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    Berberine Regulates Treg/Th17 Balance to Treat Ulcerative Colitis Through Modulating the Gut Microbiota in the Colon. Cui Huantian,Cai Yuzi,Wang Li,Jia Beitian,Li Junchen,Zhao Shuwu,Chu Xiaoqian,Lin Jin,Zhang Xiaoyu,Bian Yuhong,Zhuang Pengwei Frontiers in pharmacology Berberine (BBR), an alkaloid isolated from , and , has been widely used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the mechanism of BBR on UC is unknown. In this study, we investigated the activities of T regulatory cell (Treg) and T helper 17 cell (Th17) in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC mouse model after BBR administration. We also investigated the changes of gut microbiota composition using 16S rRNA analysis. We also examined whether BBR could regulate the Treg/Th17 balance by modifying gut microbiota. The mechanism was further confirmed by depleting gut microbiota through a combination of antibiotic treatment and fecal transplantations. Results showed that BBR treatment could improve the Treg/Th17 balance in the DSS-induced UC model. BBR also reduced diversity of the gut microbiota and interfered with the relative abundance of , and Moreover, BBR treatment did not influence the Treg/Th17 balance after the depletion of gut microbiota. Our results also revealed that fecal transplantation from BBR-treated mice could relieve UC and regulate the Treg/Th17 balance. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that BBR prevents UC by modifying gut microbiota and regulating the balance of Treg/Th17. 10.3389/fphar.2018.00571
    Protective effects of berberine hydrochloride on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Zhu Lei,Gu PeiQing,Shen Hong International immunopharmacology BACKGROUND:Berberine hydrochloride is one the effective compound among Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri, and other plants. There are several clinical functions of berberine hydrochloride including anti-inflammation, antitumor and immunoregulatory. However, the anti-inflammatory of berberine hydrochloride in ulcerative colitis is barely understood. In this study, we aimed to explore the effects of berberine hydrochloride on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced rats model of ulcerative colitis. METHODS:The severity of colitis were measured by body weight, survial rate, colon length and disease activity index (DAI) score. The cytokines expression include IL-1, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ were performed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Signaling pathway proteins such as p-STAT3, STAT3, p-NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p65 were analyzed by western blot and immunofluorescence. The proteins expression of tight junction were explored using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. RESULT:Rats were administered berberine hydrochloride showed less weight loss and longer colon length than the DSS-induced group. The expression of IL-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ were suppressed, yet the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 were up-regulated by berberine hydrochloride and sulphasalazine treatment compared to the model group. Meanwhile, treatment with berberine hydrochloride effectively increased the expression of SIgA and decreased the expression of iNOS, MPO, MDA. In terms of the biochemical analyses, the results showed that the expression of p-STAT3 was signifcantly increased, while the expression of p-NF-κB (p65) was suppressed compared to the model group via western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. CONCLUSIONS:Berberine hydrochloride has beneficial effects in UC. The possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory response by berberine hydrochloride may involve in the blocking of the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB signaling pathway. Collectively, these fndings provide evidence that berberine hydrochloride might be a useful herb medicine and serve as a promising novel therapy in the treatment of UC in humans. 10.1016/j.intimp.2018.12.036
    Coptisine ameliorates DSS-induced ulcerative colitis via improving intestinal barrier dysfunction and suppressing inflammatory response. Wang Yongfu,Liu Jingjing,Huang Ziwei,Li Yucui,Liang Yuanyuan,Luo Chaodan,Ni Chen,Xie Jianhui,Su Ziren,Chen Jiannan,Li Cailan European journal of pharmacology Ulcerative colitis (UC), as an autoimmune disease, has been troubling human health for many years. Up to now, the available treatments remain unsatisfactory. Rhizoma Coptidis has been widely applied to treat gastrointestinal diseases in China for a long time, and coptisine (COP) is identified as one of its major active components. This study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of COP on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mice colitis and clarify the potential mechanism of action. The results revealed that COP treatment markedly alleviated DSS-induced clinical symptoms by relieving body weight loss and the disease activity index (DAI) score. Specifically, the colon length in the COP (50 and 100 mg/kg) groups were obviously longer than that in the DSS group (7.21 ± 0.34, 8.59 ± 0.45 cm vs. 6.71 ± 0.59 cm, P < 0.01). HE staining analysis revealed that COP treatment significantly protected the integrity of intestinal barrier and alleviated inflammatory cells infiltration. Western blot assay confirmed that COP notably improved the intestinal epithelial barrier function by enhancing the expressions of colonic tight junction proteins and inhibited the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins. In addition, COP treatment remarkably suppressed the levels of colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO), adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17), while enhanced IL-10 and TGF-β. The mechanism anti-inflammatory of COP might be related to inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα, and the translocation of NF-κB p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. In summary, the study indicated that COP ameliorated DSS-induced colitis, at least partly through maintaining the integrity of intestinal epithelial barrier, inhibiting apoptosis and inflammatory response. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.173912
    Jatrorrhizine: a review of its pharmacological effects. Rolle Janiqua,Asante Dorothy O,Kok-Fong Linsey L,Boucetta Hamza,Seidu Theodora A,Tai Lesieli L K,Alolga Raphael N The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology OBJECTIVES:Jatrorrhizine is an isoquinoline alkaloid found in medicinal plants. It is the main bioactive compound of the Chinese herbs, Coptis chinensis, Rhizoma coptidis, and Phellodendron chinense Schneid, plants that are predominantly used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of metabolic disorders, gastritis, stomachache among a host of others. This manuscript aims to provide a comprehensive review of the pharmacological effects of jatrorrhizine, proffer suggestions on research areas that need redress and potentially serve as a reference for future studies. KEY FINDINGS:Published scientific literature was therefore retrieved from all credible sources including Pubmed, Elsevier, Research Gate, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Europe PMC and Wiley Online library using key words such as 'jatrorrhizine', 'botanical sources', 'pharmacology', 'toxicology', 'pharmacokinetics' or their combinations. A cursory examination of relevant scientific literature using the aforementioned key words produced more than 400 publications. CONCLUSIONS:Using an inclusion/exclusion criteria the subject matter of this review was adequately addressed. It is our hope that this review will provide a good platform for further research on fully harnessing the potential of this bioactive compound. 10.1093/jpp/rgaa065
    The Effect of Berberine on Metabolic Profiles in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity OBJECTIVE: is an herb that has been frequently used in many traditional formulas for the treatment of diabetic mellitus (DM) over thousands of years. Berberine, the main active component of , has been demonstrated to have the potential effect of hypoglycemia. To determine the potential advantages of berberine for diabetic care, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the efficacy and safety of berberine in the treatment of patients with type 2 DM. METHODS:Eight databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Database (SinoMed), Wanfang Database, and Chinese VIP Information was searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting clinical data regarding the use of berberine for the treatment of DM. Publication qualities were also considered to augment the credibility of the evidence. Glycemic metabolisms were the main factors studied, including glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasm glucose (FPG), and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (2hPG). Insulin resistance was estimated by fasting blood insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and body mass index (BMI). Lipid profiles were also assessed, including triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), along with inflammation factors such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-). Serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and adverse events were applied to evaluate the safety of berberine. RESULTS:Forty-six trials were assessed. Analysis of berberine applied alone or with standard diabetic therapies versus the control group revealed significant reductions in HbA1c (MD = -0.73; 95% CI (-0.97, -0.51)), FPG (MD = -0.86, 95% CI (-1.10, -0.62)), and 2hPG (MD = -1.26, 95% CI (-1.64, -0.89)). Improved insulin resistance was assessed by lowering FINS (MD = -2.05, 95% CI (-2.62, -1.48)), HOMA-IR (MD = -0.71, 95% CI (-1.03, -0.39)), and BMI (MD = -1.07, 95% CI (-1.76, -0.37)). Lipid metabolisms were also ameliorated via the reduction of TG (MD = -0.5, 95% CI (-0.61, -0.39)), TC (MD = 0.64, 95% CI (-0.78, -0.49)), and LDL (MD = 0.86, 95% CI (-1.06, -0.65)) and the upregulation of HDL (MD = 0.17, 95% CI (0.09, 0.25)). Additionally, berberine improved the inflammation factor. CONCLUSION:There is strong evidence supporting the clinical efficacy and safety of berberine in the treatment of DM, especially as an adjunctive therapy. In the future, this may be used to guide targeted clinical use of berberine and the development of medications seeking to treat patients with T2DM and dyslipidemia. 10.1155/2021/2074610
    Berberine Reduces Lipid Accumulation by Promoting Fatty Acid Oxidation in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells of the Diabetic Kidney. Rong Qingfeng,Han Baosheng,Li Yafeng,Yin Haizhen,Li Jing,Hou Yanjuan Frontiers in pharmacology Abnormal lipid metabolism in renal tubular epithelial cells contributes to renal lipid accumulation and disturbed mitochondrial bioenergetics which are important in diabetic kidney disease. Berberine, the major active constituent of and , is involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of berberine on lipid accumulation in tubular epithelial cells of diabetic kidney disease. We treated type 2 diabetic db/db mice with berberine (300 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. Berberine treatment improved the physical and biochemical parameters of the db/db mice compared with db/m mice. In addition, berberine decreased intracellular lipid accumulation and increased the expression of fatty acid oxidation enzymes CPT1, ACOX1 and PPAR-α in tubular epithelial cells of db/db mice. The mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial ATP production in db/db mice kidneys were significantly improved by berberine. Berberine intervention activated the AMPK pathway and increased the level of PGC-1α. berberine suppressed high glucose-induced lipid accumulation and reversed high glucose-induced reduction of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in HK-2 cells. Importantly, in HK-2 cells, berberine treatment blocked the change in metabolism from fatty acid oxidation to glycolysis under high glucose condition. Moreover, berberine restored high glucose-induced dysfunctional mitochondria. These data suggested that berberine alleviates diabetic renal tubulointerstitial injury through improving high glucose-induced reduction of fatty acid oxidation, alleviates lipid deposition, and protect mitochondria in tubular epithelial cells. 10.3389/fphar.2021.729384
    Effects of berberine on leukemia with a focus on its molecular targets. Mazandaranian Mohammad Reza,Dana Parisa Maleki,Asemi Zatollah,Hallajzadeh Jamal,Mansournia Mohammad Ali,Yousefi Bahman Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry Leukemia is a common cancer among both women and men worldwide. Besides the fact that finding new treatment methods may enhance the life quality of patients, there are several problems that we face today in treating leukemia patients, such as drugs side effects and acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Berberine is a bioactive alkaloid found in herbal plants (e.g. Rhizoma coptidis and Cortex phellodendri) and exerts several beneficial functions, including anti-tumor activities. Furthermore, berberine exerts antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. Up to now, some studies have investigated the roles of berberine in different types of leukemia, including acute myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In this review, a detailed description of berberine roles in leukemia is provided. We discuss how berberine involves different molecular targets (e.g. interleukins and cyclins) and signaling pathways (e.g. mTOR and PI3K) to exert its anti-tumor functions and how berberine is effective in leukemia treatment when combined with other therapeutic drugs. 10.2174/1871520622666220324092302
    Berberine: A Review of its Pharmacokinetics Properties and Therapeutic Potentials in Diverse Vascular Diseases. Ai Xiaopeng,Yu Peiling,Peng Lixia,Luo Liuling,Liu Jia,Li Shengqian,Lai Xianrong,Luan Fei,Meng Xianli Frontiers in pharmacology Traditional Chinese medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of various diseases and has attracted increasing attention for clinical applications. Vascular diseases affecting vasculature in the heart, cerebrovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and diabetic complications have compromised quality of life for affected individuals and increase the burden on health care services. Berberine, a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid form , is widely used in China as a folk medicine for its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Promisingly, an increasing number of studies have identified several cellular and molecular targets for berberine, indicating its potential as an alternative therapeutic strategy for vascular diseases, as well as providing novel evidence that supports the therapeutic potential of berberine to combat vascular diseases. The purpose of this review is to comprehensively and systematically describe the evidence for berberine as a therapeutic agent in vascular diseases, including its pharmacological effects, molecular mechanisms, and pharmacokinetics. According to data published so far, berberine shows remarkable anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and antiautophagic activity via the regulation of multiple signaling pathways, including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase silent information regulator 1 (SIRT-1), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), janus kinase 2 (JAK-2), Ca channels, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Moreover, we discuss the existing limitations of berberine in the treatment of vascular diseases, and give corresponding measures. In addition, we propose some research perspectives and challenges, and provide a solid evidence base from which further studies can excavate novel effective drugs from Chinese medicine monomers. 10.3389/fphar.2021.762654
