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    Qing-Xin-Jie-Yu Granules in addition to conventional treatment for patients with stable coronary artery disease (QUEST Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Li Shengyao,Guo Ming,Mao Huimin,Gao Zhuye,Xu Hao,Shi Dazhuo Trials BACKGROUND:Recurrent cardiovascular event remains high in stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), especially in patients with multiple risk factors, despite a high rate of use conventional treatment. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a promising complementary and alternative medicine for treating SCAD, while evidence for its effect on long-term survival is limited. This study was designed to test if Chinese herbal medicine in addition to conventional treatment is more effective than conventional treatment alone in reducing major adverse cardiac event (MACE) for SCAD patients with multiple risk factors during a 1-year follow-up. METHODS:This is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 1500 patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive the Qing-Xin-Jie-Yu Granules (QXJYG) or the placebo granules, twice daily for 6 months. The primary outcome is the combined outcomes including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and revascularization. The secondary outcome is the combined outcomes including all-cause mortality, re-admission for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), heart failure, malignant supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmia influencing hemodynamics, ischemic stroke, and other thromboembolic events during 1-year follow-up. The assessment is performed at baseline (before randomization), 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after randomization. DISCUSSION:This is the first multicenter trial sponsored by the national funding of China to evaluate TCM in combination with conventional treatment on 1-year survival in high-risk SCAD patients. If successful, it will provide an evidence-based complementary therapeutic approach for reducing MACE from SCAD. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on December 28, 2013. The registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-13004370 . 10.1186/s13063-016-1569-9
    A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Study of the Effects of Tongxinluo Capsules in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients with High On-Treatment Platelet Reactivity. Zhang Lei,Li Yi,Yang Bai-Song,Li Lu,Wang Xiao-Zeng,Ge Mei-Ling,Jing Quan-Min,Ma Ying-Yan,Wang Geng,Liu Hai-Wei,Zhao Xin,Wang Bin,Xu Kai,Han Ya-Ling Chinese medical journal Background:High platelet reactivity (HPR) during clopidogrel treatment predicts postpercutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) ischemic events strongly and independently. Tongxinluo capsules (TCs) are a traditional Chinese medicine formulation used as antiplatelet treatment. However, its efficacy against HPR is not known. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of TCs in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with HPR. Methods:This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study prospectively analyzed 136 ACS patients with HPR who underwent PCI. The patients were enrolled from November 2013 to May 2014 and randomized to receive placebo or TCs in addition to standard dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel. The primary end points were the prevalence of HPR at 30 days and the mean change in P2Yreaction units (PRUs) between baseline and 30 days. Survival curves were constructed with Kaplan-Meier estimates and compared by log-rank tests between the two groups. Results:Both groups had a significantly reduced prevalence of HPR at 30 days versus baseline, but the TC group, compared with the placebo group, had greater reduction (15.8% vs. 24.8%, P = 0.013), especially among patients with one cytochrome P450 2C19 loss of function (LOF) allele (χ = 2.931, P = 0.047). The TC group also had a lower prevalence of HPR (33.3% vs. 54.2%, t = 5.284, P = 0.022) and superior performance in light transmittance aggregometry and higher levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), but the composite prevalence of ischemic events did not differ significantly (χ = 1.587, P = 0.208). Conclusions:In addition to standard DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel, TCs further reduce PRU and hsCRP levels, especially in patients carrying only one LOF allele. The data suggest that TCs could be used in combination therapy for ACS patients with HPR undergoing PCI. 10.4103/0366-6999.226064
    Acute coronary syndrome secondary to allergic coronary vasospasm (Kounis Syndrome): a case series, follow-up and literature review. Li Jing,Zheng Jingang,Zhou Yifeng,Liu Xiaofei,Peng Wenhua BMC cardiovascular disorders BACKGROUND:Kounis syndrome (KS) is the concurrence of acute coronary syndrome associated with mast-cell and platelet activation in the setting of hypersensitivity and allergic or anaphylactic insults. Many drugs and environmental exposures had been reported as inducers, but various inducers and the mechanism of KS remained unknown till now. The widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a potential sensitizer were scarcely reported to induce allergic vasospasm due to the ignorance of the linkage between traditional medicine allergy and vasospasm. CASE PRESENTATION:We described 5 rare cases of KS including unreported triggers of TCM and abortion, reported the treatment strategy and 1~4 years' follow-up results, and tried to probe into the etiology of KS. Case 1 and case 2 for the first time reported acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) caused by Chinese herbs related allergic coronary vasospasm. Case 3 reported recurrent angina following allergen contact and wheezing, indicating the internal linkage of coronary vasospasm and allergic asthma. Case 4 described a childbearing-age woman suffered refractory ischemic chest pain due to coronary vasospasm in a special period of post-abortion, the attacks suddenly disappeared when her menopause recovered. Case 5 described an isolated episode of allergic coronary vasospasm under exposure of smoking and stress, which was successfully prevented by avoiding the exposures. CONCLUSION:Kounis syndrome is not rare but rarely recognized and under-diagnosed. It is necessary to recognize KS and various inducers, especially for the patients suffering refractory vasospastic cardiac attacks concentrating in special periods. Blood test of eosinophil might contribute to diagnose KS and anti-allergic agents might be helpful for controlling KS attacks. 10.1186/s12872-018-0781-9
    Study on correspondence between prescription and syndrome and the essence of phlegm and blood stasis syndrome in coronary heart disease based on metabonomics. Lu Xiao-yan,Xu Hao,Li Geng,Zhao Tie Chinese journal of integrative medicine Studying the essence of a syndrome has been a key challenge in the field of Chinese medicine. Until now, due to limitations of the methods available, the progress towards understanding such complicated systems has been slow. Metabonomics encompasses the dynamics, composition and analysis of metabolites, enabling the observation of changes in the metabolic network of the human body associated with disease. Being from the point of view of the whole organism, metabonomics provides an opportunity to study the essence of a syndrome to an unprecedented level. Phlegm and blood stasis syndrome is the main syndrome associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), which bring difficulties in clinical treatment due to difficulties associated with differentiation of symptoms and signs. The fundamental differences of material between the two also need to be interpreted. The authors consider that we can use the method of combining a disease (in this case CHD) with associated syndromes (phlegm and blood stasis syndrome) to select patients with phlegm and blood stasis syndrome of CHD, and utilize metabonomics to explore the essence of the syndrome by difference analysis of metabolite spectra. Meanwhile, we can study the syndrome in CM, observe the change regularity of metabolism spectra after the treatment of corresponding and non-corresponding prescription and syndrome, in order to validate the material fundament in the progress of syndrome formation and their differences. This will not only have great significance in enhancing the ability to identify syndrome of phlegm and blood stasis in CHD and to establish the clinical curative criteria, but will also offer a new approach of studying the essence for a syndrome using metabonomics. 10.1007/s11655-012-1182-z
    Integrative Western and chinese medicine on coronary heart disease: where is the orientation? Li Siming,Xu Hao Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death. As the main treatment of CHD, modern medicine has improved dramatically in recent years. Although researches of TCM and integrative medicine on CHD are witnessed encouraging progress in many respects, the role TCM playing in the prevention and treatment of CHD has been unprecedentedly challenged under such circumstance of the very fast development of modern medicine. In order to share mutual complementary advantages of TCM and western medicine, this review summarizes the relatively prominent researches of TCM and integrative medicine on CHD in recent years, and illuminates the issue of the orientation of the further research of integrative medicine on CHD, including (1) original innovation of TCM etiology and pathogenesis, (2) combination of disease and TCM syndrome, (3) biological basis of TCM syndrome of CHD, (4) clinical design and quality control of integrative medicine research, (5) herb-drug interaction, (6) difficulties and hot issues of modern medicine. 10.1155/2013/459264
    Tai chi chuan in medicine and health promotion. Lan Ching,Chen Ssu-Yuan,Lai Jin-Shin,Wong Alice May-Kuen Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a Chinese traditional mind-body exercise and recently, it becomes popular worldwide. During the practice of Tai Chi, deep diaphragmatic breathing is integrated into body motions to achieve a harmonious balance between body and mind and to facilitate the flow of internal energy (Qi). Participants can choose to perform a complete set of Tai Chi or selected movements according to their needs. Previous research substantiates that Tai Chi has significant benefits to health promotion, and regularly practicing Tai Chi improves aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, health-related quality of life, and psychological well-being. Recent studies also prove that Tai Chi is safe and effective for patients with neurological diseases (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, cognitive dysfunction), rheumatological disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and fibromyalgia), orthopedic diseases (e.g., osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, low-back pain, and musculoskeletal disorder), cardiovascular diseases (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, and heart failure), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and breast cancers. Tai Chi is an aerobic exercise with mild-to-moderate intensity and is appropriate for implementation in the community. This paper reviews the existing literature on Tai Chi and introduces its health-promotion effect and the potential clinical applications. 10.1155/2013/502131
    Chinese patent medicine Xuefu Zhuyu capsule for the treatment of unstable angina pectoris: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Yang Xiaochen,Xiong Xingjiang,Yang Guoyan,Wang Jie Complementary therapies in medicine BACKGROUND:Xuefu Zhuyu Capsule (XFZY) has been commonly used for relieving chest pain in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on XFZY in treating unstable angina (UA) have not been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to provide a PRISMA-compliant systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of XFZY in treating UA. METHODS:An extensive search of 7 medical databases was performed up to June 2013. RCTs involving XFZY or combined with conventional drugs versus conventional drugs were identified. Meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of XFZY. Rev Man 5.0 was used for data analysis. RESULTS:8 RCTs were included in this review. Statistical analysis of the results showed that XFZY combined with conventional drugs had significant effect on relieving angina symptoms (RR: 1.26 [1.16, 1.38]; P<0.00001) and improving ECG (RR: 1.20 [1.04, 1.38]; P=0.01) compared with conventional drugs alone. No severe adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS:XFZY combined with conventional drugs appears to have potential cardiovascular effects in treatment of UA with few adverse events. However, further rigorous designed trials are still needed. 10.1016/j.ctim.2014.01.003
    Innovative Strategy in Treating Angina Pectoris with Chinese Patent Medicines by Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis: Experience from Combination Therapy in Chinese Medicine. Xiong Xing-Jiang,Wang Zhong,Wang Jie Current vascular pharmacology Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Moreover, angina pectoris is one of the most important types of CHD. Therefore, prevention and effective treatment of angina pectoris is of utmost importance in both China and western countries. However, undesirable effects of antianginal therapy do influence treatment adherence to a certain extent. Therefore, it's not surprising that, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including Chinese medicine (CM), are widely welcomed among patients with CHD, hoping that it might complement western medicine. In our previous studies, blood stasis syndrome (BSS) (Xueyu Zheng) was the main syndrome (Zheng-hou) of angina pectoris. Currently, China Food and Drug Administration authoritatively recommended more than 200 Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) as complementary or adjunctive therapies for symptom management and enhancing quality of life along with mainstream care on angina pectoris management in mainland China. This paper reviewed 4 kinds of most frequently-used CPMs by promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in the treatment of angina pectoris. It aims to evaluate the current evidence of CPMs in combination therapy for angina pectoris. This review indicated that CPMs as adjunctive treatment to routine antianginal therapy play an active role in reducing the incidence of primary endpoint events, decreasing anginal attack rate, and improving electrocardiogram. Additionally, CPMs have been proven relatively safe. Further rigorously designed clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the results. 10.2174/1570161112666141014153735
    A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled clinical study on the efficacy and safety of Shenmai injection in patients with chronic heart failure. Xian Shaoxiang,Yang Zhongqi,Lee Jun,Jiang Zhiping,Ye Xiaohan,Luo Luyi,Jin Lili,Yang Tianlun,Ye Suilin,Lu Dongfeng Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Shenmai injection (SMI) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine extracted from Panax ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey, steamed and dry) and Ophiopogon japonicus (Ophiopogon japonicus (L.f.) Ker-Gawl, root). It has been widely used for the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) in China. However, the evidence supporting its effects remains unclear due to lack of high quality trials. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of SMI in CHF patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS:This double-blind, multicenter study randomized 240 eligible patients equally to receive SMI or placebo (100ml/day) in addition to standard medicines for the treatment of CHF. The primary endpoint was the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification. The secondary endpoints were 6-min walking distance (6MWD), short-form 36 (SF-36) hearth survey score, traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) syndrome score, left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level. RESULTS:During treatment of 1 week, the NYHA functional classification was gradually improved in both groups, but the SMI group demonstrated a significantly greater improvement compared with the placebo group (p=0.001). Moreover, the improvement in patients received SMI was superior to those in control group with respect to 6MWD, SF-36 score and TCM syndrome score. Treatment with SMI within 1 week was well tolerated with no apparent safety concerns. CONCLUSIONS:The integrative treatment with standard medicines plus SMI can further improve NYHA functional classification for patients with CHF and CAD. Therefore, SMI could be recommended in the combination therapy for CHF accompanied with CAD. 10.1016/j.jep.2016.03.066
