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    Regulation of inflammation by the antioxidant haem oxygenase 1. Campbell Nicole K,Fitzgerald Hannah K,Dunne Aisling Nature reviews. Immunology Haem oxygenase 1 (HO-1), an inducible enzyme responsible for the breakdown of haem, is primarily considered an antioxidant, and has long been overlooked by immunologists. However, research over the past two decades in particular has demonstrated that HO-1 also exhibits numerous anti-inflammatory properties. These emerging immunomodulatory functions have made HO-1 an appealing target for treatment of diseases characterized by high levels of chronic inflammation. In this Review, we present an introduction to HO-1 for immunologists, including an overview of its roles in iron metabolism and antioxidant defence, and the factors which regulate its expression. We discuss the impact of HO-1 induction in specific immune cell populations and provide new insights into the immunomodulation that accompanies haem catabolism, including its relationship to immunometabolism. Furthermore, we highlight the therapeutic potential of HO-1 induction to treat chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and the issues faced when trying to translate such therapies to the clinic. Finally, we examine a number of alternative, safer strategies that are under investigation to harness the therapeutic potential of HO-1, including the use of phytochemicals, novel HO-1 inducers and carbon monoxide-based therapies. 10.1038/s41577-020-00491-x
    Host modulation therapy with anti-inflammatory agents. Preshaw Philip M Periodontology 2000 Host modulation therapy refers to a treatment concept in which drug therapies are used as an adjunct to conventional periodontal treatment to ameliorate destructive aspects of the host inflammatory response. This strategy is not new in the treatment of periodontitis. Previously, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been investigated in this regard, with evidence of reductions in alveolar bone resorption when these drugs are used for prolonged periods of time. However, the risk of significant unwanted effects precludes the use of both nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors as adjunctive treatments for periodontitis. Currently, the only available adjunctive host response modulator that is licensed for the treatment of periodontitis is subantimicrobial dose doxycycline, which functions as an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases. Although clinical benefits have been shown in carefully conducted randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of subantimicrobial dose doxycycline in routine clinical practice has yet to be determined. Anti-cytokine therapies have been developed for use in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, the pathogenesis of which bears many similarities to that of periodontitis; however, the significant risk of unwanted effects (as well as cost and lack of human trials in the treatment of periodontal diseases) precludes the use of any of the currently available anti-cytokine therapies in the treatment of periodontitis. The identification of pro-resolving lipid mediators as well as small molecule biologicals that influence inflammatory responses offers the best potential, at the present time, for the development of novel host response modulators in periodontal therapy, but much research remains to be done to confirm safety and efficacy. 10.1111/prd.12148
    Pharmacological Approaches and Regeneration of Bone Defects with Dental Pulp Stem Cells. Adamička M,Adamičková A,Danišovič L,Gažová A,Kyselovič J Stem cells international Bone defects in the craniomaxillofacial skeleton vary from small periodontal defects to extensive bone loss, which are difficult to restore and can lead to extensive damage of the surrounding structures, deformities, and limited functions. Plenty of surgical regenerative procedures have been developed to reconstruct or prevent alveolar defects, based on guided bone regeneration involving the use of autogenous bone grafts or bone substituents. However, these techniques have limitations in the restoration of morphological and functional reconstruction, thus stopping disease progression but not regenerating lost tissue. Most promising candidates for regenerative therapy of maxillofacial bone defects represent postnatal stem cells, because of their replication potential in the undifferentiated state and their ability to differentiate as well. There is an increased need for using various orofacial sources of stem cells with comparable properties to mesenchymal stem cells because they are more easily available with minimally invasive procedures. In addition to the source of MSCs, another aspect affects the regeneration outcomes. Thermal, mechanical, and chemical stimuli after surgical procedures have the ability to generate pain, usually managed with pharmacological agents, mostly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Some studies revealed that NSAIDs have no significant cytotoxic effect on bone marrow stem cells from mice, while other studies showed regulation of osteogenic and chondrogenic marker genes in MSC cells by NSAIDs and paracetamol, but no effect was observed in connection with diclofenac use. Therefore, there is a need to focus on such pharmacotherapy, capable of affecting the characteristics and properties of implanted MSCs. 10.1155/2021/4593322
    Future prospects of systemic host modulatory agents in periodontal therapy. Gokhale S R,Padhye A M British dental journal Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by microbial infection that leads to destruction of supporting tissues of the teeth. The periodontal tissue destruction is a result of both microbial activity as well as host response. The best chance for clinical improvement may come from implementing complementary treatment strategies that target different aspects of the periodontal balance. Host response modulation, in combination with conventional treatment, offers to restore the balance between health and disease progression in the direction of a healing response. Various host modulatory therapies (HMT) have been developed or proposed to block pathways responsible for periodontal tissue break down. The newer drugs like bortezomib, infliximb, etanercept, vasoactive intestinal peptide, nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and denosumab are developed as a result of better understanding of pathogenesis of inflammatory tissue destruction and may represent the future of periodontal therapy. This review article focuses on the potential systemic host modulatory agents that target cell signalling pathways, cytokines and enzymes. 10.1038/sj.bdj.2013.432
    Plant polyphenols: chemical properties, biological activities, and synthesis. Quideau Stéphane,Deffieux Denis,Douat-Casassus Céline,Pouységu Laurent Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) Eating five servings of fruits and vegetables per day! This is what is highly recommended and heavily advertised nowadays to the general public to stay fit and healthy! Drinking green tea on a regular basis, eating chocolate from time to time, as well as savoring a couple of glasses of red wine per day have been claimed to increase life expectancy even further! Why? The answer is in fact still under scientific scrutiny, but a particular class of compounds naturally occurring in fruits and vegetables is considered to be crucial for the expression of such human health benefits: the polyphenols! What are these plant products really? What are their physicochemical properties? How do they express their biological activity? Are they really valuable for disease prevention? Can they be used to develop new pharmaceutical drugs? What recent progress has been made toward their preparation by organic synthesis? This Review gives answers from a chemical perspective, summarizes the state of the art, and highlights the most significant advances in the field of polyphenol research. 10.1002/anie.201000044
