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    Programmed Cell Deaths and Potential Crosstalk With Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction After Hemorrhagic Stroke. Fang Yuanjian,Gao Shiqi,Wang Xiaoyu,Cao Yang,Lu Jianan,Chen Sheng,Lenahan Cameron,Zhang John H,Shao Anwen,Zhang Jianmin Frontiers in cellular neuroscience Hemorrhagic stroke is a life-threatening neurological disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. Various pathophysiological responses are initiated after blood enters the interstitial space of the brain, compressing the brain tissue and thus causing cell death. Recently, three new programmed cell deaths (PCDs), necroptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis, were also found to be important contributors in the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic stroke. Additionally, blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic stroke. The primary insult following BBB dysfunction may disrupt the tight junctions (TJs), transporters, transcytosis, and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, which may lead to brain edema, ionic homeostasis disruption, altered signaling, and immune infiltration, consequently causing neuronal cell death. This review article summarizes recent advances in our knowledge of the mechanisms regarding these new PCDs and reviews their contributions in hemorrhagic stroke and potential crosstalk in BBB dysfunction. Numerous studies revealed that necroptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis participate in cell death after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Endothelial dysfunction caused by these three PCDs may be the critical factor during BBB damage. Also, several signaling pathways were involved in PCDs and BBB dysfunction. These new PCDs (necroptosis, pyroptosis, ferroptosis), as well as BBB dysfunction, each play a critical role after hemorrhagic stroke. A better understanding of the interrelationship among them might provide us with better therapeutic targets for the treatment of hemorrhagic stroke. 10.3389/fncel.2020.00068
    New drugs are not enough‑drug repositioning in oncology: An update. Armando Romina Gabriela,Mengual Gómez Diego Luis,Gomez Daniel Eduardo International journal of oncology Drug repositioning refers to the concept of discovering novel clinical benefits of drugs that are already known for use treating other diseases. The advantages of this are that several important drug characteristics are already established (including efficacy, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity), making the process of research for a putative drug quicker and less costly. Drug repositioning in oncology has received extensive focus. The present review summarizes the most prominent examples of drug repositioning for the treatment of cancer, taking into consideration their primary use, proposed anticancer mechanisms and current development status. 10.3892/ijo.2020.4966
    Histaminergic transmission slows progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Apolloni Savina,Amadio Susanna,Fabbrizio Paola,Morello Giovanna,Spampinato Antonio Gianmaria,Latagliata Emanuele Claudio,Salvatori Illari,Proietti Daisy,Ferri Alberto,Madaro Luca,Puglisi-Allegra Stefano,Cavallaro Sebastiano,Volonté Cinzia Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle BACKGROUND:Histamine is an immune modulator, neuroprotective, and remyelinating agent, beneficially acting on skeletal muscles and promoting anti-inflammatory features in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) microglia. Drugs potentiating the endogenous release of histamine are in trial for neurological diseases, with a role not systematically investigated in ALS. Here, we examine histamine pathway associations in ALS patients and the efficacy of a histamine-mediated therapeutic strategy in ALS mice. METHODS:We adopted an integrative multi-omics approach combining gene expression profiles, copy number variants, and single nucleotide polymorphisms of ALS patients. We treated superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)-G93A mice that recapitulate key ALS features, with the brain-permeable histamine precursor histidine in the symptomatic phase of the disease and analysed the rescue from disease pathological signs. We examined the action of histamine in cultured SOD1-G93A motor neuron-like cells. RESULTS:We identified 13 histamine-related genes deregulated in the spinal cord of two ALS patient subgroups, among which genes involved in histamine metabolism, receptors, transport, and secretion. Some histamine-related genes overlapped with genomic regions disrupted by DNA copy number and with ALS-linked pathogenic variants. Histidine treatment in SOD1-G93A mice proved broad efficacy in ameliorating ALS features, among which most importantly lifespan, motor performance, microgliosis, muscle atrophy, and motor neurons survival in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:Our gene set/pathway enrichment analyses and preclinical studies started at the onset of symptoms establish that histamine-related genes are modifiers in ALS, supporting their role as candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets. We disclose a novel important role for histamine in the characterization of the multi-gene network responsible for ALS and, furthermore, in the drug development process. 10.1002/jcsm.12422
    Minocycline attenuates brain injury and iron overload after intracerebral hemorrhage in aged female rats. Dai Shuhui,Hua Ya,Keep Richard F,Novakovic Nemanja,Fei Zhou,Xi Guohua Neurobiology of disease Brain iron overload is involved in brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). There is evidence that systemic administration of minocycline reduces brain iron level and improves neurological outcome in experimental models of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. However, there is evidence in cerebral ischemia that minocycline is not protective in aged female animals. Since most ICH research has used male models, this study was designed to provide an overall view of ICH-induced iron deposits at different time points (1 to 28 days) in aged (18-month old) female Fischer 344 rat ICH model and to investigate the neuroprotective effects of minocycline in those rats. According to our previous studies, we used the following dosing regimen (20 mg/kg, i.p. at 2 and 12 h after ICH onset followed by 10 mg/kg, i.p., twice a day up to 7 days). T2-, T2-weighted and T2 array MRI was performed at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days to measure brain iron content, ventricle volume, lesion volume and brain swelling. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine changes in iron handling proteins, neuronal loss and microglial activation. Behavioral testing was used to assess neurological deficits. In aged female rats, ICH induced long-term perihematomal iron overload with upregulated iron handling proteins, neuroinflammation, brain atrophy, neuronal loss and neurological deficits. Minocycline significantly reduced ICH-induced perihematomal iron overload and iron handling proteins. It further reduced brain swelling, neuroinflammation, neuronal loss, delayed brain atrophy and neurological deficits. These effects may be linked to the role of minocycline as an iron chelator as well as an inhibitor of neuroinflammation. 10.1016/j.nbd.2018.06.001
    Neuroprotection of brain-permeable iron chelator VK-28 against intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Li Qian,Wan Jieru,Lan Xi,Han Xiaoning,Wang Zhongyu,Wang Jian Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Iron overload plays a key role in the secondary brain damage that develops after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The significant increase in iron deposition is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to oxidative brain damage. In this study, we examined the protective effects of VK-28, a brain-permeable iron chelator, against hemoglobin toxicity in an ex vivo organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC) model and in middle-aged mice subjected to an in vivo, collagenase-induced ICH model. We found that the effects of VK-28 were similar to those of deferoxamine (DFX), a well-studied iron chelator. Both decreased cell death and ROS production in OHSCs and in vivo, decreased iron-deposition and microglial activation around hematoma in vivo, and improved neurologic function. Moreover, compared with DFX, VK-28 polarized microglia to an M2-like phenotype, reduced brain water content, deceased white matter injury, improved neurobehavioral performance, and reduced overall death rate after ICH. The protection of VK-28 was confirmed in a blood-injection ICH model and in aged-male and young female mice. Our findings indicate that VK-28 is protective against iron toxicity after ICH and that, at the dosage tested, it has better efficacy and less toxicity than DFX does. 10.1177/0271678X17709186
    Minocycline-induced attenuation of iron overload and brain injury after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage. Zhao Fan,Hua Ya,He Yangdong,Keep Richard F,Xi Guohua Stroke BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Brain iron overload plays a detrimental role in brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A recent study found that minocycline acts as an iron chelator and reduces iron-induced neuronal death in vitro. The present study investigated if minocycline reduces iron overload after ICH and iron-induced brain injury in vivo. METHODS:This study was divided into 4 parts: (1) rats with different sizes of ICH were euthanized 3 days later for serum total iron and brain edema determination; (2) rats had an ICH treated with minocycline or vehicle. Serum iron, brain iron, and brain iron handling proteins were measured; (3) rats had an intracaudate injection of saline, iron, iron+minocycline, or iron+macrophage/microglia inhibitory factor and were used for brain edema and neuronal death measurements; and (4) rats had an intracaudate injection of iron and were treated with minocycline. The brains were used for edema measurement. RESULTS:After ICH, serum total iron and brain nonheme iron increased and these changes were reduced by minocycline treatment. Minocycline also reduced ICH-induced upregulation of brain iron handling proteins and neuronal death. Intracaudate injection of iron caused brain edema, blood-brain barrier leakage, and brain cell death, all of which were significantly reduced by coinjection with minocycline. CONCLUSIONS:The current study found that minocycline reduces iron overload after ICH and iron-induced brain injury. It is also well known minocycline is an inhibitor of microglial activation. Minocycline may be very useful for patients with ICH because both iron accumulation and microglia activation contribute to brain damage after ICH. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.623926
    Iron toxicity in mice with collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage. Wu He,Wu Tao,Xu Xueying,Wang Jessica,Wang Jian Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke. In this study, we examined the efficacy of deferoxamine (DFX), an iron chelator, after collagenase-induced ICH in 12-month-old mice. Intracerebral hemorrhage was induced by intrastriatal injection of collagenase. Deferoxamine (200  mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or vehicle was administrated 6  hours after ICH and then every 12  hours for up to 3 days. Neurologic deficits were examined on days 1 and 3 after ICH. Mice were killed after 1 or 3 days of DFX treatment for examination of iron deposition, neuronal death, oxidative stress, microglia/astrocyte activation, neutrophil infiltration, brain injury volume, and brain edema and swelling. Collagenase-induced ICH resulted in iron overload in the perihematomal region on day 3. Systemic administration of DFX decreased iron accumulation and neuronal death, attenuated production of reactive oxygen species, and reduced microglial activation and neutrophil infiltration without affecting astrocytes. Although DFX did not reduce brain injury volume, edema, or swelling, it improved neurologic function. Results of our study indicate that iron toxicity contributes to collagenase-induced hemorrhagic brain injury and that reducing iron accumulation can reduce neuronal death and modestly improve functional outcome after ICH in mice. 10.1038/jcbfm.2010.209
    The inhibitory effect of mesenchymal stem cell on blood-brain barrier disruption following intracerebral hemorrhage in rats: contribution of TSG-6. Chen Min,Li Xifeng,Zhang Xin,He Xuying,Lai Lingfeng,Liu Yanchao,Zhu Guohui,Li Wei,Li Hui,Fang Qinrui,Wang Zequn,Duan Chuanzhi Journal of neuroinflammation BACKGROUND:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well known having beneficial effects on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in previous studies. The therapeutic mechanisms are mainly to investigate proliferation, differentiation, and immunomodulation. However, few studies have used MSCs to treat blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage after ICH. The influence of MSCs on the BBB and its related mechanisms were investigated when MSCs were transplanted into rat ICH model in this study. METHODS:Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group, PBS-treated (ICH + PBS) group, and MSC-treated (ICH + MSC) group. ICH was induced by injection of IV collagenase into the rats' brains. MSCs were transplanted intravenously into the rats 2 h after ICH induction in MSC-treated group. The following factors were compared: inflammation, apoptosis, behavioral changes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), endothelial integrity, brain edema content, BBB leakage, TNF-α stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. RESULTS:In the ICH + MSC group, MSCs decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis, downregulated the density of microglia/macrophages and neutrophil infiltration at the ICH site, reduced the levels of iNOS and MMP-9, attenuated ONOO(-) formation, and increased the levels of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5. MSCs also improved the degree of brain edema and BBB leakage. The protective effect of MSCs on the BBB in ICH rats was possibly invoked by increased expression of TSG-6, which may have suppressed activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. The levels of iNOS and ONOO(-), which played an important role in BBB disruption, decreased due to the inhibitory effects of TSG-6 on the NF-κB signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrated that intravenous transplantation of MSCs decreased the levels of ONOO(-) and degree of BBB leakage and improved neurological recovery in a rat ICH model. This strategy may provide a new insight for future therapies that aim to prevent breakdown of the BBB in patients with ICH and eventually offer therapeutic options for ICH. 10.1186/s12974-015-0284-x
    Human amniotic epithelial stem cells inhibit microglia activation through downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and matrix metalloproteinase-12 in vitro and in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage. Liang Hongsheng,Guan Dong,Gao Aili,Yin Yibo,Jing Meng,Yang Lin,Ma Wei,Hu Enxi,Zhang Xiangtong Cytotherapy BACKGROUND AIMS:The molecular mechanisms by which stem cell transplantation improves functional recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are not well understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that microglia cells are activated shortly after ICH and that this activation contributes to secondary ICH-induced brain injury. We studied the effect of human amniotic epithelial stem cells (HAESCs) on microglia activation. METHODS:To study the effect of HAESCs in vitro, we used thrombin to activate the microglia cells. Twenty-four hours after thrombin treatment, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vivo, the HAESCs were transplanted into the rat striatum 1 day after collagenase-induced ICH. The expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 and microglia infiltration in the peri-hematoma tissues were determined 7 days after ICH through the use of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. RESULTS:Thrombin-activated microglia expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and MMP-12 was significantly reduced through contact-dependent and paracrine mechanisms when the HAESCs were co-cultured with microglia cells. After transplantation of HAESCs in rat brains, the expression levels of MMP-12 and microglia infiltration in the peri-hematoma tissues were significantly reduced. CONCLUSIONS:Our observations suggest that microglia activation could be inhibited by HAESCs both in vitro and in vivo, which may be an important mechanism by which the transplantation of HAESCs reduces brain edema and ameliorates the neurologic deficits after ICH. Therefore, we hypothesize that methods for suppressing the activation of microglia and reducing the inflammatory response can be used for designing effective treatment strategies for ICH. 10.1016/j.jcyt.2013.11.007
    Minocycline promotes posthemorrhagic neurogenesis via M2 microglia polarization via upregulation of the TrkB/BDNF pathway in rats. Miao Hongsheng,Li Runming,Han Cong,Lu Xiuzhen,Zhang Hang Journal of neurophysiology Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease worldwide with increasing mortality. The present study investigated whether minocycline was neuroprotective and induced M2 microglial polarization via upregulation of the TrkB/BDNF pathway after ICH. ICH was induced via injection of autologous blood into 150 Sprague-Dawley rats. A selective TrkB antagonist [N2-2-2-oxoazepan-3-yl amino] carbonyl phenyl benzo (b) thiophene-2-carboxamide (ANA 12)] and agonist [ N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl) ethyl]-2-oxopiperidine-3-carboxamide (HIOC)] were used to investigate the mechanism of minocycline-induced neuroprotection. Minocycline improved ICH-induced neurological deficits and reduced M1 microglia marker protein (CD68, CD16) expression as well as M2 microglial polarization (CD206 and arginase 1 protein). Minocycline administration enhanced microglia-neuron cross talk and promoted the proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells, such as DCX- and Tuj-1-positive cells, 24 h after ICH. Minocycline also increased M2 microglia-derived brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and the upstream TrkB pathway. ANA 12 reversed the neuroprotective effects of minocycline. HIOC exhibited the same effects as minocycline and accelerated neurogenesis after ICH. This study demonstrated for the first time that minocycline promoted M2 microglia polarization via upregulation of the TrkB/BDNF pathway and promoted neurogenesis after ICH. This study contributes to our understanding of the therapeutic potential of minocycline in ICH. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study gives several novel points: 1) Minocycline promotes neurogenesis after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats. 2) Minocycline induces activated M1 microglia into M2 neurotrophic phenotype. 3) M2 microglia secreting BDNF remodel the damaged neurocircuit. 10.1152/jn.00234.2018
    Minocycline Preserves the Integrity and Permeability of BBB by Altering the Activity of DKK1-Wnt Signaling in ICH Model. Wang Guoqing,Li Zhihua,Li Shujian,Ren Junling,Suresh Vigneyshwar,Xu Dingkang,Zang Weidong,Liu Xianzhi,Li Wei,Wang Huizhi,Guo Fuyou Neuroscience Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequent neurological deficits are the most severe consequence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Minocycline has been wildly used clinically as a neurological protective agent in clinical practice. However, the underlying mechanisms by which minocycline functions remain unclear. Therefore, we assessed the influence of minocycline on BBB structure, neurological function, and inflammatory responses in a collagenase-induced ICH model, and elucidated underlying molecular mechanisms as well. Following a single injection of collagenase VII-S into the basal ganglia, BBB integrity was assessed by Evans blue extravasation while neurological function was assessed using an established neurologic function scoring system. Minocycline treatment significantly alleviated the severity of BBB disruption, brain edema, and neurological deficits in ICH model. Moreover, minocycline decreased the production of inflammatory mediators including TNF, IL-6, and MMP-9, by microglia. Minocycline treatment decreased DKK1 expression but increased Wnt1, β-catenin and Occludin, a phenomenon mimicked by DKK1 silencing. These data suggest that minocycline improves the consequences of ICH by preserving BBB integrity and attenuating neurologic deficits in a DKK1-related manner that involves enhancement of the Wnt1-β-catenin activity. 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.06.038
    Evolution of the inflammatory response in the brain following intracerebral hemorrhage and effects of delayed minocycline treatment. Wasserman Jason K,Zhu Xiaoping,Schlichter Lyanne C Brain research There are no effective treatments for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Although inflammation is a potential therapeutic target, there is a dearth of information about time-dependent and cell-specific changes in the expression of inflammation-related genes. Using the collagenase-induced ICH model in rats and real-time quantitative RT-PCR we monitored mRNA levels of markers of glial activation, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes responsible for cytokine activation and several matrix metalloproteases at 6 h and 1, 3 and 7 days after ICH onset. For the most highly up-regulated genes, immunohistochemistry was then used to identify cell-specific protein expression. Finally, minocycline, a drug widely reported to reduce damage in several models of brain injury, was used to test the hypothesis that it can reduce up-regulation of inflammation-related genes when administered using a clinically relevant dosing regime: intraperitoneal injection beginning 6 h after ICH. Our results show a complex inflammatory response, with different brain cell types producing several pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules for at least 7 days after ICH onset. Included is the first demonstration that astrocytes are an important source of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and MMP-12. Importantly, our results demonstrate that while delayed minocycline treatment effectively reduces early up-regulation of TNFalpha and MMP-12, its efficacy is lost when treatment is extended for up to a week, and it does not reduce several other genes associated with microglia activation. These results suggest caution in extrapolating to ICH the promising results of minocycline treatment in other models of brain injury. 10.1016/j.brainres.2007.08.058
    Combination of thrombin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 exacerbates neurotoxicity in cell culture and intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Xue Mengzhou,Hollenberg Morley D,Yong V Wee The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience The rapid loss of neurons is a major pathological outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Several mechanisms may produce the neurotoxicity observed in ICH, and these include proteolytic enzymes such as thrombin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). We tested the hypothesis that thrombin and MMP-9 combine to injure neurons in culture and that they interact to promote the acute neurotoxicity that occurs in ICH in vivo. We report that human fetal neurons die when exposed to thrombin or MMP-9 in isolation and that a combination of these two enzymes increased neurotoxicity. The toxicity of thrombin involved protease-activated receptor-1 and the conversion of proMMP-9 to active MMP-9. In ICH, which was induced in mice by the intracerebral injection of autologous blood, significant areas of brain damage, neuronal death, microglia/macrophage activation, and neutrophil accumulation occurred by 24 h of injury. Importantly, these neuropathological features were reduced in MMP-9 null mice compared with wild-type controls, and the concordant antagonism of thrombin using hirudin also alleviated the injury found in MMP-9 null mice. Our collective results demonstrate that thrombin and MMP-9 collaborate to promote neuronal death in culture and in ICH. To improve the prognosis of ICH, the neurotoxic actions of thrombin and MMP-9 must be inhibited early and simultaneously after injury. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2806-06.2006
    Minocycline protects the blood-brain barrier and reduces edema following intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat. Wasserman Jason K,Schlichter Lyanne C Experimental neurology Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) results from rupture of a blood vessel in the brain. After ICH, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) surrounding the hematoma is disrupted, leading to cerebral edema. In both animals and humans, edema coincides with inflammation, which is characterized by production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, activation of resident brain microglia and migration of peripheral immune cells into the brain. Accordingly, inflammation is an attractive target for reducing edema following ICH. In the present study, BBB damage was assessed by quantifying intact microvessels surrounding the hematoma, monitoring extravasation of IgG and measuring brain water content 3 days after ICH induced by collagenase injection into the rat striatum. In the injured brain, the water content increased in both ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres compared with the normal brain. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed an up-regulation of inflammatory genes associated with BBB damage; IL1beta, TNFalpha and most notably, MMP-12. Immunostaining showed MMP-12 in damaged microvessels and their subsequent loss from tissue surrounding the hematoma. MMP-12 was also observed for the first time in neurons. Dual-antibody labeling demonstrated that neutrophils were the predominant source of TNFalpha protein. Intraperitoneal injection of the tetracycline derivative, minocycline, beginning 6 h after ICH ameliorated the damage by reducing microvessel loss, extravasation of plasma proteins and edema; decreasing TNFalpha and MMP-12 expression; and reducing the numbers of TNFalpha-positive cells and neutrophils in the brain. Thus, minocycline, administered at a clinically relevant time, appears to target the inflammatory processes involved in edema development after ICH. 10.1016/j.expneurol.2007.06.025
    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 expression has a negative impact on sensorimotor function following intracerebral haemorrhage in mice. Wells Jennifer E A,Biernaskie Jeff,Szymanska Aleksandra,Larsen Peter H,Yong V Wee,Corbett Dale The European journal of neuroscience We investigated the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in a mouse model of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Transcripts encoding nine of the 23 known mammalian MMPs were measured. MMP-12 levels were the most elevated. To evaluate the role of MMP-12 in ICH, haemorrhages were induced in wild-type (WT) and MMP-12 null mice. The results show that MMP-12 null mice exhibited significant functional recovery of forelimb reaching and reduced dependence on the ipsilateral forelimb compared to WT mice. There was also a trend for improved sensory function in the tape removal test. With respect to single pellet skilled reaching, MMP-12 null mice recovered to a level that was not significantly different from sham at 14 and 28 days post-ICH. In contrast, WT animals demonstrated a persistent impairment relative to sham controls throughout the survival period (P < 0.05). The cylinder task revealed a lesion-induced reliance on the ipsilateral forelimb that was apparent at day 7 in both MMP-12 null and WT mice (P < 0.05), but only persisted in WT mice at 14 days post-ICH (P < 0.05). Differences in functional outcome could not be explained by tissue sparing. However, Iba1 immunostaining indicated that more cells bearing macrophage morphology were recruited to the lesion area in WT mice. This is the first study to profile the expression patterns of a number of the known MMPs following ICH in mice. The data indicate that MMP-12 expression following haemorrhagic stroke is deleterious and contributes to the development of secondary injury in this disease. 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03829.x
    Pretreatment with low-dose fimasartan ameliorates NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation and brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage. Yang Xiuli,Sun Jing,Kim Tae Jung,Kim Young-Ju,Ko Sang-Bae,Kim Chi Kyung,Jia Xiaofeng,Yoon Byung-Woo Experimental neurology Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, which is composed of an NLRP3 domain, the adaptor molecule apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) domain, and procaspase-1, plays an important role in the immune pathophysiology of the secondary damage induced by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study aims to investigate whether pre-stroke treatment with fimasartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, has anti-inflammatory effects on ICH by inhibiting the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: sham, vehicle, low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) and regular-doses (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg) fimasartan. These rats were treated for 30 days before the induction of collagenase-induced ICH and continuously 3 days after surgery. The mean blood pressure (BP) in the low-dose fimasartan group was not significantly different from that of control, and BP in the regular-dose groups was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with low-dose fimasartan attenuated ICH-induced edema and improved neurological functions. Activation of the NLRP3/ASC/caspase-1 and the NF-κB pathways after ICH was markedly reduced by low-dose fimasartan. The double immunofluorescence staining of brain cells showed a significant decrease in the co-localization of NLRP3 with Iba1 (microglia marker) positive cells by fimasartan treatment. Cultured microglia cells stimulated by hemolysate demonstrated significant activation of the inflammasome, which was reduced by fimasartan. Pretreatment with a low-dose fimasartan alleviated brain damage after acute ICH by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome without lowering MBP. Our study suggests pre-stroke administration of fimasartan could potentially attenuate ICH-induced secondary brain injury by targeting the inflammasome. 10.1016/j.expneurol.2018.08.013
    Ac-YVAD-cmk improves neurological function by inhibiting caspase-1-mediated inflammatory response in the intracerebral hemorrhage of rats. Liang Hongsheng,Sun Yong,Gao Aili,Zhang Nannan,Jia Ying,Yang Shanshan,Na Meng,Liu Huailei,Cheng Xingbo,Fang Xiaofeng,Ma Wei,Zhang Xiangtong,Wang Fan International immunopharmacology OBJECTIVE:Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is acknowledged as a serious clinical problem lacking effective treatments. And caspase-1-mediated inflammatory response happened during the progression of ICH. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-cmk on ICH. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Microglia cells were isolated and activated by thrombin for 24 h. Then the transcript and protein expressions of NLRP3 and inflammatory factors were assessed by RT-PCR and western blotting. Moreover, Ac-YVAD-cmk was injected into the ICH model. The mNSS and brain water content were tested at 24 h post-ICH. Finally, the pathological changes of microglia activation following ICH were discovered by the immunohistochemical and HE staining ways. RESULTS:Ac-YVAD-cmk inhibited the activation of pro-caspase-1 and decreased brain edema, in association with decreasing activated microglia and the expression of inflammation-related factors at 24 h post-ICH. Consequently, Ac-YVAD-cmk reduced the release of mature IL-1β/IL-18 in perihematoma, improved the behavioral performance, and alleviated microglia in perihematoma region in ICH rats. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that caspase-1 could amplify the plural inflammatory responses in the ICH. Administration of Ac-YVAD-cmk has the potential to be a novel therapeutic strategy for ICH. 10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105771
    NLRP3 is Required for Complement-Mediated Caspase-1 and IL-1beta Activation in ICH. Yao Sheng-Tao,Cao Fang,Chen Jia-Lin,Chen Wei,Fan Rui-Ming,Li Gang,Zeng You-Chao,Jiao Song,Xia Xiang-Ping,Han Chong,Ran Qi-Shan Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN Complement-mediated inflammation plays a vital role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), implicating pro-inflammatory factor interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) secretion. Brain samples and contralateral hemiencephalon were all collected and detected by Western blot. NLRP3 expression was located by dual immunofluorescence staining at 1, 3, and 5 days post-ICH. Brain water content was examined post-ICH. The neural deficit scores were evaluated by observers blindly. ILs were detected by ELISA. SiRNAs targeting NLRP3 (siNLRP3), siASC, and siControl were injected to inhibit NLRP3 function. To test the complement activation via Nod-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), normal rabbit complement (NRC) was injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to facilitate the complement function. As a result, complement 3a (C3a) and complement 5a (C5a) were upregulated during the ICH-induced neuroinflammation, and ablation of C3 attenuates ICH-induced IL-1β release. Though the LPS rescues the neuroinflammation in the ICH model, C3 deficiency attenuates the LPS-induced inflammatory effect. The NLRP3 inflammasome was activated after ICH and was located in the microglial cell of the mouse brain, which exhibits a time-dependent manner. However, the number of NLRP3/Iba-1 dual-labeled cells in the C3 group is less than that in the WT group in each time course, respectively. IL-1β and IL-18 released in perihematoma tissue, caspase-1-p20, brain water content, and behavioral outcomes were attenuated in the siNLRP3 and siASC groups than in the siControl and ICH groups. We also found that 5% of complement supplement enhances ICH-induced IL-1β release, while NLRP3 and ASC inhibition attenuates it. In conclusion, complement-induced ICH neuroinflammation depended on NLRP3 activation, which facilities LPS- and ICH-induced neuroinflammation, and NLRP3 is required for ICH-induced inflammation. 10.1007/s12031-016-0874-9
    PPAR- Promotes Hematoma Clearance through Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin-CD163 in a Rat Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Wang Gaiqing,Li Tong,Duan Shu-Na,Dong Liang,Sun Xin-Gang,Xue Fang Behavioural neurology BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:PPAR- is a transcriptional factor which is associated with promoting hematoma clearance and reducing neurological dysfunction after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Haptoglobin- (Hp-) hemoglobin- (Hb-) CD163 acts as a main pathway to Hb scavenging after ICH. The effect of PPAR- on the Hp-Hb-CD163 signaling pathway has not been reported. We hypothesized that PPAR- might protect against ICH-induced neuronal injury via activating the Hp-Hb-CD163 pathway in a rat ICH model. METHODS:107 Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this research. They were randomly allocated to 4 groups as follows: sham group, vehicle group, monascin-treated group, and Glivec-treated group. Animals were euthanized at 3 days after the model was established successfully. We observed the effects of PPAR- on the brain water content, hemoglobin levels, and the expressions of CD163 and Hp in Western blot and real-ime PCR; meanwhile, we measured hematoma volumes and edema areas by MRI scanning. RESULT:The results showed that PPAR- agonist significantly reduced hematoma volume, brain edema, and hemoglobin after ICH. It also enhanced CD163 and Hp expression while PPAR- antagonist had the opposite effects. CONCLUSIONS:PPAR- promotes hematoma clearance and plays a protective role through the Hp-Hb-CD163 pathway in a rat collagenase infusion ICH model. 10.1155/2018/7646104
    Simvastatin accelerates hematoma resolution after intracerebral hemorrhage in a PPARγ-dependent manner. Wang Yuelong,Chen Qianwei,Tan Qiang,Feng Zhou,He Zhenlin,Tang Jun,Feng Hua,Zhu Gang,Chen Zhi Neuropharmacology To date, the neuroprotective effects of statins on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are not well established. This study explored the effect and potential mechanism of simvastatin treatment on ICH. In the present study, the effects of simvastatin on hematoma absorption, neurological outcome, CD36 expression and microglia polarization were examined in rat model of ICH model. In the meantime, inhibitory effect of PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 was investigated following ICH. Additionally, the effect of simvastatin on PPARγ activation was also investigated in rat ICH model and primary microglia culture. Much more, the role of PPARγ and CD36 in simvastatin-mediated erythrocyte phagocytosis was also detected by using in vivo or in vitro phagocytosis models, respectively. After ICH, simvastatin promoted hematoma absorption and improved neurological outcome after ICH while upregulating CD36 expression and facilitating M2 phenotype polarization in perihematomal microglia. In addition, simvastatin increased PPARγ activation and reinforced microglia-induced erythrocyte phagocytosis in vivo and in vitro. All above effects of simvastatin were abolished by PPARγ inhibitor GW9662. In conclusion, our data suggested that simvastatin could enhance hematoma clearance and attenuate neurological deficits possibly by activating PPARγ. 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.10.021
    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ by a 12/15-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid: a possible neuroprotective effect in the brain after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage. Xu Ruobing,Wang Shu,Li Weishan,Liu Zhen,Tang Jiaxin,Tang Xiaobo Journal of neurosurgery OBJECTIVE In this study, the authors investigated the involvement of 15( S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE) in the regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and its effects on hemorrhage-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress in an experimental rodent model. METHODS To simulate ICH in a rat model, the authors injected autologous whole blood into the right striatum of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The distribution and expression of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, respectively. Immunofluorescent double labeling was used to study the cellular localization of 12/15-LOX, and 15(S)-HETE was measured with a 15(S)-HETE enzyme immunoassay kit. Neurological deficits in the animals were assessed through behavioral testing, and apoptotic cell death was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated dUTP nick-end labeling. RESULTS Rats with ICH had increased expression of 12/15-LOX predominantly in neurons and also in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Moreover, ICH elevated production of 15(S)-HETE in the brain area ipsilateral to the blood injection. The PPARγ agonist, exogenous 15(S)-HETE, significantly increased PPARγ protein levels and increased PPARγ-regulated gene (i.e., catalase) expression in the ICH rats. Reduced expression of the gene for the proinflammatory protein nuclear factor κB coincided with decreased neuron damage and improved functional recovery from ICH. A PPARγ antagonist, GW9662, reversed the effects of exogenous 15(S)-HETE on the PPARγ-regulated genes. CONCLUSIONS The induction of 15(S)-HETE during simulated ICH suggests generation of endogenous signals of neuroprotection. The effects of exogenous 15(S)-HETE on brain hemorrhage-induced inflammatory responses and oxidative stress might be mediated via PPARγ. 10.3171/2016.7.JNS1668
    Rosiglitazone ameliorates tissue plasminogen activator-induced brain hemorrhage after stroke. Li Yan,Zhu Zi-Yu,Lu Bing-Wei,Huang Ting-Ting,Zhang Yue-Man,Zhou Na-Ying,Xuan Wei,Chen Zeng-Ai,Wen Da-Xiang,Yu Wei-Feng,Li Pei-Ying CNS neuroscience & therapeutics OBJECTIVE:Delayed thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may exacerbate blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown after ischemic stroke and lead to catastrophic hemorrhagic transformation (HT). Rosiglitazone(RSG), a widely used antidiabetic drug that activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), has been shown to protect against cerebral ischemia through promoting poststroke microglial polarization toward the beneficial anti-inflammatory phenotype. However, whether RSG can alleviate HT after delayed tPA treatment remains unknown. In this study, we sort to examine the role of RSG on tPA-induced HT after stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS:We used the murine suture middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models of stroke followed by delayed administration of tPA (10 mg/kg, 2 hours after suture occlusion) to investigate the therapeutic potential of RSG against tPA-induced HT. When RSG(6 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered 1 hour before MCAO in tPA-treated MCAO mice, HT in the ischemic territory was significantly attenuated 1 day after stroke. In the tPA-treated MCAO mice, we found RSG significantly mitigated BBB disruption and hemorrhage development compared to tPA-alone-treated stroke mice. Using flow cytometry and immunostaining, we confirmed that the expression of CD206 was significantly upregulated while the expression of iNOS was down-regulated in microglia of the RSG-treated mice. We further found that the expression of Arg-1 was also upregulated in those tPA and RSG-treated stroke mice and the protection against tPA-induced HT and BBB disruption in these mice were abolished in the presence of PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (4 mg/kg, 1 hour before dMCAO through intraperitoneal injection). CONCLUSIONS:RSG treatment protects against BBB damage and ameliorates HT in delayed tPA-treated stroke mice by activating PPAR-γ and favoring microglial polarization toward anti-inflammatory phenotype. 10.1111/cns.13260
    Blockade of AT1 receptor reduces apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in normotensive rats with intracerebral hemorrhage. Jung Keun-Hwa,Chu Kon,Lee Soon-Tae,Kim Se-Jeong,Song Eun-Cheol,Kim Eun-Hee,Park Dong-Kyu,Sinn Dong-In,Kim Jeong-Min,Kim Manho,Roh Jae-Kyu The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics Angiotensin II exerts its central nervous system effects primarily via its receptors AT1 and AT2, and it participates in the pathogenesis of ischemia via AT1. The selective AT1 receptor blocker (ARB) is used in the hypertension treatment, and it exerts a variety of pleiotropic effects, including antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of the ARB telmisartan in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in normotensive rats. ICH was induced via the collagenase infusion or autologous blood injection. Either telmisartan at 30 mg/kg/dose or phosphate-buffered saline was orally administered 2 h after ICH induction. We evaluated hemorrhage volume, brain water content, and functional recovery, and we performed the histological analysis for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling, leukocyte infiltration, and microglia activation. A variety of intracellular signals, in terms of oxidative stress, apoptotic molecules, and inflammatory mediators, were also measured. Telmisartan reduced hemorrhage volume, brain edema, and inflammatory or apoptotic cells in the perihematomal area. Telmisartan was noted to induce the expression of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and decrease oxidative stress, apoptotic signal, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. The telmisartan-treated rats exhibited less pronounced neurological deficits and recovered better. Thus, telmisartan seems to offer neural protection, including antiapoptosis, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant benefits in the intracerebral hemorrhage rat model. 10.1124/jpet.107.120097
    Lithium chloride promoted hematoma resolution after intracerebral hemorrhage through GSK-3β-mediated pathways-dependent microglia phagocytosis and M2-phenotype differentiation, angiogenesis and neurogenesis in a rat model. Li Rui,Liu Zhen,Wu Xinran,Yu Zihan,Zhao Sha,Tang Xiaobo Brain research bulletin Some neuroprotective agents have been used clinically to address the resulting various adverse effects after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Particularly, effectively removing the hematoma is of practical significance to exert neuroprotective effects following ICH. However, such agents are still in need of development. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has shown neuroprotective effects through glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibition in a variety of central nervous system diseases. However, the impact of LiCl on hematoma clearance and the potential molecular mechanisms have not been reported. We hypothesize that LiCl may exert neuroprotective roles after ICH, partly through promoting hematoma resolution. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ICH followed by intraperitoneal injection of LiCl (60 mg/kg). The hematoma volumes of ipsilateral hemisphere were determined using Drabkin's method. The sensorimotor deficits were evaluated by neurobehavioral tests. The expressions of target molecules involved in the process of hematoma clearance were assayed using immunofluorescence and Western blot. Our results showed that animals treated with LiCl presented significantly reduced hematoma volume after ICH, which was coupled with enhanced microglia phagocytosis and its differentiation into M2-phenotype within the first 7 days and up-regulated angiogenesis and neurogenesis in the next 7 days. Meanwhile, GSK-3β was inhibited by LiCl and β-catenin became stabilized, which was followed by up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and CD36 from days 3 to 7, and increase of vascular endothelial growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor from days 7 to 14. These data suggest that LiCl promotes hematoma resolution via enhancing microglia phagocytosis and M2-phenotype differentiation in the early stage (< 7 days) and angiogenesis and neurogenesis in the chronic phase (days 7-14), thus eventually improving the functional outcomes of ICH rats. 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.07.019
