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    Detection of lymph node metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer using the new system of one-step nucleic acid amplification assay. PloS one INTRODUCTION:The prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer greatly depends on the presence of lymph node metastasis, which limits the need for surgery and adjuvant therapy for advanced cancer. One-step nucleic acid amplification of cytokeratin19 (CK19) mRNA was used to detect lymph node metastasis. Automated Gene Amplification Detector RD-200 and the LYNOAMP CK19 gene amplification reagent as components of the new one-step nucleic acid amplification system, which has increased gene amplification efficiency by improving the reagent composition, have shorter preprocessing and measurement times than conventional systems. We aimed to compare the clinical performance of the new system with that of histopathology and the conventional system. MATERIALS AND METHODS:199 lymph nodes from 58 non-small cell lung cancer patients who underwent lymph node dissection were examined intraoperatively using the new system, conventional system, and histopathology. RESULTS:Lymph node metastasis was diagnosed in 32, 42, and 44 patients using histopathological analysis, the new system, and the conventional system, respectively. Compared with histopathological analysis, the concordance rate, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the new system were 92.0%, 90.6%, 92.2%, 69.0%, and 98.1%, respectively, and compared with the conventional system, the values were 95.0%, 86.4%, 97.4%, 90.5%, and 96.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION:The clinical performance of the new one-step nucleic acid amplification system in detecting lymph node metastasis of lung cancer is comparable to that of histopathology and the conventional system; its performance was sufficient for determining the appropriate clinical treatment. The new rapid system can be effectively utilized during lung cancer treatment intraoperatively and postoperatively. 10.1371/journal.pone.0265603