    Dietary polyphenols suppress chronic inflammation by modulation of multiple inflammation-associated cell signaling pathways. Jantan Ibrahim,Haque Md Areeful,Arshad Laiba,Harikrishnan Hemavathy,Septama Abdi Wira,Mohamed-Hussein Zeti-Azura The Journal of nutritional biochemistry The high failure rate of the reductionist approach to discover effective and safe drugs to treat chronic inflammatory diseases has led scientists to seek alternative ways. Recently, targeting cell signaling pathways has been utilized as an innovative approach to discover drug leads from natural products. Cell signaling mechanisms have been identified playing key role in diverse diseases by inducing proliferation, cell survival and apoptosis. Phytochemicals are known to be able to modulate the cellular and molecular networks which are associated to chronic diseases including cancer-associated inflammation. In this review, the roles of dietary polyphenols (apigenin, kaempferol, quercetin, curcumin, genistein, isoliquiritigenin, resveratrol and gallic acid) in modulating multiple inflammation-associated cell signaling networks are deliberated. Scientific databases on suppressive effects of the polyphenols on chronic inflammation via modulation of the pathways especially in the recent five years are gathered and critically analyzed. The polyphenols are able to modulate several inflammation-associated cell signaling pathways, namely nuclear factor-kappa β, mitogen activated protein kinases, Wnt/β-catenin and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B via selective actions on various components of the networks. The suppressive effects of the polyphenols on the multiple cell signaling pathways reveal their potential use in prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders. Understanding the mechanistic effects involved in modulation of the signaling pathways by the polyphenols is necessary for lead identification and development of future functional foods for prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108634
    Proanthocyanidins and Flavan-3-ols in the Prevention and Treatment of Periodontitis-Immunomodulatory Effects, Animal and Clinical Studies. Nawrot-Hadzik Izabela,Matkowski Adam,Kubasiewicz-Ross Paweł,Hadzik Jakub Nutrients This paper continues the systematic review on proanthocyanidins and flavan-3-ols in the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease and covers the immunomodulatory effects, and animal- and clinical studies, while the other part discussed the direct antibacterial properties. Inflammation as a major response of the periodontal tissues attacked by pathogenic microbes can significantly exacerbate the condition. However, the bidirectional activity of phytochemicals that simultaneously inhibit bacterial proliferation and proinflammatory signaling can provide a substantial alleviation of both cause and symptoms. The modulatory effects on various aspects of inflammatory and overall immune response are covered, including confirmed and postulated mechanisms of action, structure activity relationships and molecular targets. Further, the clinical relevance of flavan-3-ols and available outcomes from clinical studies is analyzed and discussed. Among the numerous natural sources of flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins the most promising are, similarly to antibacterial properties, constituents of various foods, such as fruits of species, tea leaves, grape seeds, and tannin-rich medicinal herbs. Despite a vast amount of in vitro and cell-based evidence of immunomodulatory there are still only a few animal and clinical studies. Most of the reports, regardless of the used model, indicated the efficiency of these phytochemicals from cranberries and other species and tea extracts (green or black). Other sources such as grape seeds and traditional medicinal plants, were seldom. In conclusion, the potential of flavan-3-ols and their derivatives in prevention and alleviation of periodontal disease is remarkable but clinical evidence is urgently needed for issuing credible dietary recommendation and complementary treatments. 10.3390/nu13010239
    Drug-herb interactions between Scutellaria baicalensis and pharmaceutical drugs: Insights from experimental studies, mechanistic actions to clinical applications. Zhou Xian,Fu Ling,Wang Pengli,Yang Lan,Zhu Xiaoshu,Li Chun Guang Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie Whilst the popular use of herbal medicine globally, it poses challenges in managing potential drug-herb interaction. There are two folds of the drug-herb interaction, a beneficial interaction that may improve therapeutic outcome and minimise the toxicity of drug desirably; by contrast, negative interaction may evoke unwanted clinical consequences, especially with drugs of narrow therapeutic index. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is one of the most popular medicinal plants used in Asian countries. It has been widely used for treating various diseases and conditions such as cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Studies on its extract and bioactive compounds have shown pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions with a wide range of pharmaceutical drugs as evidenced by plenty of in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies. Notably, S. baicalensis and its bioactives including baicalein, baicalin and wogonin exhibited synergistic interactions with many pharmaceutical drugs to enhance their efficacy, reduce toxicity or overcome drug resistance to combat complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes and infectious diseases. On the other hand, S. baicalensis and its bioactives also affected the pharmacokinetic profile of many drugs in absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination via the regulatory actions of the efflux pumps and cytochrome P450 enzymes. This review provides comprehensive references of the observed pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic drug interactions of Scutellaria baicalensis and its bioactives. We have elucidated the interaction with detailed mechanistic actions, identified the knowledge gaps for future research and potential clinical implications. Such knowledge is important for the practice of both conventional and complementary medicines, and it is essential to ensure the safe use of related herbal medicines. The review may be of great interest to practitioners, consumers, clinicians who require comprehensive information on the possible drug interactions with S. baicalensis and its bioactives. 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111445
    The role of bone anabolic drugs in the management of periodontitis: a scoping review. Cecoro G,Paoletta M,Annunziata M,Laino L,Nastri L,Gimigliano F,Liguori S,Toro G,Moretti A,Guida L,Iolascon G European cells & materials The aim of this scoping review was to summarise current knowledge about the effects of bone anabolic drugs on periodontitis, in order to identify new therapeutic strategies for preventing disease progression and reducing tooth loss. A technical expert panel (TEP) was established of 11 medical specialists, including periodontists and bone specialists that followed the PRISMA-ScR model to perform the scoping review and considered for eligibility both pre-clinical and clinical studies published in the English language up to September 2020. 716 items were initially found. After duplicate removal and screening of articles for eligibility criteria, 25 articles published between 2001 and 2019 were selected. Only studies concerning teriparatide, strontium ranelate, sclerostin antibodies and DKK1 antibodies met the eligibility criteria. In particular, only for teriparatide were there both clinical studies and experimental studies available, while for other bone anabolic drugs only animal studies were found. Available evidence about the use of bone anabolic drugs in periodontology demonstrates beneficial effects of these agents on biological pathways and histological parameters involved in periodontal tissue regeneration that suggest relevant clinical implications for the management of periodontitis. 10.22203/eCM.v041a20