    Lithium posttreatment confers neuroprotection through glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition in intracerebral hemorrhage rats. Zheng Jian,Liu Zhen,Li Weishan,Tang Jiaxin,Zhang Dongwei,Tang Xiaobo Journal of neurosurgery OBJECTIVE Inflammation and apoptosis are two key factors contributing to secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of lithium posttreatment on behavior, brain atrophy, inflammation, and perihematomal cell death. Furthermore, the authors aimed to determine the role of the pro-apoptotic glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) after experimental ICH. METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 108) were subjected to intracerebral infusion of semicoagulated autologous blood. Window of opportunity and dose optimization studies of lithium on ICH-induced injury were performed by measuring neurological deficits. Animals with ICH received vehicle administration or lithium posttreatment (60 mg/kg) for up to 21 days. Hemispheric atrophy was evaluated. Perihematomal cell death was quantified through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The number of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive neutrophils and OX42-positive microglia in the perihematomal areas were calculated. Western blotting was used for the quantification of GSK-3β, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65), and cy-clooxygenase-2 (COX-2). RESULTS Lithium, at a dose of 60 mg/kg initiated from 2 hours after injury, exhibited the best effects of improving neurological outcomes 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after ICH, reduced the hemispheric atrophy at 42 days after surgery, and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells, MPO-positive neutrophils, and OX42-positive microglia in the perihematomal areas. Furthermore, lithium posttreatment modulated GSK-3β, increased HSP70, and decreased NF-κB p65 and COX-2 expression in the ipsilateral hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS Lithium posttreatment at a dose of 60 mg/kg, initiated beginning 2 hours after injury, improves functional and morphological outcomes, and inhibits inflammation and perihematomal cell death in a rat model of semicoagulated autologous blood ICH through inactivation of GSK-3β. 10.3171/2016.7.JNS152995
    Thrombin induces NO release from cultured rat microglia via protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NF-kappa B. Ryu J,Pyo H,Jou I,Joe E The Journal of biological chemistry Microglia, brain resident macrophages, become activated in brains injured due to trauma, ischemia, or neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we found that thrombin treatment of microglia induced NO release/inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression, a prominent marker of activation. The effect of thrombin on NO release increased dose-dependently within the range of 5-20 units/ml. In immunoblot analyses, inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression was detected within 9 h after thrombin treatment. This effect of thrombin was significantly reduced by protein kinase C inhibitors, such as Go6976, bisindolylmaleimide, and Ro31-8220. Within 15 min, thrombin activated three subtypes of mitogen-activated protein kinases: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase. Inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway and p38 reduced the NO release of thrombin-treated microglia. Thrombin also activated nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) within 5 min, and N-acetyl cysteine, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB, reduced NO release. However, thrombin receptor agonist peptide (an agonist of protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1)), could not mimic the effect of thrombin, and cathepsin G, a PAR-1 inhibitor, did not reduce the effect of thrombin. These results suggest that thrombin can activate microglia via protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and NF-kappaB but that this occurs independently of PAR-1. 10.1074/jbc.M001220200
    Thrombin-induced, TNFR-dependent miR-181c downregulation promotes MLL1 and NF-κB target gene expression in human microglia. Yin Min,Chen Zhiying,Ouyang Yetong,Zhang Huiyan,Wan Zhigang,Wang Han,Wu Wei,Yin Xiaoping Journal of neuroinflammation BACKGROUND:Controlling thrombin-driven microglial activation may serve as a therapeutic target for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Here, we investigated microRNA (miRNA)-based regulation of thrombin-driven microglial activation using an in vitro thrombin toxicity model applied to primary human microglia. METHODS:A miRNA array identified 22 differential miRNA candidates. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) identified miR-181c as the most significantly downregulated miRNA. TargetScan analysis identified mixed lineage leukemia-1 (MLL1) as a putative gene target for miR-181c. qRT-PCR was applied to assess tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), miR-181c, and MLL1 levels following thrombin or proteinase-activated receptor-4-specific activating peptide (PAR4AP) exposure. Anti-TNF-α antibodies and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) silencing were employed to test TNF-α/TNFR dependence. A dual-luciferase reporter system and miR-181c mimic transfection assessed whether mir-181c directly binds to and negatively regulates MLL1. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)-dependent luciferase reporter assays and NF-κB target gene expression were assessed in wild-type (MLL1+) and MLL1-silenced cells. RESULTS:Thrombin or PAR4AP-induced miR-181c downregulation (p < 0.05) and MLL1 upregulation (p < 0.05) that were dependent upon TNF-α/TNFR. miR-181c decreased wild-type MLL1 3'-UTR luciferase reporter activity (p < 0.05), and a miR-181c mimic suppressed MLL1 expression (p < 0.05). Thrombin treatment increased, while miR-181c reduced, NF-κB activity and NF-κB target gene expression in both wild-type (MLL1+) and MLL1-silenced cells (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Thrombin-induced, TNF-α/TNFR-dependent miR-181c downregulation promotes MLL1 expression, increases NF-κB activity, and upregulates NF-κB target gene expression. As miR-181c opposes thrombin's stimulation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB activity, miR-181c mimic therapy may show promise in controlling thrombin-driven microglial activation following ICH. 10.1186/s12974-017-0887-5
    IL-17A promotes microglial activation and neuroinflammation in mouse models of intracerebral haemorrhage. Yu Anyong,Duan Haizhen,Zhang Tianxi,Pan Yong,Kou Zhi,Zhang Xiaojun,Lu Yuanlan,Wang Song,Yang Zhao Molecular immunology Microglial activation is an important contributor to neuroinflammation in intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). IL-17A has been demonstrated to be involved in neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis. However, the exact mechanism of IL-17A mediated microglial activation in ICH has not been well identified. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the role of IL-17A in ICH induced microglial activation and neuroinflammation. ICH mice were made by injection of autologous blood model. IL-17A expression and inflammatory factors in perihematomal region, and neurological function of mice were examined after ICH. In addition, IL-17A-neutralizing antibody was utilized to potentially prevent microglial activation and neuroinflammation in ICH mice. The expression of IL-17A, inflammatory factors and microglial activation in perihematomal region were significantly increased, and neurological function of mice was impaired after ICH. In addition, IL-17A Ab prevented ICH-induced cytokine expression, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and downstream signaling molecules, including MyD88, TRIF, IκBα, and NF-κBp65 expression, and attenuated microglial activation. IL-17A Ab significantly reduced brain water content and improved neurological function of ICH mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that IL-17A was involved in ICH-induced microglial activation and neuroinflammation. IL-17A Ab might also provide a promising therapeutic strategy in ICH. 10.1016/j.molimm.2016.04.003
    IL-4/STAT6 signaling facilitates innate hematoma resolution and neurological recovery after hemorrhagic stroke in mice. Xu Jing,Chen Zhouqing,Yu Fang,Liu Huan,Ma Cheng,Xie Di,Hu Xiaoming,Leak Rehana K,Chou Sherry H Y,Stetler R Anne,Shi Yejie,Chen Jun,Bennett Michael V L,Chen Gang Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke affecting millions of people worldwide. Parenchymal hematoma triggers a series of reactions leading to primary and secondary brain injuries and permanent neurological deficits. Microglia and macrophages carry out hematoma clearance, thereby facilitating functional recovery after ICH. Here, we elucidate a pivotal role for the interleukin (IL)-4)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) axis in promoting long-term recovery in both blood- and collagenase-injection mouse models of ICH, through modulation of microglia/macrophage functions. In both ICH models, STAT6 was activated in microglia/macrophages (i.e., enhanced expression of phospho-STAT6 in Iba1 cells). Intranasal delivery of IL-4 nanoparticles after ICH hastened STAT6 activation and facilitated hematoma resolution. IL-4 treatment improved long-term functional recovery in young and aged male and young female mice. In contrast, STAT6 knockout (KO) mice exhibited worse outcomes than WT mice in both ICH models and were less responsive to IL-4 treatment. The construction of bone marrow chimera mice demonstrated that STAT6 KO in either the CNS or periphery exacerbated ICH outcomes. STAT6 KO impaired the capacity of phagocytes to engulf red blood cells in the ICH brain and in primary cultures. Transcriptional analyses identified lower level of IL-1 receptor-like 1 (ST2) expression in microglia/macrophages of STAT6 KO mice after ICH. ST2 KO diminished the beneficial effects of IL-4 after ICH. Collectively, these data confirm the importance of IL-4/STAT6/ST2 signaling in hematoma resolution and functional recovery after ICH. Intranasal IL-4 treatment warrants further investigation as a clinically feasible therapy for ICH. 10.1073/pnas.2018497117
    Toll-like receptor-4-mediated autophagy contributes to microglial activation and inflammatory injury in mouse models of intracerebral haemorrhage. Yang Zhao,Liu B,Zhong L,Shen Hanchao,Lin Chuangan,Lin Li,Zhang Nan,Yuan Bangqing Neuropathology and applied neurobiology AIMS:Much evidence demonstrates that Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-mediated microglial activation is an important contributor to the inflammatory injury in intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). However, the exact mechanism of TLR4-mediated microglial activation induced by ICH is not clear. In addition, microglial autophagy is involved other forms of nervous system injury. To explore the relationship between TLR4 and autophagy, we investigated the role of TLR4-mediated microglial autophagy and inflammation in ICH. METHODS:We detected TLR4 expression, autophagy and inflammation of microglia treated with lysed erythrocytes in vitro, and observed the cerebral water content and neurological deficit of ICH mice [TLR4-/- and wild type (WT)] in vivo. RESULTS:We found that lysed erythrocyte treated microglia (TLR4-/-) had reduced autophagy and inflammation compared with microglia (WT) in vitro. ICH mice (TLR4-/-) had reduced water content and neurological injury compared with ICH mice (WT). The autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine) decreased microglial activation and inflammatory injury due to lysed erythrocyte treatment, and improved the neurological function of ICH mice. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, these data suggested that TLR4 induced autophagy contributed to the microglial activation and inflammatory injury and might provide novel therapeutic interventions for ICH. 10.1111/nan.12177
    CD36-mediated hematoma absorption following intracerebral hemorrhage: negative regulation by TLR4 signaling. Fang Huang,Chen Jing,Lin Sen,Wang PengFei,Wang YanChun,Xiong XiaoYi,Yang QingWu Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) Promoting hematoma absorption is a novel therapeutic strategy for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); however, the mechanism of hematoma absorption is unclear. The present study explored the function and potential mechanism of CD36 in hematoma absorption using in vitro and in vivo ICH models. Hematoma absorption in CD36-deficient ICH patients was examined. Compared with patients with normal CD36 expression, CD36-deficient ICH patients had slower hematoma adsorption and aggravated neurologic deficits. CD36 expression in perihematomal tissues in wild-type mice following ICH was increased, whereas the hematoma absorption in CD36(-/-) mice was decreased. CD36(-/-) mice also showed aggravated neurologic deficits and increased TNF-α and IL-1β expression levels. The phagocytic capacity of CD36(-/-) microglia for RBCs was also decreased. Additionally, the CD36 expression in the perihematoma area after ICH in TLR4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice was significantly increased, and hematoma absorption was significantly promoted, which was significantly inhibited by an anti-CD36 Ab. In vitro, TNF-α and IL-1β significantly inhibited the microglia expression of CD36 and reduced the microglia phagocytosis of RBCs. Finally, the TLR4 inhibitor TAK-242 upregulated CD36 expression in microglia, promoted hematoma absorption, increased catalase expression, and decreased the H2O2 content. These results suggested that CD36 mediated hematoma absorption after ICH, and TLR4 signaling inhibited CD36 expression to slow hematoma absorption. TLR4 inhibition could promote hematoma absorption and significantly improve neurologic deficits following ICH. 10.4049/jimmunol.1400054
    Toll-like receptor 4 contributes to poor outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. Sansing Lauren H,Harris Tajie H,Welsh Frank A,Kasner Scott E,Hunter Christopher A,Kariko Katalin Annals of neurology OBJECTIVE:Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating stroke subtype in which perihematomal inflammation contributes to neuronal injury and functional disability. Histologically, the region becomes infiltrated with neutrophils and activated microglia followed by neuronal loss, but little is known about the immune signals that coordinate these events. This study aimed to determine the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the innate immune response after ICH and its impact on neurobehavioral outcome. METHODS:Transgenic mice incapable of TLR4 signaling and wild-type controls were subjected to striatal blood injection to model ICH. The perihematomal inflammatory response was then quantified by immunohistochemistry, whole brain flow cytometry, and polymerase chain reaction. The critical location of TLR4 signaling was determined by blood transfer experiments between genotypes. Functional outcomes were quantified in all cohorts using the cylinder and open field tests. RESULTS:TLR4-deficient mice had markedly decreased perihematomal inflammation, associated with reduced recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes, fewer microglia, and improved functional outcome by day 3 after ICH. Moreover, blood transfer experiments revealed that TLR4 on leukocytes or platelets within the hemorrhage contributes to perihematomal leukocyte infiltration and the neurological deficit. INTERPRETATION:Together, these data identify a critical role for TLR4 signaling in perihematomal inflammation and injury and indicate this pathway may be a target for therapeutic intervention. 10.1002/ana.22528
    Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning attenuates brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage by regulating microglia polarization in rats. Wang Ming,Cheng Lin,Chen Zhong-Liang,Mungur Rajneesh,Xu Shan-Hu,Wu Jiong,Liu Xiao-Li,Wan Shu CNS neuroscience & therapeutics AIMS:Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBOP) attenuates brain edema, microglia activation, and inflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In this present study, we investigated the role of HBOP in ICH-induced microglia polarization and the potential involved signal pathway. METHODS:Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: SHAM, ICH, and ICH + HBOP group. Before surgery, rats in SHAM and HBOP groups received HBO for 5 days. Rats in SHAM group received needle injection, while rats in ICH and ICH + HBOP groups received 100 μL autologous blood injection into the right basal ganglia. Rats were euthanized at 24 hours after ICH, and the brains were removed for immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Neurological deficits and brain water content were determined. RESULTS:Intracerebral hemorrhage induced brain edema, which was significantly lower in the HBOP group. The levels of MMP9 were also less in the HBOP group. HBO pretreatment resulted in less neuronal death and neurological deficits after ICH. Their immunoactivity and protein levels of M1 markers were downregulated, but the M2 markers were unchanged by HBOP. In addition, ICH-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1β) levels and the phosphorylation of JNK and STAT1 were also lower in the HBOP rats. CONCLUSIONS:HBO pretreatment attenuated ICH-induced brain injuries and MMP9 upregulation, which may through the inhibiting of M1 polarization of microglia and inflammatory signal pathways after ICH. 10.1111/cns.13208
    Regulatory T cells inhibit microglia activation and protect against inflammatory injury in intracerebral hemorrhage. Yang Zhao,Yu Anyong,Liu Yongping,Shen Hanchao,Lin Chuangan,Lin Li,Wang Shousen,Yuan Bangqing International immunopharmacology Numerous evidence demonstrate that microglia mediated inflammatory injury plays a critical role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Therefore, the way to inhibit the inflammatory response is greatly needed. Treg cells have been shown to play a critical role in immunologic self-tolerance as well as anti-tumor immune responses and transplantation. In the current study, we transfered Treg cells in the ICH model, and investigated the effect. The cytokines of microglia were measured by ELISA, JNK/ERK and NF-κB were measured by Western blot and EMSA (Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay), animal behavior was evaluated by animal behavioristics. We found that Treg cells could inhibit microglia mediated inflammatory response through NF-κB activation via the JNK/ERK pathway in vitro, and improve neurological function in vivo. Our findings suggest that Treg cells could suppress inflammatory injury and represent a novel cell-based therapeutical strategy in ICH. 10.1016/j.intimp.2014.06.037
    Activation of melanocortin receptor 4 with RO27-3225 attenuates neuroinflammation through AMPK/JNK/p38 MAPK pathway after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Chen Shengpan,Zhao Lianhua,Sherchan Prativa,Ding Yan,Yu Jing,Nowrangi Derek,Tang Jiping,Xia Ying,Zhang John H Journal of neuroinflammation BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury. Activation of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) has been shown to elicit anti-inflammatory effects in many diseases. The objective of this study was to explore the role of MC4R activation on neuroinflammation in a mouse ICH model and to investigate the contribution of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway in MC4R-mediated protection. METHODS:Adult male CD1 mice (n = 189) were subjected to intrastriatal injection of bacterial collagenase or sham surgery. The selective MC4R agonist RO27-3225 was administered by intraperitoneal injection at 1 h after collagenase injection. The specific MC4R antagonist HS024 and selective AMPK inhibitor dorsomorphin were administered prior to RO27-3225 treatment to elucidate potential mechanism. Short- and long-term neurobehavioral assessments, brain water content, immunofluorescence staining, and western blot were performed. RESULTS:The expression of MC4R and p-AMPK increased after ICH with a peak at 24 h. MC4R was expressed by microglia, neurons, and astrocytes. Activation of MC4R with RO27-3225 improved the neurobehavioral functions, decreased brain edema, and suppressed microglia/macrophage activation and neutrophil infiltration after ICH. RO27-3225 administration increased the expression of MC4R and p-AMPK while decreasing p-JNK, p-p38 MAPK, TNF-α, and IL-1β expression, which was reversed with inhibition of MC4R and AMPK. CONCLUSIONS:Our study demonstrated that activation of MC4R with RO27-3225 attenuated neuroinflammation through AMPK-dependent inhibition of JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathway, thereby reducing brain edema and improving neurobehavioral functions after experimental ICH in mice. Therefore, the activation of MC4R with RO27-3225 may be a potential therapeutic approach for ICH management. 10.1186/s12974-018-1140-6
    Recombinant CTRP9 administration attenuates neuroinflammation via activating adiponectin receptor 1 after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Zhao Lianhua,Chen Shengpan,Sherchan Prativa,Ding Yan,Zhao Wei,Guo Zaiyu,Yu Jing,Tang Jiping,Zhang John H Journal of neuroinflammation BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation is a crucial factor contributing to neurological injuries after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9), an agonist of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), has recently been shown to reduce inflammatory responses in systemic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective role of CTRP9 against neuroinflammation after ICH in a mouse model and to explore the contribution of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway in AdipoR1-mediated protection. METHODS:Adult male CD1 mice (n = 218) were randomly assigned to different groups for the study. ICH was induced via intrastriatal injection of bacterial collagenase. Recombinant CTRP9 (rCTRP9) was administered intranasally at 1 h after ICH. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, AdipoR1 small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) and selective phosphorylated AMPK inhibitor Dorsomorphin were administered prior to rCTRP9 treatment. Brain edema, short- and long-term neurobehavior evaluation, blood glucose level, western blot, and immunofluorescence staining were performed. RESULTS:Endogenous CTRP9 and AdipoR1 expression was increased and peaked at 24 h after ICH. AdipoR1 was expressed by microglia, neurons, and astrocytes. Administration of rCTRP9 reduced brain edema, improved short- and long-term neurological function, enhanced the expression of AdipoR1 and p-AMPK, and decreased the expression of phosphorylated NFκB and inflammatory cytokines after ICH. The protective effects of rCTRP9 were abolished by administration of AdipoR1 siRNA and Dorsomorphin. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings demonstrated that administration of rCTRP9 attenuated neuroinflammation through AdipoR1/AMPK/NFκB signaling pathway after ICH in mice, thereby reducing brain edema and improving neurological function after experimental ICH in mice. Therefore, CTRP9 may provide a potential therapeutic strategy to alleviate neuroinflammation in ICH patients. 10.1186/s12974-018-1256-8
