Risk factors for silent new ischemic cerebral lesions following carotid artery stenting.
Xu Xiaoyu,Feng Yao,Bai Xuesong,Ma Yan,Wang Yabing,Chen Yanfei,Yang Bin,Ling Feng,Zhang Xiaoman,Jiao Liqun
PURPOSE:Silent new ischemic cerebral lesions (sNICL) detected by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are common after carotid artery stenting (CAS). As part of the Revascularization of Extracranial Carotid Artery Stenosis (RECAS) study, this work aimed to determine predictors of sNICL detected by DWI following CAS. METHODS:A total of 694 patients eligible for the RECAS study treated in Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, with complete imaging data were included in this retrospective study. The patients were asymptomatic after CAS, and those with stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or death were excluded. The RECAS protocol specified that DWI was completed 1-7 days before the procedure and within 3 days after CAS. Several parameters were assessed for associations with sNICL occurrence after CAS in univariate analysis. Finally, multivariate analysis was performed to determine risk factors for sNICL. RESULTS:The rate of post-procedural sNICL in CAS was 51.3% (356/694 patients with sNICL). All patients underwent stenting with embolic protection devices. Univariate analysis showed that diabetes mellitus (P = 0.008), ipsilateral calcified plaques (P = 0.036), ipsilateral ulcerated plaques (P = 0.026), pre-dilatation (P = 0.003), and open-cell stent use (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with sNICL occurrence in CAS. Multivariate analysis revealed that diabetes mellitus (P = 0.006), ipsilateral calcified plaques (P = 0.024), ipsilateral ulcerated plaques (P = 0.021), and open-cell stent use (P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for sNICL. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with diabetes, calcified or ulcerated plaques who undergo CAS with open-cell stent application, are at high risk of sNICL. Large-scale prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings.