Role of macrophage targeting in the antitumor activity of trabectedin.
Germano Giovanni,Frapolli Roberta,Belgiovine Cristina,Anselmo Achille,Pesce Samantha,Liguori Manuela,Erba Eugenio,Uboldi Sarah,Zucchetti Massimo,Pasqualini Fabio,Nebuloni Manuela,van Rooijen Nico,Mortarini Roberta,Beltrame Luca,Marchini Sergio,Fuso Nerini Ilaria,Sanfilippo Roberta,Casali Paolo G,Pilotti Silvana,Galmarini Carlos M,Anichini Andrea,Mantovani Alberto,D'Incalci Maurizio,Allavena Paola
There is widespread interest in macrophages as a therapeutic target in cancer. Here, we demonstrate that trabectedin, a recently approved chemotherapeutic agent, induces rapid apoptosis exclusively in mononuclear phagocytes. In four mouse tumor models, trabectedin caused selective depletion of monocytes/macrophages in blood, spleens, and tumors, with an associated reduction of angiogenesis. By using trabectedin-resistant tumor cells and myeloid cell transfer or depletion experiments, we demonstrate that cytotoxicity on mononuclear phagocytes is a key component of its antitumor activity. Monocyte depletion, including tumor-associated macrophages, was observed in treated tumor patients. Trabectedin activates caspase-8-dependent apoptosis; selectivity for monocytes versus neutrophils and lymphocytes is due to differential expression of signaling and decoy TRAIL receptors. This unexpected property may be exploited in different therapeutic strategies.
EphA3 maintains tumorigenicity and is a therapeutic target in glioblastoma multiforme.
Day Bryan W,Stringer Brett W,Al-Ejeh Fares,Ting Michael J,Wilson John,Ensbey Kathleen S,Jamieson Paul R,Bruce Zara C,Lim Yi Chieh,Offenhäuser Carolin,Charmsaz Sara,Cooper Leanne T,Ellacott Jennifer K,Harding Angus,Leveque Lucie,Inglis Po,Allan Suzanne,Walker David G,Lackmann Martin,Osborne Geoffrey,Khanna Kum Kum,Reynolds Brent A,Lickliter Jason D,Boyd Andrew W
Significant endeavor has been applied to identify functional therapeutic targets in glioblastoma (GBM) to halt the growth of this aggressive cancer. We show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA3 is frequently overexpressed in GBM and, in particular, in the most aggressive mesenchymal subtype. Importantly, EphA3 is highly expressed on the tumor-initiating cell population in glioma and appears critically involved in maintaining tumor cells in a less differentiated state by modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. EphA3 knockdown or depletion of EphA3-positive tumor cells reduced tumorigenic potential to a degree comparable to treatment with a therapeutic radiolabelled EphA3-specific monoclonal antibody. These results identify EphA3 as a functional, targetable receptor in GBM.
The human liver microenvironment shapes the homing and function of CD4 T-cell populations.
OBJECTIVE:Tissue-resident memory T cells (T) are vital immune sentinels that provide protective immunity. While hepatic CD8 T have been well described, little is known about the location, phenotype and function of CD4 T. DESIGN:We used multiparametric flow cytometry, histological assessment and novel human tissue coculture systems to interrogate the ex vivo phenotype, function and generation of the intrahepatic CD4 T-cell compartment. We also used leukocytes isolated from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-disparate liver allografts to assess long-term retention. RESULTS:Hepatic CD4 T cells were delineated into three distinct populations based on CD69 expression: CD69, CD69 and CD69. CD69CD4 cells were identified as tissue-resident CD4 T cells on the basis of their exclusion from the circulation, phenotypical profile (CXCR6CD49aS1PR1PD-1) and long-term persistence within the pool of donor-derived leukcoocytes in HLA-disparate liver allografts. CD69CD4 T cells produced robust type 1 polyfunctional cytokine responses on stimulation. Conversely, CD69CD4 T cells represented a more heterogenous population containing cells with a more activated phenotype, a distinct chemokine receptor profile (CXCR1CXCR3CXCR1) and a bias towards interleukin-4 production. While CD69CD4 T cells could be found in the circulation and lymph nodes, these cells also formed part of the long-term resident pool, persisting in HLA-mismatched allografts. Notably, frequencies of CD69CD4 T cells correlated with necroinflammatory scores in chronic hepatitis B infection. Finally, we demonstrated that interaction with hepatic epithelia was sufficient to generate CD69CD4 T cells, while additional signals from the liver microenvironment were required to generate liver-resident CD69CD4 T cells. CONCLUSIONS:High and intermediate CD69 expressions mark human hepatic CD4 T and a novel functionally distinct recirculating population, respectively, both shaped by the liver microenvironment to achieve diverse immunosurveillance.
MicroRNA-206 promotes the recruitment of CD8 T cells by driving M1 polarisation of Kupffer cells.
OBJECTIVE:Kupffer cells (KCs) protect against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by communicating with other immune cells. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of this process is incompletely understood. DESIGN:FVB/NJ mice were hydrodynamically injected with AKT/Ras and transposon to induce HCC. Mini-circle and were used to overexpress microRNA-206 in KCs of mice. Flow cytometry and immunostaining were used to evaluate the change in the immune system. RESULTS:Hydrodynamic injection of AKT/Ras into mice drove M2 polarisation of KCs and depletion of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and promoted HCC development. M1-to-M2 transition of KCs impaired microRNA-206 biogenesis. By targeting (kruppel like factor 4) and, thereby, enhancing the production of M1 markers including C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), microRNA-206 promoted M1 polarisation of macrophages. Indeed, microRNA-206-mediated increase of CCL2 facilitated hepatic recruitment of CTLs via CCR2. Disrupting each component of the KLF4/CCL2/CCR2 axis impaired the ability of microRNA-206 to drive M1 polarisation of macrophages and recruit CTLs. In AKT/Ras mice, KC-specific expression of microRNA-206 drove M1 polarisation of KCs and hepatic recruitment of CTLs and fully prevented HCC, while 100% of control mice died from HCC. Disrupting the interaction between microRNA-206 and in KCs and depletion of CD8 T cells impaired the ability of miR-206 to prevent HCC. CONCLUSIONS:M2 polarisation of KCs is a major contributor of HCC in AKT/Ras mice. MicroRNA-206, by driving M1 polarisation of KCs, promoted the recruitment of CD8 T cells and prevented HCC, suggesting its potential use as an immunotherapeutic approach.
Accurate liquid biopsy for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis.
