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    Escherichia coli contamination of menstrual blood and effect of bacterial endotoxin on endometriosis. Khan Khaleque Newaz,Kitajima Michio,Hiraki Koichi,Yamaguchi Naohiro,Katamine Shigeru,Matsuyama Toshifumi,Nakashima Masahiro,Fujishita Akira,Ishimaru Tadayuki,Masuzaki Hideaki Fertility and sterility To test the hypothesis that bacterial contamination of menstrual blood could be a local biologic event in the development of endometriosis, menstrual blood was cultured and bacterial endotoxin was measured in menstrual blood and peritoneal fluid. Our results suggest that compared with control women, higher colony formation of Escherichia coli in menstrual blood and endotoxin levels in menstrual fluid and peritoneal fluid in women with endometriosis may promote Toll-like receptor 4-mediated growth of endometriosis. 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.04.053
    Increased Expression of Interleukin 37 in the Eutopic and Ectopic Endometrium of Patients With Ovarian Endometriosis. Jiang Jian-Fa,Deng Yan,Xue Wei,Zheng Ting-Ping,Sun Ai-Jun Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) INTRODUCTION:Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory condition. Interleukin (IL) 37 is a member of the IL-1 family and an anti-inflammatory cytokine. This study investigated the gene and protein expression of IL-37 in the eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with ovarian endometriosis and in the endometrium of patients without endometriosis. METHODS:Eutopic and ectopic endometria (n = 24) were collected from patients with ovarian endometriosis, and control endometria (n = 15) were obtained from women without endometriosis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the gene expression levels of IL-37, and immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the protein expression levels of IL-37. RESULTS:The gene and protein expression levels of IL-37 in both eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with ovarian endometriosis were significantly higher than in the endometrium of patients without endometriosis. Compared to the eutopic endometrium of patients with ovarian endometriosis, IL-37 gene and protein expression levels were significantly higher in the ectopic endometrium. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that increased expression of IL-37 was present in eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with ovarian endometriosis, which might be involved in the inflammatory process of endometriomas. 10.1177/1933719115602775