    Traditional Chinese medicines in the management of cardiovascular diseases: a comprehensive systematic review. Layne Kerry,Ferro Albert British journal of clinical pharmacology AIMS:The aim was to perform a systematic review of the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) in cardiovascular disease. METHODS:Electronic databases were searched up to 11 November 2015 for all randomized-controlled trials evaluating the effect of TCM in hypertension, ischaemic stroke, heart failure, coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a fixed-effects model. RESULTS:Four hypertension studies were eligible for statistical analysis and included 133 patients receiving TCM and 130 control patients. There were significant reductions in systolic blood pressure in patients receiving TCM, comparable to results achieved with pharmaceutical medicines. An OR of 3.781 (95% confidence interval 2.392, 5.977; P = 0.000) was observed for the anti-hypertensive effect of TCM. Significant heterogeneity was present (P = 0.011), with a tendency towards publication bias that did not reach significance (P = 0.05275). Outcome measures for other cardiovascular diseases were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS:Certain TCM compounds appear to have significant anti-hypertensive effects, and although some are associated in some studies with improved outcomes in coronary heart disease, heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the data are inconsistent and will require large-scale randomized-controlled trials to allow full evaluation of any potential therapeutic benefit in these areas. 10.1111/bcp.13013
    Traditional Chinese Medicine on the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease in Recent 20 Years. Gong Ping,Li Yue,Yao Chengzeng,Guo Hui,Hwang Hui,Liu Xiaobing,Xu Yan,Wang Xiaolong Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) OBJECTIVE:To analyze the patterns and differences of Chinese herbs in the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) in different time periods and different regions in recent 20 years. DESIGN:The literature of controlled clinical trials that focuses on Chinese herbs treating CHD published in China National Knowledge Internet and Wanfang database from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2015 were screened to analyze the patterns of herb utilization using SPSS 21.0. RESULTS:A total of 1250 articles were enrolled in total covering 29 regions. There were 242 kinds of single herbs, 18 categories, mentioned a total of 11,594 times. In Northeast China, North China, South China, Central China, and Southwest China the most frequently used herb was Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, but in East China and Northwest China, the most frequently used herb was Rhizoma Chuanxiong. The most frequently used herb category in North China, Central China, Southwest China, and Northwest China was herbs to invigorate blood, but in Northeast China, East China, and South China the most frequently used herb category was herbs to tonify. CONCLUSION:Single herbs and herb categories to treat CHD in Traditional Chinese Medicine differed from time to time and from region to region. 10.1089/acm.2016.0420
    Therapeutic Effects of Breviscapine in Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review. Gao Jialiang,Chen Guang,He Haoqiang,Liu Chao,Xiong Xingjiang,Li Jun,Wang Jie Frontiers in pharmacology Breviscapine is a crude extract of several flavonoids of , containing more than 85% of scutellarin, which has been traditionally used in China as an activating blood circulation medicine to improve cerebral blood supply. Accumulating evidence from various and studies has shown that breviscapine exerts a broad range of cardiovascular pharmacological effects, including vasodilation, protection against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R), anti-inflammation, anticoagulation, antithrombosis, endothelial protection, myocardial protection, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, anticardiac remodeling, antiarrhythmia, blood lipid reduction, and improvement of erectile dysfunction. In addition, several clinical studies have reported that breviscapine could be used in conjunction with Western medicine for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidaemia, viral myocarditis, chronic heart failure, and pulmonary heart disease. However, the protective effects of breviscapine on CVDs based on experimental studies along with its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the underlying pharmacological mechanisms in the cardioprotective effects of breviscapine and elucidated its clinical applications. 10.3389/fphar.2017.00289
    The Therapeutical Effect of Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Atherosclerotic Coronary Heart Disease. Zhang Jian,Meng Hui,Zhang Yi,Zhang Xuefeng,Shao MingYan,Li Chun,Tu Pengfei Current pharmaceutical design Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality in the world and atherosclerosis is the main cause of CHD. Traditional Chinese medicines have been applied in the treatment of CHD for centuries. In the recent years, clinical trials have been carried out to evaluate the efficacies of Chinese medicine. Meanwhile, extensive studies have also been carried out to explore the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of Chinese medicine. In this review, we will summarize the commonly prescribed Chinese medicine and patent Chinese drugs in treating patients with atherosclerotic CHD and review published clinical trials of Chinese medicine in treating CHD. The anti-atherosclerosis mechanism of Chinese medicine will also be reviewed. Finally, challenges and opportunities facing application of Chinese medicine in the treatment of CHD will be presented. 10.2174/1381612823666170803101602
    Cluster analysis for syndromes of real-world coronary heart disease with angina pectoris. Zhao Yufeng,Yu Xueyun,Cao Xinyu,Luo Lin,He Liyun,Mao Shusong,Ma Li,Rong Peijing,Zhao Yuxue,Li Guozheng,Liu Baoyan Frontiers of medicine Syndromes of coronary heart disease with angina pectoris were analyzed to provide guidance for clinical practice and to improve accuracy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) diagnoses and efficacy of TCM treatment. A total of 860 cases with coronary heart disease with angina pectoris were selected from TCM Clinical Research Information Sharing System for TCM clinics and research. Syndromes were automatically extracted with the cluster method and were analyzed to provide objective evidence for clinical studies. Final syndrome classifications were recognized and confirmed by clinical experts. Popular syndromes included Qi and blood deficiency, blood stasis and obstruction collaterals, liver depression and spleen deficiency, and Qi stagnation and blood stasis. Syndromes Qi and blood deficiency and blood stasis and obstruction collaterals accounted for 28.61% of total syndromes, whereas liver depression and spleen deficiency and Qi stagnation and blood stasis accounted for 26.44%. The main syndrome elements comprised Qi deficiency, blood deficiency, blood stasis, and Qi stagnation. 10.1007/s11684-017-0556-1
    [Analysis on "component-target-pathway" of Paeonia lactiflora in treating cardiac diseases based on data mining]. Liu Yang,Zhang Fang-Bo,Tang Shi-Huan,Wang Ping,Li Sen,Su Jin,Zhou Rong-Rong,Zhang Jia-Qi,Sun Hui-Feng Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica Based on the literature review and modern application of Paeonia lactiflora in heart diseases, this article would predict the target of drug and disease by intergrative pharmacology platform of traditional Chinese medicine (TCMIP, http://www.tcmip.cn), and then explore the molecular mechanism of P. lactiflora in treatment of heart disease, providing theoretical basis and method for further studies on P. lactiflora. According to the ancient books, P. lactiflora with functions of "removing the vascular obstruction, removing the lumps, relieving pain, diuretic, nutrient qi" and other effects, have been used for many times to treat heart disease. Some prescriptions are also favored by the modern physicians nowadays. With the development of science, the chemical components that play a role in heart disease and the interrelation between these components and the body become the research hotspot. In order to further reveal the pharmacological substance base and molecular mechanism of P. lactiflora for the treatment of such diseases, TCM-IP was used to obtain multiple molecular targets and signaling pathways in treatment of heart disease. ATP1A1, a common target of drug and disease, was related to energy, and HDAC2 mainly regulated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy gene and cardiomyocyte expression. Other main drug targets such as GCK, CHUK and PRKAA2 indirectly regulated heart disease through many pathways; multiple disease-associated signaling pathways interfered with various heart diseases including coronary heart disease, myocardial ischemia and myocardial hypertrophy through influencing energy metabolism, enzyme activity and gene expression. In conclusion, P. lactiflora plays a role in protecting heart function by regulating the gene expression of cardiomyocytes directly. Meanwhile, it can indirectly intervene in other pathways of heart function, and thus participate in the treatment of heart disease. In this paper, the molecular mechanism of P. lactiflora for treatment of heart disease was in computer prediction analysis level, and the specific mechanism of action still needs further experimental verification. 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.2018.0053
    A traditional Chinese medicine therapy for coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Chen Ruixue,Xiao Ya,Chen Minghao,He Jingyi,Huang Mengtian,Hong Xitao,Liu Xin,Fu Taoran,Zhang Jingzhi,Chen Liguo Bioscience reports Huoxue Huayu therapy (HXHY) has been widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) such as hypertension and coronary heart disease (CHD). The present study describes a meta-analysis of a series of prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials conducted to evaluate the effect of HXHY on patients with CHD after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, and the Wanfang database were searched up until June 2018. A series of randomized controlled clinical trials were included and the subjects were patients with CHD who had undergone PCI. The experimental group was treated with HXHY therapy, and the control group was treated with placebo; meanwhile, all the patients accepted conventional Western medicine. Review Manager 5.3 software was used for the statistical analysis. Ten trials were included in the final study. The overall risk of bias assessment was low. HXHY had a greater beneficial effect on reducing the in-stent restenosis (ISR) rate (RR = 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.40-0.80], =0.001) and the degree of restenosis (MD = -8.89, 95% CI [-10.62 to -7.17], <0.00001) compared with Placebo. Moreover, HXHY was determined to be more effective in improving Seattle Angina Questionnaires (SAQ) and the revascularization rate (RR = 0.54, 95% CI [0.32-0.90], =0.02) compared with Placebo, whereas the rate of death and MI of patients treated with HXHY were no different from those treated with the placebo (>0.05). Therefore, HXHY is an effective and safe therapy for CHD patients after PCI. 10.1042/BSR20180973
    Holistic Regulation of Angiogenesis with Chinese Herbal Medicines as a New Option for Coronary Artery Disease. Yuan Rong,Shi Wei-Li,Xin Qi-Qi,Chen Ke-Ji,Cong Wei-Hong Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Effectively improving myocardial blood flow and controlling atherosclerotic plaque have always been key and difficult points in the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although "therapeutic angiogenesis" is regarded as a promising approach for ischemic heart disease by improving blood flow, angiogenesis itself can induce the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaque, which reflects the double-edged role of angiogenesis. Modulating the balance of angiogenesis can be an important target for CAD treatment. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) emphasizes the holistic view and dynamic balance of the body. Furthermore, the principle of activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis (ABCRS) is closely connected with angiogenesis and CAD. Recent research suggests that Chinese herbal medicines for ABCRS are effective in balancing the regulation of angiogenesis. This review presents the progress of recent research on the angiogenesis regulation with Chinese herbal medicines for ABCRS in CAD. Moreover, this review demonstrates that Chinese herbal medicines for ABCRS can not only promote angiogenesis in the ischemic area to improve myocardial blood flow but also alleviate angiogenesis to stabilize plaque in atherosclerosis, which reflects the holistic regulatory role in CAD treatment. 10.1155/2018/3725962
    Study on syndrome differentiation and treatment in the management of chronic stable coronary artery disease to improve quality of life. Bi Ying-Fei,Mao Jing-Yuan,Wang Xian-Liang,Hou Ya-Zhu,Zhao Zhi-Qiang,Ge Yong-Bin,Yu Xiao-Han Medicine BACKGROUND:Chronic stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) is a general term for all kinds of coronary artery disease (CAD), which includes patients with chronic stable angina, old myocardial infarctions, and also stable condition after revascularization (i.e., percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft). According to 2012 AHA/ACC guidelines, the objective of the treatment for SCAD is to maintain or recover patients' exercise tolerance, quality of life, and avoid complication like heart failure, so as to decrease mortality, eliminate symptoms, and avoid adverse reactions. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has 2000 years of history in managing CAD and has its advantages in improving quality of life. Using scientific method to evaluate, demonstrate, and conclude the clinical curative effect of TCM is an extremely important task for both TCM and integrative Chinese and Western medicine in the treatment of CAD. METHODS:This research is to collect real effective cases from authoritative TCM cardiologists' clinic, so as to build a TCM diagnosis and treatment information database that involve 2000 patients from 32 different top-3 hospitals of china. The primary outcome includes EuroQol-5 Dimensions and Four diagnostic method of TCM, and secondary outcome includes angina score and some laboratory indexes like electrocardiograms, dynamic electrocardiogram, ultrasonic cardiogram, and treadmill exercise testing. This research uses SPSS17.0. to do the statistical analysis application. Enumeration data use χ test and measurement data which fit normality test use t test. The analysis of drugs usage in different diseases, different syndromes and different life quality effect will use principal component analysis, factorial analysis, clustering analysis. and point mutual information method, and so on. RESULTS:This research, based on past syndromes research and real clinical effective chronic SCAD cases, aim to build a TCM diagnosis and treatment information database. 10.1097/MD.0000000000012097
