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    Benefits in Alzheimer's Disease of Sensory and Multisensory Stimulation. Yang Hong,Luo Yinpei,Hu Qingrong,Tian Xuelong,Wen Huizhong Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disease, which seriously affects the behavior, cognition, and memory of patients. Studies have shown that sensory stimulation can effectively improve the cognition and memory of AD patients, and its role in brain plasticity and neural regulation is initially revealed. This paper aims to review the effect of various sensory stimulation and multisensory stimulation for AD, and to explain the possible mechanism, so as to provide some new ideas for further research in this field. We searched the Web of Science and PubMed databases (from 2000 to October 27, 2020) for literature on the treatment of AD with sensory and multisensory stimulation, including music therapy, aromatherapy, rhythmic (e.g., visual or acoustic) stimulation, light therapy, multisensory stimulation, and virtual reality assisted therapy, then conducted a systematic analysis. Results show these sensory and multisensory stimulations can effectively ameliorate the pathology of AD, arouse memory, and improve cognition and behaviors. What's more, it can cause brain nerve oscillation, enhance brain plasticity, and regulate regional cerebral blood flow. Sensory and multisensory stimulation are very promising therapeutic methods, and they play an important role in the improvement and treatment of AD, but their potential mechanism and stimulation parameters need to be explored and improved. 10.3233/JAD-201554
    Vestibular Stimulation May Drive Multisensory Processing: Principles for Targeted Sensorimotor Therapy (TSMT). Tele-Heri Brigitta,Dobos Karoly,Harsanyi Szilvia,Palinkas Judit,Fenyosi Fanni,Gesztelyi Rudolf,More Csaba E,Zsuga Judit Brain sciences At birth, the vestibular system is fully mature, whilst higher order sensory processing is yet to develop in the full-term neonate. The current paper lays out a theoretical framework to account for the role vestibular stimulation may have driving multisensory and sensorimotor integration. Accordingly, vestibular stimulation, by activating the parieto-insular vestibular cortex, and/or the posterior parietal cortex may provide the cortical input for multisensory neurons in the superior colliculus that is needed for multisensory processing. Furthermore, we propose that motor development, by inducing change of reference frames, may shape the receptive field of multisensory neurons. This, by leading to lack of spatial contingency between formally contingent stimuli, may cause degradation of prior motor responses. Additionally, we offer a testable hypothesis explaining the beneficial effect of sensory integration therapies regarding attentional processes. Key concepts of a sensorimotor integration therapy (e.g., targeted sensorimotor therapy (TSMT)) are also put into a neurological context. TSMT utilizes specific tools and instruments. It is administered in 8-weeks long successive treatment regimens, each gradually increasing vestibular and postural stimulation, so sensory-motor integration is facilitated, and muscle strength is increased. Empirically TSMT is indicated for various diseases. Theoretical foundations of this sensorimotor therapy are discussed. 10.3390/brainsci11081111
    Effectiveness of multisensory stimulation in managing neuropsychiatric symptoms in older adults with major neurocognitive disorder: a systematic review. Silva Rosa,Abrunheiro Sérgio,Cardoso Daniela,Costa Paulo,Couto Filipa,Agrenha Cátia,Apóstolo João JBI database of systematic reviews and implementation reports OBJECTIVE:The objective of the review was to synthesize the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation in managing neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in older adults with major neurocognitive disorder (NCD). INTRODUCTION:Major neurocognitive disorder is characterized by changes in specific cognitive domains with a progressive deterioration in cognitive ability and capacity for independent living. Most older adults with this condition have one or more concomitant symptoms known as NPS. Evidence shows that nonpharmacological therapies have been effective in controlling these symptoms, with multisensory stimulation attracting further investigation. INCLUSION CRITERIA:The review considered studies on older adults aged 65 years or over with major NCD. The intervention of interest was multisensory stimulation, and the comparator was usual care (e.g. no occupational therapy, no cognitive training, and no art therapy, but with possible control of activities such as looking at photographs or doing quizzes), or another intervention (e.g. occupational therapy, cognitive training and art therapy). Primary outcomes were NPS (agitation, aggression, motor disturbances, mood liability, anxiety, apathy, night-time behaviour, eating disorders, delusion and hallucination). Secondary outcomes were quality of life, functional status in activities of daily living, cognitive status and caregiver burden. Experimental study designs were considered. METHODS:A broad range of keywords and a three-step search strategy were used to identify potentially eligible published and unpublished studies from January 1990 to June 2016 in major healthcare-related online databases. Studies in English, Spanish and Portuguese were included. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of eight included studies using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Checklists for Randomized Controlled Trials and Quasi-Experimental Studies. Data were extracted using the standardized data extraction tool from the JBI System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (JBI SUMARI) and included details about the interventions, populations, study methods and outcomes of interest. Significant differences were found between participants, interventions, outcome measures (clinical heterogeneity), and designs (methodological heterogeneity). For these reasons, a meta-analysis could not be performed. Therefore, the results have been described in a narrative format. RESULTS:Eight studies (seven randomized controlled trials and one quasi-experimental study) were included, with a total sample of 238 participants (pre-intervention). Four studies confirmed the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation in domains such as physically nonaggressive behavior, verbally agitated behavior and agitation. However, these effects did not always persist in the long-term. Six studies showed poorly consistent results on the effects of multisensory stimulation in improving mood, with only one displaying significant effects. Similarly, despite poor results, two studies showed benefits concerning anxiety. Participants reported significantly decreased levels of anxiety over the course of the intervention, and this improvement persisted in the long-term. In regard to functional status in activities of daily living, two studies reported an improvement in the short-term. Moreover, the effectiveness in cognitive domains such as memory and attention to surroundings also showed inconsistent results across the seven studies that analyzed this outcome. Two studies reflected an improvement during the intervention, but also reported a gradual decline in the long-term. Only one study observed significantly better results during the intervention that persisted until the follow-up assessment. Apathy, night-time behavior, eating disorders, delusion and hallucination were NPS that were not explored in the studies that met the criteria to be included in this review. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that multisensory stimulation could be an effective intervention for managing NPS in older adults with major NCD in a mild to severe stage, particularly for managing behavioral symptoms such as agitation. This research provides an indication of the likely effect of the multisensory stimulation on NPS such as agitation and anxiety, as well on cognitive status. 10.11124/JBISRIR-2017-003483
    Use of multisensory stimulation in institutionalized older adults with moderate or severe dementia. Dementia & neuropsychologia The Multisensory Stimulation Program can help manage behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Objective:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the Multisensory Stimulation Program on behavioral, mood, and biomedical parameters of older adults with moderate and severe dementia compared to a control group not submitted to this program. Methods:This study is an interventional, parallel, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical trial, which is quantitative and qualitative in nature and is also an exploratory type. The sample was divided for convenience into intervention group (IG) and control group (GC) that did not participate in the Multisensory Stimulation Program. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests (two-tailed alpha value of 0.1 was applied), and thematic content analysis. Results:The sample consisted of 20 older adults (IG=10 and GC=10), with a mean age of 83 years, an average of 3 years of education, and moderate or severe dementia. Reduction in intervention group behavioral changes (p=0.059) and numerical improvement in intervention group cognition were observed. A decrease in heart rate (p<0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05) was observed before and immediately after the session in the intervention group. The caregivers described engaged behavior in intervention group, while they reported apathetic behavior in control group. Session records described verbal and nonverbal communication and sustained attention for more than 3 min regarding the sensory resource explored. Conclusions:The Multisensory Stimulation Program could be a new look at the health care practices performed in the nursing homes that consider the older adults' sensory preferences and may help with dementia behavior management. 10.1590/1980-5764-DN-2021-0022
    Effect of Multisensory Stimulation on Pain of Eye Examination in Preterm Infants. Zeraati Hossein,Shahinfar Javad,Behnam Vashani Hamidreza,Reyhani Tayebeh Anesthesiology and pain medicine BACKGROUND:Eye examination as one of the painful procedures for retinopathy of prematurity screening can cause some pain-related physiological and behavioral changes in preterm infants. Multisensory stimulation is an analgesic non-pharmacological method that has analgesic effects on infants during painful procedures. OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to determine the effect of multisensory stimulation on induced pain during eye examination for retinopathy of prematurity screening in preterm infants. METHODS:In this double-blind clinical trial, 80 preterm infants were randomly divided into two groups. In the intervention group, multisensory stimulation program was performed for 15 minutes before the beginning of examination while the control group received the routine care. Pain score for each infant was recorded by premature infant pain profile. Data were analyzed using independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, and ANOVA with repeated measures by SPSS software (version 16). RESULTS:The mean gestational age was 30.4 ± 1.7 weeks in the multisensory stimulation group and 30.6 ± 1.8 weeks in the control group. Based on ANOVA with repeated measures, the pain score was significantly different between two groups during the assessment process (P < 0.001). The changes in pain severity during the examination were also significant between the two groups (P < 0.001); so that the pain was more intensive in the control group than the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS:Multisensory stimulation program as a safe and easy method can reduce pain in neonates and may be used as a way to reduce pain during eye examination in infants. 10.5812/aapm.42561
    Multisensory Integration as per Technological Advances: A Review. Cornelio Patricia,Velasco Carlos,Obrist Marianna Frontiers in neuroscience Multisensory integration research has allowed us to better understand how humans integrate sensory information to produce a unitary experience of the external world. However, this field is often challenged by the limited ability to deliver and control sensory stimuli, especially when going beyond audio-visual events and outside laboratory settings. In this review, we examine the scope and challenges of new technology in the study of multisensory integration in a world that is increasingly characterized as a fusion of physical and digital/virtual events. We discuss multisensory integration research through the lens of novel multisensory technologies and, thus, bring research in human-computer interaction, experimental psychology, and neuroscience closer together. Today, for instance, displays have become volumetric so that visual content is no longer limited to 2D screens, new haptic devices enable tactile stimulation without physical contact, olfactory interfaces provide users with smells precisely synchronized with events in virtual environments, and novel gustatory interfaces enable taste perception through levitating stimuli. These technological advances offer new ways to control and deliver sensory stimulation for multisensory integration research beyond traditional laboratory settings and open up new experimentations in naturally occurring events in everyday life experiences. Our review then summarizes these multisensory technologies and discusses initial insights to introduce a bridge between the disciplines in order to advance the study of multisensory integration. 10.3389/fnins.2021.652611