    Involvement of thrombin and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in hemorrhagic brain injury. Ohnishi Masatoshi,Katsuki Hiroshi,Fujimoto Shinji,Takagi Mikako,Kume Toshiaki,Akaike Akinori Experimental neurology Thrombin is thought to play an important role in brain damage associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We previously showed that activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and recruitment of microglia are crucial for thrombin-induced shrinkage of the striatal tissue in vitro and thrombin-induced striatal damage in vivo. Here we investigated whether the same mechanisms are involved in ICH-induced brain injury. A substantial loss of neurons was observed in the center and the peripheral region of hematoma at 3 days after ICH induced by intrastriatal injection of collagenase in adult rats. Intracerebroventricular injection of argatroban or cycloheximide, both of which prevent thrombin cytotoxicity in vitro, exhibited a significant neuroprotective effect against ICH-induced injury. ICH-induced neuron loss was also prevented by a MAP kinase kinase inhibitor (PD98059) and a c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor (SP600125). These drugs had no effect on hematoma size or ICH-induced brain edema. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in response to ICH was observed in both neurons and microglia. Despite their neuroprotective effects, MAP kinase inhibitors did not decrease the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells appearing after ICH. Identification of cell types revealed that TUNEL staining occurred prominently in neurons but not in microglia, whereas inhibition of MAP kinases resulted in appearance of TUNEL staining in microglia. These results suggest that thrombin and the activation of MAP kinases are involved in ICH-induced neuronal injury, and that neuroprotective effects of MAP kinases are in part mediated by arrestment of microglial activities. 10.1016/j.expneurol.2007.03.030
    IL-17A induces autophagy and promotes microglial neuroinflammation through ATG5 and ATG7 in intracerebral hemorrhage. Shi Hui,Wang Juan,Wang Jun,Huang Zemin,Yang Zhao Journal of neuroimmunology Microglial inflammation plays a vital role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury. IL-17A has been identified to promote microglia activation, but the role in the pathology following ICH remains unclear. Autophagy is involved in modulation of cell metabolism, cell survival, and immune response. However, the role of IL-17A in autophagy following ICH has not been well defined. In this study, we assessed the role of IL-17A in microglial autophagic activity following ICH. The microglia were treated with IL-17A, and then autophagy and inflammation were detected. In addition, RNA interference in essential autophagy genes (ATG5 and ATG7) was also utilized to analyze microglial autophagy in vitro. Furthermore, ICH mice were made by injection of autologous blood model in vivo. And the IL-17A-neutralizing antibody was utilized to assess the neurological scores and brain edema. These data demonstrated that IL-17A promoted microglial autophagy and microglial inflammation. The suppression of autophagy using RNA interference in essential autophagy genes (ATG5 and ATG7) decreased microglial autophagy and inflammation. Moreover, IL-17A Ab significantly reduced brain water content and improved neurological function of ICH mice. Taken together, these data demonstrated that IL-17A promoted microglial autophagy and microglial inflammation, and IL-17A-mediated activation of autophagy might represent novel clues in ICH therapy. 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2017.07.015
    NLRP6 contributes to inflammation and brain injury following intracerebral haemorrhage by activating autophagy. Xiao Han,Chen Hui,Jiang Rong,Zhang Li,Wang Lu,Gan Hui,Jiang Ning,Zhao Jing,Zhai Xuan,Liang Ping Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) Inflammation is a crucial factor contributing to secondary brain injury after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). NLRP6, a member of nod-like receptors (NLRs) family, has been reported to participate in inflammation and host-defence in multiple diseases. Distinct from the other NLR family members, NLRP6 regulates inflammation in an inflammasome-dependent as well as an inflammasome-independent pathway. However, the role of NLRP6 in regulating signalling pathways during ICH is poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that NLRP6 expression was upregulated after ICH, both in humans and in rats. Subsequently, we developed a rat model of ICH and found that NLRP6 knockdown reduced brain injury, alleviated inflammation, and suppressed autophagy following ICH. Further, results indicated that autophagy involved in NLRP6 mediated inflammation after ICH. Moreover, we found that NLRP6 mediated regulation of autophagy and inflammation was inflammasome-dependent. This study revealed the underlying molecular mechanism of NLRP6 in inflammation and highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting NLRP6 in secondary brain injury after ICH. KEY MESSAGES: • NLRP6 was upregulated following ICH in humans and rats. • NLRP6 knockdown reduced brain injury, alleviated inflammation, and suppressed autophagy following ICH. • NLRP6 aggravated inflammation after ICH by activating autophagy. • NLRP6 regulated inflammation and autophagy after ICH by activating inflammasome pathway. 10.1007/s00109-020-01962-3
    Roles of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress in intracerebral hemorrhage-induced secondary brain injury in rats. Duan Xiao-Chun,Wang Wei,Feng Dong-Xia,Yin Jia,Zuo Gang,Chen Dong-Dong,Chen Zhou-Qing,Li Hai-Ying,Wang Zhong,Chen Gang CNS neuroscience & therapeutics OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to evaluate the roles of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury (SBI) in rats. METHODS:Autophagy inducer (rapamycin) and inhibitor (3-methyladenine), as well as ER stress activator (tunicamycin, TM) and inhibitor (tauroursodeoxycholic acid, TUDCA), were used. Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of autophagosome-lysosome fusion, was used to assess autophagic flux. RESULTS:Autophagy and ER stress were enhanced in the week after ICH. At 6 hours after ICH, autophagy was excessive, while the autophagic flux was damaged at 72 hours and return to be intact at 7 days after ICH. At 6 hours after ICH, ER stress induction by TM could enhance autophagy and lead to caspase 12-mediated apoptosis and neuronal degeneration, which was further aggravated by autophagy induction. At 7 days after ICH, ER stress inhibition by TUDCA still could suppress ICH-induced SBI. And, the effects of TUDCA were enhanced by autophagy induction. CONCLUSIONS:At 6 hours after ICH, excessive autophagy may participate in ER stress-induced brain injury; at 7 days after ICH, autophagy could enhance the protection of ER stress inhibitor possibly via clearing up the cell rubbish generated due to the early-stage damaged autophagic flux. 10.1111/cns.12703
    Luteolin Exerts Neuroprotection Modulation of the p62/Keap1/Nrf2 Pathway in Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Tan Xin,Yang Yi,Xu Jianguo,Zhang Peng,Deng Ruming,Mao Yiguang,He Jia,Chen Yibin,Zhang Yan,Ding Jiasheng,Li Haiying,Shen Haitao,Li Xiang,Dong Wanli,Chen Gang Frontiers in pharmacology Upregulation of neuronal oxidative stress is involved in the progression of secondary brain injury (SBI) following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In this study, we investigated the potential effects and underlying mechanisms of luteolin on ICH-induced SBI. Autologous blood and oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) were used to establish and models of ICH, respectively. Luteolin treatment effectively alleviated brain edema and ameliorated neurobehavioral dysfunction and memory loss . Also, , we found that luteolin promoted the activation of the sequestosome 1 (p62)/kelch-like enoyl-coenzyme A hydratase (ECH)-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway by enhancing autophagy and increasing the translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus. Meanwhile, luteolin inhibited the ubiquitination of Nrf2 and increased the expression levels of downstream antioxidant proteins, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH): quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). This effect of luteolin was also confirmed , which was reversed by the autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ). Additionally, we found that luteolin inhibited the production of neuronal mitochondrial superoxides (MitoSOX) and alleviated neuronal mitochondrial injury , as indicated tetrachloro-tetraethylbenzimidazol carbocyanine-iodide (JC-1) staining and MitoSOX staining. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that luteolin enhances autophagy and anti-oxidative processes in both and models of ICH, and that activation of the p62-Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, is involved in such luteolin-induced neuroprotection. Hence, luteolin may represent a promising candidate for the treatment of ICH-induced SBI. 10.3389/fphar.2019.01551
    Hemoglobin enhances miRNA-144 expression and autophagic activation mediated inflammation of microglia via mTOR pathway. Wang Zhenyu,Yuan Bangqing,Fu Fenlan,Huang Shaokuan,Yang Zhao Scientific reports Intracerebral hemorrhage promotes autophagic activation of microglia and enhances neuroinflammation. MiRNAs are key factors to autophagy, contributed to negatively and posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression and function. However, the specific miRNAs involved in the intracerebral hemorrhage mediated microglia autophagic activation are unidentified. In this experiment, microglia was treated with hemoglobin. And then, miRNA-144 expression, autophagic activation and inflammation of microglia were detected. In addition, the mTOR target of miRNA-144 and its regulation were identified. Our data demonstrated that hemoglobin promoted miRNA-144 expression and autophagic activation mediated inflammation. Additionally, miRNA-144 targeted mTOR by directly interacting with the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs), mutations of the binding sites abolish the miRNA-144 responsiveness. Overexpression of mTOR decreased autophagic activation and inflammation of microglia. Therefore, our results suggested that miRNA-144 contributed to hemoglobin mediated autophagic activation and inflammation of microglia via mTOR pathway. And miRNA based treatment provided novel therapeutical strategy for intracerebral hemorrhage. 10.1038/s41598-017-12067-2
    MicroRNA-132 attenuates neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes associated with intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Zhang Yaowen,Han Bin,He Yating,Li Daojing,Ma Xiaofeng,Liu Qiang,Hao Junwei Neurochemistry international Recent studies suggest that microRNA-132 (miR-132) potentiates the cholinergic blockade of inflammatory reactions by targeting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and affords robust protection against ischemia-induced neuronal death. However, the role of miR-132 in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains unexplored. This study aimed to determine whether miR-132 participates in the process and launches an anti-inflammatory response in a mouse model of ICH. To establish a relationship between miR-132 and ICH-induced neuronal inflammation and death, we used unilateral stereotaxic injections to deliver lentiviruses encoding miR-132, anti-miR-132 or an empty lentiviral vector directly into the right caudate nuclei of 192 living male C57BL/6 mice. Fourteen days later, ICH was induced by injection of autologous blood into these three groups. Neurodeficits, brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, inflammatory reactions, together with cell death were assessed after ICH. Compared with the control group, the mice overexpressing miR-132 in the brain responded with attenuated neurological deficits and brain edema. The counts of activated microglia and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines were also decreased in these mice. Additionally, BBB integrity improved, and the extent of neuronal death decreased in ICH mice injected with lentivirus encoding miR-132. On the contrary, a decrease of miR-132 expression aggravated the severity of inflammation and increased cell apoptosis. Overall, these findings support a protective role of miR-132 in a mouse model of ICH, providing new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. 10.1016/j.neuint.2016.11.011
    miR‑222 regulates brain injury and inflammation following intracerebral hemorrhage by targeting ITGB8. Bai Yan-Yan,Niu Jun-Zhi Molecular medicine reports Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of numerous cerebrovascular diseases, including ICH. miR‑222 has been revealed to play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes in cardiovascular diseases. However, its role in ICH remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential effect of miR‑222 on brain injury in ICH. The results revealed that the expression of miR‑222 was significantly increased in ICH, and downregulation of miR‑222 significantly reduced erythrocyte lysate‑induced cell apoptosis by decreasing the levels of cleaved caspase‑3, cleaved caspase‑9 and Bax and increasing the level of Bcl‑2. In addition, downregulation of miR‑222 suppressed the inflammatory responses in erythrocyte lysate‑induced microglia, and inhibited inflammation, brain water content and improved neurological functions in ICH mice. Mechanistically, integrin subunit β8 (ITGB8) was identified as a direct target of negative regulation by miR‑222 in microglia cells, and up‑regulation of ITGB8 led to the attenuation of inflammation and apoptosis. Collectively, the present findings indicated that miR‑222 was a crucial regulator of inflammation via targeting of ITGB8, and represented a promising therapeutic strategy for ICH. 10.3892/mmr.2019.10903
    Peroxiredoxin 1-mediated activation of TLR4/NF-κB pathway contributes to neuroinflammatory injury in intracerebral hemorrhage. Liu Dong-Ling,Zhao Li-Xue,Zhang Shuang,Du Jun-Rong International immunopharmacology The proinflammatory properties of extracellular peroxiredoxins (Prxs) via induction of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation have been gradually revealed under diverse stress conditions, including cerebral ischemia but not hemorrhage. Prx1 is proposed to be a major hemorrhagic stress-inducible isoform of Prxs during acute and subacute phases of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the potential of Prx1 in the neuroinflammatory injury after ICH remains unclear. This study investigated the proinflammatory effect and underlying mechanism of extracellular Prx1 in cultured murine macrophages and a collagenase-induced mouse ICH model. The current results show that incubation of exogenous Prx1 (0-50nM) with murine RAW264.7 macrophages resulted in increased expression of TLR4, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 and production of proinflammatory mediators (NO, TNF-a and IL-6) in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, ICH induced murine neurological deficits, cerebral edema and neuropathological alterations, such as neuron injury, astrocyte and microglia/macrophage activation, and neutrophil and T lymphocyte invasion up to 72h after ICH. Moreover, ICH stimulated Prx1 expression and extracellular release, TLR4/NF-κB signaling activation, reflected by increases in TLR4 expression, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and NF-κB activation, and production of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17). Taken together, these findings suggest that extracellular Prx1-mediated TLR4/NF-κB pathway activation probably contributes to neuroinflammatory injury after ICH, and thus blocking Prx1-TLR4 signaling might provide a novel anti-neuroinflammatory strategy with extended therapeutic window for hemorrhagic stroke. 10.1016/j.intimp.2016.10.025
    MiR-7 alleviates secondary inflammatory response of microglia caused by cerebral hemorrhage through inhibiting TLR4 expression. Zhang X-D,Fan Q-Y,Qiu Z,Chen S European review for medical and pharmacological sciences OBJECTIVE:This study was conducted to analyze the effect of miR-7 on the inflammatory response of microglia in vitro and in vivo by constructing an intracerebral hemorrhage model. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In this study, we first established a model of cerebral hemorrhage in rat for in vivo experiments, and used lipoprotein (LPS) to induce an inflammatory response development in microglial cells, and constructed microglial inflammation models for in vitro experiments. Quantitative Real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of miR-7 in the rat model of cerebral hemorrhage and microglia with inflammation. The effect of miR-7 on the inflammation caused by intracerebral hemorrhage was evaluated through measuring the expression of IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dual luciferase reporter assay was used to detect the binding site of miR-7 to TLR4. Western blot was used to evaluate the level of TLR4 after overexpression and knockdown of miR-7 and to evaluate whether miR-7 alleviated the secondary inflammatory response of microglia after cerebral hemorrhage by inhibiting the expression of TLR4. RESULTS:The expression of miR-7 in the rat cerebral hemorrhage model and microglial inflammation model tissue was significantly lower than that in the normal control group. Expression of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α was significantly increased in rats with intracerebral hemorrhage and microglial inflammation in rats, and the expression of these inflammatory cytokines was partially reversed after overexpression of miR-7. Double luciferase reporter gene and ELISA results showed that miR-7 could inhibit the expression of TLR4 and relieve the secondary inflammatory response of microglia after cerebral hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated that, in in vivo and in vitro experiments, miR-7 could reduce the LPS-induced inflammatory response produced by microglial cells, and alleviate the inflammation in the brain of rats with cerebral hemorrhage. 10.26355/eurrev_201809_15824
    Let-7a promotes microglia M2 polarization by targeting CKIP-1 following ICH. Yang Zhao,Jiang Xuheng,Zhang Ji,Huang Xiaofei,Zhang Xiaojun,Wang Juan,Shi Hui,Yu Anyong Immunology letters Microglia polarization plays a crucial role in initiating brain inflammatory injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Casein Kinase 2 Interacting Protein 1(CKIP-1) has been identified as a transcriptional molecular to manipulate microglia polarization. MiRNAs regulate gene expression and microglia polarization. In the experiment, CKIP-1 has been predicted as a target gene of let-7a. Let-7a, CKIP-1 and downstream proinflammatory mediator production of ICH mice were analyzed. In addition, inflammation, brain edema, and neurological functions in ICH mice were also assessed. Furthermore, let-7a mimic or inhibitors was administrated to study the potential role to manipulate microglia polarization after ICH. We reported that let-7a levels decreased but CKIP-1 levels increased after ICH. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, it was demonstrated that CKIP-1 was the target gene of let-7a. Let-7a overexpression decreased the protein levels of CKIP-1 and inhibition of let-7a increased the protein levels of CKIP-1. In addition, our results indicate that let-7a could inhibit expression of proinflammatory cytokines, reduce brain edema, and improve neurological functions in ICH mice. The study indicated that CKIP-1 was a target gene of let-7a and that let-7a regulated microglia M2 polarization by targeting CKIP-1 following ICH. 10.1016/j.imlet.2018.07.007
    TGF-β1 modulates microglial phenotype and promotes recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage. The Journal of clinical investigation Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke that results from the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain, leading to a mass of blood within the brain parenchyma. The injury causes a rapid inflammatory reaction that includes activation of the tissue-resident microglia and recruitment of blood-derived macrophages and other leukocytes. In this work, we investigated the specific responses of microglia following ICH with the aim of identifying pathways that may aid in recovery after brain injury. We used longitudinal transcriptional profiling of microglia in a murine model to determine the phenotype of microglia during the acute and resolution phases of ICH in vivo and found increases in TGF-β1 pathway activation during the resolution phase. We then confirmed that TGF-β1 treatment modulated inflammatory profiles of microglia in vitro. Moreover, TGF-β1 treatment following ICH decreased microglial Il6 gene expression in vivo and improved functional outcomes in the murine model. Finally, we observed that patients with early increases in plasma TGF-β1 concentrations had better outcomes 90 days after ICH, confirming the role of TGF-β1 in functional recovery from ICH. Taken together, our data show that TGF-β1 modulates microglia-mediated neuroinflammation after ICH and promotes functional recovery, suggesting that TGF-β1 may be a therapeutic target for acute brain injury. 10.1172/JCI88647
    Regulatory T cells ameliorate intracerebral hemorrhage-induced inflammatory injury by modulating microglia/macrophage polarization through the IL-10/GSK3β/PTEN axis. Zhou Kai,Zhong Qi,Wang Yan-Chun,Xiong Xiao-Yi,Meng Zhao-You,Zhao Ting,Zhu Wen-Yao,Liao Mao-Fan,Wu Li-Rong,Yang Yuan-Rui,Liu Juan,Duan Chun-Mei,Li Jie,Gong Qiu-Wen,Liu Liang,Yang Mei-Hua,Xiong Ao,Wang Jian,Yang Qing-Wu Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Inflammation mediated by the peripheral infiltration of inflammatory cells plays an important role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) induced secondary injury. Previous studies have indicated that regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) might reduce ICH-induced inflammation, but the precise mechanisms that contribute to ICH-induced inflammatory injury remain unclear. Our results show that the number of Tregs in the brain increases after ICH. Inducing Tregs deletion using a CD25 antibody or Foxp3-mice increased neurological deficient scores (NDS), the level of inflammatory factors, hematoma volumes, and neuronal degeneration. Meanwhile, boosting Tregs using a CD28 super-agonist antibody reduced the inflammatory injury. Furthermore, Tregs depletion shifted microglia/macrophage polarization toward the M1 phenotype while boosting Tregs shifted this transition toward the M2 phenotype. In vitro, a transwell co-culture model of microglia and Tregs indicated that Tregs changed the polarization of microglia, decreased the expression of MHC-II, IL-6, and TNF-α and increased CD206 expression. IL-10 originating from Tregs mediated the microglia polarization by increasing the expression of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), which phosphorylates and inactivates Phosphatase and Tensin homologue (PTEN) in microglia, TGF-β did not participate in this conversion. Thus, Tregs ameliorated ICH-induced inflammatory injury by modulating microglia/macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype through the IL-10/GSK3β/PTEN axis. 10.1177/0271678X16648712