OBJECTIVE:Clinical diagnosis and approval of new medications for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) require invasive liver biopsies. The aim of our study was to identify non-invasive biomarkers of NASH and/or liver fibrosis. DESIGN:This multicentre study includes 250 patients (discovery cohort, n=100 subjects (Bariatric Surgery Versus Non-alcoholic Steato-hepatitis - BRAVES trial); validation cohort, n=150 (Liquid Biopsy for NASH and Liver Fibrosis - LIBRA trial)) with histologically proven non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) or NASH with or without fibrosis. Proteomics was performed in monocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) with iTRAQ-nano- Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), while flow cytometry measured perilipin-2 (PLIN2) and RAB14 in peripheral blood CD14CD16 monocytes. Neural network classifiers were used to predict presence/absence of NASH and NASH stages. Logistic bootstrap-based regression was used to measure the accuracy of predicting liver fibrosis. RESULTS:The algorithm for NASH using PLIN2 mean florescence intensity (MFI) combined with waist circumference, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and presence/absence of diabetes as covariates had an accuracy of 93% in the discovery cohort and of 92% in the validation cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 90% in the discovery cohort and 88% and 100% in the validation cohort, respectively.The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) for NAS level prediction ranged from 83.7% (CI 75.6% to 91.8%) in the discovery cohort to 97.8% (CI 95.8% to 99.8%) in the validation cohort.The algorithm including RAB14 MFI, age, waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma glucose and ALT levels as covariates to predict the presence of liver fibrosis yielded an AUROC of 95.9% (CI 87.9% to 100%) in the discovery cohort and 99.3% (CI 98.1% to 100%) in the validation cohort, respectively. Accuracy was 99.25%, sensitivity 100% and specificity 95.8% in the discovery cohort and 97.6%, 99% and 89.6% in the validation cohort. This novel biomarker was superior to currently used FIB4, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio and was comparable to ultrasound two-dimensional shear wave elastography. CONCLUSIONS:The proposed novel liquid biopsy is accurate, sensitive and specific in diagnosing the presence and severity of NASH or liver fibrosis and is more reliable than currently used biomarkers. CLINICAL TRIALS:Discovery multicentre cohort: Bariatric Surgery versus Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis, BRAVES, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03524365.Validation multicentre cohort: Liquid Biopsy for NASH and Fibrosis, LIBRA, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04677101.
The glucose-deprivation network counteracts lapatinib-induced toxicity in resistant ErbB2-positive breast cancer cells.
Molecular systems biology
Dynamic interactions between intracellular networks regulate cellular homeostasis and responses to perturbations. Targeted therapy is aimed at perturbing oncogene addiction pathways in cancer, however, development of acquired resistance to these drugs is a significant clinical problem. A network-based computational analysis of global gene expression data from matched sensitive and acquired drug-resistant cells to lapatinib, an EGFR/ErbB2 inhibitor, revealed an increased expression of the glucose deprivation response network, including glucagon signaling, glucose uptake, gluconeogenesis and unfolded protein response in the resistant cells. Importantly, the glucose deprivation response markers correlated significantly with high clinical relapse rates in ErbB2-positive breast cancer patients. Further, forcing drug-sensitive cells into glucose deprivation rendered them more resistant to lapatinib. Using a chemical genomics bioinformatics mining of the CMAP database, we identified drugs that specifically target the glucose deprivation response networks to overcome the resistant phenotype and reduced survival of resistant cells. This study implicates the chronic activation of cellular compensatory networks in response to targeted therapy and suggests novel combinations targeting signaling and metabolic networks in tumors with acquired resistance.
Dynamics of protein noise can distinguish between alternate sources of gene-expression variability.
Molecular systems biology
Within individual cells, two molecular processes have been implicated as sources of noise in gene expression: (i) Poisson fluctuations in mRNA abundance arising from random birth and death of individual mRNA transcripts or (ii) promoter fluctuations arising from stochastic promoter transitions between different transcriptional states. Steady-state measurements of variance in protein levels are insufficient to discriminate between these two mechanisms, and mRNA single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) is challenging when cellular mRNA concentrations are high. Here, we present a perturbation method that discriminates mRNA birth/death fluctuations from promoter fluctuations by measuring transient changes in protein variance and that can operate in the regime of high molecular numbers. Conceptually, the method exploits the fact that transcriptional blockage results in more rapid increases in protein variability when mRNA birth/death fluctuations dominate over promoter fluctuations. We experimentally demonstrate the utility of this perturbation approach in the HIV-1 model system. Our results support promoter fluctuations as the primary noise source in HIV-1 expression. This study illustrates a relatively simple method that complements mRNA smFISH hybridization and can be used with existing GFP-tagged libraries to include or exclude alternate sources of noise in gene expression.
Characterization of pluripotent stem cells.
Martí Mercè,Mulero Lola,Pardo Cristina,Morera Cristina,Carrió Meritxell,Laricchia-Robbio Leopoldo,Esteban Concepcion Rodriguez,Izpisua Belmonte Juan Carlos
Characterization of pluripotent stem cells is required for the registration of stem cell lines and allows for an impartial and objective comparison of the results obtained when generating multiple lines. It is therefore crucial to establish specific, fast and reliable protocols to detect the hallmarks of pluripotency. Such protocols should include immunocytochemistry (takes 2 d), identification of the three germ layers in in vitro-derived embryoid bodies by immunocytochemistry (immunodetection takes 3 d) and detection of differentiation markers in in vivo-generated teratomas by immunohistochemistry (differentiation marker detection takes 4 d). Standardization of the immunodetection protocols used ensures minimum variations owing to the source, the animal species, the endogenous fluorescence or the inability to collect large amounts of cells, thereby yielding results as fast as possible without loss of quality. This protocol provides a description of all the immunodetection procedures necessary to characterize mouse and human stem cell lines in different circumstances.
Phytochrome interacting factor proteins regulate cytokinesis in Arabidopsis.
Zhang Yuanyuan,Li Na,Wang Lei
Dicotyledonous plants form an apical hook to protect the fragile apical meristem during upward protrusion from the soil. Etiolated pifq (pif1 pif3 pif4 pif5) seedlings display constitutive apical hook opening. Here, we show that PIF proteins control apical hook opening by regulating the expression of Budding Uninhibited by Benzimidazole 3.1 (BUB3.1) and affecting cytokinesis. Consistent with the major function of BUB3.1 in the organization of phragmoplasts during cytokinesis, the phragmoplasts are well formed in dark-grown pifq but not in wild type. DNA staining and flow cytometry analysis further demonstrate that cellular endoreduplication levels are dramatically reduced in pifq. Chemical treatment with caffeine, an inhibitor of phragmoplast-based cytokinesis, shows that cytokinesis is involved in the apical hook opening. Genetically, BUB3.1 is epistatic to PIFq in the regulation of cytokinesis. Our findings reveal an organ-specific role of PIF proteins in regulating cytokinesis by BUB3.1 during apical hook development.
Transcriptional profiling at whole population and single cell levels reveals somatosensory neuron molecular diversity.