    The Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Role of Polyphenols. Yahfoufi Nour,Alsadi Nawal,Jambi Majed,Matar Chantal Nutrients This review offers a systematic understanding about how polyphenols target multiple inflammatory components and lead to anti-inflammatory mechanisms. It provides a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds. Polyphenols regulate immunity by interfering with immune cell regulation, proinflammatory cytokines' synthesis, and gene expression. They inactivate NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and modulate mitogen-activated protein Kinase (MAPk) and arachidonic acids pathways. Polyphenolic compounds inhibit phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B (PI3K/AkT), inhibitor of kappa kinase/c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (IKK/JNK), mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) which is a protein complex that controls protein synthesis, and JAK/STAT. They can suppress toll-like receptor (TLR) and pro-inflammatory genes' expression. Their antioxidant activity and ability to inhibit enzymes involved in the production of eicosanoids contribute as well to their anti-inflammation properties. They inhibit certain enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species ROS production like xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase (NOX) while they upregulate other endogenous antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Px). Furthermore, they inhibit phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) leading to a reduction in the production of prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs) and inflammation antagonism. The effects of these biologically active compounds on the immune system are associated with extended health benefits for different chronic inflammatory diseases. Studies of plant extracts and compounds show that polyphenols can play a beneficial role in the prevention and the progress of chronic diseases related to inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, neurodegeneration, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases, among other conditions. 10.3390/nu10111618
    Immunomodulatory Effects of Dietary Polyphenols. Shakoor Hira,Feehan Jack,Apostolopoulos Vasso,Platat Carine,Al Dhaheri Ayesha Salem,Ali Habiba I,Ismail Leila Cheikh,Bosevski Marijan,Stojanovska Lily Nutrients Functional and nutraceutical foods provide an alternative way to improve immune function to aid in the management of various diseases. Traditionally, many medicinal products have been derived from natural compounds with healing properties. With the development of research into nutraceuticals, it is becoming apparent that many of the beneficial properties of these compounds are at least partly due to the presence of polyphenols. There is evidence that dietary polyphenols can influence dendritic cells, have an immunomodulatory effect on macrophages, increase proliferation of B cells, T cells and suppress Type 1 T helper (Th1), Th2, Th17 and Th9 cells. Polyphenols reduce inflammation by suppressing the pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease by inducing Treg cells in the intestine, inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and induction of apoptosis, decreasing DNA damage. Polyphenols have a potential role in prevention/treatment of auto-immune diseases like type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis by regulating signaling pathways, suppressing inflammation and limiting demyelination. In addition, polyphenols cause immunomodulatory effects against allergic reaction and autoimmune disease by inhibition of autoimmune T cell proliferation and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1, interferon-γ (IFN-γ)). Herein, we summarize the immunomodulatory effects of polyphenols and the underlying mechanisms involved in the stimulation of immune responses. 10.3390/nu13030728
    Fruit Has Anti-Inflammatory Effect and Induces Osteogenic Differentiation by Regulating Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway in In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Periodontitis. Kim Eun-Nam,Kim Tae-Young,Park Eui Kyun,Kim Jae-Young,Jeong Gil-Saeng Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease of tissues around teeth that destroys connective tissues and is characterized by the loss of periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone. A new treatment strategy is needed owing to the limitations of the current surgical treatment method and the side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs. Therefore, here, we assessed whether fruit extract (PGFE) is a new therapeutic agent for periodontitis in vitro and in vivo. According to the results, PGFE suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, and pro-inflammatory mediators such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 through heme oxygenase-1 expression in human periodontal ligament cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (PG-LPS). In addition, the osteogenic induction of human periodontal ligament cells was inhibited by PG-LPS, and protein and mRNA levels of osteogenic markers such as alkaline phosphatase, collagen type 1 (COL1), osteopontin (OPN), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were increased. The efficacy of PGFE for inhibiting periodontitis in vitro was demonstrated in a representative in vitro model of periodontitis induced by ligature and PG-LPS. Subsequently, hematoxylin and eosin staining and micro-computed tomography of the euthanized experimental animal model confirmed suppressed periodontal inflammation, which is an important strategy for treating periodontitis and for recovering the resulting alveolar bone loss. Therefore, PGFE is a potential, novel therapeutic agent for periodontal diseases. 10.3390/antiox9121221
    Cytoprotective effect of Fufang Lurong Jiangu capsule against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in bone marrow stromal cell-derived osteoblasts through the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. Jin Wenqi,Zhu Xiaoqian,Yao Fan,Xu Xiaohao,Chen Xuenan,Luo Zongjian,Zhao Daqing,Li Xiangyan,Leng Xiangyang,Sun Liwei Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie OBJECTIVE:Oxidative stress is increasingly recognized as a risk factor associated with the development and progression of osteoporosis. Fufang Lurong Jiangu Capsule (FLJC) has a known anti-osteoporotic effect, but its pharmacological effect on osteoblasts is not clearly understood. This study was designed to investigate FLJC effects/mechanisms on in vitro hydrogen peroxide (HO)-induced oxidative damage of osteoblasts and on in vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice bone loss. FLJC alleviates osteoporosis via unknown pharmacological mechanisms. METHODS:Chemical compositions of FLJC preparations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprinting. After rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation induction, resulting osteoblasts received various 48 h FLJC pretreatments before HO-based (200 μM) oxidative stress exposure. FLJC effects were measured on osteoblast cell viability, morphological changes, levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), localization of mitochondria, activity of antioxidant enzymes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineralization, the secretion of Col I and expression of osteogenic markers. The percentages of apoptosis were determined by flow cytometric analysis; apoptosis-related protein levels, including nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) with or without Nrf2 inhibitor were analyzed via western blot. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and ALP staining revealed in vivo FLJC effect on mice LPS-induced bone loss. RESULTS:Five chemical components in FLJC were identified, and fingerprint analysis showed good reproducibility. FLJC pretreatment significantly reduced HO-induced ROS levels in osteoblasts and increased antioxidant enzyme activities to reduce oxidative damage. With regard to osteoblast differentiation, FLJC pretreatment increased ALP expression, as well as levels of mineralization and osteoblast markers. Additionally, FLJC protected against HO-induced apoptosis by inhibiting changes in expression of major Bcl-2 family effector proteins of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, FLJC protected cells from HO-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating Nrf2 and HO-1 protein levels. Finally, we confirmed that FLJC administration could reverse the bone loss in LPS-induced mice. CONCLUSION:These results indicate that FLJC may significantly attenuate oxidative damage of osteoblasts induced by HO via the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, providing new insights to guide development of treatments for osteoporosis induced by oxidative injury. 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109676