    Suppression of Berberine and Probiotics ( and ) on the Growth of Colon Cancer With Modulation of Gut Microbiota and Butyrate Production. Frontiers in microbiology Background and Objective:An increasing number of evidence has revealed that the gut microbiome functions in immunity, inflammation, metabolism, and homeostasis and is considered to be crucial due to its balance between human health and diseases such as cancer, leading to the emergence of treatments that target intestinal microbiota. Probiotics are one of them. However, many challenges remain regarding the effects of probiotics in cancer treatment. Berberine (BBR), a natural extract of Rhizoma Coptidis and extensively used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, has been found to have antitumor effects and by many recent studies, but its definite mechanisms are still unclear. This study aimed to explore the inhibitory effect of BBR and probiotics on the growth of colon cancer cells and , and the regulatory influence on the gut microbiome and butyrate production. Methods:Colon cancer cell line HT29 was used to establish a xenograft model of nude mice and an model. A total of 44 nude mice and HT29 cells were divided into control, model, model + BBR, model + probiotics, and model + combination of BBR with probiotics (CBPs). Live combined , , and powder (LCBLEP) was used as a probiotic preparation. LCBLEP was cultured in the liquid medium under anaerobic conditions (the number of viable bacteria should reach 1 × 10CFU), and the supernatant was collected, and it is called probiotic supernatant (PS). Model + BBR and model + probiotics groups were treated with BBR and LCBLEP or PS for 4 weeks or 48, 72, and 96 h , respectively. Tumor volume or cell proliferation was measured. Gut microbiota was pyrosequenced using a 16S rDNA amplicon. HDAC1 mRNA level in HT29 cells and sodium butyrate (SB) expression in the serum of mice was detected by QPCR and ELISA. Results:The treatment of BBR and CBP reduced the growth of neoplasms in mice to a different extent ( > 0.05), especially at 14 days. The inhibitory effect of LCBLEP on tumor growth was more significant, especially at 11-21 days ( < 0.05). Inhibition of BBR on proliferation was concentration-dependent. The suppression of 75% probiotic supernatant (PS) on the proliferation was the most significant. The supplement of LCBLEP significantly increased the richness and evenness of the gut microbe. BBR dramatically increased the abundance of s and , with reduced , followed by the LCBLEP. The LCBLEP reduced the relative abundance of and , and the CBP also promoted the relative level of s but reduced the level of and . BBR and LCBLEP or CBP improved the alpha and beta diversity and significantly affected the biomarker and metabolic function of the gut microbe in nude mice with colon cancer. The level of HDAC1 mRNA was reduced in HT29 cells treated with BBR or PS ( < 0.05), the mice treated with BBR revealed a significantly increased concentration of SB in serum ( < 0.05), and the inhibitory effect of SB on the proliferation of HT29 cells was stronger than panobinostat and TSA. Conclusion:Although the combination of BBR and probiotics has no advantage in inhibiting tumor growth compared with the drug alone, BBR can be used as a regulator of the intestinal microbiome similar to the probiotics by mediating the production of SB during reducing the growth of colon cancer. 10.3389/fmicb.2022.869931
    Hormetic Effect of Berberine Attenuates the Anticancer Activity of Chemotherapeutic Agents. Bao Jiaolin,Huang Borong,Zou Lidi,Chen Shenghui,Zhang Chao,Zhang Yulin,Chen Meiwan,Wan Jian-Bo,Su Huanxing,Wang Yitao,He Chengwei PloS one Hormesis is a phenomenon of biphasic dose response characterized by exhibiting stimulatory or beneficial effects at low doses and inhibitory or toxic effects at high doses. Increasing numbers of chemicals of various types have been shown to induce apparent hormetic effect on cancer cells. However, the underlying significance and mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Berberine, one of the major active components of Rhizoma coptidis, has been manifested with notable anticancer activities. This study aims to investigate the hormetic effect of berberine and its influence on the anticancer activities of chemotherapeutic agents. Our results demonstrated that berberine at low dose range (1.25 ~ 5 μM) promoted cell proliferation to 112% ~170% of the untreated control in various cancer cells, while berberine at high dose rage (10 ~ 80 μM) inhibited cell proliferation. Further, we observed that co-treatment with low dose berberine could significantly attenuate the anticancer activity of chemotherapeutic agents, including fluorouracil (5-FU), camptothecin (CPT), and paclitaxel (TAX). The hormetic effect and thereby the attenuated anticancer activity of chemotherapeutic drugs by berberine may attributable to the activated protective stress response in cancer cells triggered by berberine, as evidenced by up-regulated MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. These results provided important information to understand the potential side effects of hormesis, and suggested cautious application of natural compounds and relevant herbs in adjuvant treatment of cancer. 10.1371/journal.pone.0139298
    Berberine and Coptidis Rhizoma as potential anticancer agents: Recent updates and future perspectives. Wang Ning,Tan Hor-Yue,Li Lei,Yuen Man-Fung,Feng Yibin Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:The antineoplastic property of Coptidis Rhizoma and berberine was correlated with its traditional use of clearing internal fire, removing damp-heat and counteracting toxic pathogens. AIM OF THE STUDY:The anti-tumor effect of Coptidis Rhizoma and berberine was extensively studied since our last comprehensive review in 2009. This study aims to summarize the recent updates and give rise to perspectives of Coptidis Rhizoma and berberine as potential novel antineoplastic agents. METHODS:Quality studies in recent 5 years were retrieved from PubMed, Medline and CNKI with keywords including Coptis, Coptidis Rhizoma, huanglian, berberine, tumor and cancer. Studies were focused on the pharmacological actions of Coptidis Rhizoma and berberine in cancer progression. RESULTS:It was shown that Coptidis Rhizoma extract and berberine may repress tumor progression by regressing abnormal cell proliferation, arresting cell cycle and inducing cell death. Studies also highlighted the actions of Coptidis Rhizoma extract and berberine in inhibiting tumor cell invasion and angiogenesis, which in turn abolish cancer metastasis. Some studies have also been conducted to reveal the potential effect of Coptidis Rhizoma extract and berberine in regulating tumor stromal microenvironment, as well as in preventing carcinogenesis. Most of the results have been demonstrated with in vivo models, but results of high-quality clinical trials are not yet available. Unspecified cancer type and staging, fluctuated dose information and variants of targets across studies of berberine/ Coptidis Rhizoma impede their clinical use for cancer treatment. CONCLUSION:Recent advances highlighted by this review may shed light on future direction of studies featuring Coptidis Rhizoma and berberine as novel antineoplastic agents, which should be repeatedly proven in future animal and clinical studies. Although more evidences on its specificity and clinical efficacy are necessary to support its clinical use, Coptidis Rhizoma and berberine are highly expected to be effective, safe and affordable treatments for cancer patients. 10.1016/j.jep.2015.10.028
    Epiberberine, a natural protoberberine alkaloid, inhibits urease of Helicobacter pylori and jack bean: Susceptibility and mechanism. Tan Lihua,Li Cailan,Chen Hanbin,Mo Zhizhun,Zhou Jiangtao,Liu Yuhong,Ma Zhilin,Xu Yuyao,Yang Xiaobo,Xie Jianhui,Su Ziren European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences In our previous study, Rhizoma Coptidis extract was found to exert more potent inhibitory effect than its major component berberine towards urease from Helicobacter pylori (HPU) and jack bean (JBU). In continuation of our work, the present study was designed to further comparatively investigate the urease inhibitory activities of five major protoberberine alkaloids in Rhizoma Coptidis, namely berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jateorhizine to identify the bioactive constituent, and illuminate the potential mechanism of action. Results indicated that the five protoberberine alkaloids acted as concentration-dependent inactivators of urease with IC values ranging between 3.0 and 5087μM for HPU and 2.3->10,000μM for JBU, respectively. Notably, epiberberine (EB) was found to be the most potent inhibitor against both ureases with IC values of 3.0±0.01μM for HPU and 2.3±0.01μM for JBU, which was more effective than the standard urease inhibitor, acetohydroxamic acid (83±0.01μM for HPU and 22±0.01μM for JBU, respectively). Further kinetic analysis revealed that the type of EB inhibition against HPU was slow-binding and uncompetitive, with K of 10.6±0.01μM, while slow-binding and competitive against JBU with K of 4.6±0.01μM. Addition of thiol reagents, such as l-cysteine, glutathione and dithiothreitol, significantly abolished the inhibition, while Ni competitive inhibitors, boric acid and sodium fluoride, synergetically inhibited urease with EB, indicating the obligatory role of the active site sulfhydryl group for the inhibition. In addition, binding of EB with the urease proved to be reversible, as about 65% and 90% enzymatic activity of HPU and JBU, respectively, could be restored by dithiothreitol application. These findings highlighted the potential role of Rhizoma Coptidis protoberberine alkaloids, especially EB, as a lead urease inhibitor in the treatment of diseases associated with ureolytic bacteria. Thus, EB had good potential for further development into a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of urease-related diseases. 10.1016/j.ejps.2017.02.004
    Hypocholesterolemia of Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids is related to the bile acid by up-regulated CYP7A1 in hyperlipidemic rats. Cao Yang,Bei Weijian,Hu Yinming,Cao Le,Huang Lihua,Wang Laiyou,Luo Duosheng,Chen Yuanyuan,Yao Xi,He Wei,Liu Xiaobo,Guo Jiao Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology This study is to investigate the cholesterol-lowering effect and the new mode of action of coptis alkaloids on high lipid diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Coptis alkaloids extract (CAE) was prepared by alcohol extraction from Rhizoma Coptidis that have been quality-controlled according to the protocol. The cholesterol-lowering effect of CAE was evaluated on SD rats fed with high-lipid diet. Serum level of lipid, Bile acid and cholesterol in the liver and feces of the rats were measured using colorimetric assay kit. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to analyze the mRNA and protein expression of cholesterol metabolism-related genes including cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the livers of the rats. A HPLC analysis was used to assess the activity of CYP7A1. The results showed that CAE reduced the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). CYP7A1 gene expression and its activity was up-regulated dose-dependently accompanying with the increased level of bile acid and the reduced cholesterol level in the livers of the CAE treated hyperlipidemic rats. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression of PPARα was also up-regulated in dose-dependent way accompanying the down-modulation of the FXR mRNA expression in the livers of the CAE treated hyperlipidemic rats. The results indicate that the cholesterol-lowering effect of coptis alkaloid extract is at least partly attributed to its promoting the cholesterol conversion into bile acids by up-regulating the gene expression of CYP7A1 and thus increasing its activity in the liver of the hyperlipidemic rats, which might related to the positive regulation of PPARα and the negative modulation of FXR. 10.1016/j.phymed.2012.03.011
    Safety evaluation of main alkaloids from Rhizoma Coptidis. Yi Jun,Ye Xiaoli,Wang Dezhen,He Kai,Yang Yong,Liu Xujing,Li Xuegang Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Rhizoma Coptidis (RC), a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for the treatment of heat-clearing and detoxifying, but there is very little information on its safety. AIM OF THE STUDY:To provide information on the safety of RC, we evaluated the toxicity of the crude RC and RC alkaloids (berberine, coptisine, palmatine and epiberberine) including cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice and sub-chronic toxicity in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The cytotoxicity of RC alkaloids was tested in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells by the MTT assay. The acute toxicity of RC alkaloids was tested in mice and the mortality was calculated at the end of experiment. For sub-chronic toxicity study, the rats were treated with the RC alkaloids at a dose of 156 mg/kg/day and RC at a dose of 521 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, organ weights, urinalysis and hematological parameters, gross necropsy and histopathology were monitored during the study period. RESULTS:The cell assay indicates that the IC(50) values of berberine, coptisine, palmatine and epiberberine in HepG2 cells were 48.17, 64.81, 112.80 and 120.58 μg/mL, which in 3T3-L1 cells were 41.76, 56.48, 84.32 and 104.18 μg/mL, respectively. In the acute toxicity assay, the LD(50) values of four alkaloids were 713.57, 852.12, 1533.68 and 1360 mg/kg, respectively. However, in the sub-chronic toxicity study, no mortality and morbidity were observed which could be related to RC alkaloids and RC treatment. Besides, there was no abnormality in clinical signs, body weights, organ weights, urinalysis, hematological parameters, gross necropsy and histopathology in any of the animals after the oral administration of RC alkaloids and RC. CONCLUSIONS:Taking these results together, we came to the conclusion that the toxicity of berberine is the maximum and palmatine is the minimal in four RC alkaloids. The currently recommended doses of RC alkaloids and RC consumed are relatively safe. 10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.062