Chiu Isaac M,Barrett Lee B,Williams Erika K,Strochlic David E,Lee Seungkyu,Weyer Andy D,Lou Shan,Bryman Gregory S,Roberson David P,Ghasemlou Nader,Piccoli Cara,Ahat Ezgi,Wang Victor,Cobos Enrique J,Stucky Cheryl L,Ma Qiufu,Liberles Stephen D,Woolf Clifford J
The somatosensory nervous system is critical for the organism's ability to respond to mechanical, thermal, and nociceptive stimuli. Somatosensory neurons are functionally and anatomically diverse but their molecular profiles are not well-defined. Here, we used transcriptional profiling to analyze the detailed molecular signatures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. We used two mouse reporter lines and surface IB4 labeling to purify three major non-overlapping classes of neurons: 1) IB4(+)SNS-Cre/TdTomato(+), 2) IB4(-)SNS-Cre/TdTomato(+), and 3) Parv-Cre/TdTomato(+) cells, encompassing the majority of nociceptive, pruriceptive, and proprioceptive neurons. These neurons displayed distinct expression patterns of ion channels, transcription factors, and GPCRs. Highly parallel qRT-PCR analysis of 334 single neurons selected by membership of the three populations demonstrated further diversity, with unbiased clustering analysis identifying six distinct subgroups. These data significantly increase our knowledge of the molecular identities of known DRG populations and uncover potentially novel subsets, revealing the complexity and diversity of those neurons underlying somatosensation.
Transcriptional repressor ZEB2 promotes terminal differentiation of CD8+ effector and memory T cell populations during infection.
The Journal of experimental medicine
ZEB2 is a multi-zinc-finger transcription factor known to play a significant role in early neurogenesis and in epithelial-mesenchymal transition-dependent tumor metastasis. Although the function of ZEB2 in T lymphocytes is unknown, activity of the closely related family member ZEB1 has been implicated in lymphocyte development. Here, we find that ZEB2 expression is up-regulated by activated T cells, specifically in the KLRG1(hi) effector CD8(+) T cell subset. Loss of ZEB2 expression results in a significant loss of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells after primary and secondary infection with a severe impairment in the generation of the KLRG1(hi) effector memory cell population. We show that ZEB2, which can bind DNA at tandem, consensus E-box sites, regulates gene expression of several E-protein targets and may directly repress Il7r and Il2 in CD8(+) T cells responding to infection. Furthermore, we find that T-bet binds to highly conserved T-box sites in the Zeb2 gene and that T-bet and ZEB2 regulate similar gene expression programs in effector T cells, suggesting that T-bet acts upstream and through regulation of ZEB2. Collectively, we place ZEB2 in a larger transcriptional network that is responsible for the balance between terminal differentiation and formation of memory CD8(+) T cells.
CLEC-2 in megakaryocytes is critical for maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow.
Nakamura-Ishizu Ayako,Takubo Keiyo,Kobayashi Hiroshi,Suzuki-Inoue Katsue,Suda Toshio
The Journal of experimental medicine
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) depend on the bone marrow (BM) niche for their maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation. The BM niche is composed of nonhematopoietic and mature hematopoietic cells, including megakaryocytes (Mks). Thrombopoietin (Thpo) is a crucial cytokine produced by BM niche cells. However, the cellular source of Thpo, upon which HSCs primarily depend, is unclear. Moreover, no specific molecular pathway for the regulation of Thpo production in the BM has been identified. Here, we demonstrate that the membrane protein C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) mediates the production of Thpo and other factors in Mks. Mice conditionally deleted for CLEC-2 in Mks (Clec2(MkΔ/Δ)) produced lower levels of Thpo in Mks. CLEC-2-deficient Mks showed down-regulation of CLEC-2-related signaling molecules Syk, Lcp2, and Plcg2. Knockdown of these molecules in cultured Mks decreased expression of Thpo. Clec2(MkΔ/Δ) mice exhibited reduced BM HSC quiescence and repopulation potential, along with extramedullary hematopoiesis. The low level of Thpo production may account for the decline in HSC potential in Clec2(MkΔ/Δ) mice, as administration of recombinant Thpo to Clec2(MkΔ/Δ) mice restored stem cell potential. Our study identifies CLEC-2 signaling as a novel molecular mechanism mediating the production of Thpo and other factors for the maintenance of HSCs.
Anti-Fab aptamers for shielding virus from neutralizing antibodies.
Muharemagic Darija,Labib Mahmoud,Ghobadloo Shahrokh M,Zamay Anna S,Bell John C,Berezovski Maxim V
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Oncolytic viruses are promising therapeutics that can selectively replicate in and kill tumor cells. However, repetitive administration of viruses provokes the generation of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that can diminish their anticancer effect. In this work, we selected DNA aptamers against the antigen binding fragment (Fab) of antivesicular stomatitis virus polyclonal antibodies to shield the virus from nAbs and enhance its in vivo survival. For the first time, we used flow cytometry and electrochemical immunosensing to identify aptamers targeting the Fab region of antibodies. We evaluated the aptamers in a cell-based infection assay and found that several aptamer clones provide more than 50% shielding of VSV from nAbs and thus have the potential to enhance the delivery of VSV without compromising the patient's immune system. In addition, we developed a bifunctional label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the quantitation of aptamer-mediated degree of shielding and the amount of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) particles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to interrogate the level of VSV in a linear range from 5 × 10(4) to 5 × 10(6) PFU mL(-1) with a detection limit of 10(4) PFU mL(-1).
Terminal NK cell maturation is controlled by concerted actions of T-bet and Zeb2 and is essential for melanoma rejection.
van Helden Mary J,Goossens Steven,Daussy Cécile,Mathieu Anne-Laure,Faure Fabrice,Marçais Antoine,Vandamme Niels,Farla Natalie,Mayol Katia,Viel Sébastien,Degouve Sophie,Debien Emilie,Seuntjens Eve,Conidi Andrea,Chaix Julie,Mangeot Philippe,de Bernard Simon,Buffat Laurent,Haigh Jody J,Huylebroeck Danny,Lambrecht Bart N,Berx Geert,Walzer Thierry
The Journal of experimental medicine
Natural killer (NK) cell maturation is a tightly controlled process that endows NK cells with functional competence and the capacity to recognize target cells. Here, we found that the transcription factor (TF) Zeb2 was the most highly induced TF during NK cell maturation. Zeb2 is known to control epithelial to mesenchymal transition, but its role in immune cells is mostly undefined. Targeted deletion of Zeb2 resulted in impaired NK cell maturation, survival, and exit from the bone marrow. NK cell function was preserved, but mice lacking Zeb2 in NK cells were more susceptible to B16 melanoma lung metastases. Reciprocally, ectopic expression of Zeb2 resulted in a higher frequency of mature NK cells in all organs. Moreover, the immature phenotype of Zeb2(-/-) NK cells closely resembled that of Tbx21(-/-) NK cells. This was caused by both a dependence of Zeb2 expression on T-bet and a probable cooperation of these factors in gene regulation. Transgenic expression of Zeb2 in Tbx21(-/-) NK cells partially restored a normal maturation, establishing that timely induction of Zeb2 by T-bet is an essential event during NK cell differentiation. Finally, this novel transcriptional cascade could also operate in human as T-bet and Zeb2 are similarly regulated in mouse and human NK cells.
The transcription factors ZEB2 and T-bet cooperate to program cytotoxic T cell terminal differentiation in response to LCMV viral infection.
