Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.
Kutteh William H,Hinote Candace D
Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America
Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) are acquired antibodies directed against negatively charged phospholipids. Obstetric antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is diagnosed in the presence of certain clinical features in conjunction with positive laboratory findings. Obstetric APS is one of the most commonly identified causes of recurrent pregnancy loss. Thus, obstetric APS is distinguished from APS in other organ systems where the most common manifestation is thrombosis. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms of action of aPLs have been described. This article discusses the diagnostic and obstetric challenges of obstetric APS, proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms of APS during pregnancy, and the management of women during and after pregnancy.
Controversies concerning the antiphospholipid syndrome in obstetrics.
Camarena Cabrera Dulce María Albertina,Rodriguez-Jaimes Claudia,Acevedo-Gallegos Sandra,Gallardo-Gaona Juan Manuel,Velazquez-Torres Berenice,Ramírez-Calvo José Antonio
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a non-inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by recurrent thrombotic events and/or obstetric complications associated with the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies (anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β glycoprotein-i antibodies, and/or lupus anticoagulant. Antiphospholipid antibodies are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies associated with recurrent miscarriage, stillbirth, fetal growth restriction and premature birth. The diversity of the features of the proposed placental antiphospholipid antibodies fingerprint suggests that several disease processes may occur in the placentae of women with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in the form of immune responses: inflammatory events, complement activation, angiogenic imbalance and, less commonly, thrombosis and infarction. Because of the disparity between clinical and laboratory criteria, and the impact on perinatal outcome in patients starting treatment, we reviewed the aspects of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome related to obstetric complications and seronegative antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and their treatment in obstetrics.
IgG/IgM antiphospholipid antibodies present in the classification criteria for the antiphospholipid syndrome: a critical review of their association with thrombosis.
Kelchtermans H,Pelkmans L,de Laat B,Devreese K M
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH
UNLABELLED:Essentials The clinical value of IgM antibodies in thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is debated. By review of literature, we reconsidered the clinical value of IgM antibodies in thrombotic APS. More significant correlations with thrombosis were found for the IgG compared to IgM isotype. Unavailability of paired IgG/IgM results hampers evaluating the added value of IgM positivity. Click to hear Dr de Groot's perspective on antiphospholipid syndrome SUMMARY:Background Despite the update of the classification criteria for the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), difficulties persist in the identification of patients at risk for thrombosis. Current guidelines include assays detecting IgG/IgM anti-β2 -glycoprotein I and anti-cardiolipin antibodies, although the relevance of IgM antibodies has been debated. Objectives Through a review of the literature from 2001 to 2014, we aimed to formally establish the thrombotic risk stratification potential of IgM as compared with IgG anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPLs). Patients/methods One thousand two hundred and twenty-eight articles were selected by a computer-assisted search of the literature. Of the 177 studies that met our inclusion criteria, the clinical value of IgG/IgM aPLs was established through analysis of odds ratios for thrombosis or percentage of positives in the thrombotic population. Results/conclusions We clearly found more significant correlations with thrombosis for the IgG than for the IgM isotype. Nonetheless, in a minority of studies, significant associations with thrombosis were found for IgM but not IgG antibodies. The unavailability of paired results of IgG and IgM for each separate patient hampers evaluation of the added value of isolated IgM positivity. To fully take advantage of results obtained by future studies, we strongly encourage scientists to provide all studied information per patient. We planned a large multicenter study to investigate clinical associations of isolated/combined positivity for criteria/non-criteria aPLs. Importantly, because of the presence of non-pathogenic aPLs, quantitative assays are characterized by a high false-positivity rate. Optimization of functional assays, such as thrombin generation measuring the whole scheme of coagulation, may help to reduce APS-related morbidity and mortality.
The clinical value of assays detecting antibodies against domain I of β2-glycoprotein I in the antiphospholipid syndrome.