    Pharmacokinetics of two alkaloids after oral administration of rhizoma coptidis extract in normal rats and irritable bowel syndrome rats. Gong Zipeng,Chen Ying,Zhang Ruijie,Wang Yinghan,Yang Qing,Guo Yan,Weng Xiaogang,Gao Shuangrong,Wang Hailin,Zhu Xiaoxin,Dong Yu,Li Yujie,Wang Yajie Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM A comparative pharmacokinetic study of berberine and palmatine after oral administration of Rhizoma Coptidis extract (96 mg/kg, containing berberine 22 mg/kg and palmatine 5 mg/kg based on body weight) was performed in normal and postinflammation irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) rats, induced by intracolonic instillation of acetic acid and restraint stress. Quantification of berberine and palmatine in rat plasma was achieved by using a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method. Plasma samples were collected at 13 different time points and the pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by WinNonlin software. The significant differences in the pharmacokinetic behaviors, such as C max⁡, AUC(0-t), V d /F, and CL/F, of berberine and palmatine were found between normal and PI-IBS model rats. The results indicated that PI-IBS pathological conditions in rats could alter the pharmacokinetic behavior of drug. Preclinical pharmacokinetic studies are usually carried out on healthy animals. However, we should pay more attention to the fact that the change of pharmacokinetic behavior plays an important role on efficacy. It is essential to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the drug in disease status. 10.1155/2014/845048
    Coptisine from Rhizoma coptidis exerts an anti-cancer effect on hepatocellular carcinoma by up-regulating miR-122. Chai Fang-Ni,Ma Wen-Yu,Zhang Jian,Xu He-Shan,Li Yuan-Feng,Zhou Qi-De,Li Xue-Gang,Ye Xiao-Li Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie With increasing incidence and mortality, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In this study, microRNA-122 (miR-122) mimics and relevant control oligonucleotides were transfected into HepG2 cells in vitro, followed by coptisine (COP) and sorafenib treatments. Cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and colony formation assay, wound-healing assay, Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry, respectively. Histopathology and miR-122 were analyzed by haemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and real-time RT-PCR, respectively; whereas, the relevant protein expressions were detected by western blot. In vivo, COP enhanced the expression of miR-122 by 160% compared to control in male BALB/c nude mice; COP not only protected the liver morphology but also showed a significant anti-cancer effect. Further, there was no remarkable difference between the tumor weights in the COP and sorafenib groups, but there was a striking difference to the tumor control group (p < 0.05). Hence, COP inhibited the proliferation, migration and promoted apoptosis of HCC cells; moreover, it inhibited the tumor growth in nude mice by up-regulating the expression of miR-122. 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.04.052
    Rhizoma Coptidis: A Potential Cardiovascular Protective Agent. Tan Hui-Li,Chan Kok-Gan,Pusparajah Priyia,Duangjai Acharaporn,Saokaew Surasak,Mehmood Khan Tahir,Lee Learn-Han,Goh Bey-Hing Frontiers in pharmacology Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both the developed and developing world. Rhizoma coptidis (RC), known as Huang Lian in China, is the dried rhizome of medicinal plants from the family Ranunculaceae, such as Franch, C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao, and Wall which has been used by Chinese medicinal physicians for more than 2000 years. In China, RC is a common component in traditional medicines used to treat CVD associated problems including obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and disorders of lipid metabolism. In recent years, numerous scientific studies have sought to investigate the biological properties of RC to provide scientific evidence for its traditional medical uses. RC has been found to exert significant beneficial effects on major risk factors for CVDs including anti-atherosclerotic effect, lipid-lowering effect, anti-obesity effect and anti-hepatic steatosis effect. It also has myocardioprotective effect as it provides protection from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. These properties have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds contained in RC such as berberine, coptisine, palmatine, epiberberine, jatrorrhizine, and magnoflorine; all of which have been demonstrated to have cardioprotective effects on the various parameters contributing to the occurrence of CVD through a variety of pathways. The evidence available in the published literature indicates that RC is a herb with tremendous potential to reduce the risks of CVDs, and this review aims to summarize the cardioprotective properties of RC with reference to the published literature which overall indicates that RC is a herb with remarkable potential to reduce the risks and damage caused by CVDs. 10.3389/fphar.2016.00362
    [In situ intestinal absorption kinetics of berberine and jatrorrhizine from extractive Rhizoma Coptidis in rats]. Tan Xiaomei,Guo Youli,Zhong Yufei Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica OBJECTIVE:To investigate the in situ absorption kinetics of berberine (BER) and jatrorrhizine( JAT) at different intestine segments in rats. METHOD:The intestinal perfusion experiment was performed on rats in vivo to observe the effects of absorption sites and drug concentration on the intestinal absorption characteristics of BER and JAT. RESULT:The apparent absorption rate constants (Ka) of BER and JAT at duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon were 0.1540, 0.1160, 0.9793, 0.6795 h(-1) and 0.0743, 0.0564, 0.0456, 0.0234 h(-1), respectively. The absorption of BER and JAT decreased according to the turn of duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Compared to the lower segment, BER and JAT were better absorbed at the upper and middle segments of intestine in rats. The Ka of BER and JAT had no significant difference when the concentration of the extractive Rhizoma Coptidis was at 22-88 mg x L(-1). However, the absorption quantity of BER and JAT were proportional to the concentration respectively and the saturated phenomena were not observed. CONCLUSION:Both the BER and the JAT is can be absorbed in whole intestine and the results indicated that the absorption of BER and JAT compiled with the first order kinetics through passive diffusion mechanism. 10.4268/cjcmm20100621
    Pharmacological and safety evaluation of fibrous root of Rhizoma Coptidis. Ning Na,Wang Yan Zhi,Zou Zong Yao,Zhang De Zhou,Wang De Zhen,Li Xue Gang Environmental toxicology and pharmacology The aim of this study was to investigated the pharmacological activities and safety of fibrous root of Rhizoma Coptidis (FRC). FRC not only protected Kunming mice from the minimal lethal dose of Escherichia coli, but also protected rabbits from hyperpyrexia induced by lipopolysaccharid (LPS). The acute toxicity study showed that oral medial lethal dose (LD50) of FRC was greater than 7000mg/kg body weight in Kunming mice. The sub-chronic toxicity study showed that the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) of FRC was 1.88g/kg body weight in Sprague-Dawley rats, whereas FRC at higher dose (3.76g/kg body weight) resulted in damage to liver and lung. Negative results were present in Ames test, mouse micronucleus test and mouse sperm abnormality test. These finding support the use of FRC in veterinary medicine. 10.1016/j.etap.2014.11.006
    [Effects of extracts and active components of Rhizoma Coptidis on contraction of circular smooth muscle isolated from guinea pig gastric antrum]. Yuan Jian-ye,Zhang De-gao,Yu Xiao,Wu Da-zheng Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal of Chinese integrative medicine OBJECTIVE:To identify the influence of extracts and active components of Rhizoma Coptidis on gastric smooth muscle contractility of guinea pigs, and to explore the potential pharmacological mechanism of Rhizoma Coptidis in "invigorating the stomach" and "impairing the stomach". METHODS:Observing the effects of the water extract and the alkaloids from Rhizoma Coptidis (at doses ranging from 0.3 to 1,000 microg/L) and other active components such as berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine (at doses ranging from 0.3 to 1,000 micromol/L) on the spontaneous and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions of antral circular smooth muscle strips from guinea pig stomach via a force transducer in vitro. RESULTS:The water extract or the alkaloids from Rhizoma Coptidis could improve the spontaneous contraction at the low doses, but inhibit the spontaneous contraction at the high doses. Berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine also showed the similar effects. Moreover, the water extract and the alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis, as well as berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine could increase the EFS-induced contraction. Among the three monomers, jatrorrhizine exhibited the most potent effect on EFS-induced contraction. CONCLUSION:The effects of Rhizoma Coptidis in "invigorating the stomach" or "impairing the stomach" may be related to its effect on gastric smooth muscle contractility. Berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine are all effective components of Rhizoma Coptidis affecting the contraction of gastric smooth muscle, among which jatrorrhizine is the most potent agent in promoting the contraction while berberine is the most potent one for inhibiting the contraction. 10.3736/jcim20090907
    Influences of Fructus evodiae pretreatment on the pharmacokinetics of Rhizoma coptidis alkaloids. Ma Bing-Liang,Yao Meng-Kan,Han Xiang-Hui,Ma Yue-Ming,Wu Jia-Sheng,Wang Chang-Hong Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Rhizoma coptidis is a traditional Chinese medicine with pharmacological properties. It is usually prescribed with Fructus evodiae as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulas. Here we report the influences of Fructus evodiae on the pharmacokinetics of the Rhizoma coptidis alkaloids and propose possible mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Pharmacokinetic experiments were performed in rats. In vitro absorption experiments were performed in everted rat gut sacs, while in vitro metabolism experiments and determination of hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 mRNA expression were performed in rat liver microsomes. RESULTS:Pretreatment with Fructus evodiae extract for two weeks decreased the systemic exposure of the Rhizoma coptidis alkaloids. This effect was not due to inhibition of absorption or enhanced hepatic phase I metabolism of the Rhizoma coptidis alkaloids. However, Fructus evodiae pretreatment enhanced both the activity and expression of hepatic UGT1A1. CONCLUSIONS:The results showed that Fructus evodiae pretreatment decreased the systemic exposure of the Rhizoma coptidis alkaloids by inducing hepatic UGT1A1. 10.1016/j.jep.2011.08.002
    Synergetic cholesterol-lowering effects of main alkaloids from Rhizoma Coptidis in HepG2 cells and hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Kou Shuming,Han Bing,Wang Yue,Huang Tao,He Kai,Han Yulong,Zhou Xia,Ye Xiaoli,Li Xuegang Life sciences AIMS:Hyperlipidemia contributes to the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Main alkaloids from Rhizoma Coptidis including berberine (BBR), coptisine (COP), palmatine (PAL), epiberberine (EPI) and jatrorrhizine (JAT), improved dyslipidemia in hypercholesterolemic hamsters to a different degree. In this study, HepG2 cells and hypercholesterolemic hamsters were used to investigate the synergetic cholesterol-lowering efficacy of these five main alkaloids. MAIN METHODS:The cellular lipid and cholesterol accumulation and in HepG2 cells were evaluated by Oil Red O staining and HPLC analysis. LDL receptor, 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) and cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) that involving cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells were measured by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. The serum profiles including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), as well as TC and total bile acids (TBA) of feces in hypercholesterolemic hamsters were also measured. KEY FINDING:As compared to single alkaloids, the combination of five main alkaloids (COM) reduced the lipid and cholesterol accumulation in HepG2 cells more effectively and performed an advantageous effect on controlling TC, TG, LDL-c and HDL-c in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. More effective reduction of TBA and TC levels in feces of hamsters were achieved after the administration of COM. These effects were derived from the up-regulation of LDL receptor and CYP7A1, as well as HMGCR downregulation. SIGNIFICANCE:Our results demonstrated that COM showed a synergetic cholesterol-lowering efficacy, which was better than single alkaloids and it might be considered as a potential therapy for hypercholesterolemia. 10.1016/j.lfs.2016.02.046
    Berberine-induced haemolysis revisited: safety of Rhizoma coptidis and Cortex phellodendri in chronic haematological diseases. Linn Yeh-ching,Lu Jiahui,Lim Lay-Cheng,Sun Huili,Sun Jue,Zhou Yongming,Ng Han-seong Phytotherapy research : PTR Two commonly used berberine-containing Chinese herbs, Rhizoma coptidis (RC) and Cortex phellodendri (CP), have been banned in Singapore for the past three decades due to implication of berberine in aggravating jaundice and kernicterus in neonates with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Here we conducted a single arm, phase I/II clinical study on Chinese herbal medicine for patients with chronic cytopenic haematological conditions and we analysed a subset of 20 patients who also had RC, CP or both in their herbal concoction. We found no organ toxicity or electrolyte imbalance in these 20 patients where RC was administered for 1055 patient-days and CP for 1252 patient-days. In three patients with thalassemia intermedia, transient elevation in serum bilirubin level was observed but this was not associated with any aggravation of anaemia or liver dysfunction. A review of the literature found conflicting evidence of varying levels either supporting or refuting the allegation of neonatal jaundice and kernicterus caused by berberine. There were, however, very few clinical reports of adverse reaction attributable to RC or CP in oral TCM concoction. We conclude that based on traditional dosage and indication, the use of RC and CP in oral concoction is safe. 10.1002/ptr.3617