    Deficiency of TREK-1 potassium channel exacerbates blood-brain barrier damage and neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Fang Yongkang,Tian Yeye,Huang Qibao,Wan Yue,Xu Li,Wang Wei,Pan Dengji,Zhu Suiqiang,Xie Minjie Journal of neuroinflammation BACKGROUND:Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating medical emergency with high mortality and severe neurological deficit. ICH-related poor outcomes are due to a combination of pathological processes that could be complicated by secondary insults. TWIK-related K+ channel 1 (TREK-1) is a two-pore-domain potassium channel that is highly expressed in the mammalian nervous system. Previous studies have shown that TREK-1 channels play important roles in various central nervous system diseases. However, its role in the secondary injuries after intracerebral hemorrhage remains unknown. In this study, we explored the function of TREK-1 in secondary blood-brain barrier injuries and neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. METHODS:Adult male TREK-1 mice and WT mice were subjected to a collagenase-induced ICH model. Immunostaining, western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to assess inflammatory infiltration and neuronal death. Blood-brain barrier compromise was assessed using electron microscopy and Evans Blue dye injection on days 1 and 3 after intracerebral hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral assessments were conducted to evaluate the neurologic damage and recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage. RESULTS:Genetic deficiency of TREK-1 channel exacerbated blood-brain barrier impairment and promoted cerebral edema after intracerebral hemorrhage. Meanwhile, TREK-1 deficiency aggravated focal inflammatory featured by the increased recruitment of microglia and neutrophils, the enhanced secretion of proinflammatory factors interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Furthermore, TREK-1 deficiency promoted neuronal injury and neurological impairment. CONCLUSIONS:These results establish the first in vivo evidence for the protective role of TREK-1 in blood-brain barrier injury and neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage. TREK-1 may thereby be harnessed to a potential therapeutical target for the treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage. 10.1186/s12974-019-1485-5
    Modulators of microglial activation and polarization after intracerebral haemorrhage. Lan Xi,Han Xiaoning,Li Qian,Yang Qing-Wu,Wang Jian Nature reviews. Neurology Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the most lethal subtype of stroke but currently lacks effective treatment. Microglia are among the first non-neuronal cells on the scene during the innate immune response to ICH. Microglia respond to acute brain injury by becoming activated and developing classic M1-like (proinflammatory) or alternative M2-like (anti-inflammatory) phenotypes. This polarization implies as yet unrecognized actions of microglia in ICH pathology and recovery, perhaps involving microglial production of proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Furthermore, alternatively activated M2-like microglia might promote phagocytosis of red blood cells and tissue debris, a major contribution to haematoma clearance. Interactions between microglia and other cells modulate microglial activation and function, and are also important in ICH pathology. This Review summarizes key studies on modulators of microglial activation and polarization after ICH, including M1-like and M2-like microglial phenotype markers, transcription factors and key signalling pathways. Microglial phagocytosis, haematoma resolution, and the potential crosstalk between microglia and T lymphocytes, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the ICH brain are described. Finally, the clinical and translational implications of microglial polarization in ICH are presented, including the evidence that therapeutic approaches aimed at modulating microglial function might mitigate ICH injury and improve brain repair. 10.1038/nrneurol.2017.69
    Astrocytes and Microglia: In Sickness and in Health. Vainchtein Ilia D,Molofsky Anna V Trends in neurosciences Healthy central nervous system (CNS) development and function require an intricate and balanced bidirectional communication between neurons and glia cells. In this review, we discuss the complementary roles of astrocytes and microglia in building the brain, including in the formation and refinement of synapses. We discuss recent evidence demonstrating how these interactions are coordinated in the transition from healthy physiology towards disease and discuss known and potential molecular mechanisms that mediate this cellular crosstalk. 10.1016/j.tins.2020.01.003
    An environment-dependent transcriptional network specifies human microglia identity. Gosselin David,Skola Dylan,Coufal Nicole G,Holtman Inge R,Schlachetzki Johannes C M,Sajti Eniko,Jaeger Baptiste N,O'Connor Carolyn,Fitzpatrick Conor,Pasillas Martina P,Pena Monique,Adair Amy,Gonda David D,Levy Michael L,Ransohoff Richard M,Gage Fred H,Glass Christopher K Science (New York, N.Y.) Microglia play essential roles in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and influence diverse aspects of neuronal function. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that specify human microglia phenotypes are largely unknown. We examined the transcriptomes and epigenetic landscapes of human microglia isolated from surgically resected brain tissue ex vivo and after transition to an in vitro environment. Transfer to a tissue culture environment resulted in rapid and extensive down-regulation of microglia-specific genes that were induced in primitive mouse macrophages after migration into the fetal brain. Substantial subsets of these genes exhibited altered expression in neurodegenerative and behavioral diseases and were associated with noncoding risk variants. These findings reveal an environment-dependent transcriptional network specifying microglia-specific programs of gene expression and facilitate efforts to understand the roles of microglia in human brain diseases. 10.1126/science.aal3222
    Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals functional heterogeneity of glioma-associated brain macrophages. Ochocka Natalia,Segit Pawel,Walentynowicz Kacper Adam,Wojnicki Kamil,Cyranowski Salwador,Swatler Julian,Mieczkowski Jakub,Kaminska Bozena Nature communications Microglia are resident myeloid cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that control homeostasis and protect CNS from damage and infections. Microglia and peripheral myeloid cells accumulate and adapt tumor supporting roles in human glioblastomas that show prevalence in men. Cell heterogeneity and functional phenotypes of myeloid subpopulations in gliomas remain elusive. Here we show single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of CD11b myeloid cells in naïve and GL261 glioma-bearing mice that reveal distinct profiles of microglia, infiltrating monocytes/macrophages and CNS border-associated macrophages. We demonstrate an unforeseen molecular heterogeneity among myeloid cells in naïve and glioma-bearing brains, validate selected marker proteins and show distinct spatial distribution of identified subsets in experimental gliomas. We find higher expression of MHCII encoding genes in glioma-activated male microglia, which was corroborated in bulk and scRNA-seq data from human diffuse gliomas. Our data suggest that sex-specific gene expression in glioma-activated microglia may be relevant to the incidence and outcomes of glioma patients. 10.1038/s41467-021-21407-w
    Single cell RNA sequencing of human microglia uncovers a subset associated with Alzheimer's disease. Olah Marta,Menon Vilas,Habib Naomi,Taga Mariko F,Ma Yiyi,Yung Christina J,Cimpean Maria,Khairallah Anthony,Coronas-Samano Guillermo,Sankowski Roman,Grün Dominic,Kroshilina Alexandra A,Dionne Danielle,Sarkis Rani A,Cosgrove Garth R,Helgager Jeffrey,Golden Jeffrey A,Pennell Page B,Prinz Marco,Vonsattel Jean Paul G,Teich Andrew F,Schneider Julie A,Bennett David A,Regev Aviv,Elyaman Wassim,Bradshaw Elizabeth M,De Jager Philip L Nature communications The extent of microglial heterogeneity in humans remains a central yet poorly explored question in light of the development of therapies targeting this cell type. Here, we investigate the population structure of live microglia purified from human cerebral cortex samples obtained at autopsy and during neurosurgical procedures. Using single cell RNA sequencing, we find that some subsets are enriched for disease-related genes and RNA signatures. We confirm the presence of four of these microglial subpopulations histologically and illustrate the utility of our data by characterizing further microglial cluster 7, enriched for genes depleted in the cortex of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Histologically, these cluster 7 microglia are reduced in frequency in AD tissue, and we validate this observation in an independent set of single nucleus data. Thus, our live human microglia identify a range of subtypes, and we prioritize one of these as being altered in AD. 10.1038/s41467-020-19737-2
    Ontogeny and homeostasis of CNS myeloid cells. Prinz Marco,Erny Daniel,Hagemeyer Nora Nature immunology Myeloid cells in the central nervous system (CNS) represent a heterogeneous class of innate immune cells that contribute to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis differentially during development and adulthood. The subsets of CNS myeloid cells identified so far, including parenchymal microglia and non-parenchymal meningeal, perivascular and choroid-plexus macrophages, as well as disease-associated monocytes, have classically been distinguished on the basis of their surface epitope expression, localization and morphology. However, studies using cell-specific targeting, in vivo imaging, single-cell expression analysis and other sophisticated tools have now increased the depth of knowledge of this immune-cell compartment and call for reevaluation of the traditional views on the origin, fate and function of distinct CNS myeloid subsets. The concepts of CNS macrophage biology that are emerging from these new insights have broad implications for the understanding and treatment of CNS diseases. 10.1038/ni.3703
    Deciphering microglial diversity in Alzheimer's disease. Brown Guy C,St George-Hyslop Peter H Science (New York, N.Y.) 10.1126/science.aan7893
    The Pathophysiological Role of Microglia in Dynamic Surveillance, Phagocytosis and Structural Remodeling of the Developing CNS. Arcuri Cataldo,Mecca Carmen,Bianchi Roberta,Giambanco Ileana,Donato Rosario Frontiers in molecular neuroscience In vertebrates, during an early wave of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac between embryonic day E7.0 and E9.0, cells of mesodermal leaflet addressed to macrophage lineage enter in developing central nervous system (CNS) and originate the developing native microglial cells. Depending on the species, microglial cells represent 5-20% of glial cells resident in adult brain. Here, we briefly discuss some canonical functions of the microglia, i.e., cytokine secretion and functional transition from M1 to M2 phenotype. In addition, we review studies on the non-canonical functions of microglia such as regulation of phagocytosis, synaptic pruning, and sculpting postnatal neural circuits. In this latter context the contribution of microglia to some neurodevelopmental disorders is now well established. Nasu-Hakola (NHD) disease is considered a primary microgliopathy with alterations of the DNAX activation protein 12 (DAP12)-Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) signaling and removal of macromolecules and apoptotic cells followed by secondary microglia activation. In Rett syndrome microglia shows a substantial impairment of phagocytic ability, although the role of microglia is not yet clear. In a mouse model of Tourette syndrome (TS), microglia abnormalities have also been described, and deficient microglia-mediated neuroprotection is obvious. Here we review the role of microglial cells in neurodevelopmental disorders without inflammation and on the complex role of microglia in developing CNS. 10.3389/fnmol.2017.00191
    Identification and therapeutic modulation of a pro-inflammatory subset of disease-associated-microglia in Alzheimer's disease. Rangaraju Srikant,Dammer Eric B,Raza Syed Ali,Rathakrishnan Priyadharshini,Xiao Hailian,Gao Tianwen,Duong Duc M,Pennington Michael W,Lah James J,Seyfried Nicholas T,Levey Allan I Molecular neurodegeneration BACKGROUND:Disease-associated-microglia (DAM) represent transcriptionally-distinct and neurodegeneration-specific microglial profiles with unclear significance in Alzheimer's disease (AD). An understanding of heterogeneity within DAM and their key regulators may guide pre-clinical experimentation and drug discovery. METHODS:Weighted co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was applied to existing microglial transcriptomic datasets from neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disease mouse models to identify modules of highly co-expressed genes. These modules were contrasted with known signatures of homeostatic microglia and DAM to reveal novel molecular heterogeneity within DAM. Flow cytometric validation studies were performed to confirm existence of distinct DAM sub-populations in AD mouse models predicted by WGCNA. Gene ontology analyses coupled with bioinformatics approaches revealed drug targets and transcriptional regulators of microglial modules predicted to favorably modulate neuroinflammation in AD. These guided in-vivo and in-vitro studies in mouse models of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration (5xFAD) to determine whether inhibition of pro-inflammatory gene expression and promotion of amyloid clearance was feasible. We determined the human relevance of these findings by integrating our results with AD genome-wide association studies and human AD and non-disease post-mortem brain proteomes. RESULTS:WGCNA applied to microglial gene expression data revealed a transcriptomic framework of microglial activation that predicted distinct pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory phenotypes within DAM, which we confirmed in AD and aging models by flow cytometry. Pro-inflammatory DAM emerged earlier in mouse models of AD and were characterized by pro-inflammatory genes (Tlr2, Ptgs2, Il12b, Il1b), surface marker CD44, potassium channel Kv1.3 and regulators (NFkb, Stat1, RelA) while anti-inflammatory DAM expressed phagocytic genes (Igf1, Apoe, Myo1e), surface marker CXCR4 with distinct regulators (LXRα/β, Atf1). As neuro-immunomodulatory strategies, we validated LXRα/β agonism and Kv1.3 blockade by ShK-223 peptide that promoted anti-inflammatory DAM, inhibited pro-inflammatory DAM and augmented Aβ clearance in AD models. Human AD-risk genes were highly represented within homeostatic microglia suggesting causal roles for early microglial dysregulation in AD. Pro-inflammatory DAM proteins were positively associated with neuropathology and preceded cognitive decline confirming the therapeutic relevance of inhibiting pro-inflammatory DAM in AD. CONCLUSIONS:We provide a predictive transcriptomic framework of microglial activation in neurodegeneration that can guide pre-clinical studies to characterize and therapeutically modulate neuroinflammation in AD. 10.1186/s13024-018-0254-8
    Reformulating Pro-Oxidant Microglia in Neurodegeneration. García-Revilla Juan,Alonso-Bellido Isabel M,Burguillos Miguel A,Herrera Antonio J,Espinosa-Oliva Ana M,Ruiz Rocío,Cruz-Hernández Luis,García-Domínguez Irene,Roca-Ceballos María A,Santiago Marti,Rodríguez-Gómez José A,Soto Manuel Sarmiento,de Pablos Rocío M,Venero José L Journal of clinical medicine In neurodegenerative diseases, microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are central events. Recent genome-wide transcriptomic analyses of microglial cells under different disease conditions have uncovered a new subpopulation named disease-associated microglia (DAM). These studies have challenged the classical view of the microglia polarization state's proinflammatory M1 (classical activation) and immunosuppressive M2 (alternative activation). Molecular signatures of DAM and proinflammatory microglia (highly pro-oxidant) have shown clear differences, yet a partial overlapping gene profile is evident between both phenotypes. The switch activation of homeostatic microglia into reactive microglia relies on the selective activation of key surface receptors involved in the maintenance of brain homeostasis (a.k.a. pattern recognition receptors, PRRs). Two relevant PRRs are toll-like receptors (TLRs) and triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2), whose selective activation is believed to generate either a proinflammatory or a DAM phenotype, respectively. However, the recent identification of endogenous disease-related ligands, which bind to and activate both TLRs and TREM2, anticipates the existence of rather complex microglia responses. Examples of potential endogenous dual ligands include amyloid β, galectin-3, and apolipoprotein E. These pleiotropic ligands induce a microglia polarization that is more complicated than initially expected, suggesting the possibility that different microglia subtypes may coexist. This review highlights the main microglia polarization states under disease conditions and their leading role orchestrating oxidative stress. 10.3390/jcm8101719
    Pathology of inflammatory diseases of the nervous system: Human disease versus animal models. Lassmann Hans Glia Numerous recent studies have been performed to elucidate the function of microglia, macrophages, and astrocytes in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. Regarding myeloid cells a core pattern of activation has been identified, starting with the activation of resident homeostatic microglia followed by recruitment of blood borne myeloid cells. An initial state of proinflammatory activation is at later stages followed by a shift toward an-anti-inflammatory and repair promoting phenotype. Although this core pattern is similar between experimental models and inflammatory conditions in the human brain, there are important differences. Even in the normal human brain a preactivated microglia phenotype is evident, and there are disease specific and lesion stage specific differences in the contribution between resident and recruited myeloid cells and their lesion state specific activation profiles. Reasons for these findings reside in species related differences and in differential exposure to different environmental cues. Most importantly, however, experimental rodent studies on brain inflammation are mainly focused on autoimmune encephalomyelitis, while there is a very broad spectrum of human inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, triggered and propagated by a variety of different immune mechanisms. 10.1002/glia.23726
    Role of dietary fatty acids in microglial polarization in Alzheimer's disease. Desale Smita Eknath,Chinnathambi Subashchandrabose Journal of neuroinflammation Microglial polarization is an utmost important phenomenon in Alzheimer's disease that influences the brain environment. Polarization depends upon the types of responses that cells undergo, and it is characterized by receptors present on the cell surface and the secreted cytokines to the most. The expression of receptors on the surface is majorly influenced by internal and external factors such as dietary lipids. Types of fatty acids consumed through diet influence the brain environment and glial cell phenotype and types of receptors on microglia. Reports suggest that dietary habits influence microglial polarization and the switching of microglial phenotype is very important in neurodegenerative diseases. Omega-3 fatty acids have more influence on the brain, and they are found to regulate the inflammatory stage of microglia by fine-tuning the number of receptors expressed on microglia cells. In Alzheimer's disease, one of the pathological proteins involved is Tau protein, and microtubule-associated protein upon abnormal phosphorylation detaches from the microtubule and forms insoluble aggregates. Aggregated proteins have a tendency to propagate within the neurons and also become one of the causes of neuroinflammation. We hypothesize that tuning microglia towards anti-inflammatory phenotype would reduce the propagation of Tau in Alzheimer's disease. 10.1186/s12974-020-01742-3
    Macrophage M1/M2 polarization dynamically adapts to changes in cytokine microenvironments in Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Davis Michael J,Tsang Tiffany M,Qiu Yafeng,Dayrit Jeremy K,Freij Joudeh B,Huffnagle Gary B,Olszewski Michal A mBio The outcome of cryptococcal pneumonia correlates with local macrophage polarization status, as M1 and M2 polarization marks protective and nonprotective responses, respectively. Overall, pulmonary macrophage polarization status changes over time during a cryptococcal infection. This could have been caused by repolarization of individual macrophages or by a replacement of M2-polarized cells by new M1-polarized cells. To explore the ability of macrophages to change between polarization states, we conducted a series of experiments using in vitro macrophages. Coculture of macrophages with Cryptococcus neoformans resulted in development of a weak M1-like phenotype, with modestly increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) but lacking interleukin 6 (IL-6) induction. The C. neoformans-induced M1-like polarization state was plastic, as macrophages stimulated first with C. neoformans and then with gamma interferon (IFN-γ) or IL-4 expressed mRNA polarization patterns similar to those stimulated with cytokines alone. To further evaluate macrophage polarization plasticity, cytokine stimulatory conditions were established which fully polarized macrophages. IFN-γ and IL-4 stimulation differentially induced complete M1 and M2 polarization, defined by differential expression of marker mRNA panels, surface marker expression, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein production. Switching IFN-γ- to IL-4-stimulating conditions, and vice versa, resulted in uniform changes in profiles of polarization marker genes consistent with the most recent cytokine environment. Furthermore, the ability of sequentially stimulated macrophages to inhibit C. neoformans reflected the most recent polarizing condition, independent of previous polarization. Collectively, these data indicate that M1/M2 macrophage polarization phenotypes are highly plastic to external signals, and interventions which therapeutically repolarize macrophages could be beneficial for treatment of cryptococcosis. 10.1128/mBio.00264-13
    Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of mouse and human microglia at single-cell resolution. Masuda Takahiro,Sankowski Roman,Staszewski Ori,Böttcher Chotima,Amann Lukas,Sagar ,Scheiwe Christian,Nessler Stefan,Kunz Patrik,van Loo Geert,Coenen Volker Arnd,Reinacher Peter Christoph,Michel Anna,Sure Ulrich,Gold Ralf,Grün Dominic,Priller Josef,Stadelmann Christine,Prinz Marco Nature Microglia have critical roles not only in neural development and homeostasis, but also in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. These highly diverse and specialized functions may be executed by subsets of microglia that already exist in situ, or by specific subsets of microglia that develop from a homogeneous pool of cells on demand. However, little is known about the presence of spatially and temporally restricted subclasses of microglia in the central nervous system during development or disease. Here we combine massively parallel single-cell analysis, single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization, advanced immunohistochemistry and computational modelling to comprehensively characterize subclasses of microglia in multiple regions of the central nervous system during development and disease. Single-cell analysis of tissues of the central nervous system during homeostasis in mice revealed specific time- and region-dependent subtypes of microglia. Demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases evoked context-dependent subtypes of microglia with distinct molecular hallmarks and diverse cellular kinetics. Corresponding clusters of microglia were also identified in healthy human brains, and the brains of patients with multiple sclerosis. Our data provide insights into the endogenous immune system of the central nervous system during development, homeostasis and disease, and may also provide new targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory pathologies. 10.1038/s41586-019-0924-x