Dominguez Claudia X,Amezquita Robert A,Guan Tianxia,Marshall Heather D,Joshi Nikhil S,Kleinstein Steven H,Kaech Susan M
The Journal of experimental medicine
The transcription factor T-bet is critical for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) differentiation, but it is unclear how it operates in a graded manner in the formation of both terminal effector and memory precursor cells during viral infection. We find that, at high concentrations, T-bet induced expression of Zeb2 mRNA, which then triggered CTLs to adopt terminally differentiated states. ZEB2 and T-bet cooperate to switch on a terminal CTL differentiation program, while simultaneously repressing genes necessary for central memory CTL development. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing showed that a large proportion of these genes were bound by T-bet, and this binding was altered by ZEB2 deficiency. Furthermore, T-bet overexpression could not fully bypass ZEB2 function. Thus, the coordinated actions of T-bet and ZEB2 outline a novel genetic pathway that forces commitment of CTLs to terminal differentiation, thereby restricting their memory cell potential.
Hematopoietic progenitor cell lines with myeloid and lymphoid potential.
Redecke Vanessa,Wu Ruiqiong,Zhou Jingran,Finkelstein David,Chaturvedi Vandana,High Anthony A,Häcker Hans
Investigation of immune-cell differentiation and function is limited by shortcomings of suitable and scalable experimental systems. Here we show that retroviral delivery of an estrogen-regulated form of Hoxb8 into mouse bone marrow cells can be used along with Flt3 ligand to conditionally immortalize early hematopoietic progenitor cells (Hoxb8-FL cells). Hoxb8-FL cells have lost self-renewal capacity and potential to differentiate into megakaryocytes and erythrocytes but retain the potential to differentiate into myeloid and lymphoid cells. They differentiate in vitro and in vivo into macrophages, granulocytes, dendritic cells, B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes that are phenotypically and functionally indistinguishable from their primary counterparts. Quantitative in vitro assays indicate that myeloid and B-cell potential of Hoxb8-FL cells is comparable to that of primary lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors, whereas T-cell potential is diminished. The simplicity of this system and the unlimited proliferative capacity of Hoxb8-FL cells will enable studies of immune-cell differentiation and function.
Prognostic value of DNA flow cytometry in the locally recurrent, conservatively treated breast cancer patient.
Haffty B G,Toth M,Flynn S,Fischer D,Carter D
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
PURPOSE:This study attempted to determine the prognostic value of DNA flow cytometry in the treatment of patients with locally recurrent, conservatively treated breast cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS:Of 433 patients with clinical stage I and II breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy at Yale-New Haven Hospital before January 1985, 50 patients experienced an ipsilateral breast relapse as a first site of treatment failure. Using standard flow-cytometric techniques, DNA ploidy, DNA index, and S-phase fraction (SPF) were measured for 38 of the 50 (76%) paraffin-embedded specimens available for analysis. RESULTS:At a median postrecurrence follow-up of 5.8 years, the 5-year and disease-free survival rates following ipsilateral breast treatment failure were 48% and 54%, respectively. Sixty-three percent of the recurrent tumors were DNA diploid and 37% were aneuploid. Both DNA ploidy and SPF were statistically significant prognostic indicators for 5-year survival and disease-free survival after local recurrence. The 5-year survival rate of the DNA diploid population was 64%, compared with 15% in the aneuploid population (P < .02). Patients with low SPF (< 12%) experienced an 83% 5-year survival rate, compared with a 24% 5-year survival rate in patients with high SPF (> or = 12%) (P < .03). Ploidy and SPF were combined to define the categories of favorable (diploid, low SPF) and unfavorable (diploid, high SPF or any aneuploid subgroups). Patients in the favorable category experienced an 89% 5-year postrecurrence survival rate and a 100% disease-free survival rate, whereas patients in the unfavorable category had a 24% 5-year survival rate and a 32% disease-free survival rate (P < .01). The flow cytometry as a factor correlated with other clinical parameters previously shown to be of prognostic significance in this patient population. In a multivariate analysis, flow cytometry was a statistically significant and independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival following local recurrence. CONCLUSIONS:DNA ploidy and SPF as measured by currently available flow-cytometric techniques show promise as a tool in determining prognosis for the patient with locally recurrent breast cancer. Implications of these findings with respect to issues of adjuvant systemic therapy at the time of local recurrence are discussed.
Cascade-Targeting Poly(amino acid) Nanoparticles Eliminate Intracellular Bacteria via On-Site Antibiotic Delivery.
Feng Wenli,Li Guofeng,Kang Xiaoxu,Wang Ruibai,Liu Fang,Zhao Dongdong,Li Haofei,Bu Fanqiang,Yu Yingjie,Moriarty T Fintan,Ren Qun,Wang Xing
Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.)
Intracellular bacteria in latent or dormant states tolerate high-dose antibiotics. Fighting against these opportunistic bacteria has been a long-standing challenge. Herein, the design of a cascade-targeting drug delivery system (DDS) that can sequentially target macrophages and intracellular bacteria, exhibiting on-site drug delivery, is reported. The DDS is fabricated by encapsulating rifampicin (Rif) into mannose-decorated poly(α-N-acryloyl-phenylalanine)-block-poly(β-N-acryloyl-d-aminoalanine) nanoparticles, denoted as Rif@FAM NPs. The mannose units on Rif@FAM NPs guide the initial macrophage-specific uptake and intracellular accumulation. After the uptake, the detachment of mannose in acidic phagolysosome via Schiff base cleavage exposes the d-aminoalanine moieties, which subsequently steer the NPs to escape from lysosomes and target intracellular bacteria through peptidoglycan-specific binding, as evidenced by the in situ/ex situ co-localization using confocal, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy. Through the on-site Rif delivery, Rif@FAM NPs show superior in vitro and in vivo elimination efficiency than the control groups of free Rif or the DDSs lacking the macrophages- or bacteria-targeting moieties. Furthermore, Rif@FAM NPs remodel the innate immune response of the infected macrophages by upregulating M1/M2 polarization, resulting in a reinforced antibacterial capacity. Therefore, this biocompatible DDS enabling macrophages and bacteria targeting in a cascade manner provides a new outlook for the therapy of intracellular pathogen infection.
Near-infrared oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor integrates acute myeloid leukemia-targeted imaging and therapy.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a deadly hematological malignancy with frequent disease relapse. The biggest challenge for AML therapy is the lack of methods to target and kill the heterogeneous leukemia cells, which lead to disease relapse. Here, we describe a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye, IR-26, which preferentially accumulates in the mitochondria of AML cells, depending on the hyperactive glycolysis of malignant cell, and simultaneously impairs oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to exert targeted therapeutic effects for AML cells. In particular, IR-26 also exhibits potential for real-time monitoring of AML cells with an in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) system. Therefore, IR-26 represents a novel all-in-one agent for the integration of AML targeting, detection, and therapy, which may help to monitor disease progression and treatment responses, prevent unnecessary delays in administering upfront therapy, and improve therapeutic efficiency to the residual AML cells, which are responsible for disease relapse.