    Effects of Zuojin Pill (Rhizoma Coptidis and Fructus Evodiae preparation) on the pharmacokinetics and side effects of venlafaxine in humans. Yan Dongmin,Wu Ming,Hu Wenjuan,Li Yue,Jin Jingyi,Yan Shaoqing,Zhu Wei,Ye Chaoyang,Liu Jia,Liu Guobin,Tan Bo Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology Venlafaxine (VEN), a first-line antidepressant, and Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a common herbal medicine consisting of Rhizoma Coptidis and Fructus Evodiae, are high likely co-administered in China. ZJP could significantly inhibit VEN pharmacokinetics in vitro and in rats through suppression of CYP2D6 activity. To date, however, no clinical study has demonstrated the clinical relevance. Here, the VEN pharmacokinetics at a single dose of VEN with or without co-administration of ZJP was compared. ZJP had a weak herb-drug interactions (HDI) on the pharmacokinetics of VEN. The geometric means of C and AUC of VEN increased by 36.7% and 34.6%, respectively, and the corresponding 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of geometric mean ratios (GMRs) exceed outside bioequivalent range of 0.80-1.25. However, the corresponding 90% CIs of GMRs of these parameters for ODV were within the range. Since ODV exposure (AUC), approximately 3.4-fold higher than that of VEN, hardly changed, the systemic exposure of VEN active moiety (VEN + ODV) with ZJP increased slightly (≤8.5%) compared with that of VEN alone. In addition, the incidence of VEN-related side effects, especially gastrointestinal relevance, was significantly reduced with ZJP. Therefore, rational concomitant use of VEN and ZJP might have low risk of HDI and be promising in clinical practice. 10.1111/bcpt.13713
    Jatrorrhizine from Rhizoma Coptidis exerts an anti-obesity effect in db/db mice. Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Obesity is closely related to diabetes. Jatrorrhizine (JAT) from Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) can reduce blood glucose and lipid levels. However, the molecular mechanisms for JAT's anti-obesity effect are still not clear. AIM OF THE STUDY:To explore the effect of JAT in the treatment of obesity and the underlying molecular mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS:db/db mice were used as a typical obese animal model in current study. The anti-obesity effects of five alkaloids from RC were compared by feeding the mice for 8 weeks with a dosage of 105 mg/kg while the dose-dependent study (35 mg/kg and 105 mg/kg) of JAT on obese mice was conducted in another 8-week-long animal experiment. Meanwhile, RNA-seq analysis, in vitro experiments, and western blotting were utilized to predict and confirm the potential pathway that JAT participated in improving obesity. RESULTS:The experimental results demonstrated that five RC alkaloids caused different degrees of weight loss in db/db obese mice. Among them, JAT showed the best effect. It could significantly reduce the body weight, blood lipid levels, and epididymal fat weight of db/db mice. H&E and Oil red O staining results showed that it could also dramatically improve liver lipid metabolism. The results from RNA-seq suggested that JAT had significantly altered 207 DEGs for the treatment of obesity, among which IRS1 changed the most. Next, GO and KEGG analysis enriched four major lipid metabolism-related pathways: biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, metabolic pathways, and fatty acid elongation. Finally, in vitro experiments and western blotting proved that JAT regulated the expression of IRS1/PI3K/AKT pathway-related proteins in a dose-dependent manner to address obesity. CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, JAT from RC has an effect on treating obesity, and its anti-obesity effect may be exerted via the IRS1/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. 10.1016/j.jep.2022.115529
    The anti-hyperglycemia effects of Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids: A systematic review of modern pharmacological studies of the traditional herbal medicine. Ma Hang,He Kai,Zhu Jianwei,Li Xuegang,Ye Xiaoli Fitoterapia Hyperglycemia is a common endocrine system disease, which seriously affects people's health with a increasing morbidity in recent years. Rhizoma Coptidis (RC), one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines, has been applied to treat diabetes in clinic for thousands of years. Since scientists demonstrated that alkaloids from RC owned the amazing anti-hyperglycemia activities 30 years ago, these compounds have been widely used for the treatment of diabetes and hyperglycemia with unconspicuous toxicities and side effects. With the help of molecular biology, immunology and other techniques, the mechanisms about anti-hyperglycemia effect of RC alkaloids have been extensively discussed. Numerous studies showed that RC alkaloids balanced the glucose homeostasis not only by widely recognizing insulin resistance pathways, but also by promoting insulin secretion, regulating intestinal hormones, ameliorating gut microbiota structures and many other ways. In this review, we combine the latest advances and systematically summarize the mechanisms of RC alkaloids in treating hyperglycemia and diabetic nephropathy to provide a deeper understanding of these natural alkaloids. In addition, the important role of gut microbiota associated with the glucose metabolism is also reviewed. 10.1016/j.fitote.2019.03.003
    The effect of RHIZOMA COPTIDIS and COPTIS CHINENSIS aqueous extract on radiation-induced skin injury in a rat model. Wang Xi-Jing,Lin Shuai,Kang Hua-Feng,Dai Zhi-Jun,Bai Ming-Hua,Ma Xiu-Long,Ma Xiao-Bin,Liu Meng-jie,Liu Xiao-Xu,Wang Bao-Feng BMC complementary and alternative medicine BACKGROUND:Radiation-induced skin injury is a common complication of radiotherapy. The RHIZOMA COPTIDIS and COPTIS CHINENSIS aqueous extract (RCE) can ameliorate radiation-induced skin injury in our clinical observation. But, the protective mechanism of RHIZOMA COPTIDIS and COPTIS CHINENSIS in radiation-induced skin injury remains unclear. METHODS:In this experiment, we developed a radiation-induced skin injury rat model to study the mechanism. The animals were randomly divided into control group, treatment group, radiation group, and treatment and radiation group. 5 rats in each group were separately executed on 2 d and 49 d post-radiation. The semi-quantitative skin injury score was used to measure skin reactions by unblinded observers, and hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to evaluate the damage areas by irradiation. The MDA content, SOD activity of skin and serum were measured to detect the oxidative stress. RESULTS:Acute skin reactions were caused by a single dose of 45 Gy of β-ray irradiation, and the skin injury could be found in all rats receiving irradiation based on the observation of HE staining of skin at different time-points, while RCE could significantly ameliorate those changes. The MDA content in serum and skin of control rats was 4.13±0.12 mmol/ml and 4.95±0.35 mmol/mgprot on 2 d post-radiation. The rats receiving radiation showed an increased content of MDA (5.54±0.21 mmol/ml and 7.10±0.32 mmol/mgprot), while it was 4.57±0.21 mmol/ml and 5.95±0.24 mmol/mgprot after treated with RCE (p<0.05). Similar changes of the MDA content could be seen on 49 d post-radiation. However, the SOD activity of rats receiving radiation decreased compared with control group on both time-points, which was inhibited by RCE (p<0.05). Meanwhile, no valuable changes could be found between control group and treatment group on 2 d and 49 d. CONCLUSIONS:Our study provides evidences for the radioprotective role of RCE against radiation-induced skin damage in rats by modulating oxidative stress in skin, which may be a useful therapy for radiation-induced skin injury. 10.1186/1472-6882-13-105
    Rhizoma Coptidis and Berberine as a Natural Drug to Combat Aging and Aging-Related Diseases via Anti-Oxidation and AMPK Activation. Xu Zhifang,Feng Wei,Shen Qian,Yu Nannan,Yu Kun,Wang Shenjun,Chen Zhigang,Shioda Seiji,Guo Yi Aging and disease Aging is the greatest risk factor for human diseases, as it results in cellular growth arrest, impaired tissue function and metabolism, ultimately impacting life span. Two different mechanisms are thought to be primary causes of aging. One is cumulative DNA damage induced by a perpetuating cycle of oxidative stress; the other is nutrient-sensing adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and rapamycin (mTOR)/ ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) pathways. As the main bioactive component of natural Chinese medicine rhizoma coptidis (), berberine has recently been reported to expand life span in and attenuate premature cellular senescence. Most components of including berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine have been found to have beneficial effects on hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension aging-related diseases. The mechanism of these effects involves multiple cellular kinase and signaling pathways, including anti-oxidation, activation of AMPK signaling and its downstream targets, including mTOR/rpS6, Sirtuin1/ forkhead box transcription factor O3 (FOXO3), nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor-2 (Nrf2), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. Most of these mechanisms converge on AMPK regulation on mitochondrial oxidative stress. Therefore, such evidence supports the possibility that rhizoma coptidis, in particular berberine, is a promising anti-aging natural product, and has pharmaceutical potential in combating aging-related diseases via anti-oxidation and AMPK cellular kinase activation. 10.14336/AD.2016.0620
    Rhizoma Coptidis inhibits LPS-induced MCP-1/CCL2 production in murine macrophages via an AP-1 and NFkappaB-dependent pathway. Remppis Andrew,Bea Florian,Greten Henry Johannes,Buttler Annette,Wang Hongjie,Zhou Qianxing,Preusch Michael R,Enk Ronny,Ehehalt Robert,Katus Hugo,Blessing Erwin Mediators of inflammation INTRODUCTION:The Chinese extract Rhizoma coptidis is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiviral, and antimicrobial activity. The exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood. METHODS:We examined the effect of the extract and its main compound, berberine, on LPS-induced inflammatory activity in a murine macrophage cell line. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS and incubated with either Rhizoma coptidis extract or berberine. Activation of AP-1 and NFkappaB was analyzed in nuclear extracts, secretion of MCP-1/CCL2 was measured in supernatants. RESULTS:Incubation with Rhizoma coptidis and berberine strongly inhibited LPS-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 production in RAW cells. Activation of the transcription factors AP-1 and NFkappaB was inhibited by Rhizoma coptidis in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. CONCLUSIONS:Rhizoma coptidis extract inhibits LPS-induced MCP-1/CCL2 production in vitro via an AP-1 and NFkappaB-dependent pathway. Anti-inflammatory action of the extract is mediated mainly by its alkaloid compound berberine. 10.1155/2010/194896
    Comparative pharmacokinetics of active alkaloids after oral administration of Rhizoma Coptidis extract and Wuji Wan formulas in rat using a UPLC-MS/MS method. Chen Ying,Li Yuejie,Wang Yajie,Yang Qing,Dong Yu,Weng Xiaogang,Zhu Xiaoxin,Wang Yiwei,Gong Zipeng,Zhang Ruijie European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics Wuji Wan (WJW), containing Rhizoma Coptidis (Huanglian in Chinese, HL), Frutus Evodiae Rutaecarpae (Wuzhuyu, WZY) and Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, BS), is a classical traditional Chinese medical formula employed in treating intestinal disorders. Berberine (BBR) and palmatine (PMT) are the major active alkaloids in HL and have analgesic and anti-microbial effects. A sensitive, specific and validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of BBR and PMT in rat plasma and in situ intestinal perfusion solution. In comparison with the pharmacokinetic parameters of BBR and PMT, t(1/2), C(max), T(max), AUC, CL and MRT after intragastric (i.g.) administration with HL extract alone, those remarkably changed after i.g. administration with WJW formulas 1 and 2 (herb proportions are 12:2:3 and 12:1:12). Particularly, the oral bioavailability of PMT in WJW formula 1 was significantly increased. In rat intestinal perfusion experiments, the apparent permeability coefficient value of PMT was (1.45 ± 0.72) × 10(-5) cm/s when perfusion with HL was performed, and the value was significantly increased to (3.92 ± 0.52) × 10(-5) cm/s on perfusion with WJW formula 1. These results indicate that the pharmacokinetic parameters and absorption of BBR and PMT are affected by the other herbs or ingredients from WJW formulas. 10.1007/s13318-014-0181-1
    Coptidis Rhizoma extract inhibits replication of respiratory syncytial virus in vitro and in vivo by inducing antiviral state. Lee Byeong-Hoon,Chathuranga Kiramage,Uddin Md Bashir,Weeratunga Prasanna,Kim Myun Soo,Cho Won-Kyung,Kim Hong Ik,Ma Jin Yeul,Lee Jong-Soo Journal of microbiology (Seoul, Korea) Coptidis Rhizoma is derived from the dried rhizome of Ranunculaceous plants and is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. Although Coptidis Rhizoma is commonly used for its many therapeutic effects, antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has not been reported in detail. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activities of Coptidis Rhizoma extract (CRE) against RSV in human respiratory tract cell line (HEp2) and BALB/c mice. An effective dose of CRE significantly reduces the replication of RSV in HEp2 cells and reduces the RSV-induced cell death. This antiviral activity against RSV was through the induction of type I interferon-related signaling and the antiviral state in HEp2 cells. More importantly, oral administration of CRE exhibited prophylactic effects in BALB/c mice against RSV. In HPLC analysis, we found the presence of several compounds in the aqueous fraction and among them; we confirmed that palmatine was related to the antiviral properties and immunemodulation effect. Taken together, an extract of Coptidis Rhizoma and its components play roles as immunomodulators and could be a potential source as promising natural antivirals that can confer protection to RSV. These outcomes should encourage further allied studies in other natural products. 10.1007/s12275-017-7088-x
    [Correlation between integrated pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of bile processed Rhizoma Coptidis in febrile rats]. Wang Jing,Chen Yue,Yuan Zi-min Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica This study was designed to validate the correlation between integrated pharmacokinetic and therapeutic effects of alkaloids using bile processed Rhizoma Coptidis (BRC). Rats were divided into three groups: normal, disease model, model+BRC. Rats were induced to have an excessive heat syndrome. Rectal temperatures were collected at 0, 3, 6 and 9 h after single oral administration of the drugs. The plasma concentrations of three alkaloids were quantified at different times by UPLC-MS/MS after the administration of BRC. An approach of self-defined weighting coefficiency was created to the holistic pharmacokinetic profiles of alkaloids in BRC. The classified and integrated synthetic concentrations were obtained, and then the pharmacokinetic parameters of alkaloids were calculated from non-compartmental model analysis. The potential relationship between the integrated mean concentration of alkaloids and the antifebrile efficacy was investigated. The holistic t(max) of alkaloids was 1.11 h, the antifebrile effect of BRC at 3 h was improved over the model group. Double peaking appeared in the integrated blood concentration-time curve, the second t(max) of alkaloids was 4.82 h. The antifebrile effects of BRC at 3-6 h were significant, and the antifebrile effects at 6-9 h was decreased significantly. Dynamic variation of alkaloids of BRC in the body exhibited the similarity to the pattern of its antifebrile effect.