    Simultaneous Quantitative Analysis of Ginsenosides Isolated from the Fruit of C.A. Meyer and Regulation of HO-1 Expression through EGFR Signaling Has Anti-Inflammatory and Osteogenic Induction Effects in HPDL Cells. Kim Eun-Nam,Kaygusuz Oryon,Lee Hyun-Su,Jeong Gil-Saeng Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Periodontitis is a set of chronic inflammatory diseases caused by the accumulation of Gram-negative bacteria on teeth, resulting in gingivitis, pocket formation, alveolar bone loss, tissue destruction, and tooth loss. In this study, the contents of ginsenosides isolated from fruit extract were quantitatively analyzed, and the anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in human periodontal ligament cells. The major ginsenosides, Re, Ra8, and Rf, present in ginseng fruit were simultaneously analyzed by a validated method using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector; Re, Ra8, and Rf content per 1 g of fruit extract was 1.01 ± 0.03, 0.33 ± 0.01, and 0.55 ± 0.04 mg, respectively. Ginsenosides-Re, -Ra8, and -Rf inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory factors and the expression of important cytokines in periodontitis by inducing the expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), promoting osteoblast differentiation of periodontal ligament cells, suppressing alveolar bone loss, and promoting the expression of osteoblast-specific genes, such as , , and . An inhibitory effect of these ginsenosides on periodontitis and alveolar bone loss was observed via the regulation of HO-1 and subsequent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Silencing EGFR with EGFR siRNA confirmed that the effect of ginsenosides on HO-1 is mediated by EGFR. In conclusion, this study evaluated the contents of ginsenosides-Re, -Ra8, and -Rf isolated from fruit extract. Therefore, these results provide important basic data for future fruit component studies and suggest that ginsenosides Re, Ra8, and Rf have potential as future treatment options for periodontitis. 10.3390/molecules26072092
    Ginger Oleoresin Alleviated -Ray Irradiation-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species via the Nrf2 Protective Response in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Ji Kaihua,Fang Lianying,Zhao Hui,Li Qing,Shi Yang,Xu Chang,Wang Yan,Du Liqing,Wang Jinhan,Liu Qiang Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Unplanned exposure to radiation can cause side effects on high-risk individuals; meanwhile, radiotherapies can also cause injury on normal cells and tissues surrounding the tumor. Besides the direct radiation damage, most of the ionizing radiation- (IR-) induced injuries were caused by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), which possess self-renew and multilineage differentiation capabilities, are a critical population of cells to participate in the regeneration of IR-damaged tissues. Therefore, it is imperative to search effective radioprotectors for hMSCs. This study was to demonstrate whether natural source ginger oleoresin would mitigate IR-induced injuries in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We demonstrated that ginger oleoresin could significantly reduce IR-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and DNA strand breaks. In addition, the ROS-scavenging mechanism of ginger oleoresin was also investigated. The results showed that ginger oleoresin could induce the translocation of Nrf2 to cell nucleus and activate the expression of cytoprotective genes encoding for HO-1 and NQO-1. It suggests that ginger oleoresin has a potential role of being an effective antioxidant and radioprotective agent. 10.1155/2017/1480294
    PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 signalling pathway is involved in the ameliorative effects of xanthohumol on amyloid β-induced oxidative damage and bone loss. The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology OBJECTIVE:Xanthohumol (XAN), a natural isoflavone from Humulus lupulus L., possesses biological activities on relieving oxidative stress and osteoporosis (OP). This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidative and osteoprotective effect of XAN on Aβ-injured osteoblasts, and explore its underlying mechanism. METHODS:Osteoblasts were pretreated with XAN followed by stimulation with Aβ1-42. Cell proliferation, ALP activity, bone mineralization and bone formation index were measured. Apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analysed with flow cytometer. PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or siRNA-Nrf2 was added and transfected in osteoblasts, to further confirm whether the pathway participated in the regulation of XAN-induced cytoprotection. KEY FINDINGS:XAN markedly improved the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of Aβ-injured osteoblasts. Additionally, XAN reduced cell apoptosis rate and ROS level, and increased the expression of p-AKT, Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1 and SOD-2. More importantly, LY294002 or siNrf2 abolished the beneficial effect of XAN on osteoblasts activity and decreased the PI3K expression and inhibited its downstream proteins, indicating XAN activated PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 pathway in Aβ-injured osteoblasts. CONCLUSION:It was the first time to reveal the antioxidative and osteoprotective effect of XAN through regulating PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 pathway in Aβ-injured osteoblasts, which provides reference for the clinical application of XAN in the prevention and treatment of OP. 10.1093/jpp/rgac007
    Resveratrol pretreatment attenuates injury and promotes proliferation of neural stem cells following oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation by upregulating the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 in vitro. Shen Changbo,Cheng Wei,Yu Pingping,Wang Li,Zhou Lulin,Zeng Li,Yang Qin Molecular medicine reports There is considerable interest in the use of drugs and other methods for protecting implanted neural stem cells (NSCs) from the adverse environment of injured tissue for successful cell therapy. Resveratrol can modify cardiac stem cells to enhance their survival and differentiation, however, its effect and the mechanism underlying its neuroprotective effect on NSCs following stroke remain to be fully elucidated. Nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf‑2) signaling is important in antioxidative stress, and the role of Nrf‑2 signaling in the enhanced neuroprotection of NSCs by resveratrol following stroke also remains to be elucidated. In the present study, NSCs were pretreated with resveratrol prior to oxygen‑glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) in vitro. The survival, apoptosis and proliferation of the NSCs were assessed using an MTT assay, Hoechst 33258 staining of nuclei and flow cytometry, respectively. In addition, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), level of malondiadehyde (MDA) and content of glutathione (GSH) were determined. The protein expressions levels of Nrf‑2, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO‑1), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO‑1) were detected using western blot analysis. It was found that resveratrol markedly enhanced NSC survival and proliferation, decreased apoptosis and the levels of MDA, and increased the activity of SOD and content of GSH in a concentration‑dependent manner following OGD/R injury in vitro. In addition, the protein expression levels of Nrf2, HO‑1 and NQO1 were significantly upregulated. These findings suggested that resveratrol attenuated injury and promoted proliferation of the NSCs, at least in part, by upregulating the expression of Nrf2, HO‑1 and NQO1 following OGD/R injury in vitro. 10.3892/mmr.2016.5670