Intraocular dendritic cells characterize HLA-B27-associated acute anterior uveitis.
Kasper Maren,Heming Michael,Schafflick David,Li Xiaolin,Lautwein Tobias,Meyer Zu Horste Melissa,Bauer Dirk,Walscheid Karoline,Wiendl Heinz,Loser Karin,Heiligenhaus Arnd,Meyer Zu Hörste Gerd
Uveitis describes a heterogeneous group of inflammatory eye diseases characterized by infiltration of leukocytes into the uveal tissues. Uveitis associated with the HLA haplotype B27 (HLA-B27) is a common subtype of uveitis and a prototypical ocular immune-mediated disease. Local immune mechanisms driving human uveitis are poorly characterized mainly due to the limited available biomaterial and subsequent technical limitations. Here, we provide the first high-resolution characterization of intraocular leukocytes in HLA-B27-positive (n = 4) and -negative (n = 2) anterior uveitis and an infectious endophthalmitis control (n = 1) by combining single-cell RNA-sequencing with flow cytometry and protein analysis. Ocular cell infiltrates consisted primarily of lymphocytes in both subtypes of uveitis and of myeloid cells in infectious endophthalmitis. HLA-B27-positive uveitis exclusively featured a plasmacytoid and classical dendritic cell (cDC) infiltrate. Moreover, cDCs were central in predicted local cell-cell communication. This suggests a unique pattern of ocular leukocyte infiltration in HLA-B27-positive uveitis with relevance to DCs.
Auto-attraction of neural precursors and their neuronal progeny impairs neuronal migration.
Ladewig Julia,Koch Philipp,Brüstle Oliver
Limited neuronal migration into host brain tissue is a key challenge in neural transplantation. We found that one important mechanism underlying this phenomenon is an intrinsic chemotactic interaction between the grafted neural precursor cells (NPCs) and their neuronal progeny. NPCs secrete the receptor tyrosine kinase ligands FGF2 and VEGF, which act as chemoattractants for neurons. Interference with these signaling pathways resulted in enhanced migration of human neurons from neural clusters.
Therapeutic activation of macrophages and microglia to suppress brain tumor-initiating cells.
Sarkar Susobhan,Döring Axinia,Zemp Franz J,Silva Claudia,Lun Xueqing,Wang Xiuling,Kelly John,Hader Walter,Hamilton Mark,Mercier Philippe,Dunn Jeff F,Kinniburgh Dave,van Rooijen Nico,Robbins Stephen,Forsyth Peter,Cairncross Gregory,Weiss Samuel,Yong V Wee
Brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) contribute to the genesis and recurrence of gliomas. We examined whether the microglia and macrophages that are abundant in gliomas alter BTIC growth. We found that microglia derived from non-glioma human subjects markedly mitigated the sphere-forming capacity of glioma patient-derived BTICs in culture by inducing the expression of genes that control cell cycle arrest and differentiation. This sphere-reducing effect was mimicked by macrophages, but not by neurons or astrocytes. Using a drug screen, we validated amphotericin B (AmpB) as an activator of monocytoid cells and found that AmpB enhanced the microglial reduction of BTIC spheres. In mice harboring intracranial mouse or patient-derived BTICs, daily systemic treatment with non-toxic doses of AmpB substantially prolonged life. Notably, microglia and monocytes cultured from glioma patients were inefficient at reducing the sphere-forming capacity of autologous BTICs, but this was rectified by AmpB. These results provide new insights into the treatment of gliomas.
Dosage changes of a segment at 17p13.1 lead to intellectual disability and microcephaly as a result of complex genetic interaction of multiple genes.
Carvalho Claudia M B,Vasanth Shivakumar,Shinawi Marwan,Russell Chad,Ramocki Melissa B,Brown Chester W,Graakjaer Jesper,Skytte Anne-Bine,Vianna-Morgante Angela M,Krepischi Ana C V,Patel Gayle S,Immken LaDonna,Aleck Kyrieckos,Lim Cynthia,Cheung Sau Wai,Rosenberg Carla,Katsanis Nicholas,Lupski James R
American journal of human genetics
The 17p13.1 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described genomic disorder with a core clinical phenotype of intellectual disability, poor to absent speech, dysmorphic features, and a constellation of more variable clinical features, most prominently microcephaly. We identified five subjects with copy-number variants (CNVs) on 17p13.1 for whom we performed detailed clinical and molecular studies. Breakpoint mapping and retrospective analysis of published cases refined the smallest region of overlap (SRO) for microcephaly to a genomic interval containing nine genes. Dissection of this phenotype in zebrafish embryos revealed a complex genetic architecture: dosage perturbation of four genes (ASGR1, ACADVL, DVL2, and GABARAP) impeded neurodevelopment and decreased dosage of the same loci caused a reduced mitotic index in vitro. Moreover, epistatic analyses in vivo showed that dosage perturbations of discrete gene pairings induce microcephaly. Taken together, these studies support a model in which concomitant dosage perturbation of multiple genes within the CNV drive the microcephaly and possibly other neurodevelopmental phenotypes associated with rearrangements in the 17p13.1 SRO.
Neuronal ER stress impedes myeloid-cell-induced vascular regeneration through IRE1α degradation of netrin-1.
Binet François,Mawambo Gaëlle,Sitaras Nicholas,Tetreault Nicolas,Lapalme Eric,Favret Sandra,Cerani Agustin,Leboeuf Dominique,Tremblay Sophie,Rezende Flavio,Juan Aimee M,Stahl Andreas,Joyal Jean-Sebastien,Milot Eric,Kaufman Randal J,Guimond Martin,Kennedy Timothy E,Sapieha Przemyslaw
In stroke and proliferative retinopathy, despite hypoxia driven angiogenesis, delayed revascularization of ischemic tissue aggravates the loss of neuronal function. What hinders vascular regrowth in the ischemic central nervous system remains largely unknown. Using the ischemic retina as a model of neurovascular interaction in the CNS, we provide evidence that the failure of reparative angiogenesis is temporally and spatially associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The canonical ER stress pathways of protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) and inositol-requiring enzyme-1α (IRE1α) are activated within hypoxic/ischemic retinal ganglion neurons, initiating a cascade that results in angiostatic signals. Our findings demonstrate that the endoribonuclease IRE1α degrades the classical guidance cue netrin-1. This neuron-derived cue triggers a critical reparative-angiogenic switch in neural macrophage/microglial cells. Degradation of netrin-1, by persistent neuronal ER stress, thereby hinders vascular regeneration. These data identify a neuronal-immune mechanism that directly regulates reparative angiogenesis.
Class II major histocompatibility complex plays an essential role in obesity-induced adipose inflammation.