Yin Dongmei,de Laat Bas,Devreese Katrien M J,Kelchtermans Hilde
As the clinical symptoms of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) frequently occur irrespective of the syndrome, diagnosis predominantly depends on the laboratory assays measuring the level or function of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) is increasingly accepted as the most important target of aPLs. Anti-β2GPI antibodies constitute a heterogeneous population, but current in vivo and in vitro evidence show that especially the first domain (DI) of β2GPI contains an important pathogenic epitope. This epitope containing Glycine40-Arginine43 (G40-R43) has proven to be cryptic and only exposed when β2GPI is in its open conformation. A previous study demonstrated a highly variable exposure of the cryptic epitope in commercial anti-β2GPI assays, with implications on correct patient classification. Unexpectedly, recent unpublished data revealed impaired exposure of the pathogenic epitope in the commercially available anti-DI chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA) assay detecting specific antibodies directed to DI. In this review we summarize the laboratory and clinical performance characteristics of the different anti-DI assays in published data and conclude with inconsistent results for both the correlation of anti-DI antibodies with clinical symptoms and the added value of anti-DI antibodies in the classification criteria of APS. Additionally, we hypothesize on possible explanations for the observed discrepancies. Finally, we highly advise manufacturers to use normal pooled plasma spiked with the monoclonal anti-DI antibodies to verify correct exposure of the cryptic epitope.
Histopathology in the placentae of women with antiphospholipid antibodies: A systematic review of the literature.
Viall Chez A,Chamley Lawrence W
BACKGROUND:Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) are a heterogenous group of autoantibodies associated with recurrent miscarriage, stillbirth, foetal growth restriction and premature birth. The cause of obstetric morbidity in women with aPLs is not completely understood. Workers have attempted to understand the role of aPLs in obstetric morbidity by investigating the histopathology of placentae from aPL-positive women. However, it is unclear from these diverse, and at times contradictory reports what histopathological lesions are common in the placentae of women with aPLs. This systematic review was undertaken to generate a complete picture of the placental features associated with aPLs in an attempt to understand the pathological processes that occur in pregnancies affected by aPLs. METHODS:Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science and Embase were searched on the 27th November 2014 using the keywords "placenta" OR "trophoblast" AND "antiphospholipid antibody" OR "antiphospholipid antibody syndrome". Records that were relevant and eligible were qualitatively assessed and given a score out of 24. RESULTS:Of the 1112 records that were retrieved from the systematic search, 34 records were eligible for review, and were qualitatively scored. Of the 44 histopathological features that were reported in 580 placentae from aPL-positive women, six features appeared to be more common in the placentae of aPL-positive women compared to control women, including: placental infarction, impaired spiral artery remodelling, decidual inflammation, increased syncytial knots, decreased vasculosyncytial membranes and the deposition of complement split product C4d. CONCLUSION:Based on the evidence in this systematic review, a human placental aPL fingerprint has been proposed. The diversity of the human placental aPL fingerprint suggests that multiple pathological processes may occur in pregnancies affected by aPL.
Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome and Infertility.
Rodrigues Vivian de Oliveira,Soligo Adriana de Góes E Silva,Pannain Gabriel Duque
Revista brasileira de ginecologia e obstetricia : revista da Federacao Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetricia
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is a systemic, autoimmune, prothrombotic disease characterized by persistent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs), thrombosis, recurrent abortion, complications during pregnancy, and occasionally thrombocytopenia. The objective of the present study was to review the pathophysiology of APS and its association with female infertility. A bibliographic review of articles of the past 20 years was performed at the PubMed, Scielo, and Bireme databases. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome may be associated with primary infertility, interfering with endometrial decidualization and with decreased ovarian reserve. Antiphospholipid antibodies also have direct negative effects on placentation, when they bind to the trophoblast, reducing their capacity for invasion, and proinflammatory effects, such as complement activation and neutrophil recruitment, contributing to placental insufficiency, restricted intrauterine growth, and fetal loss. In relation to thrombosis, APS results in a diffuse thrombotic diathesis, with global and diffuse dysregulation of the homeostatic balance. Knowing the pathophysiology of APS, which is closely linked to female infertility, is essential for new therapeutic approaches, specialized in immunomodulation and inflammatory signaling pathways, to provide important advances in its treatment.
Antiphospholipid antibodies and the placenta: a systematic review of their in vitro effects and modulation by treatment.