    Costunolide increases osteoblast differentiation via ATF4-dependent HO-1 expression in C3H10T1/2 cells. Jeon Wan-Jin,Kim Kyeong-Min,Kim Eun-Jung,Jang Won-Gu Life sciences AIMS:Costunolide is a sesquiterpene lactones used in many herbal medicines, with well-established anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant functions modulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways, and which promotes the expression of anti-oxidant genes. The aim of this study is to investigate whether costunolide is involved in osteoblast differentiation and, determine the mechanisms of differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells. MAIN METHODS:The cytotoxicity of costunolide was identified using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of osteogenic genes were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Alkaline phosphate (ALP) staining and Alizarin red S (ARS) staining were performed to evaluate ALP activity and matrix mineralization. Transcriptional activity was detected using a luciferase reporter assay. KEY FINDINGS:In this study, we determined that costunolide increased the expression of distal-less homeobox 5 (Dlx5), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), ALP, and osteocalcin (OC) in C3H10T 1/2 cells. Furthermore, costunolide increased ALP activity and matrix mineralization. Interestingly, costunolide increased ER stress by Bip, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). However, it did not exert effects on expression of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). ATF4 activation has a protective role in oxidative stress, and its transcription induces anti-oxidant genes in cells. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a major anti-oxidant enzyme, and is regulated by ATF4. We showed that costunolide treatment increased HO-1 expression. Furthermore, the HO-1 inhibitor, Sn(IV) Protoporphyrin IX dichloride (SnPP) was blocked costunolide-induced Runx2 expression. SIGNIFICANCE:Our results revealed that costunolide-induced osteoblast differentiation is regulated by ATF4-dependent HO-1 expression. 10.1016/j.lfs.2017.04.012
    Effects of resveratrol on bone-healing capacity in the mouse tooth extraction socket. Min Kyung-Kon,Neupane Sanjiv,Adhikari Nirpesh,Sohn Wern-Joo,An Seo-Young,Kim Ji-Youn,An Chang-Hyeon,Lee Youngkyun,Kim Yong-Gun,Park Jin-Woo,Lee Jae-Mok,Kim Jae-Young,Suh Jo-Young Journal of periodontal research BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:After tooth extraction, the extraction socket undergoes several steps of soft and hard tissue healing. The healing process of the extraction socket is modulated by a range of signaling factors and biochemical agents. It has been reported that resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, exhibits various biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant, and anti-aging effects, and protects cardiovascular and bone tissues. In this study, we examined the cellular effects of resveratrol on human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells and osteoblast-like (MC3T3-E1) cells and evaluated the bone-healing capacity of tooth extraction sockets in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Resveratrol was applied to hPDL and MC3T3-E1 cells to detect cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and qPCR was employed to understand the gene expression level in vitro. For in vivo experiment, six-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into control (n = 15) and experimental (n = 15) groups and maxillary first molars were extracted by surgery. Experimental groups received 50-µM resveratrol on extraction sockets and analyzed the degree of new bone formation. RESULTS:Treatment of hPDL and MC3T3-E1 cells with resveratrol increased the cell proliferation and ALP activity and enhanced the expression of ALP, BMP-2, BMP-4, and OC genes. Resveratrol enhanced new bone formation in the lingual extraction socket in mice. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that resveratrol increases the cellular physiology of PDL and osteoblast including their proliferation and differentiation and may play an important role in bone-healing capacity after tooth extraction. 10.1111/jre.12710
    Resveratrol rescues TNF‑α‑induced inhibition of osteogenesis in human periodontal ligament stem cells via the ERK1/2 pathway. Yuan Jiakan,Wang Xuxia,Ma Dan,Gao Hui,Zheng Dehua,Zhang Jun Molecular medicine reports Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disorder affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth, which can lead to the destruction of periodontal tissue and tooth loss. Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin, exerts multiple biological effects. For example, its anti‑inflammatory activity has been widely studied for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease for a number of years. However, its effect on bone repair and new bone formation in an inflammatory microenvironment is not well understood. Accordingly, the effect of resveratrol on inflammation‑affected human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) requires further investigation. In the present study, the effect of tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), resveratrol, or the combination of both on the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs, as well as the underlying mechanisms involved, were investigated. Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay, alkaline phosphatase staining, Alizarin red staining, Oil Red O staining, reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blotting were used in the present study. It was demonstrated that resveratrol enhanced hPDLSC osteogenesis and reversed the inhibitory effects of TNF‑α on this process. Further mechanistic studies indicated that resveratrol exerted anti‑inflammatory activity by activating the ERK1/2 pathway, decreasing the secretion of interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑8 induced by TNF‑α, and enhancing hPDLSCs osteogenesis. The present study suggested that resveratrol may be a novel and promising therapeutic choice for periodontitis. 10.3892/mmr.2020.11021
    Activation of Functional Somatic Stem Cells Promotes Endogenous Tissue Regeneration. Journal of dental research Periodontal ligament derived stem cells (PDLSCs) are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types and inducing a promising immunomodulation for tissue regeneration and disease treatment. However, it is still challenging to develop a practical approach to activate endogenous stem cells for tissue self-healing and regeneration. In this study, transcriptome analysis reveals that resveratrol promotes PDLSC stemness through activation of stem cell, osteoprogenitor, and chondroprogenitor markers. Self-renewal and multipotent differentiation abilities are also improved in resveratrol-treated PDLSCs. In addition, immunomodulation of PDLSCs is dramatically increased after resveratrol treatment. Mechanistically, we show that resveratrol activates ERK/WNT crosstalk through elevation of olfactory and growth factor signaling pathways to upregulate the expression levels of RUNX2 and FASL for osteogenesis and immunomodulation, respectively. By using a periodontitis animal model, administration of resveratrol partially rescues bone loss through activation of endogenous somatic stem cells and inhibition of inflammatory T-cell infiltration. Taken together, our findings identify a novel pharmacological approach to achieve autotherapies for endogenous tissue regeneration. 10.1177/00220345211070222