Deng Tuo,Lyon Christopher J,Minze Laurie J,Lin Jianxin,Zou Jia,Liu Joey Z,Ren Yuelan,Yin Zheng,Hamilton Dale J,Reardon Patrick R,Sherman Vadim,Wang Helen Y,Phillips Kevin J,Webb Paul,Wong Stephen T C,Wang Rong-Fu,Hsueh Willa A
Adipose-resident T cells (ARTs) regulate metabolic and inflammatory responses in obesity, but ART activation signals are poorly understood. Here, we describe class II major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) as an important component of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Microarray analysis of primary adipocytes revealed that multiple genes involved in MHCII antigen processing and presentation increased in obese women. In mice, adipocyte MHCII increased within 2 weeks on HFD, paralleling increases in proinflammatory ART markers and decreases in anti-inflammatory ART markers, and preceding adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) accumulation and proinflammatory M1 polarization. Mouse 3T3-L1 and primary adipocytes activated T cells in an antigen-specific, contact-dependent manner, indicating that adipocyte MHCII is functional. HFD-fed MHCII(-/-) mice developed less adipose inflammation and insulin resistance than did wild-type mice, despite developing similar adiposity. These investigations uncover a mechanism whereby a HFD-induced adipocyte/ART dialog involving MHCII instigates adipose inflammation and, together with ATM MHCII, escalates its progression.
Identification of a unique TGF-β-dependent molecular and functional signature in microglia.
Butovsky Oleg,Jedrychowski Mark P,Moore Craig S,Cialic Ron,Lanser Amanda J,Gabriely Galina,Koeglsperger Thomas,Dake Ben,Wu Pauline M,Doykan Camille E,Fanek Zain,Liu Liping,Chen Zhuoxun,Rothstein Jeffrey D,Ransohoff Richard M,Gygi Steven P,Antel Jack P,Weiner Howard L
Microglia are myeloid cells of the CNS that participate both in normal CNS function and in disease. We investigated the molecular signature of microglia and identified 239 genes and 8 microRNAs that were uniquely or highly expressed in microglia versus myeloid and other immune cells. Of the 239 genes, 106 were enriched in microglia as compared with astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. This microglia signature was not observed in microglial lines or in monocytes recruited to the CNS, and was also observed in human microglia. We found that TGF-β was required for the in vitro development of microglia that express the microglial molecular signature characteristic of adult microglia and that microglia were absent in the CNS of TGF-β1-deficient mice. Our results identify a unique microglial signature that is dependent on TGF-β signaling and provide insights into microglial biology and the possibility of targeting microglia for the treatment of CNS disease.
Quantum Dots in an Amphiphilic Polyethyleneimine Derivative Platform for Cellular Labeling, Targeting, Gene Delivery, and Ratiometric Oxygen Sensing.
Park Joonhyuck,Lee Junhwa,Kwag Jungheon,Baek Yeonggyeong,Kim Bumju,Yoon Calvin Jinse,Bok Seoyeon,Cho So-Hye,Kim Ki Hean,Ahn G-One,Kim Sungjee
Amphiphilic polyethyleneimine derivatives (amPEIs) were synthesized and used to encapsulate dozens of quantum dots (QDs). The QD-amPEI composite was ∼100 nm in hydrodynamic diameter and had the slightly positive outer surface that suited well for cellular internalization. The QD-amPEI showed very efficient QD cellular labeling with the labeled cell fluorescence intensity more than 10 times higher than conventional techniques such as Lipofectamine-assisted QD delivery. QD-amPEI was optimal for maximal intracellular QD delivery by the large QD payload and the rapid endocytosis kinetics. QD-amPEI platform technology was demonstrated for gene delivery, cell-specific labeling, and ratiometric oxygen sensing. Our QD-amPEI platform has two partitions: positive outer surface and hydrophobic inside pocket. The outer positive surface was further exploited for gene delivery and targeting. Co-delivery of QDs and GFP silencing RNAs was successfully demonstrated by assembling siRNAs to the outer surfaces, which showed the transfection efficiency an order of magnitude higher than conventional gene transfections. Hyaluronic acids were tethered onto the QD-amPEI for cell-specific targeted labeling which showed the specific-to-nonspecific signal ratio over 100. The inside hydrophobic compartment was further applied for cohosting oxygen sensing phosphorescence Ru dyes along with QDs. The QD-Ru-amPEI oxygen probe showed accurate and reversible oxygen sensing capability by the ratiometric photoluminescence signals, which was successfully applied to cellular and spheroid models.
Impaired HA-specific T follicular helper cell and antibody responses to influenza vaccination are linked to inflammation in humans.
Hill Danika L,Whyte Carly E,Innocentin Silvia,Lee Jia Le,Dooley James,Wang Jiong,James Eddie A,Lee James C,Kwok William W,Zand Martin S,Liston Adrian,Carr Edward J,Linterman Michelle A
Antibody production following vaccination can provide protective immunity to subsequent infection by pathogens such as influenza viruses. However, circumstances where antibody formation is impaired after vaccination, such as in older people, require us to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin successful vaccination in order to improve vaccine design for at-risk groups. Here, by studying the breadth of anti-haemagglutinin (HA) IgG, serum cytokines, and B and T cell responses by flow cytometry before and after influenza vaccination, we show that formation of circulating T follicular helper (cTfh) cells was associated with high-titre antibody responses. Using Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) class II tetramers, we demonstrate that HA-specific cTfh cells can derive from pre-existing memory CD4 T cells and have a diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. In older people, the differentiation of HA-specific cells into cTfh cells was impaired. This age-dependent defect in cTfh cell formation was not due to a contraction of the TCR repertoire, but rather was linked with an increased inflammatory gene signature in cTfh cells. Together, this suggests that strategies that temporarily dampen inflammation at the time of vaccination may be a viable strategy to boost optimal antibody generation upon immunisation of older people.
Regulation of glycolysis by Pdk functions as a metabolic checkpoint for cell cycle quiescence in hematopoietic stem cells.
Takubo Keiyo,Nagamatsu Go,Kobayashi Chiharu I,Nakamura-Ishizu Ayako,Kobayashi Hiroshi,Ikeda Eiji,Goda Nobuhito,Rahimi Yasmeen,Johnson Randall S,Soga Tomoyoshi,Hirao Atsushi,Suematsu Makoto,Suda Toshio
Cell stem cell
Defining the metabolic programs that underlie stem cell maintenance will be essential for developing strategies to manipulate stem cell capacity. Mammalian hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain cell cycle quiescence in a hypoxic microenvironment. It has been proposed that HSCs exhibit a distinct metabolic phenotype under these conditions. Here we directly investigated this idea using metabolomic analysis and found that HSCs generate adenosine-5'-triphosphate by anaerobic glycolysis through a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (Pdk)-dependent mechanism. Elevated Pdk expression leads to active suppression of the influx of glycolytic metabolites into mitochondria. Pdk overexpression in glycolysis-defective HSCs restored glycolysis, cell cycle quiescence, and stem cell capacity, while loss of both Pdk2 and Pdk4 attenuated HSC quiescence, glycolysis, and transplantation capacity. Moreover, treatment of HSCs with a Pdk mimetic promoted their survival and transplantation capacity. Thus, glycolytic metabolic status governed by Pdk acts as a cell cycle checkpoint that modulates HSC quiescence and function.