    The antihyperglycemic effects of Rhizoma Coptidis and mechanism of actions: a review of systematic reviews and pharmacological research. Wang Hui,Mu Wei,Shang Hongcai,Lin Jia,Lei Xiang BioMed research international Rhizoma Coptidis (Huang Lian in Chinese pinyin) is among the most widely used traditional Chinese herbal medicines and has a profound history of more than 2000 years of being used as a therapeutic herb. The antidiabetic effects of Rhizoma Coptidis have been extensively investigated in animal experiments and clinical trials and its efficacy as a promising antihyperglycemic agent has been widely discussed. In the meantime, findings from modern pharmacological studies have contributed the majority of its bioactivities to berberine, the isoquinoline alkaloids component of the herb, and a number of experiments testing the antidiabetic effects of berberine have been initiated. Therefore, we conducted a review of the current evidence profile of the antihyperglycemic effects of Rhizoma Coptidis as well as its main component berberine and the possible mechanism of actions, in order to summarize research evidence in this area and identify future research directions. 10.1155/2014/798093
    The antihypercholesterolemic effect of jatrorrhizine isolated from Rhizoma Coptidis. Wu Hao,He Kai,Wang YanZhi,Xue DongFang,Ning Na,Zou Zongyao,Ye Xiaoli,Li Xuegang,Wang DeZhen,Pang Jie Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology Current work was conducted to evaluate the safety and antihypercholesterolemic activity of jatrorrhizine extracted from Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) and its potential mechanism on regulating cholesterol metabolism. It was found that the LD50 of jatrorrhizine in mice was more than 5,500 mg/kg and there were no influences on clinical signs, organ weight changes, urinalysis and hematological parameters, gross necropsy and histological alterations in jatrorrhizine-treated rats during the 3-month period, compared to the control group. Jatrorrhizine showed a strong lipid-lowering effect in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of 70.05 mg/kg of jatrorrhizine on Mesocricetus auratus (Syrian golden hamsters) exhibited significant decrease in TC, TG, and LDL-c levels by 20%, 43%, and 19%, respectively, and increase in HDL-c and total bile acids (TBA) content in feces (p<0.01), compared to high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) group. Besides, jatrorrhizine dose-dependently slowed the rate of weight gain. The results of qRT-PCR, western blotting and ELISA revealed that jatrorrhizine significantly up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of LDLR and CYP7A1, but exhibited no significant effect on mRNA and protein expression of HMGR and ASBT in hamsters. In conclusion, jatrorrhizine was a safe and potential antihypercholesterolemic agent from RC which could improve the utilization and excretion of cholesterol by up-regulating the mRNA and protein expression of LDLR and CYP7A1. 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.05.002
    Increased systemic exposure to rhizoma coptidis alkaloids in lipopolysaccharide-pretreated rats attributable to enhanced intestinal absorption. Ma Bing-Liang,Yao Meng-Kan,Zhong Jie,Ma Yue-Ming,Gao Cheng-Lu,Wu Jia-Sheng,Qiu Fu-Rong,Wang Chang-Hong,Wang Xin-Hong Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals Rhizoma coptidis is a rhizome commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. After oral administration of rhizoma coptidis extract, the plasma concentrations of its effective alkaloid constituents are so low that their systemic therapeutic actions cannot be explained. This study aimed to investigate the influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the pharmacokinetics of the rhizoma coptidis alkaloids. Pharmacokinetic experiments were performed with rats; both in vitro absorption and efflux experiments were carried out with everted rat gut sacs, whereas in vitro metabolism experiments were conducted with rat liver microsomes and intestinal S9 fractions. Mucosal changes were evaluated with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that, in rat plasma, LPS pretreatment increased systemic alkaloid exposure. LPS pretreatment increased the in vitro absorption of the alkaloids and decreased their efflux. The efflux of vinblastine and rhodamine 123, P-glycoprotein substrates, also was decreased. The absorption of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (average molecular mass, 4 kDa), a gut paracellular permeability probe, was not influenced. Obvious damage was observed in the mucosa, but the tight junctions between epithelial cells remained intact. Intestinal, rather than hepatic, alkaloid metabolism was decreased. These findings indicated that LPS pretreatment increased systemic exposure to the alkaloids through enhancement of their absorption, which was related to decreased intestinal efflux and metabolism. The results add to the understanding of why rhizoma coptidis is active despite the low plasma concentrations of the rhizoma coptidis alkaloids measured in normal subjects and experimental animals. 10.1124/dmd.111.041152
    An integrated network pharmacology and transcriptomic method to explore the mechanism of the total Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids in improving diabetic nephropathy. Xiao Yaping,Liu Yan,Lai Zhihui,Huang Jieyao,Li Chunming,Zhang Yaru,Gong Xiaobao,Deng Jianling,Ye Xiaoli,Li Xuegang Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for treating diabetes (Xiao Ke Zheng), which is firstly recorded in Shennong Bencao Jing. Modern pharmacological studies have confirmed that RC has beneficial effects on diabetes and its complications. Alkaloids are the main active pharmacological component of RC. However, the effect and molecular mechanism of total Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids (TRCA) in improving diabetic nephropathy (DN) are still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY:To verify the effect of TRCA in the treatment of DN and clarify the molecular mechanism by combining network pharmacology and transcriptomic. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Eight-week-old db/db mice were orally administered with normal saline, 100 mg/kg TRCA, and 100 mg/kg berberine (BBR) for 8 weeks. Serum, urine, and kidney samples were collected to measure biological indicators and observe renal pathological changes. Then, the molecular mechanism of TRCA improving DN was predicted by the network pharmacology. Briefly, the main active alkaloids components of TRCA and their targets were collected from the database, as well as the potential targets of DN. Using the Cytoscape software to visualize the interactive network diagram of "ingredient-target". The GO and KEGG pathways enrichment analysis of the core targets were executed by Metascape. Furthermore, RNA-seq was used to get whole transcriptomes from the kidneys of db/m mice, db/db mice, and db/db mice treated with TRCA. The key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were gathered to conduct the GO and KEGG pathways enrichment analysis. Finally, the potential pathways were validated by western blotting. RESULTS:The administration of BBR or TRCA for 8 weeks significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose (FBG) and body weight of db/db mice, and improved their renal function and lipid disorders. According to H&E, PAS, and Masson staining, both the BBR and TRCA could alleviate renal damage and fibrosis. The Venn diagram had shown that seven alkaloids ingredients collected from TRCA regulated 85 common targets merged in the TRCA and DN. The results of RNA-seq indicated that there are 121 potential targets for TRCA treatment on DN. Intriguingly, both the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway and the PI3k-Akt signaling pathway were included in the KEGG pathways enrichment results of network pharmacology and RNA-seq. Moreover, we verified that TRCA down-regulated the expression of related proteins in the AGEs-RAGE-TGFβ/Smad2 and PI3K-Akt pathways in the kidney tissues. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, the renal protection of TRCA on DN may be related to activation of the AGEs-RAGE-TGFβ/Smad2 and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. 10.1016/j.jep.2021.113806
    Protective effect of Coptisine from Rhizoma Coptidis on LPS/D-GalN-induced acute liver failure in mice through up-regulating expression of miR-122. Chai Fang-Ni,Zhang Jiang,Xiang Hong-Mei,Xu He-Shan,Li Yuan-Feng,Ma Wen-Yu,Li Xue-Gang,Ye Xiao-Li Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie Coptisine (COP), one of the main active ingredients of Rhizoma Coptidis, reportedly has anti-inflammatory, anti-colon cancer properties, but it remains elusive whether COP owns hepatoprotective activity. Mice were pretreated with COP for 7d prior to lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN) administration to detect the hepatic protective effects of COP. The mechanism was explored in using HepG2 cells with low level of miR-122 and LO2 cells with high level of miR-122, combining with miR-122 agomir transfection by means of detecting the expression of miR-122 and proteins, clinical index and apoptosis. COP ameliorated the LPS/D-GalN-induced liver failure by lowering serum levels of ALT and AST, raising hepatic GSH and SOD levels, and maintaining the morphology of hepatocytes, along with an increase in miR-122 expression in mice. The results in vitro indicated that, after miR-122 mimic administration, the alone treatment of COP and the co-treatment of COP and LPS transfection obviously promoted the apoptosis of HepG2, which was increased by 152.67% and 113.97% compared with NC (P < 0.05 vs NC). LPS significantly induced the apoptosis of L02 cells, but COP treatment attenuated that of L02 cells. Further analysis showed that COP increased the miR-122 level and the expression of Bax, cleaved-casp3 and decreased Bcl-2, Bcl-xL in LPS-treated HepG2 cells. COP increased the miR-122 level but decreased the expression of TLR4, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL in LPS-treated L02 cells. COP attenuated LPS/D-GalN-induced ALF by up-regulating the level of miR-122, synergistically promoting apoptosis, and suggesting COP which showed a potential protective effect on ALF. 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.11.133
    The antihypercholesterolemic effect of columbamine from Rhizoma Coptidis in HFHC-diet induced hamsters through HNF-4α/FTF-mediated CYP7A1 activation. Wang Yue,Han Yulong,Chai Fangni,Xiang Hongmei,Huang Tao,Kou Shuming,Han Bing,Gong Xiaobao,Ye Xiaoli Fitoterapia The aim of this study was to investigate the antihypercholesterolemic activity and potential molecular mechanism of columbamine (COL) that was prepared by extraction from Rhizoma Coptidis in hamsters and HepG2 cells. The results displayed that the COL from Rhizoma Coptidis was a safe natural compound with a LD 0f 1524.6mg/kg and no detectable toxic symptoms during the observation of chronic toxicity. COL dose-dependently reversed the abnormal lipid levels induced by HFHC diet. Specifically, COL(M) and COL(H) significantly reduced the blood lipid levels(TC, TG and LDL-c) and enhanced the fecal contents of TBA by 21.8% and 25.1% respectively in hamsters. COL up-regulated the genes of CYP8B1, CYP7A1 and LDLR in mRNA and protein level, and down-regulated those of HMGCR to a different degree. Especially, CYP7A1 were significantly up-regulated by COL in hamsters (p<0.01). Further analysis indicated that COL obviously activated the mRNA and protein expression of the transcription factors FTF, HNF-4α, and inhibited those of SHP. Promoter luciferase assay showed that COL induced the expression of FTF and HNF-4α, further transactivating CYP7A1, which accelerated the conversion of liver cholesterol to bile acids. It concluded that the COL showed high lipid-lowering activities through indirectly transactivating CYP7A1 by upregulating FTF and HNF-4α, and directly activating CYP7A1 catalytic activity by strongly interacting with receptor and ligand, therefore promoting cholesterol catabolism and accelerating the excretion of bile acids. 10.1016/j.fitote.2016.09.019
    Extract Reverses 5-Fluorouracil Resistance in HCT116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells via Modulation of Thymidylate Synthase. Kang Yong-Hwi,Lee Jin-Seok,Lee Nam-Hun,Kim Seung-Hyung,Seo Chang-Seob,Son Chang-Gue Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignancy of the colon or rectum. It is ranked as the third most common cancer in both men and women worldwide. Early resection permitted by early detection is the best treatment, and chemotherapy is another main treatment, particularly for patients with advanced CRC. A well-known thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is frequently prescribed to CRC patients; however, drug resistance is a critical limitation of its clinical application. Based on the hypothesis that extract (CRE) can abolish this 5-FU resistance, we explored the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of CRE in 5-FU-resistant (HCT116/R) and parental HCT116 (HCT116/WT) cells. Compared to treatment with 5-FU alone, combination treatment with CRE and 5-FU drastically reduced the viability of HCT116/R cells. The cell cycle distribution assay showed significant induction of the G0/G1 phase arrest by co-treatment with CRE and 5-FU. In addition, the combination of CRE and 5-FU notably suppressed the activity of TS, which was overexpressed in HCT116/R cells, as compared to HCT116/WT cells. Our findings support the potential of CRE as an adjuvant agent against 5-FU-resistant colorectal cancers and indicate that the underlying mechanisms might involve inhibition of TS expression. 10.3390/molecules26071856