    Natural products for treatment of bone erosive diseases: The effects and mechanisms on inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. An Jing,Hao Dingjun,Zhang Qian,Chen Bo,Zhang Rui,Wang Yi,Yang Hao International immunopharmacology Excessive bone resorption plays a central role on the development of bone erosive diseases, including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. Osteoclasts, bone-resorbing multinucleated cells, are differentiated from hemopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Regulation of osteoclast differentiation is considered an effective therapeutic target to the treatment of pathological bone loss. Natural plant-derived products, with potential therapeutic and preventive activities against bone-lytic diseases, have received increasing attention in recent years because of their whole regulative effects and specific pharmacological activities, which are more suitable for long-term use than chemically synthesized medicines. In this review, we summarized the detailed research progress on the active compounds derived from medical plants with potential anti-resorptive effects and their molecular mechanisms on inhibiting osteoclast formation and function. The active ingredients derived from natural plants that are efficacious in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption include flavonoids, terpenoids (sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids), glycosides, lignans, coumarins, alkaloids, polyphenols, limonoids, quinones and others (steroid, oxoxishhone, fatty acid). Studies have shown that above natural products exert the inhibitory effects via regulating many factors involved in the process of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, including the essential cytokines (RANKL, M-CSF), transcription factors (NFATc1, c-Fos), signaling pathways (NF-κB, MAPKs, Src/PI3K/Akt, the calcium ion signaling), osteoclast-specific genes (TRAP, CTSK, MMP-9, integrin β3, OSCAR, DC-STAMP, Atp6v0d2) and local factors (ROS, LPS, NO). The development of osteoclast-targeting natural products is of great value for the prevention or treatment of bone diseases and for bone regenerative medicine. 10.1016/j.intimp.2016.04.024
    Non-Nutrient, Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds with Antioxidant Activity for the Prevention and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases. Varela-López Alfonso,Bullón Pedro,Giampieri Francesca,Quiles José L Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) One of the main factors able to explain the pathophysiological mechanism of inflammatory conditions that occur in periodontal disease is oxidative stress. Given the emerging understanding of this relationship, host-modulatory therapies using antioxidants could be interesting to prevent or slow the breakdown of soft and hard periodontal tissues. In this context, non-nutrient phenolic compounds of various foods and plants have received considerable attention in the last decade. Here, studies focusing on the relationship between different compounds of this type with periodontal disease have been collected. Among them, thymoquinone, coenzyme Q (CoQ), mangiferin, resveratrol, verbascoside and some flavonoids have shown to prevent or ameliorate periodontal tissues damage in animal models. However evidence regarding this effect in humans is poor and only limited to topical treatments with CoQ and catechins. Along with animal experiments, in vitro studies indicate that possible mechanisms by which these compounds might exert their protective effects include antioxidative properties, oxygen and nitrogen scavenging abilities, and also inhibitory effects on cell signaling cascades related to inflammatory processes which have an effect on RNS or ROS production as well as on antioxidant defense systems. 10.3390/antiox4030447
    The Biological Efficacy of Natural Products against Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Diseases in the Oral Region. Ara Toshiaki,Nakatani Sachie,Kobata Kenji,Sogawa Norio,Sogawa Chiharu Medicines (Basel, Switzerland) The oral inflammatory diseases are divided into two types: acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. In this review, we summarize the biological efficacy of herbal medicine, natural products, and their active ingredients against acute and chronic inflammatory diseases in the oral region, especially stomatitis and periodontitis. We review the effects of herbal medicines and a biscoclaurin alkaloid preparation, cepharamthin, as a therapy against stomatitis, an acute inflammatory disease. We also summarize the effects of herbal medicines and natural products against periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease, and one of its clinical conditions, alveolar bone resorption. Recent studies show that several herbal medicines such as kakkonto and ninjinto reduce LPS-induced PGE 2 production by human gingival fibroblasts. Among herbs constituting these herbal medicines, shokyo () and kankyo () strongly reduce PGE 2 production. Moreover, anti-osteoclast activity has been observed in some natural products with anti-inflammatory effects used against rheumatoid arthritis such as carotenoids, flavonoids, limonoids, and polyphenols. These herbal medicines and natural products could be useful for treating oral inflammatory diseases. 10.3390/medicines5040122
    Use of polyphenols in periodontal inflammation. Palaska Iro,Papathanasiou Evangelos,Theoharides Theoharis C European journal of pharmacology Periodontitis is an oral inflammatory disease of polymicrobial origin that causes the destruction of gingival connective tissue and the alveolar bone supporting the teeth. Host immune and inflammatory responses due to specific periodontopathogens and their metabolic products mediate local tissue destruction. Periodontal disease affects as many as 30% of adults and it is one of the most common chronic human diseases. However, traditional therapeutic modalities for periodontitis, including non-surgical or surgical periodontal therapy and occasional adjunctive antimicrobial therapy, have been only partially successful. Moreover, the widespread development of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria and unwanted effects on the gut flora necessitates new strategies to better control periodontal inflammation. Recently, natural compounds capable of modulating the host inflammatory response have received considerable attention. Here we review (Pubmed 1997 to 2013) the orally-related anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory actions of polyphenols, naturally occurring molecules, capable of modulating the host inflammatory response. Of these, certain flavonoids appear to stand out because of their beneficial profile and clinical evidence. Unique formulations of novel flavonoids may be useful for further development as possible therapeutic agents for periodontal inflammation. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.10.047
    The Effects of Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Natural Compounds on Chronic Periodontitis: A Clinical Review. Advances in experimental medicine and biology The paper aims to review the current clinical evidence of various herbal agents as an adjunct treatment in the management of chronic periodontitis patients. Gingivitis and periodontitis are two common infectious inflammatory diseases of the supporting tissues of the teeth and have a multifactorial etiology. An important concern about chronic periodontitis is its association with certain systemic disease. New treatment strategies for controlling the adverse effects of chronic periodontitis have been extensively assessed and practiced in sub-clinical and clinical studies. It has been shown that the phytochemical agents have various therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects which can be beneficial for the treatment of periodontitis. The findings of this review support the adjunctive use of herbal agents in the management of chronic periodontitis. Heterogeneity and limited data may reduce the impact of these conclusions. Future long-term randomized controlled trials evaluating the clinical efficacy of adjunctive herbal therapy to scaling and root planing are needed. 10.1007/978-3-030-73234-9_5
