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    Promising treatment strategies to combat biofilm infections: an updated review. Seethalakshmi P S,Rajeev Riya,Kiran George Seghal,Selvin Joseph Biofouling is a leading cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The formation of biofilm by this pathogen renders it resilient to antimicrobial agents, which complicates the treatment of such infections. can form biofilms with other pathogens and cause polymicrobial infections recalcitrant to antimicrobial agents. Therefore, anti-biofilm agents against which this bacterium cannot develop resistance are a highly desirable treatment strategy. Nanoparticles and some non-antimicrobial drugs proposed for various clinical purposes have proven to be excellent antibacterial and anti-biofilm agents to control biofilm infections. A variety of chemically distinct compounds capable of acting as anti-biofilm agents against have been extracted from microbial sources. This review explains the characteristics of biofilms, emphasizing the therapeutic potential of nanoparticles, repurposed drugs, and anti-biofilm agents from microbial sources to combat biofilm infections. 10.1080/08927014.2020.1857743
    A systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic resistance patterns, and the correlation between biofilm formation with virulence factors in uropathogenic E. coli isolated from urinary tract infections. Zhao Fei,Yang Huanxin,Bi Dezhong,Khaledi Azad,Qiao Mingqi Microbial pathogenesis Urinary tract infection (UTI) is caused by the invasion of the pathogen in the urinary system that can manifest as symptomatic or asymptomatic bacteriuria. This study was conducted to investigate antibiotic resistance patterns, and the correlation between biofilm formations with virulence factors in uropathogenic E. coli isolates retrieved from UTI. We searched Scopus and Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of sciences for studies published in the English language between 1st 2005 to 31st December 2019. The Mesh terms and text words included "biofilms", OR "biofilm formation", AND "antibiotic resistance", OR "drug-resistance", OR "antimicrobial drug resistance", AND "urinary tract infections", OR "UTI", AND "biofilm related-genes", AND "virulence factors" AND "correlation", AND "Uropathogenic Escherichia coli", OR "Uropathogenic E. coli" AND "prevalence" AND "Iran". Data analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software. The random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled prevalence with 95% confidence interval (CI). The combined rates of biofilm formation in Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates were achieved as 84.6% (95% CI: 72.7-91.9). Also, 24.8%, 26.1% and 44.6% of UPEC isolates were able to create strong, moderate and weak biofilm, respectively. The highest pooled antibiotic resistance was against Ampicillin followed by Tetracycline with resistance rates of 74.6% and 64.9%, respectively. Accordingly, some studies reported that biofilm production was significantly associated with antibiotic resistance and virulence genes (p < 0.05). This study showed a high tendency among UPEC isolates to form biofilm (more than 84%), also, most studies included in the present review reported a significant correlation between biofilm formation with antibiotic resistance and virulence factors. 10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104196
    A short history of microbial biofilms and biofilm infections. Høiby Niels APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica The observation of aggregated microbes surrounded by a self-produced matrix adhering to surfaces or located in tissues or secretions is old since both Leeuwenhoek and Pasteur have described the phenomenon. In environmental and technical microbiology, biofilms, 80-90 years ago, were already shown to be important for biofouling on submerged surfaces, for example, ships. The concept of biofilm infections and their importance in medicine was, however, initiated in the early 1970s by the observation of heaps of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in sputum and lung tissue from chronically infected cystic fibrosis patients. The term biofilm was introduced into medicine in 1985 by J. W. Costerton. During the following decades, the number of published biofilm articles and methods for studying biofilms increased rapidly and it was shown that adhering and nonadhering biofilm infections are widespread in medicine. The medical importance of biofilm infections is now generally accepted and guidelines for prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment have been published. 10.1111/apm.12686
    Phages against Pathogenic Bacterial Biofilms and Biofilm-Based Infections: A Review. Liu Siyu,Lu Hongyun,Zhang Shengliang,Shi Ying,Chen Qihe Pharmaceutics Bacterial biofilms formed by pathogens are known to be hundreds of times more resistant to antimicrobial agents than planktonic cells, making it extremely difficult to cure biofilm-based infections despite the use of antibiotics, which poses a serious threat to human health. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop promising alternative antimicrobial therapies to reduce the burden of drug-resistant bacterial infections caused by biofilms. As natural enemies of bacteria, bacteriophages (phages) have the advantages of high specificity, safety and non-toxicity, and possess great potential in the defense and removal of pathogenic bacterial biofilms, which are considered to be alternatives to treat bacterial diseases. This work mainly reviews the composition, structure and formation process of bacterial biofilms, briefly discusses the interaction between phages and biofilms, and summarizes several strategies based on phages and their derivatives against biofilms and drug-resistant bacterial infections caused by biofilms, serving the purpose of developing novel, safe and effective treatment methods against biofilm-based infections and promoting the application of phages in maintaining human health. 10.3390/pharmaceutics14020427