    Antihyperglycemia and Antihyperlipidemia Effect of Protoberberine Alkaloids From Rhizoma Coptidis in HepG2 Cell and Diabetic KK-Ay Mice. Ma Hang,Hu Yinran,Zou Zongyao,Feng Min,Ye Xiaoli,Li Xuegang Drug development research Preclinical Research Rhizoma Coptidis (RC), the root of Coptis chinensis Franch, a species in the genus Coptis (family Ranunculaceae), has been commonly prescribed for the treatment of diabetes in Chinese traditional herbal medicine applications. The present study is focused on the assessment of the antihyperglycemia and antidiabetic hyperlipidemia effect of five protoberberine alkaloids, berberine (BBR), coptisine (COP), palmatine (PAL), epiberberine (EPI), and jatrorrhizine (JAT), separated from R. Coptidis in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and diabetic KK-Ay mice. Protoberberine alkaloids are effective in modulating hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. After adding BBR and COP to culture medium, glucose consumption of HepG2 cells was increased. In KK-Ay mice assays, suppressed fasting blood glucose level and ameliorated glucose tolerance were observed after BBR/COP administration. After treated with berberine and coptisine, in the same dose of 5 µg/mL, the glucose consumption of HepG2 cells were promoted and, respectively, reached 96.1% and 17.6%. Body weight, food consumption, water intake, and urinary output of KK-Ay mice were reduced after treated with EPI. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride of mice were decreased after treated with palmatine and jatrorrhizine. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of mice was increased after palmatine, jatrorrhizine, and berberine administrated. Moreover, hepatomegaly was attenuated in JTR-treated mice. Suggested that these protoberberine alkaloids from R. Coptidis have potential curative effect for diabetes. Drug Dev Res 77 : 163-170, 2016.   © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 10.1002/ddr.21302
    Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids alleviate hyperlipidemia in B6 mice by modulating gut microbiota and bile acid pathways. He Kai,Hu Yinran,Ma Hang,Zou Zongyao,Xiao Yubo,Yang Yong,Feng Min,Li Xuegang,Ye Xiaoli Biochimica et biophysica acta It is hypothesized that Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) alkaloids exert their hypolipidemic effects primarily by targeting the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic mechanisms of RC alkaloids (at a daily dose of 140mg/kg for 35days) in high-fat and high-cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic B6 mice. After treatment, serum lipid parameters were determined, the expression of lipid metabolism related genes and pathways such as the sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and bile acid signaling in mice were also investigated. Meanwhile, Illumina sequencing was used to investigate the differences in gut microbiota of B6 mice. The results indicated that RC alkaloids reduced the body weight gain and serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total bile acids (TBA) and lipopolysaccharide of B6 mice. Liver fat deposition and epididymal adipose cell size were also deceased in therapy group. RC alkaloids feeding significantly promoted the abundance of Sporobacter termitidis, Alcaligenes faecalis, Akkermansia muciniphila in the gut of mice, whereas, the abundance of Escherichia coli, Desulfovibrio C21_c20, Parabacteroides distasonis was suppressed. The observed antihyperlipidemic effects of RC alkaloids can also be attributed to their action as agonists of FXR and TGR5, activators for SREBP2, LDLR, UCP2 and CYP7A1, inhibitors of HMGCR, TXNIP, TLR4 and JNK. Therefore, this study expands current knowledge on hypolipidemic mechanisms of RC alkaloids and presents new evidence supporting a key role for RC alkaloids as regulators of lipid homeostasis by modulation gut microbiota and hepatic lipid metabolism. 10.1016/j.bbadis.2016.06.006
    Hypolipidemic Effects of Alkaloids from Rhizoma Coptidis in Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemic Hamsters. He Kai,Kou Shuming,Zou Zongyao,Hu Yinran,Feng Min,Han Bing,Li Xuegang,Ye Xiaoli Planta medica This study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic activity of five major alkaloids in Rhizoma Coptidis using high-fat- and high-cholesterol-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters. Hyperlipidemic hamsters were treated with coptisine, berberine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, epiberberine, and total Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids with a dose of 46.7 mg/kg × day for 140 days. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total bile acids were examined after alkaloid treatment. The results showed that all therapy agents prevented body weight gain, reduced the serum total cholesterol, and increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of hamsters. Berberine, jatrorrhizine, and total Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids decreased the triglyceride level in hyperlipidemic hamsters, while coptisine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, and total Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids significantly suppressed the elevation of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. The fecal excretion of bile acids was significantly elevated by berberine, coptisine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, total Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids, and orlistat. Notably, total Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids possess a much stronger lipid-lowering effect than the pure Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids could retard the synthesis of cholesterol by downregulating the mRNA expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase and accelerate the clearance of lipids by upregulating the low-density lipoprotein receptor, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, and uncoupling protein-2 expression. These findings highlight the critical role of Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids in hyperlipidemia treatment. Thus, they need to be considered in future therapeutic approaches. 10.1055/s-0035-1568261
    Comparative Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Three Protoberberine-type Alkaloids from Raw and Bile-processed in Heat Syndrome Rats. Zi-Min Yuan,Yue Chen,Hui Gao,Jia Lv,Gui-Rong Chen,Wang Jing Pharmacognosy magazine BACKGROUND:The Bile-processed (BRC), which has a colder drug property than (RC), is widely used for the treatment of heat syndrome. We compared the pharmacokinetics of the protoberberine-type alkaloids in BRC and RC in rats with heat syndrome to elucidate the bile-processing mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS:We established a rapid and sensitive method for simultaneously determining three alkaloids: berberine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine, in rat plasma based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The separation was carried out on a Waters ACQUITY BEA C column. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) and water (containing 0.1% formic acid and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate) and carbamazepine was used as an internal standard. The detection was carried out in a multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. RESULTS:Pharmacokinetic profiles indicated that the C of berberine and palmatine increased two times and the T of the three alkaloids decreased three times after bile processing. AUC and AUC of the alkaloids were similar between RC and BRC. CONCLUSION:The results suggest that bile processing could increase the absorption rate of alkaloids. This study broadens our understanding of Chinese herbal medicine processing. SUMMARY:Contents of berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine, in heat syndrome rats' plasma between the raw and bile-processed (RC) were determined by UPLC-MS/MS.The whole pharmacokinetic profiles of three alkaloids in the bile-processed (BRC) were similar to those of RC.The shorter T and increased 2-fold C were obtained after RC bile-processing.Bile-processing could promote the absorption rate of alkaloids in a certain degree. RC: , BRC: Bile-processed , HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography, UPLC-MS/MS: ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/ mass spectrometry, LC-MS: liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, MRM: multiple reaction monitoring mode, QC: quality control, RE: relative error, RSD: relative standard deviation, C: maxium of drug concentration, T: time for maxium of drug concentration, AUC: area under concentration-time curve, LLOQ: Linearity and lower limits of quantification, t: half-life, Clz: body clearance. 10.4103/0973-1296.197632
    Metabolic profile of alkaloids in Rhizoma Coptidis in rat plasma, urine and feces after oral administration using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Liu Yi,Zhang Ye,Meng Qi,Long Jianglan,Wang Man,Zhang Xu,Yan Can,Yan Dan Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM RATIONALE:Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) has been used to treat diabetes, pertussis, bacillary dysentery, sore throat, eczema, and aphtha for thousands of years. Alkaloids are the major components in RC, and its curative effect is achieved by oral administration. However, information on its composition in vivo is weak. METHODS:In this study, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) was used to analyze the major active components and their metabolites in rat plasma, urine and feces after oral administration of RC extract. RESULTS:A total of 96 compounds including 8 prototype compounds and 88 metabolites were identified, and hydroxylation, reduction, demethylenation, demethylation, dehydrogenation, sulfation, glucuronidation and methylation were the major metabolic pathways. CONCLUSIONS:This study analyzed metabolic processes of the major active components in RC in vivo, which provided important information for its active composition and in vivo mechanism research. Meanwhile, metabolic profile studies on representative compounds provided valuable reference materials to elucidate the full-scale metabolites of RC. 10.1002/rcm.8763
    Lipopolysaccharide increased the acute toxicity of the Rhizoma coptidis extract in mice by increasing the systemic exposure to Rhizoma coptidis alkaloids. Ma Bing-Liang,Ma Yue-Ming,Gao Cheng-Lu,Wu Jia-Sheng,Qiu Fu-Rong,Wang Chang-Hong,Wang Xin-Hong Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Rhizoma coptidis is used as an antidysenteric in clinics in China. However, patients suffering from dysentery are susceptible to the acute toxicity of Rhizoma coptidis. The current study investigates the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which are a key pathogenic factor in dysentery, on the acute toxicity of a Rhizoma coptidis extract in mice; possible mechanisms are proposed. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Acute toxicity and pharmacokinetic experiments in mice were conducted. The plasma concentration of Rhizoma coptidis alkaloids in mice was determined using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the tissue homogenate was determined using an AChE determination kit. RESULTS:Pretreatment with LPS for 16 h increased the acute toxicity of the oral Rhizoma coptidis extract. Systemic exposure to Rhizoma coptidis alkaloids was also increased by LPS pretreatment. Neostigmine significantly increased whereas pyraloxime methylchloride reduced the acute toxicity of the Rhizoma coptidis extract. LPS pretreatment alone showed no significant effect on the activity of thoracoabdominal diaphragm AChE. However, it enhanced the inhibitory effect of the Rhizoma coptidis extract. LPS pretreatment did not affect the acute toxicity of various dosages of tail vein-injected berberine. CONCLUSIONS:LPS increased the acute toxicity of the oral Rhizoma coptidis extract in mice by increasing the systemic exposure to the Rhizoma coptidis alkaloids. 10.1016/j.jep.2011.08.074
    [Exploring the mechanism of rhizoma coptidis in treating type II diabetes mellitus based on metabolomics by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry]. Wang Jing,Yuan Zimin,Kong Hongwei,Li Yong,Lu Xin,Xu Guowang Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography Metabolomics was used to explore the mechanism of Rhizoma coptidis in treating type II diabetes mellitus. The rat model of type II diabetes mellitus was constructed by an injection of streptozocin (40 mg/kg), along with diets of fat emulsion. The rats were divided into four groups, the control group, the model group, the Rhizoma coptidis group (10 g/kg) and the metformin group (0.08 g/kg). After the treatment for 30 d, blood samples were collected to test biomedical indexes, and 24 h urine samples were collected for the metabolomics experiment. In the Rhizoma coptidis group, fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC) and total plasma triglycerides (TG) were significantly decreased by 59.26%, 58.66% and 42.18%, respectively, compared with those in the model group. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a urinary metabolomics method was used to study the mechanism of Rhizoma coptidis in treating diabetes mellitus. Based on the principal component analysis, it was found that the model group and control group were separated into two different clusters. The Rhizoma coptidis group was located between the model group and the control group, closer to the control group. Twelve significantly changed metabolites of diabetes mellitus were detected and identified, including 4-methyl phenol, benzoic acid, aminomalonic acid, and so on. After diabetic rats were administered with Rhizoma coptidis, 7 metabolites were significantly changed, and L-ascorbic acid and aminomalonic acid which related with the oxidative stress were significantly regulated to normal. The pharmacological results showed that Rhizoma coptidis could display anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects. The Rhizoma coptidis had antioxidation function in preventing the occurrence of complications with diabetes mellitus to some extent. The work illustrates that the metabolomics method is a useful tool to study the treatment mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine.