    Treatment of atherosclerosis by traditional Chinese medicine: Questions and quandaries. Wang Chuan,Niimi Manabu,Watanabe Teruo,Wang Yanli,Liang Jingyan,Fan Jianglin Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and its complications, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, are the major causes of morbidity and mortality, and development of effective therapies for both prevention and treatment of this disease is critically important. Currently, there are many drugs available for atherosclerotic disease, but the lipid-lowering drugs statins are still the first-choice for treatment of hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. On the other hand, traditional Chinese medicines, mainly Chinese herbal medicines (CHM), have been widely used in China and in other Asian countries for the treatment of atherosclerotic diseases. Although many CHMs have been reported to be effective for treating atherosclerotic diseases for more than two thousand years, there are still many difficulties for their use, such as lack of scientific evidence assessed by rigorous clinical trials, complicated components and unclear pharmacological mechanisms, which often hamper the widespread use of CHMs in Western countries. Due to these concerns, CHMs are usually considered as complimentary or alternative treatment for atherosclerotic diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis viewed by Western and traditional Chinese medicine, summarize pros and cons on the efficacy of CHMs for atherosclerosis and discuss what is necessary for CHM use to spread to Western societies. 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.08.039
    Shexiang Baoxin Pill, Derived From the Traditional Chinese Medicine, Provides Protective Roles Against Cardiovascular Diseases. Lu Li,Sun Xiaodong,Chen Chen,Qin Yating,Guo Xiaomei Frontiers in pharmacology Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP), derived from the traditional Chinese medicine, has been broadly applied for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases including coronary heart disease, heart failure, and hypertension in East Asia for decades. Emerging pharmacological studies have revealed that SBP displays pleiotropic roles in protecting the cardiovascular system, as seen by the promotion of angiogenesis, amelioration of inflammation, improvement of endothelium dysfunction, mitigation of dyslipidemia, repression of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and migration and restraint of cardiac remodeling. In terms of clinical practice, the clinical trials and meta-analyses have proved the efficacy and safety of SBP. In this review, we, for the first time, systematically summarize the cardioprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of SBP and provide novel insights into future research directions of SBP based on the experimental and clinical perspectives. 10.3389/fphar.2018.01161
    Advance for Cardiovascular Health in China. Bei Yihua,Shi Chao,Zhang Zhongrong,Xiao Junjie Journal of cardiovascular translational research As the most populous country worldwide, China has ≈ 290 million patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), representing the leading cause of death in Chinese population. The morbidity and mortality of CVDs are continuously rising. Here, we will first summarize the recent advance in the management of CVDs such as coronary arterial disease, arrhythmia, and heart failure in China. In particular, we will introduce the development of chest pain centers and indicate the novel techniques and methods applied for the management of CVDs. Then, we will discuss and point out the importance of improving the clinical and basic research for Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of CVDs. Finally, we will emphasize the efforts made to promote cardiac rehabilitation and cardiovascular prevention system in China. We are striving to establish a practical prevention-treatment-rehabilitation system and looking forward to a bright future with reduced morbidity and mortality from CVDs in China. 10.1007/s12265-018-9852-7
    The effect of Xinkeshu tablets on depression and anxiety symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease: Results from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Ma Huan,Wang Yu,Xue YunLian,Huang Daozheng,Kong Yongjie,Zhao Xujie,Zhang Minzhou Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie A large proportion of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) suffer from depression or anxiety symptoms and this is associated with increased mortality [1]. This double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial (ChiCTR-IPR-17010940) aimed to explore whether Xinkeshu tablets can reduce anxiety or depressive symptoms in CAD patients and how this is related to the concentration of plasma cytokines. Sixty patients with CAD anda Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-a/HADS-d) score of ≥8 were treated with Xinkeshu tablets or placebo for 12 weeks following percutaneous revascularization. Depressive/anxiety symptoms and the levels of 440 peripheral blood cytokines were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks treatment. Results showed significantly lower (P < 0.05) HADS-a/HADS-d and PHQ-9 scores in CAD patients treated with Xinkeshu tablets than in those who received placebo. These improvements were associated with changes in certain peripheral blood cytokines; most notably trappin-2, adiponectin, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), thrombopoietin, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and transferrin. A significant correlation between anxiety/depression symptoms and trappin-2, NT-3, transferrin, and ALCAM (p < 0.05) were observed in an independent cohort of patients with CAD. These findings were in-keeping with the anti-depressive effects of Xinkeshu tablets. This trial demonstrates that Xinkeshu tablets can improve anxiety and depression symtoms effectively address in patients with coronary heart disease possibly through increasing the blood ratio of anti-inflammatory:pro-inflammatory cytokines. 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108639
    The Role of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Regulation of Oxidative Stress in Treating Coronary Heart Disease. Yang Xinyu,He Tianmai,Han Songjie,Zhang Xiaoyu,Sun Yang,Xing Yanwei,Shang Hongcai Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Oxidative stress has been closely related with coronary artery disease. In coronary heart disease (CHD), an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production generates endothelial cell and smooth muscle functional disorders, leading to a disequilibrium between the antioxidant capacity and prooxidants. ROS also leads to inflammatory signal activation and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, which can promote and increase the occurrence and development of CHD. There are several kinds of antioxidative and small molecular systems of antioxidants, such as -carotene, ascorbic acid, -tocopherol, and reduced glutathione (GSH). Studies have shown that antioxidant treatment was effective and decreased the risk of CHD, but the effect of the treatment varies greatly. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been utilized for thousands of years in China and is becoming increasingly popular all over the world, especially for the treatments of cardiovascular diseases. This review will concentrate on the evidence of the action mechanism of TCM in preventing CHD by modulating oxidative stress-related signaling pathways. 10.1155/2019/3231424
    Metabolomics and its application in the treatment of coronary heart disease with traditional Chinese medicine. Wu Gao-Song,Li Hou-Kai,Zhang Wei-Dong Chinese journal of natural medicines Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is the treasure of Chinese Nation and gained the gradual acceptance of the international community. However, the methods and theories of TCM understanding of diseases are lack of appropriate modern scientific characterization systems. Moreover, traditional risk factors cannot promote to detection and prevent those patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who have not developed acute myocardial infarction (MI) in time. To sum up, there is still no objective systematic evaluation system for the therapeutic mechanism of TCM in the prevention and cure of cardiovascular disease. Thus, new ideas and technologies are needed. The development of omics technology, especially metabolomics, can be used to predict the level of metabolites in vivo and diagnose the physiological state of the body in time to guide the corresponding intervention. In particular, metabolomics is also a very powerful tool to promote the modernization of TCM and the development of TCM in personalized medicine. This article summarized the application of metabolomics in the early diagnosis, the discovery of biomarkers and the treatment of TCM in CAD. 10.1016/S1875-5364(19)30037-8
    [Network Meta-analysis of Yiqi Huoxue Chinese patent medicine for coronary heart disease with angina pectoris]. Ji Zhao-Chen,Hu Hai-Yin,Yang Feng-Wen,Zhang Li-Shuang,Jin Xin-Yao,Wang Hu-Cheng,Pang Wen-Tai,Li Nan,Wang Ke-Yi,Zhang Jun-Hua Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica To assess the clinical efficacy of Yiqi Huoxue Chinese patent medicine for coronary heart disease with angina pectoris by using network Meta-analysis method. The relative randomized controlled trials( RCTs) of Yiqi Huoxue Chinese patent medicine for coronary heart disease with angina pectoris were retrieved from China National Knowledge Infrastructure( CNKI),Wan Fang,VIP and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database( CBM) in July 2018. Two researchers independently completed the literature screening,data extraction and quality evaluation according to the pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria,and the results were cross-checked.The data were analyzed by Win Bugs,and STATA software was used for plotting. Finally,114 RCTs were included,involving 7 Yiqi Huoxue Chinese patent medicines and 11 775 patients. Network Meta-analysis showed that the total effective rate for improvement in AP symptoms had 7 direct comparisons and 21 indirect comparisons,8 of which were statistically significant. The ECG improvement had 7 direct comparisons and 21 indirect comparisons,7 of which were statistically significant. In terms of the total effective rate of improvement in AP symptoms,the order of efficacy was as follows: Shensong Yangxin Capsules > Shexiang Baoxin Pills > Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pills > Tongxinluo Capsules > Wenxin Granules > Qishen Capsules > Naoxintong Capsules. In terms of ECG improvement,the order of efficacy was as follows: Shexiang Baoxin Pills > Tongxinluo Capsules > Naoxintong Capsules > Qishen Yiqi Dropping Pills> Wenxin Granules > Shensong Yangxin Capsules > Qishen Capsules. The results showed that Shensong Yangxin Capsules and Shexiang Baoxin Pills had certain advantages in the treatment of coronary heart disease with angina pectoris. Due to the small sample size,more studies were required to further verify the evidences. 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20190114.001
    The efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive alternative herbal medicine (Salvia miltiorrhiza and Pueraria lobata) on vascular function and structure in coronary patients. Tam Wing Y,Chook Ping,Qiao Mu,Chan Lin T,Chan Thomas Y K,Poon Yam K,Fung Kwok P,Leung Ping C,Woo Kam S Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) BACKGROUND:Danshen and gegen (D&G) have long been used in treatment of angina and other cardiac symptoms in Chinese materia medica. Recent pharmacological studies suggest their therapeutic values. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen) and Pueraria lobata (gegen) in secondary prevention. METHODS:One hundred (100) consecutive coronary patients (mean age 58 +/- 8 years) were randomized to adjunctive treatment with D&G combination (3 g) or placebo (6 capsules) for 24 weeks in double-blind parallel fashion, followed by optional open-label D&G (1.5 g/day) for 6 more months. Brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured using ultrasound. RESULTS:Baseline characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. After 24 weeks and compared with baseline, there were no significant changes in blood pressures, blood hematological and biochemical profiles, or folate and homocysteine levels in both groups, but there was a mild decrease in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in both groups (p < 0.05). Brachial FMD improved during D&G (p < 0.001) and less so during placebo treatment (p < 0.05), while improvement in carotid IMT was observed only in the D&G group (p < 0.05). After open-label D&G treatment for 6 more months (n = 45), further improvement in both brachial FMD (p < 0.0001) and carotid IMT (p < 0.0001) was observed. Eight (8) adverse events were reported-6 during placebo and 2 during D&G treatment-requiring treatment termination in 2 patients (on placebo). CONCLUSIONS:D&G adjunctive treatment in coronary patients was well tolerated and effective in improving vascular function and structure. These two herbs may become a novel agent for secondary prevention. 10.1089/acm.2008.0400
    Three therapeutic tendencies for secondary prevention of myocardial infarction and possible role of Chinese traditional patent medicine: viewpoint of evidence-based medicine. Shang Hongcai,Chen Jing,Zhang Junhua,Xiang Yaozu,Cao Hongbo,Ren Ming,Wang Hui,Xu Hongjuan,Li Jing,Liu Dan,Hu Jing,Wu Chao,Jing Li,Zhang Boli Journal of evidence-based medicine OBJECTIVE:The possibility of the preventive and therapeutic effects of Chinese traditional patent medicine for myocardial infarction has been reported in the literature, but there have been few studies. This paper presents three tendencies for the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction and presents a systematic evaluation of current research evidence related to the use of Chinese traditional patent medicine in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction, with a goal of making objective recommendations for patient rehabilitation. METHOD:Literature was retrieved from traditional Chinese medicine websites, MEDLINE, CNKI, VIP, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, and Academic ASAP to locate research-based scientific evidence related to the use of Chinese traditional patent medicine for myocardial infarction. RESULTS:Some Chinese traditional patent medicine therapies alone or in combination with routine rehabilitation therapies might be useful in patients with myocardial infarction, but we found insufficient evidence to support the use of most Chinese traditional patent medicine therapies in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction. CONCLUSION:Difficulty in accessing information regarding traditional Chinese medicine has implications for health education in both myocardial infarction and patient safety. Some Chinese traditional patent medicine therapies hold promise for patients in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction but further research is essential in all areas of traditional Chinese medicine to confirm its efficacy. 10.1111/j.1756-5391.2009.01004.x
