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    Is dietary macronutrient composition during pregnancy associated with offspring birth weight? An observational study. Sharma Sukshma S,Greenwood Darren C,Simpson Nigel A B,Cade Janet E The British journal of nutrition There is lack of evidence on the differential impact of maternal macronutrient consumption: carbohydrates (CHO), fats and protein on birth weight. We investigated the association between maternal dietary macronutrient intakes and their sub-components such as saccharides and fatty acids and birth weight. This analyses included 1,196 women with singleton pregnancies who were part of the CAffeine and REproductive health study in Leeds, UK between 2003 and 2006. Women were interviewed in each trimester. Dietary information was collected twice using a 24-h dietary recall about 8-12 weeks and 13-27 weeks of gestation. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for alcohol and smoking in trimester 1, showed that each additional 10 g/d CHO consumption was associated with an increase of 4 g (95 % CI 1, 7; P=0·003) in birth weight. Conversely, an additional 10 g/d fat intake was associated with a lower birth weight of 8 g (95 % CI 0, 16; P=0·04) when we accounted for energy contributing macronutrients in each model, and maternal height, weight, parity, ethnicity, gestational age at delivery and sex of the baby. There was no evidence of an association between protein intake and birth weight. Maternal diet in trimester 2 suggested that higher intakes of glucose (10 g/d) and lactose (1 g/d) were both associated with higher birth weight of 52 g (95 % CI 4, 100; P=0·03) and 5 g (95 % CI 2, 7; P<0·001) respectively. These results show that dietary macronutrient composition during pregnancy is associated with birth weight outcomes. An appropriately balanced intake of dietary CHO and fat during pregnancy could support optimum birth weight. 10.1017/S0007114517003609
    Evaluation of dietary pattern in early pregnancy using the FIGO Nutrition Checklist compared to a food frequency questionnaire. Tsoi Kit Ying,Chan Ruth S M,Li Liz Sin,McAuliffe Fionnuala M,Hanson Mark A,Tam Wing Hung,Ma Ronald C W International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the reliability and utility of the FIGO Nutrition Checklist to identify dietary and nutritional inadequacy in early pregnancy by comparing it against nutritional indicators and dietary quality indices (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH] score, Mediterranean Diet Score [MDS], and Dietary Quality Index-International [DQI-I]), derived by a locally validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). METHODS:A prospective cohort study of healthy Chinese pregnant women randomly recruited between September 2017 and April 2018 at their first antenatal appointment. Women completed the FIGO Nutrition Checklist (translated into Chinese) and the FFQ. Spearman correlation was performed to examine association between the Checklist and dietary quality indices or food and nutrient intakes, calculated based on dietary data from the FFQ. RESULTS:Of 160 participants, 156 (97.5%) completed both the FIGO Nutrition Checklist and FFQ and were included. There were 148 (95%) women who reported at least one suboptimal dietary behavior using the Checklist. Checklist score was significantly associated with dietary quality indices (DASH ρ=0.344, P<0.001; DQI-I ρ=0.304, P<0.001; MDS ρ=0.164, P=0.041). The Checklist question on fruit/vegetables was significantly associated with fiber, vitamin C, and fruit and vegetable intake as calculated from the FFQ (0.325 ≤ ρ ≤0.441, P<0.001). The question on dairy intake was significantly associated with intake of calcium, milk and dairy products captured via FFQ (0.576 ≤ ρ ≤0.655, P<0.001). CONCLUSION:This study supports the use of the FIGO Nutrition Checklist to identify women with suboptimal dietary quality in early pregnancy. 10.1002/ijgo.13324
    Effect of proinflammatory diet before pregnancy on gestational age and birthweight: The Japan Environment and Children's Study. Ishibashi Makiho,Kyozuka Hyo,Yamaguchi Akiko,Fujimori Keiya,Hosoya Mitsuaki,Yasumura Seiji,Masahito Kuse,Sato Akiko,Ogata Yuka,Hashimoto Koichi, Maternal & child nutrition The daily diet plays a role in systematic inflammation and may be one of the causes of preterm birth. We aimed to examine the effect of a daily proinflammatory diet before pregnancy on gestational age and birthweight using a large birth cohort in Japan. We used data of singleton pregnancies in the Japan Environment and Children's Study involving live birth from 2011 to 2014 to calculate the dietary inflammatory index. We used individual meals with 30 food parameters from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, which assessed diet intake before pregnancy. Participants were categorized according to the quartile of dietary inflammatory index. A multiple logistic regression model was used to estimate the risk of a proinflammatory diet on preterm birth (PTB) before 37 or 34 weeks and low birthweight (LBW) less than 2,500 or 1,500 g, accounting for maternal age, body mass index before pregnancy, smoking status, education, and household income. After applying our inclusion criteria, 89,329 participants were eligible for the present study. Multiple regression analysis showed that the proinflammatory diet had an increased risk of PTB < 34 weeks (adjusted odds ratio: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [1.07, 1.55]) and <2,500-g LBW (adjusted odds ratio: 1.08, 95% confidence interval [1.01, 1.16]) compared with the control. In conclusion, a proinflammatory diet before pregnancy was a risk factor for PTB < 34 weeks and LBW < 2,500 g. Therefore, proinflammatory diet needs to be controlled to improve perinatal prognosis. 10.1111/mcn.12899