    Pharmacokinetics of Five Alkaloids and their Metabolites in Normal and Diabetic Rats after Oral Administration of Rhizoma coptidis. Feng Xinchi,Wang Kun,Cao Shijie,Ding Liqin,Qiu Feng Planta medica Rhizoma coptidis has been clinically used for a long time for the treatment of various diseases in China, such as hypertension, diabetes, and inflammation. Previous studies have shown that alkaloid components of Rhizoma coptidis extract could be extensively metabolized and the metabolites were also considered to be the therapeutic material basis. However, until now, pharmacokinetic studies of the metabolites have not been revealed yet. The aim of the present study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and excretions of five main alkaloids (berberine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, epiberberine, and coptisine) and their seven metabolites (berberrubine, demethyleneberberine, jatrorrhizine-3---D-glucuronide, thalifendine-10---D-glucuronide, berberrubine-9---D-glucuronide, demethyleneberberine-2--sulfate, and demethyleneberberine-2---D-glucuronide) in rats after oral administration of Rhizoma coptidis extract. Meanwhile, comparative pharmacokinetics and excretions of these analytes in diabetic model rats were also investigated, since Rhizoma coptidis is widely used for the treatment of diabetes. Our results showed that the existing forms of alkaloid components were phase II metabolites, highlighting the glucuronidation metabolic pathway. In diabetic model rats, the utilization of Rhizoma coptidis alkaloids was significantly increased and the biotransformation of berberine into berberrubine was significantly inhibited. 10.1055/a-1506-1627
    Comparison of anti-inflammatory effects of berberine, and its natural oxidative and reduced derivatives from Rhizoma Coptidis in vitro and in vivo. Li Cai-Lan,Tan Li-Hua,Wang Yong-Fu,Luo Chao-Dan,Chen Han-Bin,Lu Qiang,Li Yu-Cui,Yang Xiao-Bo,Chen Jian-Nan,Liu Yu-Hong,Xie Jian-Hui,Su Zi-Ren Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Berberine (BBR) is the most abundant and major active constituent of Rhizoma Coptidis (RC), which has been widely used to treat inflammatory diseases in traditional oriental medicine. Despite BBR has been found to exhibit pronounced anti-inflammatory effect, the anti-inflammatory activities of its natural derivatives were sparsely dissected out. PURPOSE:To comparatively investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of BBR, and its natural oxoderivative (oxyberberine, OBB) and reduced derivative (dihydroberberine, DHBB) in vitro and in vivo, and delineate the possible underlying mechanism. METHODS:LC-MS/MS was used to identify the natural derivatives of BBR in RC. The potential anti-inflammatory properties of BBR and its natural derivatives were comparatively evaluated in vitro by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages cells, and in vivo via three typical acute inflammation murine models. Some important inflammation-related molecules were analyzed by ELISA, qRT-PCR and Western blotting. RESULTS:LC-MS/MS led to the identification of BBR, OBB and DHBB in RC ethyl acetate extract. The in vitro assay indicated that BBR, OBB and DHBB (1.25, 2.5 and 5 μM) pretreatment significantly decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandinE2 (PGE) and nitricoxide (NO), and inhibited the mRNA expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitricoxide synthase (iNOS) in a dose-dependent manner, with relative efficiency of OBB > BBR > DHBB. Furthermore, OBB, BBR and DHBB remarkably inhibited the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and inhibitory kappa Bα (IκBα). In vivo, BBR (20 mg/kg) and OBB (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) pretreatment significantly ameliorated the xylene-induced ear edema, carrageenan-stimulated paw edema, and acetic acid-elicited vascular permeability in mice in a dose-dependent manner, with OBB exhibiting superior anti-inflammatory effect at the same dose (20 mg/kg). Histopathological analysis indicated that OBB and BBR could markedly attenuate the inflammatory deterioration and decrease the cellular infiltration in paw tissues. Additionally, the carrageenan-induced increases in TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, PGE and NO productions, and COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expressions were effectually and concentration-dependently suppressed by OBB and BBR pretreatment. CONCLUSION:The anti-inflammatory activity of BBR and its natural derivatives was in the order of OBB > BBR > DHBB. OBB was for the first time found to be endowed with pronounced anti-inflammatory property, which was probably associated with suppressing the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, and the subsequent gene expressions and productions of pro-inflammatory mediators. The results might contribute to illuminating the pharmacodynamic underpinnings of RC and provide evidence for developing OBB as a safe and promising natural lead compound in inflammation treatment. 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.09.228
    Preventive effects of Rhizoma Coptidis and Atractylodes on mice with gastric-ulcer. You Silu,Li Juan,Yan Tao,Peng Fang,Liu Sha Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences OBJECTIVES:To detemine preventive effects of compound formula Rhizoma Coptidis and Atractylodes on mice with gastric-ulcer. METHODS:The mice were randomly divided into a normal group, a gastric ulcer group, a ranitidine positive drug group, a Rhizoma Coptidis group, an Atractylodes group, and a Rhizoma Coptidis plus Atractylodes group (the ratios of Coptidis to Atractylodes were 9꞉1, 8꞉2, 7꞉3, 6꞉4, 5꞉5, or 4꞉6, respectively). Gastric ulcer models were established by intragastric administration of anhydrous ethanol after 6 days of preventive infusion. The mice were killed 6 days after the treatments. The whole stomach was opened to observe gross morphology of gastric mucosa. The pathological changes of gastric tissue were observed under microscope, and serum samples were collected to detect the contents of superoxide dimutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), NO, and endothelin-1 (ET-1). RESULTS:The Rhizoma Coptidis and Atractylodes decoction significantly decreased ulcer area (<0.001), and the effects of compound formula are better than those of Coptidis and Atractylodes alone (<0.05, <0.01, or <0.001). The anti-ulcer effect of compound formula (Coptidis꞉Atractylodes=6꞉4) was the best one, and the anti-gastric ulcer effect of the high-dose group was significantly better than that of the ranitidine-positive group (<0.001). The ranitidine positive drug group, the high-dose group of Rhizoma Coptidis, the high-dose group of Atractylodes, and the high-dose group of Rhizoma Coptidis-Atractylodes (6꞉4) significantly reduced MDA, ET-1 (<0.01 or <0.001), and significantly increased SOD, NO in serum (<0.01 or <0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Rhizoma Coptidis and Atractylodes decoction exerts the effect on preventing ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice in a ratio-dependent and dose-dependent manner. The mechanism might be related to anti-oxidation and relaxion of blood vessels. The combination of the two drugs shows a synergistic effect. 10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2020.180756
    Cellular stress response mechanisms of Rhizoma coptidis: a systematic review. Wang Jin,Ran Qian,Zeng Hai-Rong,Wang Lin,Hu Chang-Jiang,Huang Qin-Wan Chinese medicine Rhizoma coptidis has been used in China for thousands of years with the functions of heating dampness and purging fire detoxification. But the underlying molecular mechanisms of Rhizoma coptidis are still far from being fully elucidated. Alkaloids, especially berberine, coptisine and palmatine, are responsible for multiple pharmacological effects of Rhizoma coptidis. In this review, we studied on the effects and molecular mechanisms of Rhizoma coptidis on NF-κB/MAPK/PI3K-Akt/AMPK/ERS and oxidative stress pathways. Then we summarized the mechanisms of these alkaloid components of Rhizoma coptidis on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes and diabetic complications. Evidence presented in this review implicated that Rhizoma coptidis exerted beneficial effects on various diseases by regulation of NF-κB/MAPK/PI3K-Akt/AMPK/ERS and oxidative stress pathways, which support the clinical application of Rhizoma coptidis and offer references for future researches. 10.1186/s13020-018-0184-y
    Intra-Herb Interactions: Primary Metabolites in Extract Improved the Pharmacokinetics of Oral Berberine Hydrochloride in Mice. Zhao Jing,Zhou Ting,Lu Jing-Ze,Ye Dan,Mu Sheng,Tian Xin-Hui,Zhang Wei-Dong,Ma Bing-Liang Frontiers in pharmacology Primary plant metabolites can be used for artificial preparation of natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs), which have strong dissolving capacity, good biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this study, for the first time, we verified that NADESs were present in extract and systematically investigated its effects and mechanisms on the pharmacokinetics of oral berberine hydrochloride (BBR), a co-existing bioactive constituent. First, three LC-MS/MS based methods were established and fully validated to determine the levels of 11 primary metabolites in extract. According to the weight ratio of four major primary metabolites in the extract, a stable "endogenous" NADES was prepared using the heating method by the addition of 350 l of water to 1,307.8 mg of the mixture of malic acid (490.5 mg), glucose (280.6 mg), sucrose (517.7 mg), and choline chloride (19.0 mg). The prepared NADES showed significant acute toxicity in mice and cytotoxicity in MDCK-MDR1 cells. However, after being diluted 10 times or 100 times, the NADES had no significant acute toxicity or cytotoxicity, respectively. The dilutions of the NADES significantly increased the water solubility of BBR, reduced its efflux in gut sacs and MDCK-MDR1 cell monolayer, and improved its metabolic stability in intestinal S9. In addition, the NADES dilutions reversibly opened the tight junctions between the enterocytes in the gut sacs. Moreover, the NADES dilutions significantly improved the exposure levels of BBR in the portal vein and livers of mice that were administered oral BBR. Malic acid was identified as a major component in the NADES in terms of solubility, acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, and pharmacokinetic-improving effects on oral BBR. In conclusion, the primary metabolites of extract could form "endogenous" NADES, and its dilutions improve the pharmacokinetics of oral BBR. This study demonstrates the synergistic interaction of the constituents of extract and the potential use of the NADES dilutions in oral BBR delivery. 10.3389/fphar.2021.675368
    Natural Nano-Drug Delivery System in Extract with Modified Berberine Hydrochloride Pharmacokinetics. International journal of nanomedicine PURPOSE:This study aimed to evaluate the pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic effects of the natural nanoparticles (Nnps) isolated from extract on berberine hydrochloride (BBR) and systematically explore the related mechanisms. METHODS:Firstly, Nnps were isolated from extract and then an Nnps-BBR complex was prepared. After qualitative and quantitative analysis in terms of size, Zeta potential, morphology, and composition of the Nnps and the Nnps-BBR complex, the effects of the Nnps on the crystallization of BBR were characterized. The effects of the Nnps on the solubility and dissolution of BBR were then evaluated. In addition, the effects of the Nnps on BBR in terms of cellular uptake, transmembrane transport, metabolic stability, and pharmacokinetics in mice were studied. RESULTS:The Nnps had an average size of 166.6 ± 1.3 nm and Zeta potential of -12.5 ± 0.2 mV. The Nnps were formed by denaturation of co-existing plant proteins with molecular weight < 30 kDa. The Nnps adsorbed or dispersed BBR, thereby promoting BBR transformation from crystal to amorphous form and improving its solubility and dissolution. The Nnps carried and promoted BBR uptake by human colonic adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, reducing P-gp-mediated efflux of BBR in mice gut sacs and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells stably expressing the transporter P-gp (MDCK-MDR1) cells. Moreover, the Nnps improved BBR metabolic stability in mouse intestinal S9, promoting BBR intestinal absorption in mice, as shown by increased peak BBR concentration (C, 1182.3 vs 310.2 ng/mL) and exposure level (AUC, 2842.8 vs 1447.0 ng·h/mL) in mouse portal vein. In addition, the Nnps increased BBR exposure level in mouse livers (95,443.2 vs 43,586.2 ng·h/g liver). CONCLUSION:The proteinaceous nanoparticles isolated from extract can form a natural nano-drug delivery system with BBR, thereby significantly improving the pharmacokinetics of oral BBR. 10.2147/IJN.S323685
    Active Ingredients and Mechanism of Action of Rhizoma Coptidis against Type 2 Diabetes Based on Network-Pharmacology and Bioinformatics. Sun Yuan,Xiong Yi-Yi,Wu He-Zhen,Xiong Wei-Chen,Liu Bo,Xie Zhou-Tao,Xiao Wen-Ping,Huang Bi-Sheng,Yang Yan-Fang Current medical science A pharmacological network of "component/target/pathway" for Rhizoma coptidis against type 2 diabetes (T2D) was established by network-pharmacology, and the active components of Rhizoma coptidis and its mechanism were explored. A literature-based and database study of the components of Rhizoma coptidis was carried out and screened by ADME parameters. The targets of Rhizoma coptidis were predicted by the ligand similarity method. Related pathways were analyzed with databases, and software was used to construct a "component/target/path" network. The mechanism was further confirmed by GEO database with R software. A total of 12 active components were screened from Rhizoma coptidis, involving 57 targets including MAPK1, STAT3, INSR, and 38 signaling pathways were associated with T2D. Related signaling pathways included essential pathways for T2D such as insulin resistance, and pathways that had indirect effect on T2D. It was suggested that Rhizoma coptidis may exert its effects against T2D through multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway forms. 10.1007/s11596-020-2182-4
    Integrating metabolomics and network pharmacology to explore Rhizoma Coptidis extracts against sepsis-associated acute kidney injury. Zheng Yuenan,Shi Xuan,Hou Jiebin,Gao Songyan,Chao Yufan,Ding Jiarong,Chen Long,Qian Yong,Shao Guojian,Si Yachen,Chen Wei Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences Sepsis remains the most common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients, increasing the risk of in-hospital and long-term death. Rhizoma Coptidis (RC), a classical traditional Chinese herb, exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in various diseases including sepsis. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of RC extracts (RCE) against sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (SA-AKI) and explore the underlying mechanisms with metabolomics-based network pharmacology. The results showed that RCE improved renal function and histological injury and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in SA-AKI. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS), 25 differential metabolites were identified that had a close connection with the pathological processes of SA-AKI and the effects of RCE. Afterward, a compound-metabolite-target-disease network was constructed and 17 overlapping target proteins of the components of RCE, the differential metabolites, and the disease-related genes were discovered. Among these overlapping target proteins, RCE increased the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and reduced nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) activity. In addition, molecular docking revealed that both berberine and quercetin could bond with NOS2 and PPARα, respectively. Therefore, RCE demonstrated protective effects for SA-AKI through the regulation of metabolism and different signaling pathways. 10.1016/j.jchromb.2021.122525