    Analysis on outcome of 5284 patients with coronary artery disease: the role of integrative medicine. Gao Zhu-ye,Xu Hao,Shi Da-zhuo,Wen Chuan,Liu Bao-yan Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a history of thousands of years and has made great contributions to the health and well-being of the people. Integrative medicine (IM) treatment, combing TCM and conventional medicine, has been the most representative characteristic for coronary artery disease (CAD) patients in China, especially those in IM hospitals. However, the secondary prevention status of CAD and the potential benefit of IM therapy in improving CAD prognosis remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS:By means of a unified clinical and research information platform, we collected clinical information of hospitalized patients with CAD in cardiovascular department of 9 IM hospitals in Beijing and Tianjin from January 2003 to September 2006. The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) which include all-cause death in hospital and during one-year follow-up, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The diagnostic and therapeutic status of CAD patients was evaluated based on the latest available clinical guidelines. Meanwhile, a logistic stepwise regression analysis was also used to identify independent prognostic factors. RESULTS:5284 hospitalized patients with CAD were registered. The top five TCM patterns were in turn blood stasis 79.3%, Qi deficiency 56.5%, phlegm-turbidness 41.1%, Yin deficiency 24.8%, Yang deficiency 11.3%. The standard-reaching rate of CAD patients with hyperlipidemia was 85.6% for total cholesterol, 31.2% for triglyceride, 21.4% for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 52.5% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while it was 61.9% and 80.9% in systolic and diastolic blood pressure of CAD with hypertension respectively. The top five commonly used herbs by functions were Qi-tonifying agents 89.25%, blood-activating agents 86.04%, Qi-regulating agents 77.60%, heat-clearing agents 67.50%, dampness-draining agents 65.95%. The herbs commonly used were Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge 63.10%, Poria 59.99%, Raidx Astragali 49.67%, Radix Paeoniae Rubra 48.71%, peach seed 47.32%, angelica 46.82%, Radix Ligustici Chuanxiong 46.36%, safflower 45.40%, Pinellia 45.30%, glycyrrhiza 41.36%. 90 patients (1.7%) died in hospital, and the overall incidence of endpoints was 6.1% (322/5284). The logistic stepwise regress analysis showed that AMI (OR, 5.62, 95% CI=2.56-12.33), heart failure (OR, 2.68, 95% CI=1.67-4.29), age≥60 years (OR, 2.01, 95% CI=1.22-3.30), and medication of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (OR, 1.67, 95% CI=1.15-2.42) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality and one-year follow-up MACEs, while statins (OR, 0.23, 95% CI=0.06-0.91) and IM therapy (OR, 0.69, 95% CI=0.49-0.97) were protective factors. CONCLUSION:There was still certain gap between the usage of conventional medicine and clinical guideline in IM hospitals of China. Integrative Medicine might have potential benefit for CAD patients in reducing MACEs. However, the scheme of IM intervention and the mechanism of action are still needed to be further determined. 10.1016/j.jep.2011.08.071
    Chinese medicine pattern differentiation and its implications for clinical practice. Ferreira Arthur Sá,Lopes Agnaldo José Chinese journal of integrative medicine Chinese medicine practitioners apply the differentiation reasoning for decision-making. The wide scope of Chinese medicine intervention provides coverage of methods and techniques with applications to primary, secondary and tertiary levels of prevention. The rapid evolution of mathematical and computational techniques allowed the implementation of several models for pattern differentiation that were tested for several physiologic systems. Concurrently, it is argued that pattern differentiation might improve the efficacy of either traditional or conventional medical interventions. This article reviewed the influence of pattern differentiation into clinical practice organized by medical field: general pattern differentiation; genitourinary (recurrent cystitis); cardiovascular (coronary heart disease; arterial hypertension; angina pectoris); neurology (stroke); surgery; metabolic (diabetes mellitus); hepatic (cirrhosis); gastrointestinal (chronic superficial gastritis); orthopedic (low back pain; rheumatoid arthritis; cervical spondylosis; elbow arthritis); oncology (gastric mucosal dysplasia; lung cancer); gynecologic and obstetric manifestations (nausea and vomiting). The reviewed studies presented achievements that have contributed to the integration of Chinese medicine and evidence-based medicine in the treatment of many mild and severe diseases. Target diseases considered as major public health problems were also investigated and the results are promising regarding the possibility to treat guided by pattern differentiation. 10.1007/s11655-011-0892-y
    Use of traditional Chinese medicine in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease. Guo Xiang Yu,Liu Jing,Liu Jun,Li Hong Juan,Qi Yue,Qin Lan Ping,Wang Miao,Zhao Dong Biomedical and environmental sciences : BES OBJECTIVE:To study the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) or both TCM and guideline-recommended Western medicine (WM) in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS:A cross-sectional nationwide survey of 2803 CHD outpatients was completed by collecting information, including general demographic data, disease history, and use of drugs (including TCM and WM). RESULTS:Of the 2712 CHD outpatients with complete drug treatment data, only 3.1% received TCM without any WM for CHD, 30.0% received both TCM and WM recommended by current CHD guidelines, and 66.9% received only WM. Patients with a longer history of CHD or with a history of stroke, were more likely to use TCM. However, 90.6% of CHD patients who used TCM also used certain WM. Furthermore, patients who used more types of TCM tended to use much less WM recommended by current guidelines. CONCLUSION:A substantial proportion of Chinese CHD outpatients use both TCM and WM for secondary prevention of CHD. It is important to assess the effect of combined TCM and WM on major clinical outcomes in Chinese CHD patients. 10.3967/0895-3988.2013.04.009
    Use of evidence-based pharmacotherapy for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease: a Chinese medicine hospital versus a general hospital. Xu Hui-min,Cai Hong-wen,Dai Hai-bin,Yan Xiao-feng,Zhou Quan,Xu Geng,Huang Zhao-quan,Mao Wei Chinese journal of integrative medicine OBJECTIVE:To determine differences in adherence to secondary prevention guidelines (pharmacological interventions) among coronary heart disease (CHD) patients between a Chinese medicine (CM) hospital and a general hospital in a Chinese city. METHODS:Medical records of 200 patients consecutively discharged from the CM hospital and the general hospital for CHD were reviewed to determine the proportions of eligible patients who received antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and statins at discharge. The effects of patient characteristics and hospital type on the use of these medicines were estimated using logistic regression models. RESULTS:Patients discharged from the CM hospitals were older; more likely females; had greater history of hyperlipidemia, cerebrovascular diseases and less smoker (P<0.01 or P<0.05). They were less likely to receive coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention, and had a longer length of stay than those discharged from the general hospital (P<0.01 or P<0.05). There were no significant differences in antiplatelet agents (96% vs. 100%, P=0.121) or statins (97.9% vs. 100%, P=0.149) use between the CM hospital and the general hospital. In multivariable analyses that adjusted for patient characteristics and hospital type, there was no significant difference in use of β-blockers between the CM hospital and the general hospital. In contrast, patients discharged from the CM hospital were less likely to receive ACE inhibitors/ARBs compared with those discharged from the general hospital (odds ratio: 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.105-0.854). CONCLUSION:In this study, the CM hospital provides the same quality of care in CHD for prescribing evidence-based medications at discharge compared with another general hospital except for ACE inhibitors/ARBs use. 10.1007/s11655-013-1663-8
    A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study of the Effects of Acupuncture on Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Coronary Heart Disease. Painovich Jeannette,Phancao Anita,Mehta Puja,Chowdhury Supurna,Dhawan Shivani,Li Ning,Taylor Doris,Qiao Yi,Brantman Anna,Ma Xiuling,Merz C Noel Bairey Integrative medicine (Encinitas, Calif.) CONTEXT:Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the number one killer of men and women in the United States, and despite traditional secondary prevention, individuals with the disease remain at risk. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, and vascular repair and may contribute systemically to ongoing endogenous repair processes. Traditional acupuncture (TA), a modality used in the practice of Chinese medicine, appears to have beneficial effects in many areas associated with CHD. OBJECTIVE:The study examined the effects of TA on circulating EPCs in individuals with CHD. DESIGN:The research team performed a randomized, controlled pilot study. SETTING:All interventions were performed at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, CA. PARTICIPANTS:The study included 13 participants in 3 groups: (1) TA (n = 5), (2) sham acupuncture (SA, n = 5), or (3) waiting control (WC, n = 3). INTERVENTION:The TA group received acupuncture treatments for 12 wk at CHD-specific sites, while the SA group received no-needle pressure at nonacupuncture sites for the same period, and the WC group received no intervention. OUTCOME MEASURES:The study measured the number of EPCs circulating in peripheral blood to determine cell surface markers for expressions of cluster of differentiation 34, 133 (CD34+/CD133+) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGF-R2+). RESULTS:Eight men and 5 women with a mean age of 59 ± 10.9 y were included. Compared with their measurements at baseline, members of the TA group had a significantly greater change in the level of EPCs expressing CD34+/VEGF-R2+ compared with the SA group (P = .04). No group differences were evident in immature EPCs expressing CD34+/CD133+. CONCLUSION:The study's results suggest that TA can alter the number of EPCs circulating in peripheral blood by increasing the mobilization of the VEGF-R2+ EPC subpopulations. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether TA can beneficially affect CHD via augmentation of EPC regenerative pathways.
    Fibrates for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Wang Deren,Liu Bian,Tao Wendan,Hao Zilong,Liu Ming The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:Fibrates are a class of drugs characterised by mainly lowering high triglyceride, raising high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and lowering the small dense fraction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Their efficacy for secondary prevention of serious vascular events is unclear, and to date no systematic review focusing on secondary prevention has been undertaken. OBJECTIVES:To assess the efficacy and safety of fibrates for the prevention of serious vascular events in people with previous cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease and stroke. SEARCH METHODS:We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 9, 2014) on the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OVID, 1946 to October week 1 2014), EMBASE (OVID, 1980 to 2014 week 41), the China Biological Medicine Database (CBM) (1978 to 2014), the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979 to 2014), Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (VIP) (1989 to 2014). We also searched other resources, such as ongoing trials registers and databases of conference abstracts, to identify further published, unpublished, and ongoing studies. SELECTION CRITERIA:We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which a fibrate (for example gemfibrozil, fenofibrate) was compared with placebo or no treatment. We excluded RCTs with only laboratory outcomes. We also excluded trials comparing two different fibrates without a placebo or no-treatment control. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias, and extracted the data. We contacted authors of trials for missing data. MAIN RESULTS:We included 13 trials involving a total of 16,112 participants. Eleven trials recruited participants with history of coronary heart disease, two trials recruited participants with history of stroke, and one trial recruited participants with a mix of people with CVD. We judged overall risk of bias to be moderate. The meta-analysis (including all fibrate trials) showed evidence for a protective effect of fibrates primarily compared to placebo for the primary composite outcome of non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and vascular death (risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83 to 0.94; participants = 16,064; studies = 12; I(2) = 45%, fixed effect). Fibrates were moderately effective for preventing MI occurrence (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93; participants = 13,942; studies = 10; I(2) = 24%, fixed effect). Fibrates were not effective against all-cause mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; participants = 13,653; studies = 10; I(2) = 23%), death from vascular causes (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.05; participants = 13,653; studies = 10; I(2) = 11%, fixed effect), and stroke events (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.16; participants = 11,719; studies = 6; I(2) = 11%, fixed effect). Excluding clofibrate trials, as the use of clofibrate was discontinued in 2012 due to safety concerns, the remaining class of fibrates were no longer effective in preventing the primary composite outcome (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.03; participants = 10,320; studies = 7; I(2) = 50%, random effects). However, without clofibrate data, fibrates remained effective in preventing MI (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94; participants = 8304; studies = 6; I(2) = 47%, fixed effect). There was no increase in adverse events with fibrates compared to control. Subgroup analyses showed the benefit of fibrates on the primary composite outcome to be consistent irrespective of age, gender, and diabetes mellitus. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Moderate evidence showed that the fibrate class can be effective in the secondary prevention of composite outcome of non-fatal stroke, non-fatal MI, and vascular death. However, this beneficial effect relies on the inclusion of clofibrate data, a drug that was discontinued in 2002 due to its unacceptably large adverse effects. Further trials of the use of fibrates in populations with previous stroke and also against a background treatment with statins (standard of care) are required. 10.1002/14651858.CD009580.pub2
    Effects on All-cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes by Comparing Insulin With Oral Hypoglycemic Agent Therapy: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Li Juan,Tong Yuzhen,Zhang Yuwei,Tang Lizhi,Lv Qingguo,Zhang Fang,Hu Ruijie,Tong Nanwei Clinical therapeutics PURPOSE:Retrospective, case-control studies and prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on insulin treatment for diabetic patients yielded contradictory mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the effects of insulin versus oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS:We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Biological Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Technical Periodicals, and Wanfang Data, up to July 10, 2015, for RCTs on insulin and OHAs that assessed all-cause mortality and/or cardiovascular death as primary end points. We derived pooled risk ratios (RRs) as summary statistics. RESULTS:Three trials were included in which 7649 patients received insulin and 8322 received OHAs, with mean (SD) diabetes duration of 5.0 (6.2) and 4.4 (5.9) years, respectively. Insulin did not differ from OHAs in all-cause mortality (RR = 1.00; 95% CI, 0.93-1.07), cardiovascular death (RR = 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91-1.09), myocardial infarction (RR = 1.04; 95% CI, 0.93-1.16), angina (RR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.88-1.06), sudden death (RR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.66-1.56), or stroke (RR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.88-1.15). Insulin reduced the risk of heart failure compared with OHAs (RR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.75-0.99). In the subgroup of secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) or very high risk of CVDs, insulin did not differ from OHAs in all-cause mortality (RR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.92-1.07), cardiovascular death (RR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.90-1.09), myocardial infarction (RR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.88-1.15), heart failure (RR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.34-1.40), or stroke (RR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.90-1.21). IMPLICATIONS:Insulin did not provide a clear benefit over OHAs in all-cause mortality or cardiovascular outcomes in the patients with T2D. Insulin therapy has many shortcomings, including inconvenience (injection, strict blood glucose monitoring), hypoglycemia, and obvious weight gain. Thus, we conclude that no robust evidence supports the active use of insulin for this population at present. 10.1016/j.clinthera.2015.12.006