    Non-esterified fatty acids as biomarkers of diet and glucose homeostasis in pregnancy: The impact of fatty acid reporting methods: NEFA reporting methods affect dietary and cardiometabolic endpoints. Azab Sandi M,de Souza Russell J,Ly Ritchie,Teo Koon K,Atkinson Stephanie A,Morrison Katherine M,Anand Sonia S,Britz-McKibbin Philip Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids BACKGROUND:Sparse data exists on the utility of individual serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) as clinical and dietary biomarkers and how reporting methods could affect these associations. We investigated the associations of 19 serum NEFAs expressed as µM or mol%, with self-reported dietary intake data, and cardiometabolic health indicators in pregnant women. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, 273 pregnant women in their second trimester each completed a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and provided fasting serum samples. Comprehensive serum NEFA analysis was performed by multisegment injection-nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. We evaluated the associations of NEFAs using two different reporting methods, with diet quality, specific foods intake, and measures of adiposity and glucose homeostasis. RESULTS:Consistently stronger dietary correlations were observed when expressed as mol%. Serum ω-3 NEFAs were associated with diet quality and fish/fish oil daily servings (DHA mol%, r= 0.37; p = 4.8e-10), and odd-chain NEFAs were associated with full-fat dairy intake (15:0 mol%, r = 0.23; p = 9.0e-5). Glucose intolerance was positively associated with odd chain NEFAs as expressed in µM (r = 0.21; p= 0.001) but inversely associated when expressed as mol% (r = -0.31; p= 2.2e-7). In contrast, monounsaturated NEFAs (µM and mol%) had robust positive associations with pre-pregnancy BMI, second trimester skin-fold thickness, glycated hemoglobin, fasting glucose, and glucose intolerance. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates the utility of specific NEFAs and their sub-classes as viable dietary and clinical biomarkers when reported as their relative proportions. More research is needed to investigate inconsistencies between absolute concentrations and relative proportions when reporting fatty acids. 10.1016/j.plefa.2021.102378
    Dietary Inflammatory Potential during Pregnancy Is Associated with Lower Fetal Growth and Breastfeeding Failure: Results from Project Viva. Sen Sarbattama,Rifas-Shiman Sheryl L,Shivappa Nitin,Wirth Michael D,Hébert James R,Gold Diane R,Gillman Matthew W,Oken Emily The Journal of nutrition BACKGROUND:Inflammation during pregnancy has been linked to adverse maternal and infant outcomes. There is limited information available on the contribution of maternal diet to systemic inflammation and pregnancy health. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to examine associations of maternal prenatal dietary inflammatory index (DII), a composite measure of the inflammatory potential of diet, with markers of maternal systemic inflammation and pregnancy outcomes. METHODS:We studied 1808 mother-child pairs from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We calculated the DII from first- and second-trimester food-frequency questionnaires by standardizing the dietary intakes of participants to global means, which were multiplied by the inflammatory effect score and summed. We examined associations of DII with maternal plasma C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in the second trimester and the following perinatal outcomes: gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, length of gestation, fetal growth, mode of delivery, and duration of breastfeeding. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models to analyze the strength of these associations. RESULTS:Maternal age was (mean ± SD) 32.2 ± 5.0 y, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) was 24.9 ± 5.2, and DII was -2.56 ± 1.42 units with a range of -5.4 to 3.7. DII was positively correlated with prepregnancy BMI (Pearson'sr= 0.13,P< 0.0001). Higher DII scores, reflecting more proinflammatory dietary potential, were associated with higher second-trimester plasma CRP (β: 0.08 mg/L per 1-unit increase in maternal DII; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.14) and lower birth weight for gestational agezscore in infants born to obese mothers (β: -0.10zscore per 1-unit increase in maternal DII; 95% CI: -0.18, -0.02). Higher DII scores were associated with lower odds of breastfeeding for at least 1 mo (OR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98). CONCLUSION:A proinflammatory diet during pregnancy is associated with maternal systemic inflammation and may be associated with impaired fetal growth and breastfeeding failure. 10.3945/jn.115.225581