    Obese rats intervened with Rhizoma coptidis revealed differential gene expression and microbiota by serum metabolomics. Ji Yanhua,Luo Kexin,Zhang Jiri Mutu,Ni Peng,Xiong Wangping,Luo Xiaoquan,Xu Guoliang,Liu Hongning,Zeng Zhijun BMC complementary medicine and therapies BACKGROUND:Integrating systems biology is an approach for investigating metabolic diseases in humans. However, few studies use this approach to investigate the mechanism by which Rhizoma coptidis (RC) reduces the effect of lipids and glucose on high-fat induced obesity in rats. METHODS:Twenty-four specific pathogen-free (SPF) male Sprague-Dawley rats (80 ± 10 g) were used in this study. Serum metabolomics were detected by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Liver tissue and cecum feces were used for RNA-Seq technology and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, respectively. RESULTS:We identified nine potential biomarkers, which are differential metabolites in the Control, Model and RC groups, including linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, stearic acid, and L-Alloisoleucine (p < 0.01). The liver tissue gene expression profile indicated the circadian rhythm pathway was significantly affected by RC (Q ≤ 0.05). A total of 149 and 39 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were highly associated with biochemical indicators and potential biomarkers in the cecum samples (FDR ≤ 0.05), respectively, were identified. CONCLUSION:This work provides information to better understand the mechanism of the effect of RC intervention on hyperlipidemia and hypoglycemic effects in obese rats. The present study demonstrates that integrating systems biology may be a powerful tool to reveal the complexity of metabolic diseases in rats intervened by traditional Chinese medicine. 10.1186/s12906-021-03382-3
    Biological Response Profiling Reveals the Functional Differences of Main Alkaloids in Rhizoma Coptidis. Xie Lan,Feng Shanshan,Zhang Xiaoling,Zhao Wenlong,Feng Juan,Ma Chengmei,Wang Ruijun,Song Weifang,Cheng Jing Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine. Although modern research has found that some alkaloids from RC are the pharmacologically active constituents, the differences in their biological effects are not completely clear. This study analyzed the differences in the typical alkaloids in RC at a systematic level and provided comprehensive information on the pharmaceutical mechanisms of the different alkaloids. The ethanol RC extract (RCE) was characterized using HPLC assay. HepG2, 3T3-L1, and RAW264.7 cells were used to detect the cytotoxicity of alkaloids. Transcriptome analyses were performed to elucidate the cellular pathways affected by RCE and alkaloids. HPLC analysis revealed that the typical alkaloids of RCE were berberine, coptisine, and palmatine. Coptisine and berberine displayed a stronger inhibitory effect on cell proliferation than palmatine. The overlapping ratios of differentially expressed genes between RCE and berberine, coptisine, and palmatine were 70.8%, 52.6%, and 42.1%, respectively. Pathway clustering analysis indicated that berberine and coptisine possessed a certain similarity to RCE, and both compounds affected the cell cycle pathway; moreover, some pathways were uniquely enriched by berberine or coptisine. Berberine and coptisine had different regulatory effects on genes involved in lipid metabolism. These results provide comprehensive information on the pharmaceutical mechanisms of the different RC alkaloids and insights into their better combinatory use for the treatment of diseases. 10.3390/molecules26237389
    Mechanism of Rhizoma Coptidis in epilepsy with network pharmacology. Allergologia et immunopathologia Network pharmacology is a bioinformatics-based research strategy aimed at identifying drug actions and facilitating drug discovery. In this study, network pharmacology was used for exploring the anti-epileptic multi-target mechanism of Rhizoma Coptidis. The possible protein targets of Rhizoma Coptidis were predicted by constructing the pathway and network of drug targets. Then, the interaction of the main active components of Rhizoma Coptidis and predicted candidate targets were verified using molecular docking technology. Finally, nine active compounds were selected from Rhizoma Coptidis. A total of 68 targets associated with Rhizoma Coptidis treating epilepsy. The key targets were AKT1, IL6, VEGFA, and TP53. According to GO functional enrichment analysis, 289 items of biological process, 33 items of cellular component, and 55 items of molecular function were obtained. A total of 89 signaling pathways were identified through KEGG pathway enrichment analysis (P < 0.05), and HIF-1, TNF, and T-cell receptor signaling pathways were mainly related to epilepsy. Molecular docking showed quercetin and (R)-canadine combined well with the key targets. The active ingredient in Rhizoma Coptidis can regulate various signaling pathways, and have therapeutic effects on epilepsy. 10.15586/aei.v50i3.489
    Metabolic profile of Rhizoma coptidis in human plasma determined using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Zhang Qing-Shan,Wang Gao-Wa,Han Zhi-Qiang,Chen Xiang-Mei,Na Risu,Jin Haburi,Li Ping,Bu Renbatu Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM RATIONALE:Rhizoma coptidis extract and its alkaloids show various pharmacological activities, but its metabolic profile in human plasma has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present research, the metabolism of Rhizoma coptidis at a clinical dose (5 g/60 kg/day) was systematically analyzed to determine its biotransformation processes in human plasma. METHODS:In this research, the metabolites of Rhizoma coptidis in human plasma after oral administration of Rhizoma coptidis extract at a clinical dose were investigated using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The structural elucidation of the constituents was confirmed by comparing their retention times (t ) and MS fragments with those of standards and literature reports. RESULTS:In total, two prototypes and twelve metabolites were detected in human plasma. The two prototypes were confidently identified using reference standards. Of the compounds detected, M7 (berberrubinen-9-O-glucuronide) was the most abundant based on its peak area, which indicates that this compound might be a pharmacokinetic marker for Rhizoma coptidis alkaloids in humans. Based on the metabolites detected in human plasma, a possible metabolic pathway for Rhizoma coptidis in vivo was proposed. CONCLUSIONS:The results indicated that the alkaloids in Rhizoma coptidis were extensively biotransformed in vivo mainly via conjugation with glucuronic acid (GluA) or sulfuric acid (SulA) to form phase II metabolites, and the GluA metabolites are likely the dominant form in human plasma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in vivo evaluation of the metabolic profile of the whole Rhizoma coptidis extract in human plasma, which is essential for determining the chemicals responsible for the pharmacological activities of Rhizoma coptidis in vivo. Moreover, it would be beneficial for us to further systematically study the pharmacokinetic behavior of Rhizoma coptidis in humans. 10.1002/rcm.7990
    Metabolism of Rhizoma coptidis in Human Urine by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Zhang Qingshan,Wang Gaowa,Chen Xi,Han Zhiqiang,Chen Xiangmei,Na Risu,Jin Haburi,Li Ping,Bu Renbatu European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Rhizoma coptidis extract and its alkaloids were reported to exhibit various pharmacological activities. However, pharmacokinetics investigations indicated that the plasma concentrations of the alkaloids were too low to explain their systemic therapeutic actions. Thus, the metabolic profile of Rhizoma coptidis in humans is yet to be fully investigated and the present study aimed to investigate the metabolic profile of Rhizoma coptidis in human urine after oral administration of Rhizoma coptidis extract. METHODS:In this study, the metabolism of Rhizoma coptidis at a clinical dose (5 g/60 kg/day) was investigated using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. RESULTS:Totally, 30 constituents including 7 prototypes, 5 sulfation metabolites and 18 glucuronide conjugates were elucidated and identified on the basis of the characteristics of their high-resolution precursor ions, product ions, and chromatographic retention times in human urine. Among the 7 prototypes, 3 prototypes (M20, M26 and M28) were identified definitely by comparing with standards. Based on the metabolites detected in human urine, a possible metabolic pathway of Rhizoma coptidis in vivo was proposed. CONCLUSIONS:The results demonstrated that the metabolic fate of Rhizoma coptidis mainly involved sulfation and glucuronidation in human urine and the glucuronide conjugate M14 (berberrubinen-9-O-glucuronide) might be a pharmacokinetic marker for Rhizoma coptidis alkaloids in humans. This study will be helpful to comprehensively understand the metabolic process of Rhizoma coptidis and how Rhizoma coptidis shows its pharmacological effects in humans. 10.1007/s13318-018-0463-0
    for Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: A Literature Review. Wang Zhiyong,Yang Yang,Liu Meixia,Wei Yun,Liu Jiangang,Pei Hui,Li Hao Current vascular pharmacology BACKGROUND:Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are major types of dementia, both of which cause heavy economic burdens for families and society. However, no currently available medicines can control dementia progression. Rhizoma coptidis, a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for >2000 years and is now gaining attention as a potential treatment for AD and VaD. METHODS:We reviewed the mechanisms of the active ingredients of Rhizoma coptidis and Rhizoma coptidis-containing Chinese herbal compounds in the treatment of AD and VaD. We focused on studies on ameliorating the risk factors and the pathological changes of these diseases. RESULTS:The Rhizoma coptidis active ingredients include berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jatrorrhizine and protopine. The most widely studied ingredient is berberine, which has extensive therapeutic effects on the risk factors and pathogenesis of dementia. It can control blood glucose and lipid levels, regulate blood pressure, ameliorate atherosclerosis, inhibit cholinesterase activity, Aβ generation, and tau hyperphosphorylation, decrease neuroinflammation and oxidative stress and alleviate cognitive impairment. Other ingredients (such as jatrorrhizine, coptisine, epiberberine and palmatine) also regulate blood lipids and blood pressure; however, there are relatively few studies on them. Rhizoma coptidis-containing Chinese herbal compounds like Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang, Huanglian Wendan Decoction, Banxia Xiexin Decoction and Huannao Yicong Formula have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant stress activities, regulate insulin signaling, inhibit γ-secretase activity, neuronal apoptosis, tau hyperphosphorylation, and Aβ deposition, and promote neural stem cell differentiation, thereby improving cognitive function. CONCLUSION:The "One-Molecule, One-Target" paradigm has suffered heavy setbacks, but a "multitarget- directed ligands" strategy may be viable. Rhizoma coptidis active ingredients and Rhizoma coptidiscontaining Chinese herbal compounds have multi-aspect therapeutic effects on AD and VaD. 10.2174/1570161117666190710151545
    Systematic screening and characterization of absorbed constituents and in vivo metabolites in rats after oral administration of Rhizoma coptidis using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. Feng Xinchi,Wang Kun,Hu Xintong,Chai Liwei,Cao Shijie,Ding Liqin,Qiu Feng Biomedical chromatography : BMC Rhizoma coptidis has been used for a long time in China owing to its anti-bacterial, anti-diabetes, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-obesity activities. However, the in vivo biotransformation of Rhizoma coptidis is still unclear to date. In this study, a three-step strategy using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS was applied to clarify the in vivo absorbed constituents and metabolites in rats after oral administration of Rhizoma coptidis. First, alkaloids in Rhizoma coptidis extract were identified. Second, six abundant alkaloids (berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jatrorrhizine, and columbamine) were selected as representative prototypes and the metabolic fates of them in rats were investigated to obtain a database of Rhizoma coptidis-derived metabolites. Finally, the metabolic profiles of Rhizoma coptidis were fully elucidated based on the above-mentioned results. In summary, 29 alkaloids were identified in Rhizoma coptidis, and a database of Rhizoma coptidis-derived metabolites was obtained with 144 characterized metabolites. A total of 89 xenobiotics including 12 absorbed constituents and 77 metabolites were identified in dosed rat biosamples. Major metabolic pathways of Rhizoma coptidis were hydroxylation, reduction, methylation, demethylation, demethylenation, desaturation, glucuronidation and sulfation. This is the first systematic study on the in vivo absorbed constituents and metabolic profiling of Rhizoma coptidis and will be beneficial for its further studies. 10.1002/bmc.4919
    Mechanisms of Rhizoma Coptidis against type 2 diabetes mellitus explored by network pharmacology combined with molecular docking and experimental validation. An Wenrong,Huang Yanqin,Chen Shouqiang,Teng Tao,Shi Yingning,Sun Zhenhai,Xu Yunsheng Scientific reports This study systematically explored the underlying mechanism of Rhizoma Coptidis against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by using network pharmacology and molecular docking and experimental validation. We retrieved and screened active compounds of Rhizoma Coptidis and corresponding T2DM-related targets across multiple databases. PPI networks of the genes were constructed using STRING, and the core targets were screened via topological analysis. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed by using DAVID. Finally, molecular docking and experimental studies were performed after bioinformatic analysis for verification. There were 14 active compounds and 19 core targets of Rhizoma Coptidis-T2DM, of which quercetin was identified as the main compound and IL6, VEGFA and TNF were the most significant core targets. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that Rhizoma Coptidis ameliorated T2DM by regulating multiple biological processes and pathways. Docking studies indicated that IL6, VEGFA and TNF could stably bind with all active compounds of Rhizoma Coptidis. The results of our experiments revealed that Rhizoma Coptidis could inhibit the expression of IL6 and TNFα and enhance islet cell viability. This study suggests anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects of Rhizoma Coptidis on T2DM, thereby providing a scientific basis and new insight for further research on the antidiabetic effect of Rhizoma Coptidis. 10.1038/s41598-021-00293-8