    Traditional Chinese Medicine for Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence and Potential Mechanisms. Hao Panpan,Jiang Fan,Cheng Jing,Ma Lianyue,Zhang Yun,Zhao Yuxia Journal of the American College of Cardiology Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has more than 2,000 years of history and has gained widespread clinical applications. However, the explicit role of TCM in preventing and treating cardiovascular disease remains unclear due to a lack of sound scientific evidence. Currently available randomized controlled trials on TCM are flawed, with small sample sizes and diverse outcomes, making it difficult to draw definite conclusions about the actual benefits and harms of TCM. Here, we systematically assessed the efficacy and safety of TCM for cardiovascular disease, as well as the pharmacological effects of active TCM ingredients on the cardiovascular system and potential mechanisms. Results indicate that TCM might be used as a complementary and alternative approach to the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, further rigorously designed randomized controlled trials are warranted to assess the effect of TCM on long-term hard endpoints in patients with cardiovascular disease. 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.04.041
    A summary and evaluation of current evidence for myocardial infarction with Chinese medicine. Wang Yue,Xiao Lu,Mu Wei,Yu Hai-Long,Zhang Shuo,Tian Gui-Hua,Shang Hong-Cai Chinese journal of integrative medicine OBJECTIVE:To provide evidence-based recommendations for clinical application and provoke thoughts for future researchers by conducting a comprehensive summary and evaluation of the current evidence profile for the role of Chinese medicine (CM) in treating myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS:Online databases including PubMed, EMBase, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Medicine (CBM), VIP Journal Integration Platform, and Wanfang database were systematically searched for literatures on CM in treating MI. After screening, studies were categorized into 5 types, i.e. systematic review (SR), randomized controlled trial (RCT), observational study, case report and basic research. General information was abstracted, and the quality levels of these studies and their conclusions were summarized and assessed. RESULTS:A total of 452 studies including 10 SRs, 123 RCTs, 47 observational studies, 28 case reports, and 244 basic researches were selected. Clinical studies centered primarily on herbal decoction and mostly were not rigorously performed. High-quality studies were predominantly on Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) such as Danshen Injection (), Shenmai Injection (), Shengmai Injection () and Qishen Yiqi Dripping Pills (). The most frequently observed pattern of drug combination was decoction plus injection. Results of SRs and clinical studies showed that CM may reduce mortality, decrease risk of complication, reduce myocardial injury, improve cardiac function and inhibit ventricular remodeling. Findings from basic researches also supported the positive role of CM in reducing infarct size and myocardial injury, promoting angiogenesis, preventing ventricular remodeling and improving cardiac function. According to the current evidence body, CM has proven effects in the prevention and treatment of MI. It is also found that the effects of CPMs vary with indications. For instance, Shenmai Injection has been found to be especially effective for reducing the incidence of acute clinical events, while CPMs with qi-nourishing and bloodcirculating properties have been proven to be effective in inhibiting ventricular remodeling. High quality evidence supports the use of CM injection for acute MI and CPM for secondary prevention. Reports on adverse events and other safety outcomes associated with CM for MI are scarce. CONCLUSIONS:Sufficient evidence supported the use of CM as an adjuvant to Western medicine for preventing and treating MI. The choice of drug use varies with disease stage and treatment objective. However, the quality of the evidence body remains to be enhanced. 10.1007/s11655-017-2824-y
    Potential Effectiveness of Chinese Patent Medicine for Secondary Prevention After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Li Min,Li Chengyu,Chen Shiqi,Sun Yang,Hu Jiayuan,Zhao Chen,Qiu Ruijin,Zhang Xiaoyu,Zhang Qin,Tian Guihua,Shang Hongcai Frontiers in pharmacology Chinese patent medicine () is commonly used for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Previous research had demonstrated that exhibited great clinical effects on the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), however there is a lack of systematic review. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential effectiveness and safety of for secondary prevention in patients with AMI. We searched 6 databases to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from inceptions to December 30, 2017. Two review authors independently assessed the methodological quality and analyzed data by the RevMan 5.3 software. The publication bias was assessed through funnel plot and Begg's test. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used for evaluating the quality of evidence. We included 19 RCTs in this review and performed a meta-analysis based on 16 studies. There were statistical differences of treatment group in reducing primary cardiovascular events (cardiac death [RR = 0.27, 95%CI: 0.08~0.95, = 0%], recurrent myocardial reinfarction [RR = 0.38, 95%CI: 0.20~0.74, = 0%], arrhythmia [RR = 0.44, 95%CI: 0.30~0.66, = 0%], recurrent angina pectoris [RR = 0.34, 95%CI: 0.17~0.69, = 0%]). could improve cardiac function (LVEF [MD = 4.10, 95%CI: 3.95~4.25, = 0%]), regulate blood lipid TC [MD = -0.66, 95%CI: -0.94 ~ -0.37, = 74%], TG [MD = -0.38, 95%CI: -0.62 ~ -0.14, I = 70%], LDL-C[-0.40, 95%CI: -0.65 ~ -0.16, = 88%), decrease the level of hs-CRP (4-week: MD = -0.78, 95%CI: -0.97 ~ -0.60, = 20%; Over 4-week: MD = -1.36, 95%CI: -1.55 ~ -1.17, = 20%). However, has little effects on revascularization [RR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.13~1.56, = 0%], recurrent heart failure (RR = 0.83, 95%CI: 0.27~2.57, = 0%), and HDL-C (MD = 0.14, 95%CI: 0.00 ~0.29, = 73%). Furthermore, treatment group was more prone to suffer gastrointestinal discomfort. Chinese patent medicine seemed beneficial for secondary prevention after AMI. This potential benefit needs to be further assessed through more rigorous RCTs. Systematic review registration number in the PROSPERO register: CRD42017068417. 10.3389/fphar.2018.00830
    [Guidelines for cardiovascular rehabilitation and secondary prevention in China 2018 simplified edition]. Zhonghua nei ke za zhi Since the publication of China expert consensus on rehabilitation and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in 2012, cardiac rehabilitation therapy has been developed rapidly in China. In 2015, Committee of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Prevention of Chinese Association of Rehabilitation Medicine published guidelines for rehabilitation/secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in China (2015 edition). The present guidelines, Guidelines for Cardiovascular Rehabilitation and Secondary Prevention in China 2018 simplified edition, were revised based on the 2015 edition and with referring to the latest updates in the relevant international guidelines published in 2017 and 2018. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1426.2018.11.003
    A clinical study to assess the influence of acupuncture at "Wang's Jiaji" acupoints on limb spasticity in patients in convalescent stage of ischemic stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Li Huanqin,Long Dehuai,Li Bin,Liu Huilin,Ma Tingting,Wu Tingying,Eriksson Martin,Wen Yali,Wei Jia,You Wei,Liu Yinxia,Xu Xiaobai,Zhang Yajie,Wang Linpeng,Sun Jingqing Trials BACKGROUND:Stroke is characterized by high morbidity, high mortality, and high disability. Spasticity, one of the most common complications after stroke, may reduce the potential success of rehabilitation and has a detrimental effect on stroke patients' daily function and quality of life. Moreover, the long-term management of spasticity is a financial burden to patients and increases societal costs. The current treatments, mainly including physical therapy, oral drugs, drug injection therapy, and surgical interventions, have been used to reduce spasticity. However, every conventional approach has its limitations. Acupuncture at the "Wang's Jiaji" acupoints, based on the experience of the famous old doctor of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Le Ting Wang in treating post-stroke limb spasm, has been widely practiced in our department. This intervention has effectively avoided the controversy around acupuncture at local acupoints on the limbs, and is easy to apply without side effects. Our previous studies had found that acupuncture at the "Wang's Jiaji-points" can reduce the occurrence and severity of spasticity occurring after stroke in the early stage (the first 21 days). In this study, we chose patients in the convalescent stage, 1-6 months after stroke, so as to study the efficacy and the specific intervention time of "Wang's jiaji" in the convalescent stage after stroke. METHODS:This is a randomized, controlled, and single-blind study. Patients in the convalescent stage within 1-6 months of ischemic stroke will be selected as subjects. A total of 100 subjects will be randomly assigned to two groups. The acupuncture group will be given acupuncture treatment five times a week; the medicine group will be given 10mg baclofen three times a day. These two groups will continue to receive current usual care for the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, but drugs that affect muscle tone will not be allowed. The treatment will last for 2 weeks. The primary outcome measurement is the simplified Fugl-Meyer Assessment. The secondary outcome measurements are the Modified Ashworth Scale, Modified Barthel Scale, and the H-reflex, F response, and H/M ratios of electromyography. All outcome measurements are assessed at baseline, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after first treatment except the electromyography, which is assessed at baseline and 2 weeks after first acupuncture. DISCUSSION:This trial aims to evaluate the effects and the specific intervention time of "Wang's Jiaji" acupoints on spasticity after stroke. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN31511176 . Registered on 29 August 2017. Version number of protocol 2016-2-1161 Version date of protocol: 2016-1. 10.1186/s13063-019-3464-7
    Traditional Chinese medicine (Xiaoai Jiedu Decoction) as an adjuvant treatment for prevention new colorectal adenomatous polyp occurrence in post-polypectomy: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Zhou Qing,Chen Yu-Gen,Xiao Jun,Chen Ting-Ting,Liu Jian-Rong,Zhou Wan,Li Wei-Zhong,Wang Yan,Zhang Bei-Ping,Lin Jiang,Meng Fan-Dong,Gong Biao,Zheng Guo-Ying,Han Shu-Tang,Cheng Hai-Bo Medicine BACKGROUND:Colorectal Adenomatous Polyp (CAP) was one precursor of colorectal cancer (CRC) and having a high chance of developing into CRC. There was a lack of conclusive chemoprevention evidences to prevention new CAP occurrence in post-polypectomy. Xiaoai Jiedu Decoction, Chinese National Medical Professor (Zhou Zhongying)'s experience formula, has been used to treat new CAP occurrence in post-polypectomy from the 20th century in China. However, clinical research of Xiaoai Jiedu Decoction in the treatment of CAP recurrence was lack. We design this study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Xiaoai Jiedu Decoction in the treatment of new CAP occurrence in post-polypectomy on colonoscopy. METHODS/DESIGN:A randomized, controlled, blind and multicenter trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Xiaoai Jiedu Decoction is proposed. CAP patients (after complete polypectomy under colonoscopy) will be randomly assigned into Xiaoai Jiedu Decoction group and Xiaoai Jiedu Decoction mimetic agent group. Patients will receive 6-course treatments and a 2-year follow-up. Follow-up colonoscopy will be anticipated to perform in 1 and 2 years after the baseline examinations. The primary outcome measure is the new CAP occurrence in 1 and 2 years. The secondary outcome measure is the occurrence of advanced adenoma in 1 and 2 years. DISCUSSION:This study will provide objective evidences to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Xiaoai Jiedu Decoction as an adjuvant treatment for new CAP occurrence in post-polypectomy. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT03616444. 10.1097/MD.0000000000016680
    Optimal strategies for monitoring lipid levels in patients at risk or with cardiovascular disease: a systematic review with statistical and cost-effectiveness modelling. Perera Rafael,McFadden Emily,McLellan Julie,Lung Tom,Clarke Philip,Pérez Teresa,Fanshawe Thomas,Dalton Andrew,Farmer Andrew,Glasziou Paul,Takahashi Osamu,Stevens John,Irwig Les,Hirst Jennifer,Stevens Sarah,Leslie Asuka,Ohde Sachiko,Deshpande Gautam,Urayama Kevin,Shine Brian,Stevens Richard Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) BACKGROUND:Various lipid measurements in monitoring/screening programmes can be used, alone or in cardiovascular risk scores, to guide treatment for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because some changes in lipids are due to variability rather than true change, the value of lipid-monitoring strategies needs evaluation. OBJECTIVE:To determine clinical value and cost-effectiveness of different monitoring intervals and different lipid measures for primary and secondary prevention of CVD. DATA SOURCES:We searched databases and clinical trials registers from 2007 (including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Clinical Trials Register, the Current Controlled Trials register, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) to update and extend previous systematic reviews. Patient-level data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and St Luke's Hospital, Japan, were used in statistical modelling. Utilities and health-care costs were drawn from the literature. METHODS:In two meta-analyses, we used prospective studies to examine associations of lipids with CVD and mortality, and randomised controlled trials to estimate lipid-lowering effects of atorvastatin doses. Patient-level data were used to estimate progression and variability of lipid measurements over time, and hence to model lipid-monitoring strategies. Results are expressed as rates of true-/false-positive and true-/false-negative tests for high lipid or high CVD risk. We estimated incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year. RESULTS:A total of 115 publications reported strength of association between different lipid measures and CVD events in 138 data sets. The summary adjusted hazard ratio per standard deviation of total cholesterol (TC) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.35) for CVD in a primary prevention population but heterogeneity was high (I(2) = 98%); similar results were observed for non-HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and other ratio measures. Associations were smaller for other single lipid measures. Across 10 trials, low-dose atorvastatin (10 and 20 mg) effects ranged from a TC reduction of 0.92 mmol/l to 2.07 mmol/l, and low-density lipoprotein reduction of between 0.88 mmol/l and 1.86 mmol/l. Effects of 40 mg and 80 mg were reported by one trial each. For primary prevention, over a 3-year period, we estimate annual monitoring would unnecessarily treat 9 per 1000 more men (28 vs. 19 per 1000) and 5 per 1000 more women (17 vs. 12 per 1000) than monitoring every 3 years. However, annual monitoring would also undertreat 9 per 1000 fewer men (7 vs. 16 per 1000) and 4 per 1000 fewer women (7 vs. 11 per 1000) than monitoring at 3-year intervals. For secondary prevention, over a 3-year period, annual monitoring would increase unnecessary treatment changes by 66 per 1000 men and 31 per 1000 women, and decrease undertreatment by 29 per 1000 men and 28 per 1000 men, compared with monitoring every 3 years. In cost-effectiveness, strategies with increased screening/monitoring dominate. Exploratory analyses found that any unknown harms of statins would need utility decrements as large as 0.08 (men) to 0.11 (women) per statin user to reverse this finding in primary prevention. LIMITATION:Heterogeneity in meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS:While acknowledging known and potential unknown harms of statins, we find that more frequent monitoring strategies are cost-effective compared with others. Regular lipid monitoring in those with and without CVD is likely to be beneficial to patients and to the health service. Future research should include trials of the benefits and harms of atorvastatin 40 and 80 mg, large-scale surveillance of statin safety, and investigation of the effect of monitoring on medication adherence. STUDY REGISTRATION:This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42013003727. FUNDING:The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme. 10.3310/hta191000