Natural T Cell-mediated Protection against Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza. Results of the Flu Watch Cohort Study.
Hayward Andrew C,Wang Lili,Goonetilleke Nilu,Fragaszy Ellen B,Bermingham Alison,Copas Andrew,Dukes Oliver,Millett Elizabeth R C,Nazareth Irwin,Nguyen-Van-Tam Jonathan S,Watson John M,Zambon Maria, ,Johnson Anne M,McMichael Andrew J
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
RATIONALE:A high proportion of influenza infections are asymptomatic. Animal and human challenge studies and observational studies suggest T cells protect against disease among those infected, but the impact of T-cell immunity at the population level is unknown. OBJECTIVES:To investigate whether naturally preexisting T-cell responses targeting highly conserved internal influenza proteins could provide cross-protective immunity against pandemic and seasonal influenza. METHODS:We quantified influenza A(H3N2) virus-specific T cells in a population cohort during seasonal and pandemic periods between 2006 and 2010. Follow-up included paired serology, symptom reporting, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) investigation of symptomatic cases. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:A total of 1,414 unvaccinated individuals had baseline T-cell measurements (1,703 participant observation sets). T-cell responses to A(H3N2) virus nucleoprotein (NP) dominated and strongly cross-reacted with A(H1N1)pdm09 NP (P < 0.001) in participants lacking antibody to A(H1N1)pdm09. Comparison of paired preseason and post-season sera (1,431 sets) showed 205 (14%) had evidence of infection based on fourfold influenza antibody titer rises. The presence of NP-specific T cells before exposure to virus correlated with less symptomatic, PCR-positive influenza A (overall adjusted odds ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.68; P = 0.005, during pandemic [P = 0.047] and seasonal [P = 0.049] periods). Protection was independent of baseline antibodies. Influenza-specific T-cell responses were detected in 43%, indicating a substantial population impact. CONCLUSIONS:Naturally occurring cross-protective T-cell immunity protects against symptomatic PCR-confirmed disease in those with evidence of infection and helps to explain why many infections do not cause symptoms. Vaccines stimulating T cells may provide important cross-protective immunity.
Neural stem cell-mediated enzyme/prodrug therapy for glioma: preclinical studies.
Aboody Karen S,Najbauer Joseph,Metz Marianne Z,D'Apuzzo Massimo,Gutova Margarita,Annala Alexander J,Synold Timothy W,Couture Larry A,Blanchard Suzette,Moats Rex A,Garcia Elizabeth,Aramburo Soraya,Valenzuela Valerie V,Frank Richard T,Barish Michael E,Brown Christine E,Kim Seung U,Badie Behnam,Portnow Jana
Science translational medicine
High-grade gliomas are extremely difficult to treat because they are invasive and therefore not curable by surgical resection; the toxicity of current chemo- and radiation therapies limits the doses that can be used. Neural stem cells (NSCs) have inherent tumor-tropic properties that enable their use as delivery vehicles to target enzyme/prodrug therapy selectively to tumors. We used a cytosine deaminase (CD)-expressing clonal human NSC line, HB1.F3.CD, to home to gliomas in mice and locally convert the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine to the active chemotherapeutic 5-fluorouracil. In vitro studies confirmed that the NSCs have normal karyotype, tumor tropism, and CD expression, and are genetically and functionally stable. In vivo biodistribution studies demonstrated NSC retention of tumor tropism, even in mice pretreated with radiation or dexamethasone to mimic clinically relevant adjuvant therapies. We evaluated safety and toxicity after intracerebral administration of the NSCs in non-tumor-bearing and orthotopic glioma-bearing immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. We detected no difference in toxicity associated with conversion of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil, no NSCs outside the brain, and no histological evidence of pathology or tumorigenesis attributable to the NSCs. The average tumor volume in mice that received HB1.F3.CD NSCs and 5-fluorocytosine was about one-third that of the average volume in control mice. On the basis of these results, we conclude that combination therapy with HB1.F3.CD NSCs and 5-fluorocytosine is safe, nontoxic, and effective in mice. These data have led to approval of a first-in-human study of an allogeneic NSC-mediated enzyme/prodrug-targeted cancer therapy in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma.
NK cell education: not an on-off switch but a tunable rheostat.
Brodin Petter,Kärre Klas,Höglund Petter
Trends in immunology
Heterogeneity in the natural killer (NK) cell population is determined by variegated expression of polygenic and polymorphic receptors and distinct phenotypes and functions of NK cell subsets. Here, we outline an additional heterogeneity at the level of MHC-dependent education of NK cells. Based on data obtained using polychromatic flow cytometry and mice with single MHC class I alleles, we argue that NK cell responsiveness is tuned along a continuum determined by the strength of the inhibitory input received by the individual NK cell during education. This model has implications for the use of NK cells in therapeutic settings and affects interpretations of how NK cells control virus infections and regulate autoimmunity.
Age-associated B cells contribute to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis by inducing activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes via TNF-α-mediated ERK1/2 and JAK-STAT1 pathways.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases
OBJECTIVES:Age-associated B cells (ABCs) are a recently identified B cell subset, whose expansion has been increasingly linked to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. This study aimed to investigate whether ABCs are involved in the pathogenesis and underlying mechanisms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS:ABCs were assessed in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice and patients with RA using flow cytometry. Transcriptomic features of RA ABCs were explored using RNA-seq. Primary fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) derived from the synovial tissue of patients with RA were cocultured with ABCs or ABCs-conditioned medium (ABCsCM). IL-6, MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 levels in the coculture supernatant were detected by ELISA. Signalling pathways related to ABCs-induced FLS activation were examined using western blotting. RESULTS:Increased ABCs levels in the blood, spleen and inflammatory joints of CIA mice were observed. Notably, ABCs were elevated in the blood, synovial fluid and synovial tissue of patients with RA and positively correlated with disease activity. RNA-seq revealed upregulated chemotaxis-related genes in RA ABCs compared with those in naive and memory B cells. Coculture of FLS with RA ABCs or ABCsCM led to an active phenotype of FLS, with increased production of IL-6, MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13. Mechanistically, ABCsCM-derived TNF-α promoted the upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes in FLS, with elevated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and STAT1. Furthermore, blockage of ERK1/2 and Janus Kinase (JAK)-STAT1 pathways inhibited the activation of FLS induced by ABCsCM. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that ABCs contribute to the pathogenesis of RA by inducing the activation of FLS via TNF-α-mediated ERK1/2 and JAK-STAT1 pathways.
Prostaglandin E2 Promotes Colorectal Cancer Stem Cell Expansion and Metastasis in Mice.