    Single-cell mass cytometry reveals distinct populations of brain myeloid cells in mouse neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration models. Ajami Bahareh,Samusik Nikolay,Wieghofer Peter,Ho Peggy P,Crotti Andrea,Bjornson Zach,Prinz Marco,Fantl Wendy J,Nolan Garry P,Steinman Lawrence Nature neuroscience Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration may represent two poles of brain pathology. Brain myeloid cells, particularly microglia, play key roles in these conditions. We employed single-cell mass cytometry (CyTOF) to compare myeloid cell populations in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis, the R6/2 model of Huntington's disease (HD) and the mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (mSOD1) model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We identified three myeloid cell populations exclusive to the CNS and present in each disease model. Blood-derived monocytes comprised five populations and migrated to the brain in EAE, but not in HD and ALS models. Single-cell analysis resolved differences in signaling and cytokine production within similar myeloid populations in EAE compared to HD and ALS models. Moreover, these analyses highlighted α5 integrin on myeloid cells as a potential therapeutic target for neuroinflammation. Together, these findings illustrate how neuropathology may differ between inflammatory and degenerative brain disease. 10.1038/s41593-018-0100-x
    The M1 and M2 paradigm of macrophage activation: time for reassessment. Martinez Fernando O,Gordon Siamon F1000prime reports Macrophages are endowed with a variety of receptors for lineage-determining growth factors, T helper (Th) cell cytokines, and B cell, host, and microbial products. In tissues, macrophages mature and are activated in a dynamic response to combinations of these stimuli to acquire specialized functional phenotypes. As for the lymphocyte system, a dichotomy has been proposed for macrophage activation: classic vs. alternative, also M1 and M2, respectively. In view of recent research about macrophage functions and the increasing number of immune-relevant ligands, a revision of the model is needed. Here, we assess how cytokines and pathogen signals influence their functional phenotypes and the evidence for M1 and M2 functions and revisit a paradigm initially based on the role of a restricted set of selected ligands in the immune response. 10.12703/P6-13
    A neurodegeneration-specific gene-expression signature of acutely isolated microglia from an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model. Chiu Isaac M,Morimoto Emiko T A,Goodarzi Hani,Liao Jennifer T,O'Keeffe Sean,Phatnani Hemali P,Muratet Michael,Carroll Michael C,Levy Shawn,Tavazoie Saeed,Myers Richard M,Maniatis Tom Cell reports Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS that are activated by infection, neuronal injury, and inflammation. Here, we utilize flow cytometry and deep RNA sequencing of acutely isolated spinal cord microglia to define their activation in vivo. Analysis of resting microglia identified 29 genes that distinguish microglia from other CNS cells and peripheral macrophages/monocytes. We then analyzed molecular changes in microglia during neurodegenerative disease activation using the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We found that SOD1(G93A) microglia are not derived from infiltrating monocytes, and that both potentially neuroprotective and toxic factors, including Alzheimer's disease genes, are concurrently upregulated. Mutant microglia differed from SOD1(WT), lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia, and M1/M2 macrophages, defining an ALS-specific phenotype. Concurrent messenger RNA/fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed posttranscriptional regulation of microglia surface receptors and T cell-associated changes in the transcriptome. These results provide insights into microglia biology and establish a resource for future studies of neuroinflammation. 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.06.018
    A polarizing question: do M1 and M2 microglia exist? Ransohoff Richard M Nature neuroscience Microglial research has entered a fertile, dynamic phase characterized by novel technologies including two-photon imaging, whole-genome transcriptomic and epigenomic analysis with complementary bioinformatics, unbiased proteomics, cytometry by time of flight (CyTOF; Fluidigm) cytometry, and complex high-content experimental models including slice culture and zebrafish. Against this vivid background of newly emerging data, investigators will encounter in the microglial research literature a body of published work using the terminology of macrophage polarization, most commonly into the M1 and M2 phenotypes. It is the assertion of this opinion piece that microglial polarization has not been established by research findings. Rather, the adoption of this schema was undertaken in an attempt to simplify data interpretation at a time when the ontogeny and functional significance of microglia had not yet been characterized. Now, terminology suggesting established meaningful pathways of microglial polarization hinders rather than aids research progress and should be discarded. 10.1038/nn.4338
    CNS immune privilege: hiding in plain sight. Carson Monica J,Doose Jonathan M,Melchior Benoit,Schmid Christoph D,Ploix Corinne C Immunological reviews Central nervous system (CNS) immune privilege is an experimentally defined phenomenon. Tissues that are rapidly rejected by the immune system when grafted in sites, such as the skin, show prolonged survival when grafted into the CNS. Initially, CNS immune privilege was construed as CNS isolation from the immune system by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the lack of draining lymphatics, and the apparent immunoincompetence of microglia, the resident CNS macrophage. CNS autoimmunity and neurodegeneration were presumed automatic consequences of immune cell encounter with CNS antigens. Recent data have dramatically altered this viewpoint by revealing that the CNS is neither isolated nor passive in its interactions with the immune system. Peripheral immune cells can cross the intact BBB, CNS neurons and glia actively regulate macrophage and lymphocyte responses, and microglia are immunocompetent but differ from other macrophage/dendritic cells in their ability to direct neuroprotective lymphocyte responses. This newer view of CNS immune privilege is opening the door for therapies designed to harness autoreactive lymphocyte responses and also implies (i) that CNS autoimmune diseases (i.e. multiple sclerosis) may result as much from neuronal and/or glial dysfunction as from immune system dysfunctions and (ii) that the severe neuronal and glial dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative disorders (i.e. Alzheimer's disease) likely alters CNS-specific regulation of lymphocyte responses affecting the utility of immune-based therapies (i.e. vaccines). 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2006.00441.x
    Wogonin Accelerates Hematoma Clearance and Improves Neurological Outcome via the PPAR-γ Pathway After Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Zhuang Jianfeng,Peng Yucong,Gu Chi,Chen Huihui,Lin Zheng,Zhou Hang,Wu Xiao,Li Jianru,Yu Xiaobo,Cao Yang,Zeng Hanhai,Fu Xiongjie,Xu Chaoran,Huang Peiyu,Cao Shenglong,Wang Chun,Yan Feng,Chen Gao Translational stroke research Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a cerebrovascular disease with high mortality and morbidity for which effective treatments are currently lacking. Wogonin is a major flavonoid compound isolated from Scutellaria radix. Accumulating evidence suggests that wogonin plays a crucial role in anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress. Treatment of microglia with nuclear receptor agonists augments the expression of phagocytosis-related genes. However, the neuroprotective effects of wogonin in ICH remain obscure. In this study, we elucidated an innovative mechanism by which wogonin acts to enhance phagocytosis in a murine model of ICH. Wogonin promoted hematoma clearance and improved neurological recovery after ICH by upregulating the expression of Axl, MerTK, CD36, and LAMP2 in perihematomal microglia and BV2 cells. Treatment of a murine model of ICH with wogonin stimulated microglial phagocytosis in vitro. Further, we demonstrated that wogonin dramatically attenuated inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in a murine model of ICH by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-oxidant enzymes such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) after ICH. The effects of wogonin were abolished by administration of the PPAR-γ inhibitor GW9662. In conclusion, our data suggest that wogonin facilitates hematoma clearance and neurobehavioral recovery by targeting PPAR-γ. 10.1007/s12975-020-00842-9
    Recombinant CCL17 Enhances Hematoma Resolution and Activation of CCR4/ERK/Nrf2/CD163 Signaling Pathway After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice. Deng Shuixiang,Sherchan Prativa,Jin Peng,Huang Lei,Travis Zachary,Zhang John H,Gong Ye,Tang Jiping Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics Hematoma is a crucial factor leading to poor prognosis after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Promoting microglial phagocytosis to enhance hematoma resolution may be an important therapeutic target for recovery after ICH. C-C chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) is important for regulating immune balance in the central nervous system. However, whether CCR4 activation can attenuate hematoma after ICH remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate whether CCL17 (a specific ligand of CCR4) treatment can promote hematoma resolution through CCR4/ERK/Nrf2/CD163 pathway after ICH. A total of 261 adult male CD1 mice were used. Mice were subjected to intrastriatal injection of autologous blood to induce ICH and randomly assigned to receive recombinant CCL17 (rCCL17) or vehicle which was administered intranasally at 1 h after ICH. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, C021, a selective inhibitor of CCR4 and ML385 and a selective inhibitor of Nrf2 were administered 1 h prior to ICH induction. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) knockout for CD163 was administered by intracerebroventricular injection at 48 h before ICH. Brain edema, short- and long-term neurobehavior evaluation, hematoma volume, hemoglobin content, western blot, and immunofluorescence staining were performed. Endogenous CCL17, CCR4, and CD163 expression increased and peaked at 72 h after ICH. CCR4 was expressed by microglia. CCR4 activation with rCCL17 significantly improved neurobehavioral scores and reduced hematoma volume and brain edema compared with vehicle. Moreover, rCCL17 treatment significantly promoted phosphorylation of ERK1/2, increased the expression Nrf2, and upregulated CD163 expression after ICH. The protective effects of rCCL17 were abolished by administration of C021, ML385, and CD163 CRISPR knockout. This study demonstrated that CCR4 activation with rCCL17 promoted hematoma resolution by increasing CD163 expression and CCR4/ERK/Nrf2 pathway activation after ICH, thereby reducing brain edema and improving neurological function. Overall, our study suggests that CCR4 activation may be a potential therapeutic strategy to attenuate hematoma in early brain injury after ICH. 10.1007/s13311-020-00908-4
    Haematoma scavenging in intracerebral haemorrhage: from mechanisms to the clinic. Wang Gaiqing,Wang Li,Sun Xin-Gang,Tang Jiping Journal of cellular and molecular medicine The products of erythrocyte lyses, haemoglobin (Hb) and haem, are recognized as neurotoxins and the main contributors to delayed cerebral oedema and tissue damage after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Finding a means to efficiently promote absorption of the haemolytic products (Hb and haem) around the bleeding area in the brain through stimulating the function of the body's own garbage cleaning system is a novel clinical challenge and critical for functional recovery after ICH. In this review, available information of the brain injury mechanisms underlying ICH and endogenous haematoma scavenging system is provided. Meanwhile, potential intervention strategies are discussed. Intracerebral blood itself has 'toxic' effects beyond its volume effect after ICH. Haptoglobin-Hb-CD163 as well as haemopexin-haem-LRP1 is believed to be the most important endogenous scavenging pathway which participates in blood components resolution following ICH. PPARγ-Nrf2 activates the aforementioned clearance pathway and then accelerates haematoma clearance. Meanwhile, the scavenger receptors as novel targets for therapeutic interventions to treat ICH are also highlighted. 10.1111/jcmm.13441
    Erythrocyte efferocytosis modulates macrophages towards recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage. Chang Che-Feng,Goods Brittany A,Askenase Michael H,Hammond Matthew D,Renfroe Stephen C,Steinschneider Arthur F,Landreneau Margaret J,Ai Youxi,Beatty Hannah E,da Costa Luís Henrique Angenendt,Mack Matthias,Sheth Kevin N,Greer David M,Huttner Anita,Coman Daniel,Hyder Fahmeed,Ghosh Sourav,Rothlin Carla V,Love J Christopher,Sansing Lauren H The Journal of clinical investigation Macrophages are a source of both proinflammatory and restorative functions in damaged tissue through complex dynamic phenotypic changes. Here, we sought to determine whether monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) contribute to recovery after acute sterile brain injury. By profiling the transcriptional dynamics of MDMs in the murine brain after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), we found robust phenotypic changes in the infiltrating MDMs over time and demonstrated that MDMs are essential for optimal hematoma clearance and neurological recovery. Next, we identified the mechanism by which the engulfment of erythrocytes with exposed phosphatidylserine directly modulated the phenotype of both murine and human MDMs. In mice, loss of receptor tyrosine kinases AXL and MERTK reduced efferocytosis of eryptotic erythrocytes and hematoma clearance, worsened neurological recovery, exacerbated iron deposition, and decreased alternative activation of macrophages after ICH. Patients with higher circulating soluble AXL had poor 1-year outcomes after ICH onset, suggesting that therapeutically augmenting efferocytosis may improve functional outcomes by both reducing tissue injury and promoting the development of reparative macrophage responses. Thus, our results identify the efferocytosis of eryptotic erythrocytes through AXL/MERTK as a critical mechanism modulating macrophage phenotype and contributing to recovery from ICH. 10.1172/JCI95612
    Hematoma resolution as a therapeutic target: the role of microglia/macrophages. Zhao Xiurong,Grotta James,Gonzales Nicole,Aronowski Jaroslaw Stroke No effective therapy is available for treating intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). One of several key components of brain damage after ICH is the neurotoxicity of blood products. Within hours to days after ICH, extravasated erythrocytes in the hematoma undergo lysis, releasing cytotoxic hemoglobin, heme, and iron, thereby initiating secondary processes, which negatively influence the viability of cells surrounding the hematoma. To offset this process, phagocytic cells, including the brain's microglia and hematogenous macrophages, phagocytose and then process extravasated erythrocytes before lysis and subsequent toxicity occurs. Therefore, we hypothesize that a treatment that stimulates phagocytosis will lead to faster removal of blood from the ICH-affected brain, thus limiting/preventing hemolysis from occurring. CD36 is a well-recognized integral microglia/macrophage cell membrane protein known to mediate phagocytosis of damaged, apoptotic, or senescent cells, including erythrocytes. CD36 and catalase expression are regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonists (eg, rosiglitazone). We demonstrate that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonist-induced upregulation of CD36 in macrophages enhances the ability of microglia to phagocytose red blood cells (in vitro assay), helps to improve hematoma resolution, and reduces ICH-induced deficit in a mouse model of ICH. The beneficial role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma-induced catalase expression in the context of phagocytosis is also discussed. Proxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonists could represent a potential treatment strategy for treatment of ICH. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.533158
    Regulation of blood-brain barrier integrity by microglia in health and disease: A therapeutic opportunity. Ronaldson Patrick T,Davis Thomas P Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical regulator of CNS homeostasis. It possesses physical and biochemical characteristics (i.e. tight junction protein complexes, transporters) that are necessary for the BBB to perform this physiological role. Microvascular endothelial cells require support from astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, neurons, and constituents of the extracellular matrix. This intricate relationship implies the existence of a neurovascular unit (NVU). NVU cellular components can be activated in disease and contribute to dynamic remodeling of the BBB. This is especially true of microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, which polarize into distinct proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes. Current data indicate that M1 pro-inflammatory microglia contribute to BBB dysfunction and vascular "leak", while M2 anti-inflammatory microglia play a protective role at the BBB. Understanding biological mechanisms involved in microglia activation provides a unique opportunity to develop novel treatment approaches for neurological diseases. In this review, we highlight characteristics of M1 proinflammatory and M2 anti-inflammatory microglia and describe how these distinct phenotypes modulate BBB physiology. Additionally, we outline the role of other NVU cell types in regulating microglial activation and highlight how microglia can be targeted for treatment of disease with a focus on ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. 10.1177/0271678X20951995
    The blood-brain barrier in health and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Zlokovic Berislav V Neuron The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a highly specialized brain endothelial structure of the fully differentiated neurovascular system. In concert with pericytes, astrocytes, and microglia, the BBB separates components of the circulating blood from neurons. Moreover, the BBB maintains the chemical composition of the neuronal "milieu," which is required for proper functioning of neuronal circuits, synaptic transmission, synaptic remodeling, angiogenesis, and neurogenesis in the adult brain. BBB breakdown, due to disruption of the tight junctions, altered transport of molecules between blood and brain and brain and blood, aberrant angiogenesis, vessel regression, brain hypoperfusion, and inflammatory responses, may initiate and/or contribute to a "vicious circle" of the disease process, resulting in progressive synaptic and neuronal dysfunction and loss in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and others. These findings support developments of new therapeutic approaches for chronic neurodegenerative disorders directed at the BBB and other nonneuronal cells of the neurovascular unit. 10.1016/j.neuron.2008.01.003
    Neuroinflammation and Microvascular Dysfunction After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Emerging Components of Early Brain Injury Related to Outcome. Geraghty Joseph R,Davis Joseph L,Testai Fernando D Neurocritical care Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage has a high mortality rate and, for those who survive this devastating injury, can lead to lifelong impairment. Clinical trials have demonstrated that cerebral vasospasm of larger extraparenchymal vessels is not the sole contributor to neurological outcome. Recently, the focus of intense investigation has turned to mechanisms of early brain injury that may play a larger role in outcome, including neuroinflammation and microvascular dysfunction. Extravasated blood after aneurysm rupture results in a robust inflammatory response characterized by activation of microglia, upregulation of cellular adhesion molecules, recruitment of peripheral immune cells, as well as impaired neurovascular coupling, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, and imbalances in endogenous vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. Each of these phenomena is either directly or indirectly associated with neuronal death and brain injury. Here, we review recent studies investigating these various mechanisms in experimental models of subarachnoid hemorrhage with special emphasis on neuroinflammation and its effect on microvascular dysfunction. We discuss the various therapeutic targets that have risen from these mechanistic studies and suggest the utility of a multi-targeted approach to preventing delayed injury and improving outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. 10.1007/s12028-019-00710-x
    Microglia-derived TNF-α mediates endothelial necroptosis aggravating blood brain-barrier disruption after ischemic stroke. Chen An-Qi,Fang Zhi,Chen Xiao-Lu,Yang Shuai,Zhou Yi-Fan,Mao Ling,Xia Yuan-Peng,Jin Hui-Juan,Li Ya-Nan,You Ming-Feng,Wang Xu-Xia,Lei Hao,He Quan-Wei,Hu Bo Cell death & disease Endothelium (EC) is a key component of blood-brain barrier (BBB), and has an important position in the neurovascular unit. Its dysfunction and death after cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury not only promote evolution of neuroinflammation and brain edema, but also increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage of thrombolytic therapies. However, the mechanism and specific interventions of EC death after I/R injury are poorly understood. Here we showed that necroptosis was a mechanism underlying EC death, which promoted BBB breakdown after I/R injury. Treatment of rats with receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-inhibitor, necrostatin-1 reduced endothelial necroptosis and BBB leakage. We furthermore showed that perivascular M1-like microglia-induced endothelial necroptosis leading to BBB disruption requires tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secreted by M1 type microglia and its receptor, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), on endothelium as the primary mediators of these effects. More importantly, anti-TNFα (infliximab, a potent clinically used drug) treatment significantly ameliorate endothelial necroptosis, BBB destruction and improve stroke outcomes. Our data identify a previously unexplored role for endothelial necroptosis in BBB disruption and suggest infliximab might serve as a potential drug for stroke therapy. 10.1038/s41419-019-1716-9