    Genomic prediction of coronary heart disease. Abraham Gad,Havulinna Aki S,Bhalala Oneil G,Byars Sean G,De Livera Alysha M,Yetukuri Laxman,Tikkanen Emmi,Perola Markus,Schunkert Heribert,Sijbrands Eric J,Palotie Aarno,Samani Nilesh J,Salomaa Veikko,Ripatti Samuli,Inouye Michael European heart journal AIMS:Genetics plays an important role in coronary heart disease (CHD) but the clinical utility of genomic risk scores (GRSs) relative to clinical risk scores, such as the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), is unclear. Our aim was to construct and externally validate a CHD GRS, in terms of lifetime CHD risk and relative to traditional clinical risk scores. METHODS AND RESULTS:We generated a GRS of 49 310 SNPs based on a CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium meta-analysis of CHD, then independently tested it using five prospective population cohorts (three FINRISK cohorts, combined n = 12 676, 757 incident CHD events; two Framingham Heart Study cohorts (FHS), combined n = 3406, 587 incident CHD events). The GRS was associated with incident CHD (FINRISK HR = 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-1.86 per S.D. of GRS; Framingham HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.18-1.38), and was largely unchanged by adjustment for known risk factors, including family history. Integration of the GRS with the FRS or ACC/AHA13 scores improved the 10 years risk prediction (meta-analysis C-index: +1.5-1.6%, P < 0.001), particularly for individuals ≥60 years old (meta-analysis C-index: +4.6-5.1%, P < 0.001). Importantly, the GRS captured substantially different trajectories of absolute risk, with men in the top 20% of attaining 10% cumulative CHD risk 12-18 y earlier than those in the bottom 20%. High genomic risk was partially compensated for by low systolic blood pressure, low cholesterol level, and non-smoking. CONCLUSIONS:A GRS based on a large number of SNPs improves CHD risk prediction and encodes different trajectories of lifetime risk not captured by traditional clinical risk scores. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw450
    Association Between Lowering LDL-C and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Among Different Therapeutic Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Silverman Michael G,Ference Brian A,Im Kyungah,Wiviott Stephen D,Giugliano Robert P,Grundy Scott M,Braunwald Eugene,Sabatine Marc S JAMA IMPORTANCE:The comparative clinical benefit of nonstatin therapies that reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the association between lowering LDL-C and relative cardiovascular risk reduction across different statin and nonstatin therapies. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION:The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched (1966-July 2016). The key inclusion criteria were that the study was a randomized clinical trial and the reported clinical outcomes included myocardial infarction (MI). Studies were excluded if the duration was less than 6 months or had fewer than 50 clinical events. Studies of 9 different types of LDL-C reduction approaches were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:Two authors independently extracted and entered data into standardized data sheets and data were analyzed using meta-regression. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:The relative risk (RR) of major vascular events (a composite of cardiovascular death, acute MI or other acute coronary syndrome, coronary revascularization, or stroke) associated with the absolute reduction in LDL-C level; 5-year rate of major coronary events (coronary death or MI) associated with achieved LDL-C level. RESULTS:A total of 312 175 participants (mean age, 62 years; 24% women; mean baseline LDL-C level of 3.16 mmol/L [122.3 mg/dL]) from 49 trials with 39 645 major vascular events were included. The RR for major vascular events per 1-mmol/L (38.7-mg/dL) reduction in LDL-C level was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.71-0.84; P < .001) for statins and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.66-0.86; P = .002) for established nonstatin interventions that work primarily via upregulation of LDL receptor expression (ie, diet, bile acid sequestrants, ileal bypass, and ezetimibe) (between-group difference, P = .72). For these 5 therapies combined, the RR was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.75-0.79, P < .001) for major vascular events per 1-mmol/L reduction in LDL-C level. For other interventions, the observed RRs vs the expected RRs based on the degree of LDL-C reduction in the trials were 0.94 (95% CI, 0.89-0.99) vs 0.91 (95% CI, 0.90-0.92) for niacin (P = .24); 0.88 (95% CI, 0.83-0.92) vs 0.94 (95% CI, 0.93-0.94) for fibrates (P = .02), which was lower than expected (ie, greater risk reduction); 1.01 (95% CI, 0.94-1.09) vs 0.90 (95% CI, 0.89-0.91) for cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors (P = .002), which was higher than expected (ie, less risk reduction); and 0.49 (95% CI, 0.34-0.71) vs 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58-0.65) for proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (P = .25). The achieved absolute LDL-C level was significantly associated with the absolute rate of major coronary events (11 301 events, including coronary death or MI) for primary prevention trials (1.5% lower event rate [95% CI, 0.5%-2.6%] per each 1-mmol/L lower LDL-C level; P = .008) and secondary prevention trials (4.6% lower event rate [95% CI, 2.9%-6.4%] per each 1-mmol/L lower LDL-C level; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:In this meta-regression analysis, the use of statin and nonstatin therapies that act via upregulation of LDL receptor expression to reduce LDL-C were associated with similar RRs of major vascular events per change in LDL-C. Lower achieved LDL-C levels were associated with lower rates of major coronary events. 10.1001/jama.2016.13985
    Fibrates in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (infarction and stroke). Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis of the Cochrane collaboration. Millan Jesus,Pintó Xavier,Brea Angel,Blasco Mariano,Hernández-Mijares Antonio,Ascaso Juan,Diaz Angel,Mantilla Teresa,Pedro-Botet Juan Clinica e investigacion en arteriosclerosis : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Arteriosclerosis Fibrates are a group of drugs that are known mainly for reducing triglycerides, increasing high density lipoproteins (HDL), and reducing the fraction of small, dense LDL particles. The results of a Cochrane Collaboration study have recently been published on their efficacy and safety in the secondary prevention of severe cardiovascular accidents, including coronary and cerebrovascular disease. The study included randomised clinical trials in which the fibrate was compared with placebo or with no treatment. Clinical trials comparing two different fibrates were excluded. The clinical trials evaluated included a total of 16,112 patients (13 trials). The meta-analysis (including all the trials with fibrates) showed evidence of a protective effect of the fibrates compared with placebo as regards a compound objective of non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and death of cardiovascular origin (hazard ration of 0.88, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.83 to 0.94; in 16,064 individuals included in 12 studies). Thus, the results showed, with a moderate level of evidence, that fibrates could be effective in secondary prevention considering a compound objective of non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and death of cardiovascular origin. 10.1016/j.arteri.2017.11.001
    Evaluating the effect of magnesium supplementation and cardiac arrhythmias after acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Salaminia Shirvan,Sayehmiri Fatemeh,Angha Parvin,Sayehmiri Koroush,Motedayen Morteza BMC cardiovascular disorders BACKGROUND:Atrial and ventricular cardiac arrhythmias are one of the most common early complications after cardiac surgery and these serve as a major cause of mortality and morbidity after cardiac revascularization. We want to evaluate the effect of magnesium sulfate administration on the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias after cardiac revascularization by doing this systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS:The search performed in several databases (SID, Magiran, IranDoc, IranMedex, MedLib, PubMed, EmBase, Web of Science, Scopus, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar) for published Randomized controlled trials before December 2017 that have reported the association between Magnesium consumption and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. This relationship measured using odds ratios (ORs) with a confidence interval of 95% (CIs). Funnel plots and Egger test used to examine publication bias. STATA (version 11.1) used for all analyses. RESULTS:Twenty-two studies selected as eligible for this research and included in the final analysis. The total rate of ventricular arrhythmia was lower in the group receiving magnesium sulfate than placebo (11.88% versus 24.24%). The same trend obtained for the total incidence of supraventricular arrhythmia (10.36% in the magnesium versus 23.91% in the placebo group). In general the present meta-analysis showed that magnesium could decrease ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias compared with placebo (OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.49; p < 0.001 and OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.22-0.65; p < 0.001, respectively). Subgroup analysis showed that the effect of magnesium on the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was not affected by clinical settings and dosage of magnesium. Meta-regression analysis also showed that there was no significant association between the reduction of ventricular arrhythmias and sample size. CONCLUSION:The results of this meta-analysis study suggest that magnesium sulfate can be used safely and effectively and is a cost-effective way in the prevention of many of ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. 10.1186/s12872-018-0857-6
    Interventions to promote patient utilisation of cardiac rehabilitation. Santiago de Araújo Pio Carolina,Chaves Gabriela Ss,Davies Philippa,Taylor Rod S,Grace Sherry L The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:International clinical practice guidelines routinely recommend that cardiac patients participate in rehabilitation programmes for comprehensive secondary prevention. However, data show that only a small proportion of these patients utilise rehabilitation. OBJECTIVES:First, to assess interventions provided to increase patient enrolment in, adherence to, and completion of cardiac rehabilitation. Second, to assess intervention costs and associated harms, as well as interventions intended to promote equitable CR utilisation in vulnerable patient subpopulations. SEARCH METHODS:Review authors performed a search on 10 July 2018, to identify studies published since publication of the previous systematic review. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); the National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) databases (Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE)), in the Cochrane Library (Wiley); MEDLINE (Ovid); Embase (Elsevier); the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (EBSCOhost); and Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (CPCI-S) on Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics). We checked the reference lists of relevant systematic reviews for additional studies and also searched two clinical trial registers. We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA:We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with myocardial infarction, with angina, undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention, or with heart failure who were eligible for cardiac rehabilitation. Interventions had to aim to increase utilisation of comprehensive phase II cardiac rehabilitation. We included only studies that measured one or more of our primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes were harms and costs, and we focused on equity. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of all identified references for eligibility, and we obtained full papers of potentially relevant trials. Two review authors independently considered these trials for inclusion, assessed included studies for risk of bias, and extracted trial data independently. We resolved disagreements through consultation with a third review author. We performed random-effects meta-regression for each outcome and explored prespecified study characteristics. MAIN RESULTS:Overall, we included 26 studies with 5299 participants (29 comparisons). Participants were primarily male (64.2%). Ten (38.5%) studies included patients with heart failure. We assessed most studies as having low or unclear risk of bias. Sixteen studies (3164 participants) reported interventions to improve enrolment in cardiac rehabilitation, 11 studies (2319 participants) reported interventions to improve adherence to cardiac rehabilitation, and seven studies (1567 participants) reported interventions to increase programme completion. Researchers tested a variety of interventions to increase utilisation of cardiac rehabilitation. In many studies, this consisted of contacts made by a healthcare provider during or shortly after an acute care hospitalisation.Low-quality evidence shows an effect of interventions on increasing programme enrolment (19 comparisons; risk ratio (RR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13 to 1.42). Meta-regression revealed that the intervention deliverer (nurse or allied healthcare provider; P = 0.02) and the delivery format (face-to-face; P = 0.01) were influential in increasing enrolment. Low-quality evidence shows interventions to increase adherence were effective (nine comparisons; standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.38, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.55), particularly when they were delivered remotely, such as in home-based programs (SMD 0.56, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.76). Moderate-quality evidence shows interventions to increase programme completion were also effective (eight comparisons; RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.25), but those applied in multi-centre studies were less effective than those given in single-centre studies, leading to questions regarding generalisability. A moderate level of statistical heterogeneity across intervention studies reflects heterogeneity in intervention approaches. There was no evidence of small-study bias for enrolment (insufficient studies to test for this in the other outcomes).With regard to secondary outcomes, no studies reported on harms associated with the interventions. Only two studies reported costs. In terms of equity, trialists tested interventions designed to improve utilisation among women and older patients. Evidence is insufficient for quantitative assessment of whether women-tailored programmes were associated with increased utilisation, and studies that assess motivating women are needed. For older participants, again while quantitative assessment could not be undertaken, peer navigation may improve enrolment. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Interventions may increase cardiac rehabilitation enrolment, adherence and completion; however the quality of evidence was low to moderate due to heterogeneity of the interventions used, among other factors. Effects on enrolment were larger in studies targeting healthcare providers, training nurses, or allied healthcare providers to intervene face-to-face; effects on adherence were larger in studies that tested remote interventions. More research is needed, particularly to discover the best ways to increase programme completion. 10.1002/14651858.CD007131.pub4