Tong M,Viall C A,Chamley L W
Human reproduction update
BACKGROUND:Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are a family of auto-antibodies that are associated with an increased risk of recurrent miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. The placenta is a major target of aPL and it is likely that these antibodies promote pregnancy morbidity by affecting trophoblast function. Numerous studies have investigated the effect of aPL on trophoblast function in vitro. However, different trophoblast models and a variety of culture conditions have been employed, resulting in a myriad of different reported findings. This review systematically summarized those published studies that have investigated the effect of aPL on trophoblast function in vitro. In addition, the reported effects of pharmacological treatment on trophoblast function in the presence of aPL were also systematically reviewed. METHODS:PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science databases were searched using the keywords 'placenta OR trophoblast' AND 'antiphospholipid antibody OR antiphospholipid syndrome' up to 25 April 2014. Studies were excluded based on the absence of appropriate controls. The effects of aPL on trophoblast proliferation, death, syncytialization, invasion, hormone production, cytokine production, coagulation and complement activation were recorded. The effects of different treatments on the function of trophoblasts in the presence of aPL were also recorded. RESULTS:A total of 1071 records were retrieved from the four databases. After removing duplicates, the titles and abstracts of 529 articles were reviewed. Of those, 48 articles were read and relevant experimental results were extracted from 47 articles. CONCLUSIONS:This systematic review provides an overview of all the studies performed to date on the effects of aPL on trophoblast function in vitro. There is considerable support for aPL decreasing trophoblast viability, syncytialization and invasion in vitro. Some work has also suggested that aPL may affect the production of hormones and signalling molecules by trophoblasts, and may stimulate coagulation and complement activation in vitro. Current reports of the in vitro effects of therapeutic treatments on trophoblast function in the presence of aPL are inconclusive. This systematic review has highlighted many gaps in our knowledge of how aPL work and may direct future research in this area.
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: The difficulties of diagnosis.
Whitaker Kerry L
JAAPA : official journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is an autoantibody-mediated thrombophilic disorder that causes a hypercoagulable state and can lead to venous thromboembolism, stroke, multiple miscarriages, and other pregnancy complications with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. This article reviews screening, diagnosis, and management of APS with a focus on the prevention of long-term complications.
Antiphospholipid Antibodies Increase the Risk of Fetal Growth Restriction: A Systematic Meta-Analysis.
International journal of clinical practice
Objective:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a high prevalence in females. Published data have identified pregnant women with APS may suffer from recurrent miscarriage, fetal death. However, the association between antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. This study aims to systematically review the literature on population-based studies investigating an association between aPL and FGR. Methods:The literature was searched on 1 November, 2021, using Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), following the MOOSE checklist. Study inclusion criteria focused on peer-reviewed published articles that reported an association between aPL and FGR. Quality assessment was performed based on the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The between-study heterogeneity was assessed by the Q test. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plots. Results:Twenty-two studies (with 11745 pregnant women) were included in the final analysis. Pooled odds ratio for association of aPL, anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA), anti-beta2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies (2GP1), and FGR was 1.26 (95%CI 1.12, 1.40), 2.25 (95%CI 1.55, 2.94), and 1.31 (95% CI 1.12, 1.49), respectively. Lupus anticoagulant (LA) did not increase the chance of FGR (OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.54, 1.10). Conclusions:Our meta-analysis showed that aPL increased the risk of FGR. The risk of FGR varies with the aPL types. ACA and 2GP1 are strongly associated with FGR. There are currently insufficient data to support a significant relationship between LA and FGR.
Environmental Triggers of Autoreactive Responses: Induction of Antiphospholipid Antibody Formation.
Martirosyan Anush,Aminov Rustam,Manukyan Gayane
Frontiers in immunology
Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) comprise a diverse family of autoantibodies targeted against proteins with the affinity toward negatively charged phospholipids or protein-phospholipid complexes. Their clinical significance, including prothrombotic potential of anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCLs), anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2-GPIs), and lupus anti-coagulant (LA), is well-established. However, the ontogeny of these pathogenic aPLs remains less clear. While transient appearance of aPLs could be induced by various environmental factors, in genetically predisposed individuals these factors may eventually lead to the development of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Since the first description of APS, it has been found that a wide variety of microbial and viral agents influence aPLs production and contribute to clinical manifestations of APS. Many theories attempted to explain the pathogenic potential of different environmental factors as well as a phenomenon termed molecular mimicry between β2-GPI molecule and infection-relevant structures. In this review, we summarize and critically assess the pathogenic and non-pathogenic formation of aPLs and its contribution to the development of APS.