    The roles of osteocytes in alveolar bone destruction in periodontitis. Huang Xiaofei,Xie Mengru,Xie Yanling,Mei Feng,Lu Xiaofeng,Li Xiaoshuang,Chen Lili Journal of translational medicine Periodontitis, a bacterium-induced inflammatory disease that is characterized by alveolar bone loss, is highly prevalent worldwide. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of alveolar bone loss in periodontitis is crucial for understanding its pathogenesis. Classically, bone cells, such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells, are thought to dominate the development of bone destruction in periodontitis. Recently, osteocytes, the cells embedded in the mineral matrix, have gained attention. This review demonstrates the key contributing role of osteocytes in periodontitis, especially in alveolar bone loss. Osteocytes not only initiate physiological bone remodeling but also assist in inflammation-related changes in bone remodeling. The latest evidence suggests that osteocytes are involved in regulating bone anabolism and catabolism in the progression of periodontitis. The altered secretion of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) by osteocytes affects the balance of bone resorption and formation and promotes bone loss. In addition, the accumulation of prematurely senescent and apoptotic osteocytes observed in alveolar bone may exacerbate local destruction. Based on their communication with the bloodstream, it is noteworthy that osteocytes may participate in the interaction between local periodontitis lesions and systemic diseases. Overall, further investigations of osteocytes may provide vital insights that improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of periodontitis. 10.1186/s12967-020-02664-7
    Inflammasomes in Alveolar Bone Loss. Li Yang,Ling Junqi,Jiang Qianzhou Frontiers in immunology Bone remodeling is tightly controlled by osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone formation. Fine tuning of the osteoclast-osteoblast balance results in strict synchronization of bone resorption and formation, which maintains structural integrity and bone tissue homeostasis; in contrast, dysregulated bone remodeling may cause pathological osteolysis, in which inflammation plays a vital role in promoting bone destruction. The alveolar bone presents high turnover rate, complex associations with the tooth and periodontium, and susceptibility to oral pathogenic insults and mechanical stress, which enhance its complexity in host defense and bone remodeling. Alveolar bone loss is also involved in systemic bone destruction and is affected by medication or systemic pathological factors. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the osteoimmunological mechanisms involved in the dysregulation of alveolar bone remodeling. The inflammasome is a supramolecular protein complex assembled in response to pattern recognition receptors and damage-associated molecular patterns, leading to the maturation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of inflammatory responses. Pyroptosis downstream of inflammasome activation also facilitates the clearance of intracellular pathogens and irritants. However, inadequate or excessive activity of the inflammasome may allow for persistent infection and infection spreading or uncontrolled destruction of the alveolar bone, as commonly observed in periodontitis, periapical periodontitis, peri-implantitis, orthodontic tooth movement, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw, nonsterile or sterile osteomyelitis of the jaw, and osteoporosis. In this review, we present a framework for understanding the role and mechanism of canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes in the pathogenesis and development of etiologically diverse diseases associated with alveolar bone loss. Inappropriate inflammasome activation may drive alveolar osteolysis by regulating cellular players, including osteoclasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes, periodontal ligament cells, macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, and adaptive immune cells, such as T helper 17 cells, causing increased osteoclast activity, decreased osteoblast activity, and enhanced periodontium inflammation by creating a pro-inflammatory milieu in a context- and cell type-dependent manner. We also discuss promising therapeutic strategies targeting inappropriate inflammasome activity in the treatment of alveolar bone loss. Novel strategies for inhibiting inflammasome signaling may facilitate the development of versatile drugs that carefully balance the beneficial contributions of inflammasomes to host defense. 10.3389/fimmu.2021.691013
    Extracellular ATP is a key modulator of alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Binderman Itzhak,Gadban Nasir,Yaffe Avinoam Archives of oral biology Periodontal diseases are initiated by pathogenic bacterial biofilm activity that induces a host inflammatory cells immune response, degradation of dento gingival fibrous tissue and its detachment from root cementum. It is well accepted, that osteoclastic alveolar bone loss is governed exclusively through secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that once degradation of collagen fibers by MMPs occurs, a drop of cellular strains cause immediate release of ATP from marginal gingival fibroblasts, cell deformation and influx of Ca+2. Increased extracellular ATP (eATP) by interacting with P2×7 purinoreceptors, present on fibroblasts and osteoblasts, induces generation of receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL) that further activates osteoclastic alveolar bone resorption and bone loss. In addition, increased eATP levels may amplify inflammation by promoting leukocyte recruitment and NALP3-inflammasome activation via P2×7. Then, the inflammatory cells secrete cytokines, interleukin IL-1, TNF and RANKL that further trigger alveolar bone resorption. Moreover, eATP can be secreted from periodontal bacteria that may further contribute to inflammation and bone loss in periodontitis. It seems therefore, that eATP is a key modulator that initiates the pathway of alveolar bone resorption and bone loss in patients with periodontal disease. In conclusion, we propose that strain release in gingival fibroblasts aligned on collagen fibers, due to activity of MMP, activates release of ATP that triggers the pathway of alveolar bone resorption in periodontitis. We predict that by controlling the eATP interaction with its cellular purinoreceptors will reduce significantly bone loss in periodontitis. 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.05.002