    National and subnational estimation of the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Song Peige,Rudan Diana,Wang Manli,Chang Xinlei,Rudan Igor Journal of global health Background:Peripheral artery disease (PAD), the third leading cause of atherosclerotic vascular morbidity, affects approximately 202 million people worldwide, among whom more than two-thirds reside in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). For China, the largest developing country, little is known about the epidemiology of PAD. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of PAD and the number of affected people in China, establish the main risk factors for PAD and assess the number of people with PAD at the sub-national level. Methods:We searched China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database (CBM-SinoMed), PubMed, Embase and Medline for population-based studies that have reported the prevalence of PAD in the general Chinese population from 1990 onwards. PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial index (ABI) lower than or equal to 0.90. We used a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression to generate the gender- and age-specific prevalence of PAD, and a random-effects meta-analysis to pool the odds ratios (ORs) of major risk factors. United Nations population numbers were used to estimate and project the number of affected people from 2000 to 2020. Finally, we used the risk factors-based model to distribute the national number of people with PAD into different settings (urban and rural) and regions (East, Central and West) for the year 2010. Results:Overall, 37 articles met all inclusion criteria and provided prevalence estimates, among which 14 also explored risk factors for PAD. The prevalence of PAD increased gradually by age until mid-60s, after which the increase accelerated. In males, the prevalence of PAD ranged from 2.81% (95% CI = 1.77-4.43) in those aged 25-29 years to 21.95% (95% CI = 15.39-30.31) in those 95-99 years old. In females, the PAD prevalence increased from 3.84% (95% CI = 2.44-5.98) in those aged 25-29 years to 27.95% (95% CI = 20.14-37.37) in those aged 95-99 years. The PAD prevalence was consistently higher in females than in males across all age groups. This difference was most significantly pronounced among the elderly, starting from 60 years. Between 2000 and 2020, the total number of Chinese people with PAD is expected to increase by 40%: from 29.44 million (95% CI = 22.51-38.62) in 2000 to 41.13 million (95% CI = 32.00-52.95) in 2020. Current smoking was the strongest risk factor for PAD, with a meta-odds ratio (OR) of 2.62 (95% CI = 1.44-4.76), followed by hypertension (1.94, 95% CI = 1.48-2.53) and diabetes (1.71, 95% CI = 1.45-2.01). In 2010, 15.18 million (95% CI = 11.74-19.67) people with PAD resided in the East China, 11.08 million (95% CI = 8.61-14.28) in the Central China and 8.65 million (95% CI = 6.71-11.16) in the West China. In addition, 24.20 million (95% CI = 18.82-31.16) people with PAD were living in rural areas, accounting for almost 70% of all PAD cases in China. Conclusions:With rapid ageing in China, PAD has become a serious public health problem. More research and optimal interventions on PAD are required to better identify effective strategies for prevention and treatment of PAD in China. 10.7189/jogh.09.010601
    Efficacy and safety of Yinchen Sini decoction in treating biliary atresia patients after Kasai portoenterostomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. Chen Guoming,Huang Chuyao,Lu Jiaxin,Huang Ruilan,Zhang Jie,Chen Ziyin,Xu Hua Medicine BACKGROUND:Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal obstructive biliary tract disease in which the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts are obstructed and can lead to congenital biliary atresia of cholestatic cirrhosis and eventually liver failure. It has been confirmed that the Kasai portoenterostomy is an effective treatment for BA. But most patients still face complications, such as cholangitis and liver fibrosis. Yinchen Sini decoction (YCSND), a traditional herbal formula, is used as a treatment for BA after Kasai portoenterostomy. And it is supported that YCSND can improve jaundice and liver fibrosis through multiple targets and pathways. Based on the published literature, this study aims to evaluate the current situation in the treatment of BA in children with YCSND. METHODS:The following databases will be searched until October 2018: PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese biomedical literature database (CBM), Wan Fang Database, Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP) and other sources such as Hand searching, Conference proceeding, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and Chinese Clinical Trials Registry. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of YCSND or related formula as a treatment for postoperative patients of Kasai portoenterostomy for BA will be collected. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments will be carried out by 2 verifiers independently. The risk of bias will be evaluated through the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Review Manager software (RevMan V.5.3.0) and STATA 15 will be used for statistical analyses. RESULTS:This study will provide a high-quality synthesis of current evidence of YCSND in treating children undergoing Kasai portoenterostomy for BA from several aspects. CONCLUSION:The conclusion of the meta-analysis will offer evidence for deciding whether YCSND is an effective measure for children undergoing Kasai portoenterostomy for BA. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Not only will this systematic review be published in a peer-reviewed journal, but it will also be propagated electronically and in print. The review will bring patients benefit and provide practitioners reference in the fields of conventional medicine. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:PROSPERO CRD 42018111321. 10.1097/MD.0000000000013935
    Acupuncture as an Adjunctive Treatment for Angina Due to Coronary Artery Disease: A Meta-Analysis. Huang Xiaolou,Guo Shuwen,Li Fanghe,Tan Xiaobo,Cai Qian,Wang Hui,Chen Panbi,Wang Guohua,Ma Xiaona Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research BACKGROUND In traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture has been used to treat angina due to coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was to identify published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that quantified the effectiveness of adjunctive acupuncture treatment in patients with angina due to CAD who were also treated with Western or Chinese medicine. MATERIAL AND METHODS A systematic review of the literature included a search of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, from their inception to September 2018. Published findings from RCTs were included that investigated the effectiveness of acupuncture as an adjunctive treatment for angina due to CAD in combination with Western or traditional Chinese medicine. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the random-effects model to determine the outcomes of markedly and moderately effective rates for the use of acupuncture. RESULTS Twenty-four published RCTs were identified that included 1,916 patients with CAD. Patients who received adjunctive acupuncture treatment had a significantly increased markedly effective rate. However, the moderately effective rate between adjunctive acupuncture combined with standard treatment for angina and standard treatment alone was not statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis showed that the pooled results for the markedly and moderately effective rates were robust. Subgroup analysis in most subsets supported the main findings. CONCLUSIONS Meta-analysis supported a positive treatment effect for the use of acupuncture when used as adjunctive therapy in patients with angina due to CAD. 10.12659/MSM.913379
    Periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis: A meta-analysis of 17,330 participants. Zeng Xian-Tao,Leng Wei-Dong,Lam Yat-Yin,Yan Bryan P,Wei Xue-Mei,Weng Hong,Kwong Joey S W International journal of cardiology BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:The association between periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis has been evaluated primarily in single-center studies, and whether periodontal disease is an independent risk factor of carotid atherosclerosis remains uncertain. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis. METHODS:We searched PubMed and Embase for relevant observational studies up to February 20, 2015. Two authors independently extracted data from included studies, and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for overall and subgroup meta-analyses. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by the chi-squared test (P<0.1 for statistical significance) and quantified by the I(2) statistic. Data analysis was conducted using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software. RESULTS:Fifteen observational studies involving 17,330 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The overall pooled result showed that periodontal disease was associated with carotid atherosclerosis (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14-1.41; P<0.001) but statistical heterogeneity was substantial (I(2)=78.90%). Subgroup analysis of adjusted smoking and diabetes mellitus showed borderline significance (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00-1.18; P=0.05). Sensitivity and cumulative analyses both indicated that our results were robust. CONCLUSIONS:Findings of our meta-analysis indicated that the presence of periodontal disease was associated with carotid atherosclerosis; however, further large-scale, well-conducted clinical studies are needed to explore the precise risk of developing carotid atherosclerosis in patients with periodontal disease. 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.11.092
    Echocardiographic Predictors of Sudden Cardiac Death: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and Cardiovascular Health Study. Konety Suma H,Koene Ryan J,Norby Faye L,Wilsdon Tony,Alonso Alvaro,Siscovick David,Sotoodehnia Nona,Gottdiener John,Fox Ervin R,Chen Lin Y,Adabag Selcuk,Folsom Aaron R Circulation. Cardiovascular imaging BACKGROUND:This study assessed the echocardiographic predictors of sudden cardiac death (SCD) within 2 population-based cohorts. METHODS AND RESULTS:Echocardiograms were obtained on 2383 participants (1993-1995) from the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities; 100% black) and 5366 participants (1987-1989 and 1994-1995) from the CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study). The main outcome was physician-adjudicated SCD. We used Cox proportional-hazards models with incident coronary heart disease and heart failure as time-dependent covariates to assess the association between echocardiographic variables and SCD, adjusting for Framingham risk score variables, coronary heart disease, and renal function. Cohort-specific results were meta-analyzed. During a median follow-up of 7.3 and 13.1 years, 44 ARIC study participants and 275 CHS participants had SCD, respectively. In the meta-analyzed results, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for predictors of SCD were 3.07 (2.29-4.11) for reduced left ventricular ejection fraction; 1.85 (1.36-2.52) for mitral annular calcification; 1.64 (1.07-2.51) for mitral E/A >1.5, and 1.52 (1.14-2.02) for mitral E/A <0.7 (versus mitral E/A 0.7-1.5); 1.30 (1.15-1.48) per 1 SD increase in left ventricular mass; and 1.15 (1.02-1.30) per 1 SD increase in left atrial diameter. A receiver-operating characteristic model for prediction of SCD using Framingham risk score variables had a C statistic of 0.61 for ARIC study and 0.67 for CHS; the full multivariable model including all echocardiographic variables had a C statistic of 0.76 for ARIC study and 0.74 for CHS. CONCLUSIONS:In addition to reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, we identified other echocardiographic-derived variables predictive for SCD that provided incremental value compared with clinical risk factors. 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.115.004431
    What We Learned with Recent Network Meta-analyses on Atherosclerosis Prevention and Treatment. Giordano Arturo,Peruzzi Mariangela,Marullo Antonino G M,Frati Giacomo,Sciarretta Sebastiano,Napolitano Giovanni,Biondi-Zoccai Giuseppe Current atherosclerosis reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The management of atherosclerosis requires a complex integration of the knowledge on its pathophysiology, patient values, and the synthesis of the global scientific evidence informing on its prevention and treatment. Novel statistical methods such as umbrella reviews and network meta-analyses (NMAs) offer a unique opportunity for integrating different sources of evidence stemming from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or internally valid observational studies. We aimed to provide an updated perspective on the most important contributions of recent network meta-analyses on atherosclerosis prevention and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS:We identified and appraised in detail 9 NMAs on atherosclerosis prevention, all published in 2016, whereas a total of 12 NMAs on atherosclerosis treatment published between 2014 and 2016 were identified. Most NMAs focused on RCTs only, with primary prevention analyses including on average more trials and patients than those focusing on secondary prevention. In most cases, conclusive findings for clinically relevant outcomes could be provided. Yet, several inconclusive findings were reported, suggesting thus that NMAs can also guide new research by emphasizing where new evidence is most needed. NMAs provide a unique opportunity for poignant synthesis of high-quality evidence. In particular, they seem particularly promising when the evidence base has reached a sufficient level of maturity, and several competing interventions require comprehensive and comparative risk-benefit appraisal. 10.1007/s11883-017-0645-2