Antiphospholipid antibodies in women with recurrent embryo implantation failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
OBJECTIVE:Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are related to poor pregnancy outcomes, but their effect on embryo implantation is unclear. We aimed to assess the prevalence of different aPL in women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF). METHODS:We searched studies in PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus and Cochrane Library. Quality of studies was scored by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and risk of bias assessment by items described in RevMan5 software. Statistical analyses were made using random-effects model and presented as pooled Odds Ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed by I% and D%. RESULTS:This systematic review and meta-analysis included 17 studies and showed a high degree of variability in aPL positivity in RIF. In the latter, the risk of bias assessment suggested unclear bias on study performance with a median sample size and interquartile range for RIF patients and fertile women of 96 (57-417) and 100 (60.5-202.5), respectively. Among the criteria aPL, IgG anticardiolipin autoantibodies (OR 5.02, 95% CI [1.95, 12.93]) were associated with RIF. Within the non-criteria aPL, anti-β2 glycoprotein I-IgA (OR 64.8, 95% CI [9.74, 431.0]), and antiphosphatidylglycerol-IgG and IgM (OR 10.74, 95% CI [5.25, 22.0]; OR 4.26, 95% CI [1.76,10.31]; respectively) were associated with RIF, too. CONCLUSIONS:Anticardiolipin-IgG is a prevalent autoantibody in women with RIF. Three other non-criteria aPL, aβ2GP I-IgA, aPG-IgG and aPG-IgM also present a positive rate in RIF. Overall, these results advise about testing them as indicators of RIF risk in women seeking IVF treatment.
Antiphospholipid Antibody Assays in 2021: Looking for a Predictive Value in Addition to a Diagnostic One.
Meroni Pier Luigi,Borghi Maria Orietta
Frontiers in immunology
Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are mandatory for the diagnosis but are also a risk factor for the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) clinical manifestations. Lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin (aCL), and anti-beta2 glycoprotein I (βGPI) assays are the formal laboratory classification/diagnostic criteria. Additional nonclassification assays have been suggested; among them, antiphosphatidylserine-prothrombin (aPS/PT) and antidomain 1 βGPI antibodies are the most promising ones although not yet formally accepted. aPL represent the example of a laboratory test that moved from dichotomous to quantitative results consistent with the idea that reporting quantitative data offers more diagnostic/prognostic information for both vascular and obstetric manifestations. Although the general rule is that the higher the aPL titer, the higher the test likelihood ratio, there is growing evidence that this is not the case for persistent low titers and obstetric events. LA displays the highest diagnostic/prognostic power, although some isolated LAs are apparently not associated with APS manifestations. Moreover, isotype characterization is also critical since IgG aPL are more diagnostic/prognostic than IgA or IgM. aPL are directed against two main autoantigens: βGPI and PT. However, anti-βGPI antibodies are more associated with the APS clinical spectrum. In addition, there is evidence that anti-βGPI domain 1 antibodies display a stronger diagnostic/prognostic value. This finding supports the view that antigen and even epitope characterization represents a further step for improving the assay value. The strategy to improve aPL laboratory characterization is a lesson that can be translated to other autoantibody assays in order to improve our diagnostic and prognostic power.
Prevalence of aPhosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies and association with antiphospholipid antibody profiles in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
BACKGROUND:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) and thrombotic events. The association of aPLs with thrombotic events depends on the number of positive tests. Besides the three classical tests to classify APS, phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex autoantibodies (aPS/PT) are increasingly used to better define this condition. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the prevalence of aPS/PT in general and according to antiphospholipid antibody profiles in patients with APS. METHODS:A systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from January 1990 to September 2021 was carried out according to PRISMA guidelines. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects model. Publication biases were evaluated via visualization of funnel plots along with Egger's and Begg's tests. RESULTS:Twenty-one articles about the prevalence of aPS/PT in 1853 patients with APS were deemed eligible and analyzed according to the inclusion criteria. Pooled prevalence of aPS/PT IgG alone, IgM alone, and IgG/M were 50.0%, 45.0%, and 65.0%, respectively. No significant publication bias was detected from funnel plots or Egger's and Begg's tests. When the prevalence of aPS/PT was calculated in homogeneous aPLs, a much higher rate of pooled prevalence of aPS/PT IgG/M in patients positive for Lupus Anticoagulant (84.5%) and in those with triple positivity (83.4%) was found. CONCLUSIONS:These data show a high rate of aPS/PT positivity in patients with APS (especially in those positive for LAC) but further studies are needed to ascertain whether this test might be useful in the laboratory classification criteria of APS.