    Ameliorating effects of Juzentaihoto on restraint stress and P. gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss. Takeda Orie,Toyama Toshizo,Watanabe Kiyoko,Sato Takenori,Sasaguri Kenichi,Akimoto Susumu,Sato Sadao,Kawata Toshitsugu,Hamada Nobushiro Archives of oral biology OBJECTIVE:Juzentaihoto (JTX) is a traditional Japanese medicine that consists of 10 herbs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of multi-herbal medicine JTX as a preventive and therapeutic drug for periodontal bone resorption and for reducing restraint stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 was used for testing the antibacterial activity of JTX and a rat experimental periodontitis model. To evaluate the effect of JTX against P. gingivalis infection, we determined the differences in alveolar bone loss among experimental groups. The concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormones were measured as stress markers, and atrophy of the thymus and spleen was assessed. RESULTS:JTX had antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis ATCC 33277. JTX treatment of mouse bone marrow cells at a concentration of 0.1 μg/ml significantly inhibited osteoclast formation. Administration of JTX to rats with P. gingivalis infection and restraint stress significantly reduced alveolar bone loss compared with the case with just the combination of P. gingivalis infection and restraint stress. In the restrained groups, stress markers were elevated, and the thymus and spleen were atrophied. The groups with administration of JTX showed not only inhibition of the decrease of weight but also normalization of corticosterone and cortisol values. CONCLUSION:JTX effectively inhibited restraint stress and osteoclastogenesis. It appears that the effects of JTX inhibit the destruction of periodontal tissue by suppressing stress. Our study demonstrated that JTX affects the correlation between restraint stress and periodontitis. 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2014.06.010
    Baicalein inhibits inflammatory response and promotes osteogenic activity in periodontal ligament cells challenged with lipopolysaccharides. Ren Manman,Zhao Ya,He Zhiqi,Lin Jian,Xu Chuchu,Liu Fen,Hu Rongdang,Deng Hui,Wang Yi BMC complementary medicine and therapies BACKGROUND:Periodontitis is a chronic infection initiated by oral bacterial and their virulence factors, yet the severity of periodontitis is largely determined by the dysregulated host immuno-inflammatory response. Baicalein is a flavonoid extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis with promising anti-inflammatory properties. This study aims to clarify the anti-inflammatory and osteogenic effects of baicalein in periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). METHODS:Human PDLCs were incubated with baicalein (0-100 μM) for 2 h prior to LPS challenge for 24 h. MTT analysis was adopted to assess the cytoxicity of baicalein. The mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory and osteogenic markers were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as appropriate. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Alizarin red S (ARS) staining were performed to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs. The expression of Wnt/β-catenin and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling related proteins was assessed by western blot. RESULTS:MTT results showed that baicalein up to 100 μM had no cytotoxicity on PDLCs. Baicalein significantly attenuated the inflammatory factors induced by LPS, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), matrix metalloprotein-1 (MMP-1), MMP-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) at both mRNA and protein level. Moreover, MAPK signaling (ERK, JNK and p38) was significantly inhibited by baicalein, which may account for the mitigated inflammatory response. Next, we found that baicalein effectively restored the osteogenic differentiation of LPS-treated PDLCs, as shown by the increased ALP and ARS staining. Accordingly, the protein and gene expression of osteogenic markers, namely runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), collagen-I, and osterix were markedly upregulated. Importantly, baicalein could function as the Wnt/β-catenin signaling activator, which may lead to the increased osteoblastic differentiation of PDLCs. CONCLUSIONS:With the limitation of the study, we provide in vitro evidence that baicalein ameliorates inflammatory response and restores osteogenesis in PDLCs challenged with LPS, indicating its potential use as the host response modulator for the management of periodontitis. 10.1186/s12906-021-03213-5
    [Mechanism of Qingwei Powder in treatment of periodontitis based on UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, GC-MS, network pharmacology and molecular docking]. Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica The present study explored the mechanism of Qingwei Powder(QP) in the treatment of periodontitis based on chromatography-mass spectrometry and network pharmacology-molecular docking techniques. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and GC-MS were used to identify the chemical constituents of QP. The active components and targets were screened out through the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP), and their targets were predicted using SwissTargetPrediction. Targets related to periodontitis were obtained from GeneCards, OMIM, and DisGeNET. Venn diagram was constructed using Venny 2.1 to obtain the intersection targets. Cytoscape 3.7.2 was used to construct the "chemical component-target-disease" network. The targets were analyzed for Gene Ontology(GO) function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment by clusterProfiler R, and the "chemical component-target-pathway" network was constructed. The binding activity of the active components to the target proteins was verified by molecular docking. A total of 189 chemical components were obtained by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and GC-MS, including 39 active components with 180 potential targets related to periodontitis. Target enrichment analysis of the active components yielded 92 KEGG pathways. Twenty KEGG pathways, 34 active components, and 99 targets were involved in the "chemical component-target-pathway" network. Molecular docking verified a good binding ability of the key targets to the key compounds. This study preliminarily indicates that QP is effective in treating periodontitis through multiple components, multiple targets, and multiple pathways, which reflects the complex system of Chinese medicine. This study provides the theoretical foundation for the subsequent research on the material basis and key quality attributes of QP. 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20211027.403
    Gan-Lu-Yin (Kanroin), Traditional Chinese Herbal Extracts, Reduces Osteoclast Differentiation In Vitro and Prevents Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rat Experimental Periodontitis Inagaki Yuji,Kido Jun-Ichi,Nishikawa Yasufumi,Kido Rie,Sakamoto Eijiro,Bando Mika,Naruishi Koji,Nagata Toshihiko,Yumoto Hiromichi Journal of clinical medicine Gan-Lu-Yin (GLY), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, shows therapeutic effects on periodontitis, but that mechanism is not well known. This study aims to clarify the precise mechanism by investigating the inhibitory effects of GLY extracts on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and on bone resorption in periodontitis in vivo. RAW264.7 cells are cultured with soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (sRANKL) and GLY extracts (0.01-1.0 mg/mL), and stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) to evaluate osteoclast differentiation. Experimental periodontitis is induced by placing a nylon ligature around the second maxillary molar in rats, and rats are administered GLY extracts (60 mg/kg) daily for 20 days. Their maxillae are collected on day 4 and 20, and the levels of alveolar bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation are estimated using micro-computed tomography (CT) and histological analysis, respectively. In RAW264.7 cells, GLY extracts significantly inhibit sRANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation at a concentration of more than 0.05 mg/mL. In experimental periodontitis, administering GLY extracts significantly decreases the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts in the alveolar bone on day 4, and significantly inhibits the ligature-induced bone resorption on day 20. These results show that GLY extracts suppress bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation in experimental periodontitis, suggesting that GLY extracts are potentially useful for oral care in periodontitis. 10.3390/jcm10030386