests the potential for possibility of immune system- inflammatory involvement. 10.21037/atm-20-4583
    Inflammation in mild cognitive impairment due to Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease, and Alzheimer's disease. King Eleanor,O'Brien John,Donaghy Paul,Williams-Gray Caroline H,Lawson Rachael A,Morris Christopher M,Barnett Nicola,Olsen Kirsty,Martin-Ruiz Carmen,Burn David,Yarnall Alison J,Taylor John-Paul,Duncan Gordan,Khoo Tien K,Thomas Alan International journal of geriatric psychiatry BACKGROUND:Inflammation appears to play a role in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about inflammation during early stages of cognitive decline or whether this differs in different disease groups. We sought to investigate this by assessing the inflammatory profile in patients with Parkinson disease with the early stages of cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), patients with prodromal Alzheimer disease (MCI-AD), prodromal Lewy body disease (MCI-LB), and controls. METHODS:We obtained venous blood samples from participants with PD-MCI (n = 44), PD-normal cognition (n = 112), MCI-LB (n = 38), MCI-AD (n = 21), and controls (n = 84). We measured 10 cytokines using Meso Scale Discovery V-Plex Plus including interferon gamma, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and tumour necrosis factor alpha. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured. RESULTS:There was a higher level of inflammation in patients with MCI-AD and MCI-LB compared with controls. PD noncognitively impaired had higher inflammatory markers than controls, but there was no difference between PD-MCI and controls. There was a decrease in inflammatory markers with increasing motor severity based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. CONCLUSIONS:Inflammation may be involved in the onset of cognitive decline in patients with MCI-AD and MCI-LB but appears to be less prominent PD-MCI albeit in a small data set. This suggests that anti-inflammatory medications may have most benefit at the earliest stages of neurodegenerative diseases. For PD cases, this might be in advance of the development of MCI. 10.1002/gps.5124
    Peripheral blood inflammatory cytokines are associated with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience letters OBJECTIVE:Previous studies have shown the essential role of inflammation in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). However, the association of RBD in Parkinson's disease (PD) with peripheral blood inflammatory cytokines is still unknown. We investigated the relationship between inflammatory cytokines and the clinical characteristics of PD patients with RBD. METHODS:A total of 153 PD patients and 36 healthy controls were included in this study, and blood plasma was collected. PD patients were classified as PD with RBD (PD-RBD, n = 60) and PD without RBD (PD-nRBD, n = 93). Inflammatory factor levels were compared among the control, PD-RBD, and PD-nRBD groups. RESULTS:The PD-RBD group had significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P < 0.001), monocytes (P = 0.003), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (P < 0.001), whereas this group has lower lymphocytes levels (P < 0.001) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) (P < 0.001) than the PD-nRBD group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that LMR (P < 0.0001 odds ratio [OR] = 0.424) was a protective factor, whereas CRP (P < 0.001 OR = 2.326) was a risk factor for the PD-RBD group. PD-RBD patients had lower Montreal Cognitive Assessment (Beijing version) (MoCA) (P < 0.001) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (P = 0.039) scores than PD-nRBD patients. CONCLUSIONS:Significant differences were found in inflammation levels between PD-RBD and PD-nRBD, suggesting that inflammatory factors are associated with the pathogenesis of RBD in PD patients. Thus, CRP and LMR levels may serve as biomarkers and predict the prognosis of PD patients with RBD. 10.1016/j.neulet.2022.136692