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    Dexamethasone-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Insulin Resistance-Study in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Mitochondria Isolated from Mouse Liver. Luan Guangxiang,Li Gang,Ma Xiao,Jin Youcai,Hu Na,Li Ji,Wang Zhenhua,Wang Honglun Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid analog, which is reported to induce insulin resistance and to exacerbate diabetic symptoms. In this study, we investigated the association between mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathophysiology of dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance. An insulin resistance model in 3T3-L1 adipocyte was established by 48-h treatment of 1 μM dexamethasone, followed with the detection of mitochondrial function. Results showed that dexamethasone impaired insulin-induced glucose uptake and caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Abnormality in mitochondrial function was supported by decreased intracellular ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mtDNA damage. Mitochondrial dynamic changes and biogenesis were suggested by decreased , increased , and decreased , , and , respectively. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number exhibited no change while the mitochondrial mass increased. In agreement, studies in isolated mitochondria from mouse liver also showed dexamethasone-induced reduction of mitochondrial respiratory function, as suggested by decreased mitochondrial respiration controlling rate (RCR), lower MMP, declined ATP synthesis, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), damage of mtDNA, and the accumulation of ROS. In summary, our study suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs along with dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in 3T3 L1 adipocytes and might be a potential mechanism of dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance. 10.3390/molecules24101982
    HM-chromanone attenuates TNF-α-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance by controlling JNK activation and NF-κB pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Park Jea Eun,Kang Eunji,Han Ji Sook European journal of pharmacology Obesity is a major public health problem worldwide and causes inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. We investigated the ability of (E)-5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-(2'-hydroxybenzyl)-4-chromanone (HM-chromanone) isolated from Portulaca oleracea to attenuate the activation of inflammatory cytokines and signaling pathways associated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. TNF-α triggers the release of inflammatory cytokines and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways. In this study, HM-chromanone inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines [TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1] involved in inflammation and insulin resistance. Furthermore, TNF-α treatment increased c-Jun-NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, whereas HM-chromanone significantly decreased JNK phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. TNF-α treatment increased the activation of inhibitor kappa B (IκB) kinase (IKK), IκBα, and NF-κBp65 compared with that of the control. However, HM-chromanone significantly blocked IKK, IκBα, and NF-κBp65 activation. Upon adipocyte stimulation with TNF-α, phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (pIRS)-1 serine 307 levels increased and pIRS-1 tyrosine 612 levels decreased compared with those of the control. Upon treatment with HM-chromanone, serine 307 phosphorylation of IRS-1 was inhibited and tyrosine 612 phosphorylation of IRS-1 was increased. Thus, HM-chromanone improved TNF-α-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance by regulating JNK activation and the NF-κB pathway, thereby reducing inflammatory cytokine secretion and inhibiting serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in the insulin signaling pathway. These results suggest the potential of HM-chromanone to improve inflammatory conditions and insulin resistance in adipocytes. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2022.174884