    Microglial-mediated PDGF-CC activation increases cerebrovascular permeability during ischemic stroke. Su Enming Joseph,Cao Chunzhang,Fredriksson Linda,Nilsson Ingrid,Stefanitsch Christina,Stevenson Tamara K,Zhao Juanjuan,Ragsdale Margret,Sun Yu-Yo,Yepes Manuel,Kuan Chia-Yi,Eriksson Ulf,Strickland Dudley K,Lawrence Daniel A,Zhang Li Acta neuropathologica Treatment of acute ischemic stroke with the thrombolytic tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can significantly improve neurological outcomes; however, thrombolytic therapy is associated with an increased risk of intra-cerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Previously, we demonstrated that during stroke tPA acting on the parenchymal side of the neurovascular unit (NVU) can increase blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and ICH through activation of latent platelet-derived growth factor-CC (PDGF-CC) and signaling by the PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα). However, in vitro, activation of PDGF-CC by tPA is very inefficient and the mechanism of PDGF-CC activation in the NVU is not known. Here, we show that the integrin Mac-1, expressed on brain microglia/macrophages (denoted microglia throughout), acts together with the endocytic receptor LRP1 in the NVU to promote tPA-mediated activation of PDGF-CC. Mac-1-deficient mice (Mac-1) are protected from tPA-induced BBB permeability but not from permeability induced by intracerebroventricular injection of active PDGF-CC. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrates that Mac-1, LRP1, and the PDGFRα all localize to the NVU of arterioles, and following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) Mac-1 mice show significantly less PDGFRα phosphorylation, BBB permeability, and infarct volume compared to wild-type mice. Bone-marrow transplantation studies indicate that resident CD11b cells, but not bone-marrow-derived leukocytes, mediate the early activation of PDGF-CC by tPA after MCAO. Finally, using a model of thrombotic stroke with late thrombolysis, we show that wild-type mice have an increased incidence of spontaneous ICH following thrombolysis with tPA 5 h after MCAO, whereas Mac-1 mice are resistant to the development of ICH even with late tPA treatment. Together, these results indicate that Mac-1 and LRP1 act as co-factors for the activation of PDGF-CC by tPA in the NVU, and suggest a novel mechanism for tightly regulating PDGFRα signaling in the NVU and controlling BBB permeability. 10.1007/s00401-017-1749-z
    Microglia: A Double-Edged Sword in Intracerebral Hemorrhage From Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Research. Liu Jiachen,Liu Lirong,Wang Xiaoyu,Jiang Rundong,Bai Qinqin,Wang Gaiqing Frontiers in immunology Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). It is well established that microglia are activated and polarized to acquire different inflammatory phenotypes, either pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory phenotypes, which act as a critical component in the neuroinflammation following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Microglia produce pro-inflammatory mediators at the early stages after ICH onset, anti-inflammatory microglia with neuroprotective effects appear to be suppressed. Previous research found that driving microglia towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype could restrict inflammation and engulf cellular debris. The principal objective of this review is to analyze the phenotypes and dynamic profiles of microglia as well as their shift in functional response following ICH. The results may further the understanding of the body's self-regulatory functions involving microglia following ICH. On this basis, suggestions for future clinical development and research are provided. 10.3389/fimmu.2021.675660
    Enhancement of Hematoma Clearance With CD47 Blocking Antibody in Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Jing Chaohui,Bian Liheng,Wang Ming,Keep Richard F,Xi Guohua,Hua Ya Stroke Background and Purpose- Our previous studies found that erythrocyte CD47 has a role in regulating hematoma resolution following experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The current study examined whether or not a CD47 blocking antibody enhances hematoma clearance in a mouse ICH. Methods- ICH was induced by intracaudate injection of autologous blood in adult C57BL/6 mice. Mice had an ICH or ICH with CD47 blocking antibody or IgG coinjection. In subgroups of CD47 blocking antibody-treated mice, clodronate (to deplete microglia/macrophages) or control liposomes were coinjected. The effects of CD47 blocking antibody on ICH-induced brain injury were also tested in both males and females. Mice had magnetic resonance imaging to examine clot volume, iron deposition, brain swelling, and brain tissue loss. Behavioral tests were performed in all mice, and brains were harvested for brain immunohistochemistry. Results- In male mice, CD47 blocking antibody speeded up hematoma/iron clearance by macrophages/microglia and reduced ICH-induced brain swelling, neuronal loss, and neurological deficits. In contrast, clodronate liposome-induced microglia/macrophage depletion caused more severe brain swelling, neuronal loss, and functional deficits. In addition, similar injury severity in males and females was found in IgG control group and CD47 blocking antibody was also effective in females. Conclusions- Blocking CD47 in the hematoma speeded hematoma clearance and reduced brain injury after ICH suggesting it could be a treatment for ICH patients with surgical clot removal. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.024578
    Alternative activation-skewed microglia/macrophages promote hematoma resolution in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage. Chang Che-Feng,Wan Jieru,Li Qiang,Renfroe Stephen C,Heller Nicola M,Wang Jian Neurobiology of disease Microglia/macrophages (MMΦ) are highly plastic phagocytes that can promote both injury and repair in diseased brain through the distinct function of classically activated and alternatively activated subsets. The role of MMΦ polarization in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is unknown. Herein, we comprehensively characterized MMΦ dynamics after ICH in mice and evaluated the relevance of MMΦ polarity to hematoma resolution. MMΦ accumulated within the hematoma territory until at least 14days after ICH induction. Microglia rapidly reacted to the hemorrhagic insult as early as 1-1.5h after ICH and specifically presented a "protective" alternatively activated phenotype. Substantial numbers of activated microglia and newly recruited monocytes also assumed an early alternatively activated phenotype, but the phenotype gradually shifted to a mixed spectrum over time. Ultimately, markers of MMΦ classic activation dominated at the chronic stage of ICH. We enhanced MMΦ alternative activation by administering intraperitoneal injections of rosiglitazone, and subsequently observed elevations in CD206 expression on brain-isolated CD11b cells and increases in IL-10 levels in serum and perihematomal tissue. Enhancement of MMΦ alternative activation correlated with hematoma volume reduction and improvement in neurologic deficits. Intraventricular injection of alternative activation signature cytokine IL-10 accelerated hematoma resolution, whereas microglial phagocytic ability was abolished by IL-10 receptor neutralization. Our results suggest that MMΦ respond dynamically to brain hemorrhage by exhibiting diverse phenotypic changes at different stages of ICH. Alternative activation-skewed MMΦ aid in hematoma resolution, and IL-10 signaling might contribute to regulation of MMΦ phagocytosis and hematoma clearance in ICH. 10.1016/j.nbd.2017.03.016
    Human Cord Blood-Derived Unrestricted Somatic Stem Cell Infusion Improves Neurobehavioral Outcome in a Rabbit Model of Intraventricular Hemorrhage. Vinukonda Govindaiah,Liao Yanling,Hu Furong,Ivanova Larisa,Purohit Deepti,Finkel Dina A,Giri Priyadarshani,Bapatla Lakshmipramoda,Shah Shetal,Zia Muhammed T,Hussein Karen,Cairo Mitchell S,La Gamma Edmund F Stem cells translational medicine Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a severe complication of preterm birth, which leads to hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation. There are no available therapies to cure IVH, and standard treatment is supportive care. Unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) from human cord blood have reparative effects in animal models of brain and spinal cord injuries. USSCs were administered to premature rabbit pups with IVH and their effects on white matter integrity and neurobehavioral performance were evaluated. USSCs were injected either via intracerebroventricular (ICV) or via intravenous (IV) routes in 3 days premature (term 32d) rabbit pups, 24 hours after glycerol-induced IVH. The pups were sacrificed at postnatal days 3, 7, and 14 and effects were compared to glycerol-treated but unaffected or nontreated control. Using in vivo live bioluminescence imaging and immunohistochemical analysis, injected cells were found in the injured parenchyma on day 3 when using the IV route compared to ICV where cells were found adjacent to the ventricle wall forming aggregates; we did not observe any adverse events from either route of administration. The injected USSCs were functionally associated with attenuated microglial infiltration, less apoptotic cell death, fewer reactive astrocytes, and diminished levels of key inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL1β). In addition, we observed better preservation of myelin fibers, increased myelin gene expression, and altered reactive astrocyte distribution in treated animals, and this was associated with improved locomotor function. Overall, our findings support the possibility that USSCs exert anti-inflammatory effects in the injured brain mitigating many detrimental consequences associated with IVH. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:1157-1169. 10.1002/sctm.19-0082
    Complement Inhibition Attenuates Early Erythrolysis in the Hematoma and Brain Injury in Aged Rats. Wang Ming,Hua Ya,Keep Richard F,Wan Shu,Novakovic Nemanja,Xi Guohua Stroke Background and Purpose- Early erythrolysis in the hematoma contributes to brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study investigated the effects of N-acetylheparin, a complement inhibitor, and aurin tricarboxylic acid, a membrane attack complex inhibitor, on early erythrolysis, brain iron deposition, and brain injury in aged rats. Methods- There were 3 parts in the study. First, aged (18 months old) male Fischer 344 rats had an ICH. The time course of erythrolysis in the hematoma was determined by T2* weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and the expression of CD163 was examined. Second, aged rats had an ICH with N-acetylheparin or vehicle. Rats were euthanized at days 1, 3, and 28 after magnetic resonance imaging (T2-, T2*-weighted, and T2* array) and behavioral tests. Brains were used for immunohistochemistry. Third, aged rats had an ICH with avaurin tricarboxylic acid or vehicle. The rats had magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral tests and were euthanized at day 3. Brains were used for immunohistochemistry. Results- Early erythrolysis occurred within the clot in aged F344 rats. There were increased numbers of CD163-positive cells after ICH. Almost all perihematomal CD163-positive cells were microglia/macrophages, while positive neurons were found more distant from the hematoma. Coinjection of N-acetylheparin attenuated erythrolysis, iron accumulation, CD163 expression, microglia activation, brain swelling, and neuronal death in the acute phase, as well as reducing brain atrophy and neurological deficits in the chronic phase. Coinjection of aurin tricarboxylic acid also reduced erythrolysis and ICH-induced brain injury. Conclusions- Inhibiting complement activation resulted in less erythrolysis and brain injury after ICH. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.025170
    Curcumin inhibits microglia inflammation and confers neuroprotection in intracerebral hemorrhage. Yang Zhao,Zhao Tianzhi,Zou Yongjie,Zhang John H,Feng Hua Immunology letters Much evidence demonstrates that microglia mediated neuroinflammation is an important contributor to the inflammatory injury in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Therefore, the compounds that can inhibit neuroinflammation are greatly needed. In the current study, we examined whether curcumin, present in a Chinese medicinal plant, could prevent ICH induced microglia activation and confer protection against neurotoxicity. The cytokines of microglia were measured by ELISA, p38MAPK/PKC and NF-κB were measured by Western blot and EMSA. Microglial toxicity was assessed using MTT and FACS assays. And neurological function was evaluated by animal behavioristics. We found that curcumin prevented ICH-induced inflammatory molecules through NF-κB activation via the p38MAPK/PKC pathway in vitro. In addition, curcumin protected hippocampal HT22 cells from indirect toxicity mediated by ICH-treated microglia cells. Further, curcumin also attenuated ICH-induced neurological deficit and cerebral water content in vivo. Together, our findings suggest that curcumin could suppress ICH induced inflammatory injury and represent a novel herbal sources for ICH therapeutical strategy. 10.1016/j.imlet.2014.03.005
    Diverse Brain Myeloid Expression Profiles Reveal Distinct Microglial Activation States and Aspects of Alzheimer's Disease Not Evident in Mouse Models. Friedman Brad A,Srinivasan Karpagam,Ayalon Gai,Meilandt William J,Lin Han,Huntley Melanie A,Cao Yi,Lee Seung-Hye,Haddick Patrick C G,Ngu Hai,Modrusan Zora,Larson Jessica L,Kaminker Joshua S,van der Brug Marcel P,Hansen David V Cell reports Microglia, the CNS-resident immune cells, play important roles in disease, but the spectrum of their possible activation states is not well understood. We derived co-regulated gene modules from transcriptional profiles of CNS myeloid cells of diverse mouse models, including new tauopathy model datasets. Using these modules to interpret single-cell data from an Alzheimer's disease (AD) model, we identified microglial subsets-distinct from previously reported "disease-associated microglia"-expressing interferon-related or proliferation modules. We then analyzed whole-tissue RNA profiles from human neurodegenerative diseases, including a new AD dataset. Correcting for altered cellular composition of AD tissue, we observed elevated expression of the neurodegeneration-related modules, but also modules not implicated using expression profiles from mouse models alone. We provide a searchable, interactive database for exploring gene expression in all these datasets (http://research-pub.gene.com/BrainMyeloidLandscape). Understanding the dimensions of CNS myeloid cell activation in human disease may reveal opportunities for therapeutic intervention. 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.12.066
    Microglia in Physiology and Disease. Wolf Susanne A,Boddeke H W G M,Kettenmann Helmut Annual review of physiology As the immune-competent cells of the brain, microglia play an increasingly important role in maintaining normal brain function. They invade the brain early in development, transform into a highly ramified phenotype, and constantly screen their environment. Microglia are activated by any type of pathologic event or change in brain homeostasis. This activation process is highly diverse and depends on the context and type of the stressor or pathology. Microglia can strongly influence the pathologic outcome or response to a stressor due to the release of a plethora of substances, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They are the professional phagocytes of the brain and help orchestrate the immunological response by interacting with infiltrating immune cells. We describe here the diversity of microglia phenotypes and their responses in health, aging, and disease. We also review the current literature about the impact of lifestyle on microglia responses and discuss treatment options that modulate microglial phenotypes. 10.1146/annurev-physiol-022516-034406
    Microglia Activation and Polarization After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice: the Role of Protease-Activated Receptor-1. Wan Shu,Cheng Yingying,Jin Hang,Guo Dewei,Hua Ya,Keep Richard F,Xi Guohua Translational stroke research Polarized microglia play a dual (beneficial/detrimental) role in neurological diseases. However, the status and the factors that modulate microglia polarization in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1, a thrombin receptor) in ICH-induced microglia polarization in mice. Male wild-type (WT) and PAR-1 knockout (PAR-1 KO) mice received an infusion of 30-μL autologous blood or saline into the right basal ganglia. Mice were euthanized at different time points and the brains were used for Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some mice had magnetic resonance imaging. We found that ICH induced microglia activation and polarization. M1 phenotypic markers were markedly increased and reached a peak as early as 4 h, remained high at 3 days and decreased 7 days after ICH. M2 phenotypic markers were upregulated later than M1 markers reaching a peak at day 1 and declining by day 7 after ICH. PAR-1 was upregulated after ICH and expressed in the neurons and microglia. ICH induced less brain swelling and neuronal death in PAR-1 KO mice, and this was associated with less M1 polarization and reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels in the brain. In conclusion, these results suggest that polarized microglia occur dynamically after ICH and that PAR-1 plays a role in the microglia activation and polarization. 10.1007/s12975-016-0472-8
    Microglia Biology: One Century of Evolving Concepts. Prinz Marco,Jung Steffen,Priller Josef Cell Microglia were first recognized as a distinct cell population in the CNS one century ago. For a long time, they were primarily considered to be phagocytes responsible for removing debris during CNS development and disease. More recently, advances in imaging and genetics and the advent of single-cell technologies provided new insights into the much more complex and fascinating biology of microglia. The ontogeny of microglia was identified, and their functions in health and disease were better defined. Although many questions about microglia and their roles in human diseases remain unanswered, the prospect of targeting microglia for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders is tantalizing. 10.1016/j.cell.2019.08.053
    Deciphering human macrophage development at single-cell resolution. Bian Zhilei,Gong Yandong,Huang Tao,Lee Christopher Z W,Bian Lihong,Bai Zhijie,Shi Hui,Zeng Yang,Liu Chen,He Jian,Zhou Jie,Li Xianlong,Li Zongcheng,Ni Yanli,Ma Chunyu,Cui Lei,Zhang Rui,Chan Jerry K Y,Ng Lai Guan,Lan Yu,Ginhoux Florent,Liu Bing Nature Macrophages are the first cells of the nascent immune system to emerge during embryonic development. In mice, embryonic macrophages infiltrate developing organs, where they differentiate symbiotically into tissue-resident macrophages (TRMs). However, our understanding of the origins and specialization of macrophages in human embryos is limited. Here we isolated CD45 haematopoietic cells from human embryos at Carnegie stages 11 to 23 and subjected them to transcriptomic profiling by single-cell RNA sequencing, followed by functional characterization of a population of CD45CD34CD44 yolk sac-derived myeloid-biased progenitors (YSMPs) by single-cell culture. We also mapped macrophage heterogeneity across multiple anatomical sites and identified diverse subsets, including various types of embryonic TRM (in the head, liver, lung and skin). We further traced the specification trajectories of TRMs from either yolk sac-derived primitive macrophages or YSMP-derived embryonic liver monocytes using both transcriptomic and developmental staging information, with a focus on microglia. Finally, we evaluated the molecular similarities between embryonic TRMs and their adult counterparts. Our data represent a comprehensive characterization of the spatiotemporal dynamics of early macrophage development during human embryogenesis, providing a reference for future studies of the development and function of human TRMs. 10.1038/s41586-020-2316-7
    Inflammation within the neurovascular unit: Focus on microglia for stroke injury and recovery. Eldahshan Wael,Fagan Susan C,Ergul Adviye Pharmacological research Neuroinflammation underlies the etiology of multiple neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. Our understanding of neuroinflammation has evolved in the last few years and major players have been identified. Microglia, the brain resident macrophages, are considered sentinels at the forefront of the neuroinflammatory response to different brain insults. Interestingly, microglia perform other physiological functions in addition to their role in neuroinflammation. Therefore, an updated approach in which modulation, rather than complete elimination of microglia is necessary. In this review, the emerging roles of microglia and their interaction with different components of the neurovascular unit are discussed. In addition, recent data on sex differences in microglial physiology and in the context of stroke will be presented. Finally, the multiplicity of roles assumed by microglia in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke, and in the presence of co-morbidities such as hypertension and diabetes are summarized. 10.1016/j.phrs.2019.104349
    Neuroinflammation Mediated by NLRP3 Inflammasome After Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Potential Therapeutic Targets. Xiao Linglong,Zheng Huaping,Li Jing,Wang Qinghua,Sun Haitao Molecular neurobiology Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most fatal subtype of stroke; there is still a lack of effective treatment. Microglia are a major component of the innate immune system, and they respond to acute brain injury by activating and forming classic M1-like (pro-inflammatory) or alternative M2-like (anti-inflammatory) phenotype. The existence of the polarization indicates that the role of microglia in disease's progression and recovery after ICH is still unclear, perhaps involving microglial secretion of anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is considered to be the main participant in neuroinflammation. Recent evidence has shown that NLRP3 inflammasome can be activated after ICH, resulting in inflammatory cascade reactions and aggravating brain injury. Furthermore, previous studies have reported that NLRP3 inflammasome is mainly present in microglia, so we speculate that its activation may be strongly associated with microglial polarization. Many scholars have investigated the role of brain injury caused by NLRP3 inflammasome after ICH, but the precise operating mechanisms remain uncertain. This review summarized the activation mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome after ICH and the possible mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome promoting neuroinflammation and aggravating nerve injury and discussed the relevant potential therapeutic targets. 10.1007/s12035-020-02082-2
    Assessing the Evolution of Intracranial Hematomas by using Animal Models: A Review of the Progress and the Challenges. Metabolic brain disease Stroke has become the second leading cause of death in people aged higher than 60 years, with cancer being the first. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most lethal type of stroke. Using imaging techniques to evaluate the evolution of intracranial hematomas in patients with hemorrhagic stroke is worthy of ongoing research. The difficulty in obtaining ultra-early imaging data and conducting intensive dynamic radiographic imaging in actual clinical settings has led to the application of experimental animal models to assess the evolution of intracranial hematomas. Herein, we review the current knowledge on primary intracerebral hemorrhage mechanisms, focus on the progress of animal studies related to hematoma development and secondary brain injury, introduce preclinical therapies, and summarize related challenges and future directions. 10.1007/s11011-021-00828-y