    Flavonols reduce aortic atherosclerosis lesion area in apolipoprotein E deficient mice: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Phie James,Krishna Smriti M,Moxon Joseph V,Omer Safraz M,Kinobe Robert,Golledge Jonathan PloS one Diets rich in flavonoids have been reported to have beneficial effects in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events. There are limited data, however, on the cardiovascular benefits of purified flavonoids. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the reported effects of isolated flavonoids on aortic atherosclerosis in a mouse model. Medline, Pubmed, Science direct and Web of Science were searched to identify studies which examined the effect of isolated flavonoids on aortic atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice. A meta-analysis was performed to determine the overall effect of the flavonoids, and sub-analyses were performed to compare the effects of the flavonols and flavan-3-ols. Eleven studies, which examined a total of 208 mice receiving a flavonoid and 126 control mice, were included. Overall the flavonoids significantly reduced aortic atherosclerosis (SMD 1.10, 95% CI 0.69, 1.51). Of the 18 flavonoid interventions examined 12 were flavonols and 3 were flavan-3-ols. Sub-analyses suggested that the flavonols (SMD 1.31, 95% CI 0.66, 1.91) but not the flavan-3-ols (SMD 0.33, 95% CI -0.19, 0.85) significantly decreased atherosclerosis area. Of the eleven studies, only one examined histological markers of atherosclerosis plaque stability. Most studies did not report blinding of outcome assessors or reproducibility of the primary outcome, and did not justify the sample size used and flavonoid dose administered. Based on the included studies, the flavonols appear to be the most effective flavonoids for reducing aortic atherosclerotic lesion area in apolipoprotein E deficient mice. 10.1371/journal.pone.0181832
    A new prediction model for ventricular arrhythmias in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Cadrin-Tourigny Julia,Bosman Laurens P,Nozza Anna,Wang Weijia,Tadros Rafik,Bhonsale Aditya,Bourfiss Mimount,Fortier Annik,Lie Øyvind H,Saguner Ardan M,Svensson Anneli,Andorin Antoine,Tichnell Crystal,Murray Brittney,Zeppenfeld Katja,van den Berg Maarten P,Asselbergs Folkert W,Wilde Arthur A M,Krahn Andrew D,Talajic Mario,Rivard Lena,Chelko Stephen,Zimmerman Stefan L,Kamel Ihab R,Crosson Jane E,Judge Daniel P,Yap Sing-Chien,van der Heijden Jeroen F,Tandri Harikrishna,Jongbloed Jan D H,Guertin Marie-Claude,van Tintelen J Peter,Platonov Pyotr G,Duru Firat,Haugaa Kristina H,Khairy Paul,Hauer Richard N W,Calkins Hugh,Te Riele Anneline S J M,James Cynthia A European heart journal AIMS:Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is characterized by ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). We aimed to develop a model for individualized prediction of incident VA/SCD in ARVC patients. METHODS AND RESULTS:Five hundred and twenty-eight patients with a definite diagnosis and no history of sustained VAs/SCD at baseline, aged 38.2 ± 15.5 years, 44.7% male, were enrolled from five registries in North America and Europe. Over 4.83 (interquartile range 2.44-9.33) years of follow-up, 146 (27.7%) experienced sustained VA, defined as SCD, aborted SCD, sustained ventricular tachycardia, or appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy. A prediction model estimating annual VA risk was developed using Cox regression with internal validation. Eight potential predictors were pre-specified: age, sex, cardiac syncope in the prior 6 months, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, number of premature ventricular complexes in 24 h, number of leads with T-wave inversion, and right and left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEFs). All except LVEF were retained in the final model. The model accurately distinguished patients with and without events, with an optimism-corrected C-index of 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.81] and minimal over-optimism [calibration slope of 0.93 (95% CI 0.92-0.95)]. By decision curve analysis, the clinical benefit of the model was superior to a current consensus-based ICD placement algorithm with a 20.6% reduction of ICD placements with the same proportion of protected patients (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION:Using the largest cohort of patients with ARVC and no prior VA, a prediction model using readily available clinical parameters was devised to estimate VA risk and guide decisions regarding primary prevention ICDs (www.arvcrisk.com). 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz103
    Management of patients at risk of acute kidney injury. Vanmassenhove Jill,Kielstein Jan,Jörres Achim,Biesen Wim Van Lancet (London, England) Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a multifaceted syndrome that occurs in different settings. The course of AKI can be variable, from single hit and complete recovery, to multiple hits resulting in end-stage renal disease. No interventions to improve outcomes of established AKI have yet been developed, so prevention and early diagnosis are key. Awareness campaigns and education for health-care professionals on diagnosis and management of AKI-with attention to avoidance of volume depletion, hypotension, and nephrotoxic interventions-coupled with electronic early warning systems where available can improve outcomes. Biomarker-based strategies have not shown improvements in outcome. Fluid management should aim for early, rapid restoration of circulatory volume, but should be more limited after the first 24-48 h to avoid volume overload. Use of balanced crystalloid solutions versus normal saline remains controversial. Renal replacement therapy should only be started on the basis of hard criteria, but should not be delayed when criteria are met. On the basis of recent evidence, the risk of contrast-induced AKI might be overestimated for many conditions. 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31329-6
    Early warning systems for the management of chronic heart failure: a systematic literature review of cost-effectiveness models. Albuquerque De Almeida Fernando,Al Maiwenn,Koymans Ron,Caliskan Kadir,Kerstens Ankie,Severens Johan L Expert review of pharmacoeconomics & outcomes research INTRODUCTION:Describing the general and methodological characteristics of decision-analytical models used in the economic evaluation of early warning systems for the management of chronic heart failure patients and performing a quality assessment of their methodological characteristics is expected to provide concise and useful insight to inform the future development of decision-analytical models in the field of heart failure management. AREAS COVERED:The literature on decision-analytical models for the economic evaluation of early warning systems for the management of chronic heart failure patients was systematically reviewed. Nine electronic databases were searched through the combination of synonyms for heart failure and sensitive filters for cost-effectiveness and early warning systems. EXPERT COMMENTARY:The retrieved models show some variability with regards to their general study characteristics. Overall, they display satisfactory methodological quality, even though some points could be improved, namely on the consideration and discussion of any competing theories regarding model structure and disease progression, identification of key parameters and the use of expert opinion, and uncertainty analyses. A comprehensive definition of early warning systems and further research under this label should be pursued. To improve the transparency of economic evaluation publications, authors should make available detailed technical information regarding the published models. 10.1080/14737167.2018.1417841
    Bowel Biofilms: Tipping Points between a Healthy and Compromised Gut? Tytgat Hanne L P,Nobrega Franklin L,van der Oost John,de Vos Willem M Trends in microbiology Bacterial communities are known to impact human health and disease. Mixed species biofilms, mostly pathogenic in nature, have been observed in dental and gastric infections as well as in intestinal diseases, chronic gut wounds and colon cancer. Apart from the appendix, the presence of thick polymicrobial biofilms in the healthy gut mucosa is still debated. Polymicrobial biofilms containing potential pathogens appear to be an early-warning signal of developing disease and can be regarded as a tipping point between a healthy and a diseased state of the gut mucosa. Key biofilm-forming pathogens and associated molecules hold promise as biomarkers. Criteria to distinguish microcolonies from biofilms are crucial to provide clarity when reporting biofilm-related phenomena in health and disease in the gut. 10.1016/j.tim.2018.08.009
    Prototype early warning system for heart disease detection using Android Application. Zennifa Fadilla,Fitrilina ,Kamil Husnil,Iramina Keiji Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference Heart Disease affects approximately 70 million people worldwide where most people do not even know the symptoms. This research examines the prototype of early warning system for heart disease by android application. It aims to facilitate users to early detect heart disease which can be used independently. To build the application in android phone, variable centered intelligence rule system (VCIRS) as decision makers and pulse sensor - Arduino as heart rate detector were applied in this study. Moreover, in Arduino, the heart rate will become an input for symptoms in Android Application. The output of this system is the conclusion statement of users diagnosed with either coronary heart disease, hypertension heart disease, rheumatic heart disease or do not get any kind of heart disease. The result of diagnosis followed by analysis of the value of usage variable rate (VUR) rule usage rate (RUR) and node usage rate (NUR) that shows the value of the rule that will increase when the symptoms frequently appear. This application was compared with the medical analysis from 35 cases of heart disease and it showed concordance between diagnosis from android application and expert diagnosis of the doctors. 10.1109/EMBC.2014.6944369
    How to select a proper early warning threshold to detect infectious disease outbreaks based on the China infectious disease automated alert and response system (CIDARS). Wang Ruiping,Jiang Yonggen,Michael Engelgau,Zhao Genming BMC public health BACKGROUND:China Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the China Infectious Disease Automated Alert and Response System (CIDARS) in 2005. The CIDARS was used to strengthen infectious disease surveillance and aid in the early warning of outbreak. The CIDARS has been integrated into the routine outbreak monitoring efforts of the CDC at all levels in China. Early warning threshold is crucial for outbreak detection in the CIDARS, but CDCs at all level are currently using thresholds recommended by the China CDC, and these recommended thresholds have recognized limitations. Our study therefore seeks to explore an operational method to select the proper early warning threshold according to the epidemic features of local infectious diseases. METHODS:The data used in this study were extracted from the web-based Nationwide Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System (NIDRIS), and data for infectious disease cases were organized by calendar week (1-52) and year (2009-2015) in Excel format; Px was calculated using a percentile-based moving window (moving window [5 week*5 year], x), where x represents one of 12 centiles (0.40, 0.45, 0.50….0.95). Outbreak signals for the 12 Px were calculated using the moving percentile method (MPM) based on data from the CIDARS. When the outbreak signals generated by the 'mean + 2SD' gold standard were in line with a Px generated outbreak signal for each week during the year of 2014, this Px was then defined as the proper threshold for the infectious disease. Finally, the performance of new selected thresholds for each infectious disease was evaluated by simulated outbreak signals based on 2015 data. RESULTS:Six infectious diseases were selected in this study (chickenpox, mumps, hand foot and mouth diseases (HFMD), scarlet fever, influenza and rubella). Proper thresholds for chickenpox (P75), mumps (P80), influenza (P75), rubella (P45), HFMD (P75), and scarlet fever (P80) were identified. The selected proper thresholds for these 6 infectious diseases could detect almost all simulated outbreaks within a shorter time period compared to thresholds recommended by the China CDC. CONCLUSIONS:It is beneficial to select the proper early warning threshold to detect infectious disease aberrations based on characteristics and epidemic features of local diseases in the CIDARS. 10.1186/s12889-017-4488-0
    Spatial correlation as an early warning signal of regime shifts in a multiplex disease-behaviour network. Jentsch Peter C,Anand Madhur,Bauch Chris T Journal of theoretical biology Early warning signals of sudden regime shifts are a widely studied phenomenon for their ability to quantify a system's proximity to a tipping point to a new and contrasting dynamical regime. However, this effect has been little studied in the context of the complex interactions between disease dynamics and vaccinating behaviour. Our objective was to determine whether critical slowing down (CSD) occurs in a multiplex network that captures opinion propagation on one network layer and disease spread on a second network layer. We parameterized a network simulation model to represent a hypothetical self-limiting, acute, vaccine-preventable infection with short-lived natural immunity. We tested five different network types: random, lattice, small-world, scale-free, and an empirically derived network. For the first four network types, the model exhibits a regime shift as perceived vaccine risk moves beyond a tipping point from full vaccine acceptance and disease elimination to full vaccine refusal and disease endemicity. This regime shift is preceded by an increase in the spatial correlation in non-vaccinator opinions beginning well before the bifurcation point, indicating CSD. The early warning signals occur across a wide range of parameter values. However, the more gradual transition exhibited in the empirically-derived network underscores the need for further research before it can be determined whether trends in spatial correlation in real-world social networks represent critical slowing down. The potential upside of having this monitoring ability suggests that this is a worthwhile area for further research. 10.1016/j.jtbi.2018.03.032
    Assessment of the Utility of a Vascular Early Warning System Device in the Assessment of Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Diabetes and Incompressible Vessels. Saunders David J,Bleasdale Leighan,Summerton Linda,Hancock Anne,Homer-Vanniasinkam Shervanthi,Russell David A Annals of vascular surgery BACKGROUND:The objective of this study was to assess the ability of a novel, automated Conformité Européenne marked vascular early warning system (VEWS) device to detect peripheral arterial disease in patients with incompressible ankle arteries and non-measurable ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) secondary to diabetes. METHODS:Recruited patients had diabetes, recent magnetic resonance angiography evidence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and incompressible vessels on ABPI. VEWS indices of each leg were automatically calculated by using optical infrared and red sensors applied to the foot, with readings obtained with the subject's leg both flat and elevated. Indices <1.03 and ≤0.94 were considered upper and lower diagnostic cutoff limits for PAD. Bollinger scores were calculated from the magnetic resonance angiography. A Best Bollinger Score (BBS) of <4 was defined as no significant PAD. RESULTS:All patients had tissue loss. Per protocol analysis of 28 limbs in 14 patients: VEWS had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity 20% for the detection of PAD at <1.03 cutoff and sensitivity 89% and specificity 80% at ≤0.94 cutoff. There was a good correlation between the VEWS index and BBS (-0.637; P = 0.0003). CONCLUSION:VEWS is a safe, simple-to-use, promising tool to assist in the diagnosis of PAD in patients with incompressible vessels due to diabetes. 10.1016/j.avsg.2018.11.033
    The Food and Drug Administration's initiative for safe design and effective use of home medical equipment. Weick-Brady Mary,Singh Simran Home healthcare nurse Although home-use medical devices provide significant benefits, including improved quality of life and cost savings, they are associated with unique risks. These risks result from interactions among the user, the use environment, and the device, and they can greatly impact user and patient safety. This article describes measures being taken by the Food and Drug Administration to address safe use of medical equipment by trained and untrained people outside of clinical facilities. 10.1097/NHH.0000000000000078