    Calcium intake from diet and supplement use during early pregnancy: the Expect study I. Willemse Jessica P M M,Meertens Linda J E,Scheepers Hubertina C J,Achten Nina M J,Eussen Simone J,van Dongen Martien C,Smits Luc J M European journal of nutrition PURPOSE:Adequate calcium intake during pregnancy is of major importance for the health of both mother and fetus. Up to date, evidence on the prevalence of inadequate calcium intake among pregnant women is sparse for Western countries, and it is unknown to what extent inadequate dietary calcium intake is adequately balanced by supplement use. The objective of this study was to estimate calcium intake from diet and supplement use during the early pregnancy in The Netherlands. METHODS:As part of the Expect cohort study, 2477 pregnant women (8-16 weeks of gestation) completed an online questionnaire including questions on baseline characteristics, the use of calcium containing supplements, and a short food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Intake data were used to calculate median calcium intakes from diet, from supplements, and combined, and to compare these values with currently accepted requirement levels. RESULTS:Forty-two percent of the pregnant women had a total calcium intake below the estimated average requirement of 800 mg/day. Median (interquartile range) calcium intake was 886 (611-1213) mg/day. Calcium or multivitamin supplements were used by 64.8% of the women at 8 weeks of gestation, with a median calcium content of 120.0 (60.0-200.0) mg/day. Prenatal vitamins were the most often used supplements (60.6%). CONCLUSIONS:Forty-two percent of Dutch pregnant women have an inadequate calcium intake. Supplements are frequently used, but most do not contain sufficient amounts to correct this inadequate intake. 10.1007/s00394-019-01896-8
    Associations of maternal early-pregnancy dietary glycemic index with childhood general, abdominal and ectopic fat accumulation. Wahab Rama J,Jaddoe Vincent W V,Gaillard Romy Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) BACKGROUND & AIMS:Maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy is an important risk factor for childhood adiposity. Maternal dietary glycemic index during pregnancy directly influences maternal and fetal glucose concentrations. We examined the associations of maternal early-pregnancy dietary glycemic index with offspring general, abdominal and ectopic fat accumulation among normal weight and overweight or obese pregnant women and their offspring. METHODS:In a population-based cohort study among 2488 Dutch pregnant women and their children, we assessed maternal dietary glycemic index by food frequency questionnaire at median 13.4 (95% range 10.7; 21.1) weeks gestation. Dietary glycemic index was used continuously and categorized into low (≤55), normal (56-69) and high (≥70) glycemic index diet. We measured offspring BMI, total fat mass and android/gynoid fat mass ratio by DXA, and visceral fat mass and liver fat fraction by MRI at 10 years. RESULTS:No associations of maternal early-pregnancy dietary glycemic index with offspring adiposity were present among normal weight women and their children. Among overweight and obese women and their children, 1-Standard Deviation Score (SDS) increase in maternal early-pregnancy dietary glycemic index was associated with higher childhood BMI (0.10 SDS, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.01; 0.19), total fat mass index (0.13 SDS, 95% CI 0.05; 0.22), visceral fat mass index (0.19 SDS, 95% CI 0.07; 0.32) and tended to be associated with a higher android/gynoid fat mass ratio (0.09 SDS, 95% CI -0.01; 0.19) and higher risk of childhood overweight (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.20, 95% CI 0.97; 1.48). Overweight and obese women consuming an early-pregnancy low-glycemic index diet, as compared to an early-pregnancy normal-glycemic index diet, had children with lower BMI, total fat mass index, visceral fat mass index and android/gynoid fat mass ratio at 10 years (p-values<0.05). No women consumed a high-glycemic index diet. No associations were explained by maternal socio-economic, lifestyle and dietary characteristics, birth or childhood characteristics. No associations with liver fat fraction were present. CONCLUSIONS:In overweight or obese women and their children, a higher maternal early-pregnancy dietary glycemic index is associated with childhood general, abdominal and visceral fat accumulation, but not with liver fat. Intervention studies among overweight and obese pregnant women may need to target the dietary glycemic index to prevent childhood adiposity. 10.1016/j.clnu.2021.02.046