    The potential for immune checkpoint modulators in cerebrovascular injury and inflammation. Kim Jennifer E,Patel Kisha,Jackson Christopher M Expert opinion on therapeutic targets : Neuroinflammation has been linked to poor neurologic and functional outcomes in many cerebrovascular disorders. Immune checkpoints are upregulated in the setting of traumatic brain injury, intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, central nervous systems vasculitis, and post-hemorrhagic vasospasm, and are potential mediators of pathologic inflammation. Burgeoning evidence suggests that immune checkpoint modulation is a promising treatment strategy to decrease immune cell recruitment, cytokine secretion, brain edema, and neurodegeneration.: This review discusses the role of immune checkpoints in neuroinflammation, and the potential for therapeutic immune checkpoint modulation in inflammatory cerebrovascular disorders. A search of Pubmed and clinicaltrials.gov was performed to find relevant literature published within the last 50 years.: The clinical success of immune-activating checkpoint modulators in human cancers has shown the immense clinical potential of checkpoint-based immunotherapy. Given that checkpoint blockade can also precipitate a pathologic pro-inflammatory or autoimmune response, it is plausible that these pathways may also be targeted to quell aberrant inflammation. A limited but growing number of studies suggest that immune checkpoints play a critical role in regulating the immune response in the central nervous system in a variety of contexts, and that immune-deactivating checkpoint modulators may be a promising treatment strategy for acute and chronic neuroinflammation in cerebrovascular disorders. 10.1080/14728222.2021.1869213
    Role of Thrombin in Central Nervous System Injury and Disease. Shlobin Nathan A,Har-Even Meirav,Itsekson-Hayosh Ze'ev,Harnof Sagi,Pick Chaim G Biomolecules Thrombin is a Na-activated allosteric serine protease of the chymotrypsin family involved in coagulation, inflammation, cell protection, and apoptosis. Increasingly, the role of thrombin in the brain has been explored. Low concentrations of thrombin are neuroprotective, while high concentrations exert pathological effects. However, greater attention regarding the involvement of thrombin in normal and pathological processes in the central nervous system is warranted. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of thrombin action, localization, and functions in the central nervous system and describe the involvement of thrombin in stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and primary central nervous system tumors. We aim to comprehensively characterize the role of thrombin in neurological disease and injury. 10.3390/biom11040562
    Central Nervous System Tissue Regeneration after Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The Next Frontier. Zhang Ruiyi,Xue Mengzhou,Yong Voon Wee Cells Despite marked advances in surgical techniques and understanding of secondary brain injury mechanisms, the prognosis of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains devastating. Harnessing and promoting the regenerative potential of the central nervous system may improve the outcomes of patients with hemorrhagic stroke, but approaches are still in their infancy. In this review, we discuss the regenerative phenomena occurring in animal models and human ICH, provide results related to cellular and molecular mechanisms of the repair process including by microglia, and review potential methods to promote tissue regeneration in ICH. We aim to stimulate research involving tissue restoration after ICH. 10.3390/cells10102513
    Activation of UCP2 by anethole trithione suppresses neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage. Yan Xiao-Ling,Xu Fu-You,Ji Jing-Jing,Song Peng,Pei Ya-Qin,He Mei-Jun,Wang Zi-Chuang,You Shou-Jiang,Hua Zi-Chun,Cheng Jian,Jia Jia Acta pharmacologica Sinica Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease, in which neuroinflammation substantially contributes to brain injury. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a member of the mitochondrial anion carrier family, which uncouples oxidative phosphorylation from ATP synthesis by facilitating proton leak across the mitochondrial inner membrane. UCP2 has been reported to modulate inflammation. In this study we investigated whether and how UCP2 modulated neuroinflammation through microglia/macrophages following ICH in vitro and in vivo. We used an in vitro neuroinflammation model in murine BV2 microglia to mimic microglial activation following ICH. ICH in vivo model was established in mice through collagenase infusion into the left striatum. ICH mice were treated with anetholetrithione (ADT, 50 mg· kg ·d, ip) or the classical protonophoric uncoupler FCCP (injected into hemorrhagic striatum). We showed that the expression and mitochondrial location of microglial UCP2 were not changed in both in vitro and in vivo ICH models. Knockdown of UCP2 exacerbated neuroinflammation in BV2 microglia and mouse ICH models, suggesting that endogenous UCP2 inhibited neuroinflammation and therefore played a protective role following ICH. ADT enhanced mitochondrial ROS production thus inducing mitochondrial uncoupling and activating UCP2 in microglia. ADT robustly suppressed neuroinflammation, attenuated brain edema and improved neurological deficits following ICH, and these effects were countered by striatal knockdown of UCP2. ADT enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in the hemorrhagic brain, which was abrogated by striatal knockdown of UCP2. Moreover, striatal knockdown of AMPK abolished the suppression of neuroinflammation by ADT following ICH. On the other hand, FCCP-induced mitochondrial uncoupling was independent of UCP2 in microglia; and striatal knockdown of UCP2 did not abrogate the suppression of neuroinflammation by FCCP in ICH mice. In conclusion, the uncoupling activity is essential for suppression of neuroinflammation by UCP2. We prove for the first time the concept that activators of endogenous UCP2 such as anetholetrithione are a new class of uncouplers with translational significance. 10.1038/s41401-021-00698-1
    Intermittent fasting reduces neuroinflammation in intracerebral hemorrhage through the Sirt3/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Journal of neuroinflammation BACKGROUND:Inflammation contributes to the poor prognosis of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Intermittent fasting (IF) has been shown to be protective against inflammation in multiple pathogenic processes. In the present study, we aimed to investigated the beneficial effects of IF in attenuating neuroinflammation and neurological deficits in a mouse model of ICH and to investigate the underlying mechanism. METHODS:ICH was modeled by intrastriatal injection of autologous blood and IF was modeled by every-other-day feeding in male control mice (C57BL/6), mice with and microglia specific knockout Sirt3;Cx3cr1-Cre (Sirt3 cKO), and Sirt3 (wild-type) mice. Brain tissues and arterial blood were harvested at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days after ICH for immunohistochemistry analysis of Iba-1, DARPP-32 and HO-1, morphological analysis by HE staining and inflammatory factor release tests by ELISA. Neurological functions were approached by corner test and cylinder test. Fluorescent double-labeled staining of Iba-1 with CD16, Arg1 or Sirt3 was used to provide direct image of co-expression of these molecules in microglia. TUNEL, cleaved caspase-3 and Nissl staining was performed to evaluate cellular injuries. RESULTS:IF alleviated neurological deficits in both acute and chronic phases after ICH. Morphologically, IF enhanced hematoma clearance, reduced brain edema in acute phase and attenuated striatum atrophy in chronic phase. In addition, IF decreased the numbers of TUNEL cells and increased Nissl neuron number at day 1, 3 and 7 after ICH. IF suppressed CD16Iba-1 microglia activation at day 3 after ICH and reduced inflammatory releases, such as IL-1β and TNF-α. The above effects of IF were attenuated by microglia Sirt3 deletion partly because of an inhibition of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. Interestingly, IF increased Iba-1 microglia number at day 7 which mainly expressed Arg1 while decreased the proinflammatory factor levels. In mice with microglia-specific Sirt3 deletion, the effects of IF on Iba-1 microglia activation and anti-inflammatory factor expressions were attenuated when compared with wild-type Sirt3 mice. CONCLUSIONS:IF protects against ICH by suppressing the inflammatory responses via the Sirt3/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. 10.1186/s12974-022-02474-2
    VSIG4 Attenuates NLRP3 and Ameliorates Neuroinflammation via JAK2-STAT3-A20 Pathway after Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice. Neurotoxicity research Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a fatal cerebrovascular disease. Neuroinflammation plays an important pathological role in brain injury after ICH. NLRP3 contributes to the pathogenesis of ICH, but the underlying mechanisms regulating of NLRP3 remain elusive. V-set and immunoglobulin domain containing 4 (VSIG4), specifically expressed in resting tissue-resident macrophages, can deliver anti-inflammatory signals into various inflammatory diseases. However, the interaction between VSIG4 and NLRP3, as well as the underlying mechanisms after ICH have not been reported. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to the autologous blood injection ICH model. VSIG4 and NLRP3 levels of macrophages were detected following ICH. Ad-VSIG4 or controls were administered via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection before ICH induction. STAT3 inhibitor (S31-201), JAK2 inhibitor (TG101348), or Ad-A20 RNAi was administered to investigate the role of JAK2-STAT3-A20 pathway in VSIG4-mediated neuroinflammation after ICH. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production, BBB disruption, brain water content, and neurological test were examined in ICH mice. VSIG4 levels were significantly decreased, and NLRP3 levels were significantly increased in the perihematomal brain tissues after ICH. Ad-VSIG4 attenuated NLRP3 levels and inhibited inflammation, as well as improved neurological function and reduced BBB disruption and brain water content. Furthermore, Ad-VSIG4 increased the protein levels of phosphorylated JAK2 and STAT3, and A20 levels at 24 h after ICH. STAT3 inhibitor, JAK2 inhibitor, and A20 RNAi abolished the beneficial effects of Ad-VSIG4 after ICH. In summary, these data suggested that VSIG4 attenuated NLRP3 and ameliorated neuroinflammation via JAK2-STAT3-A20 pathway after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. VSIG4 might be an ideal therapeutic target for ICH patients. 10.1007/s12640-021-00456-5
    Irisin ameliorates neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis through integrin αVβ5/AMPK signaling pathway after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Journal of neuroinflammation BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation is a crucial factor in the development of secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Irisin is a newly identified myokine that confers strong neuroprotective effects in experimental ischemic stroke. However, whether this myokine can exert neuroprotection effects after ICH remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impact of irisin treatment on neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis and the underlying mechanism involving integrin αVβ5/AMPK pathway after ICH. METHODS:Two hundred and eighty-five adult (8-week-old) male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to sham and ICH surgery groups. ICH was induced via intrastriatal injection of autologous blood. Irisin was administered intranasally at 30 min after ICH. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, cilengitide (a selective integrin αVβ5 inhibitor) and dorsomorphin (a selective phosphorylated AMPK inhibitor) were administered before irisin treatment. The short- and long-term neurobehavior tests, brain edema, quantitative-PCR, western blotting, Fluoro-Jade C, TUNEL, and immunofluorescence staining were performed to assess the neurofunctional outcome at the level of molecular, cell, histology, and function. RESULTS:Endogenous irisin and its receptor, integrin αVβ5, were increased, peaked at 24 h after ICH. irisin post-treatment improved both short- and long-term neurological functions, reduced brain edema after ICH. Interestingly, integrin αVβ5 was mainly located in the microglia after ICH, and irisin post-treatment inhibited microglia/macrophage pro-inflammatory polarization and promoted anti-inflammatory polarization. Moreover, irisin treatment inhibited neutrophil infiltration and suppressed neuronal apoptotic cell death in perihematomal areas after ICH. Mechanistically, irisin post-treatment significantly increased the expression of integrin αVβ5, p-AMPK and Bcl-2, and decreased the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, MPO, and Bax following ICH. The neuroprotective effects of irisin were abolished by both integrin αVβ5 inhibitor cilengitide and AMPK inhibitor dorsomorphin. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated that irisin post-treatment ameliorated neurological deficits, reduced brain edema, and ameliorated neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis, at least in part, through the integrin αVβ5/AMPK signaling pathway after ICH. Thus, irisin post-treatment may provide a promising therapeutic approach for the early management of ICH. 10.1186/s12974-022-02438-6
    Gabapentin Alleviates Brain Injury in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Through Suppressing Neuroinflammation and Apoptosis. Neurochemical research Neuroinflammation plays an important role in brain tissue injury during intracerebral hemorrhage. Gabapentin can reduce inflammation and oxidative stress through inhibiting nuclear factor κB (NFκB) signals. Here, we showed that gabapentin reduced brain tissue injury in ICH through suppressing NFκB-mediated neuroinflammation. ICH was induced by injecting collagenase IV into the right striatum of Sprague-Dawley rats. PC12 and BV2 cells injury induced by Hemin were used to simulate ICH in vitro. Inflammation and apoptosis were assessed in rat brain tissue and in vitro cells. The neurobehavioral scores were significantly decreased in ICH rats compared with sham rats. Phosphorylated IκB-α and cleaved caspase3, and apoptosis rate were significantly higher in tissue surrounding the hematoma than in brain tissues from rats subjected to sham surgery. Furthermore, serum IL-6 levels in ICH rats were higher than in sham rats. Gabapentin treatment significantly improved the behavioral scores, decreased levels of phosphorylated IκB-α and cleaved caspase3, apoptosis rate, and serum IL-6 level in ICH rats. Hemin-treated BV2 cells displayed higher levels of phosphorylated IκB-α, cleaved caspase3, and IL-6 in the supernatant compared with vehicle-treated cells. Hemin treatment induced a significantly lower level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in BV2 cells. BV2-PC12 co-culture cells treated by hemin displayed higher levels of cleaved caspase3 in PC12 cells. Furthermore, gabapentin treatment could reduce these effects induced by hemin and the protective effects of gabapentin were significantly attenuated by PPARγ inhibitor. Therefore, gabapentin may reduce inflammation and apoptosis induced by the ICH through PPARγ-NFκB pathway. 10.1007/s11064-022-03657-2
    Curcumin attenuates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation by suppressing JAK1/STAT1 pathway. Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a kind of fatal stroke with the highest mortality and morbidity in the world. To date, there is no effective treatment strategy for ICH. Curcumin, a major active ingredient of L., possesses a potential anti-inflammatory activity in many types of disease. In the current study, the mechanism underlying curcumin attenuated ICH-induced neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation was explored. Herein, we studied that curcumin decreased brain edema and improved neurological function by using brain edema measurement, assessment of neurological-deficient score, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting analyses after ICH. The results showed that curcumin improved ICH-induced neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation. Functionally, the polarization of microglia was assessed by immunofluorescence and Western blotting analyses after ICH in the absence or presence of curcumin. The results suggested that the M1-type microglia were activated after ICH, while the effect was blocked by curcumin treatment, suggesting that curcumin alleviates the neuroinflammation and apoptosis of neurons by suppressing the M1-type polarization of microglia. Mechanically, M1 polarization of microglia was regulated by JAK1/STAT1, and the activation of JAK1/STAT1 was blocked by curcumin. Meanwhile, the protective function of curcumin can be blocked by RO8191, an activator of JAK1. Taken together, our study suggested that curcumin improved the ICH-induced brain injury through alleviating M1 polarization of microglia/macrophage and neuroinflammation via suppressing the JAK1/STAT1 pathway. 10.1139/bcb-2021-0423
    Neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage. Mracsko Eva,Veltkamp Roland Frontiers in cellular neuroscience Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a particularly severe type of stroke for which no specific treatment has been established yet. Although preclinical models of ICH have substantial methodological limitations, important insight into the pathophysiology has been gained. Mounting evidence suggests an important contribution of inflammatory mechanisms to brain damage and potential repair. Neuroinflammation evoked by intracerebral blood involves the activation of resident microglia, the infiltration of systemic immune cells and the production of cytokines, chemokines, extracellular proteases and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous studies focused on innate immunity including microglia, monocytes and granulocytes. More recently, the role of adaptive immune cells has received increasing attention. Little is currently known about the interactions among different immune cell populations in the setting of ICH. Nevertheless, immunomodulatory strategies are already being explored in ICH. To improve the chances of translation from preclinical models to patients, a better characterization of the neuroinflammation in patients is desirable. 10.3389/fncel.2014.00388
    NDP-MSH binding melanocortin-1 receptor ameliorates neuroinflammation and BBB disruption through CREB/Nr4a1/NF-κB pathway after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Wu Xuan,Fu Siming,Liu Yun,Luo Hansheng,Li Feng,Wang Yiying,Gao Meng,Cheng Yuan,Xie Zongyi Journal of neuroinflammation BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption are two vital mechanisms of secondary brain injury following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Recently, melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) activation by Nle4-D-Phe7-α-MSH (NDP-MSH) was shown to play a neuroprotective role in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model. This study aimed to investigate whether NDP-MSH could alleviate neuroinflammation and BBB disruption after experimental ICH, as well as the potential mechanisms of its neuroprotective roles. METHODS:Two hundred and eighteen male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to autologous blood-injection ICH model. NDP-MSH, an agonist of Mc1r, was administered intraperitoneally injected at 1 h after ICH insult. To further explore the related protective mechanisms, Mc1r small interfering RNA (Mc1r siRNA) and nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (Nr4a1) siRNA were administered via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection before ICH induction. Neurological test, BBB permeability, brain water content, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blot analysis were implemented. RESULTS:The Expression of Mc1r was significantly increased after ICH. Mc1r was mainly expressed in microglia, astrocytes, and endothelial cells following ICH. Treatment with NDP-MSH remarkably improved neurological function and reduced BBB disruption, brain water content, and the number of microglia in the peri-hematoma tissue after ICH. Meanwhile, the administration of NDP-MSH significantly reduced the expression of p-NF-κB p65, IL-1β, TNF-α, and MMP-9 and increased the expression of p-CREB, Nr4a1, ZO-1, occludin, and Lama5. Inversely, the knockdown of Mc1r or Nr4a1 abolished the neuroprotective effects of NDP-MSH. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, NDP-MSH binding Mc1r attenuated neuroinflammation and BBB disruption and improved neurological deficits, at least in part through CREB/Nr4a1/NF-κB pathway after ICH. 10.1186/s12974-019-1591-4
    TREM2 activation attenuates neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis via PI3K/Akt pathway after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Chen Shengpan,Peng Jianhua,Sherchan Prativa,Ma Yongjie,Xiang Sishi,Yan Feng,Zhao Hao,Jiang Yong,Wang Ning,Zhang John H,Zhang Hongqi Journal of neuroinflammation BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation is an important host defense response to secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) confers strong neuroprotective effects by attenuating neuroinflammation in experimental ischemic stroke. Recent studies suggest that apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a novel, high-affinity ligand of TREM2. This study aimed to investigate the effects of TREM2 activation on neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis in a mouse model of ICH. METHODS:Adult male CD1 mice (n = 216) were subjected to intrastriatal injection of bacterial collagenase. The TREM2 ligand, apoE-mimetic peptide COG1410 was administered intranasally at 1 h after ICH induction. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, TREM2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 were administered intracerebroventricularly prior to COG1410 treatment. Neurobehavioral tests, brain water content, immunofluorescence, western blotting, and Fluoro-Jade C- and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining were performed. RESULTS:Endogenous TREM2 expression was increased and peaked at 24 h after ICH. TREM2 was expressed on microglia, astrocytes, and neurons. COG1410 improved both short-term and long-term neurological functions, reduced brain edema, inhibited microglia/macrophage activation and neutrophil infiltration, and suppressed neuronal apoptotic cell death in perihematomal areas after ICH. Knockdown of endogenous TREM2 by TREM2 siRNA aggravated neurological deficits and decreased the expression of TREM2 in naïve and ICH mice. COG1410 was associated with upregulation of TREM2, PI3K, phosphorylated-Akt, and Bcl-2 and downregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, and Bax after ICH. The neuroprotective effects of COG1410 were abolished by both TREM2 siRNA and PI3K inhibitor LY294002. CONCLUSIONS:Our finding demonstrated that TREM2 activation improved neurological functions and attenuated neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis after ICH, which was, at least in part, mediated by activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Therefore, activation of TREM2 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the management of ICH patients. 10.1186/s12974-020-01853-x