Wang Dingzhi,Fu Lingchen,Sun Haiyan,Guo Lixia,DuBois Raymond N
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Inflammation may contribute to the formation, maintenance, and expansion of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the capacity for self-renewal, differentiation, and resistance to cytotoxic agents. We investigated the effects of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on colorectal CSC development and metastasis in mice and the correlation between levels of PGE2 and CSC markers in human colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens. METHODS:Colorectal carcinoma specimens and matched normal tissues were collected from patients at the Mayo Clinic (Scottsdale, AZ) and analyzed by mass spectrometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Human primary CRC cells and mouse tumor cells were isolated using microbeads or flow cytometry and analyzed for sphere-formation and by flow cytometry assays. LS-174T cells were sorted by flow cytometry (for CD133(+)CD44(+) and CD133(-)CD44(-) cells) and also used in these assays. NOD-scidIL-2Rγ(-/-) (NSG) mice were given cecal or subcutaneous injections of LS-174T or human primary CRC cells. Apc(Min/+) mice and NSG mice with orthotopic cecal tumors were given vehicle (controls), PGE2, celecoxib, and/or Ono-AE3-208. PGE2 downstream signaling pathways were knocked down with small hairpin RNAs, expressed from lentiviral vectors in LS-174T cells, or blocked with inhibitors in human primary CRC cells. RESULTS:Levels of PGE2 correlated with colonic CSC markers (CD133, CD44, LRG5, and SOX2 messenger RNAs) in human colorectal carcinoma samples. Administration of PGE2 to Apc(Min/+) mice increased tumor stem cells and tumor burden, compared with controls. NSG mice given PGE2 had increased numbers of cecal CSCs and liver metastases compared with controls after intracecal injection of LS-174T or human primary CRC cells. Alternatively, celecoxib, an inhibitor of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, reduced polyp numbers in Apc(Min/+) mice, liver metastasis in NSG mice with orthotopic tumors, and numbers of CSCs in Apc(Min/+) and NSG mice. Inhibitors or knockdown of PGE2 receptor 4 (EP4), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) p85α, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), or nuclear factor (NF)-κB reduced PGE2-induced sphere formation and expansion of LS-174T and/or human primary CRC cells. Knockdown of ERK1 or PI3K p85α also attenuated PGE2-induced activation of NF-κB in LS-174T cells. An EP4 antagonist reduced the ability of PGE2 to induce CSC expansion in orthotopic tumors and to accelerate the formation of liver metastases. Knockdown experiments showed that NF-κB was required for PGE2 induction of CSCs and metastasis in mice. CONCLUSIONS:PGE2 induces CSC expansion by activating NF-κB, via EP4-PI3K and EP4-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and promotes the formation of liver metastases in mice. The PGE2 signaling pathway therefore might be targeted therapeutically to slow CSC expansion and colorectal cancer progression.
Single cell tuning of Myc expression by antigen receptor signal strength and interleukin-2 in T lymphocytes.
Preston Gavin C,Sinclair Linda V,Kaskar Aneesa,Hukelmann Jens L,Navarro Maria N,Ferrero Isabel,MacDonald H Robson,Cowling Victoria H,Cantrell Doreen A
The EMBO journal
Myc controls the metabolic reprogramming that supports effector T cell differentiation. The expression of Myc is regulated by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2). We now show that the TCR is a digital switch for Myc mRNA and protein expression that allows the strength of the antigen stimulus to determine the frequency of T cells that express Myc. IL-2 signalling strength also directs Myc expression but in an analogue process that fine-tunes Myc quantity in individual cells via post-transcriptional control of Myc protein. Fine-tuning Myc matters and is possible as Myc protein has a very short half-life in T cells due to its constant phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and subsequent proteasomal degradation. We show that Myc only accumulates in T cells exhibiting high levels of amino acid uptake allowing T cells to match Myc expression to biosynthetic demands. The combination of digital and analogue processes allows tight control of Myc expression at the population and single cell level during immune responses.
Molecular profiling of CD8 T cells in autochthonous melanoma identifies Maf as driver of exhaustion.
Giordano Marilyn,Henin Coralie,Maurizio Julien,Imbratta Claire,Bourdely Pierre,Buferne Michel,Baitsch Lukas,Vanhille Laurent,Sieweke Michael H,Speiser Daniel E,Auphan-Anezin Nathalie,Schmitt-Verhulst Anne-Marie,Verdeil Grégory
The EMBO journal
T cells infiltrating neoplasms express surface molecules typical of chronically virus-stimulated T cells, often termed "exhausted" T cells. We compared the transcriptome of "exhausted" CD8 T cells infiltrating autochthonous melanomas to those of naïve and acutely stimulated CD8 T cells. Despite strong similarities between transcriptional signatures of tumor- and virus-induced exhausted CD8 T cells, notable differences appeared. Among transcriptional regulators, Nr4a2 and Maf were highly overexpressed in tumor-exhausted T cells and significantly upregulated in CD8 T cells from human melanoma metastases. Transduction of murine tumor-specific CD8 T cells to express Maf partially reproduced the transcriptional program associated with tumor-induced exhaustion. Upon adoptive transfer, the transduced cells showed normal homeostasis but failed to accumulate in tumor-bearing hosts and developed defective anti-tumor effector responses. We further identified TGFβ and IL-6 as main inducers of Maf expression in CD8 T cells and showed that Maf-deleted tumor-specific CD8 T cells were much more potent to restrain tumor growth in vivo. Therefore, the melanoma microenvironment contributes to skewing of CD8 T cell differentiation programs, in part by TGFβ/IL-6-mediated induction of Maf.
Behavioral and structural differences in migrating peripheral neutrophils from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Sapey Elizabeth,Stockley James A,Greenwood Hannah,Ahmad Ali,Bayley Darren,Lord Janet M,Insall Robert H,Stockley Robert A
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
RATIONALE:There are increased neutrophils in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but it is unclear if this is due to increased inflammatory signal or related to the inherent behavior of the neutrophils. This is critical, because inaccurate or excessive neutrophil chemotaxis could drive pathological accumulation and tissue damage. OBJECTIVES:To assess migratory dynamics of neutrophils isolated from patients with COPD compared with healthy smoking and nonsmoking control subjects and patients with α(1)-antitryspin deficiency. METHODS:Migratory dynamics and structure were assessed in circulating neutrophils, using phase and differential interference contrast microscopy and time-lapse photography. The effect of COPD severity was studied. Surface expression of receptors was measured using flow cytometry. The in vitro effects of a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor (LY294002) were studied. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:COPD neutrophils moved with greater speed than cells from either control group but with reduced migratory accuracy, in the presence of IL-8, growth-related oncogene α, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, and sputum. This was present across all stages of COPD. Structurally, COPD neutrophils formed fewer pseudopods during migration. There were no differences in surface expression of the receptors CXCR1, CXCR2, or FPR1. LY294002 reduced COPD neutrophil migratory speed while increasing chemotactic accuracy, returning values to normal. The inhibitor did not have these effects in healthy control subjects or patients with a similar degree of lung disease. CONCLUSIONS:COPD neutrophils are intrinsically different than cells from other studied populations in their chemotactic behavior and migratory structure. Differences are not due to surface expression of chemoattractant receptors but instead appear to be due to differences in cell signaling.
DNA flow cytometry reveals depressed spermatogenetic activity in the contralateral testis within 24 h of ipsilateral spermatic cord torsion independently of the presence of the testis and epididymis.
Salman A B,Okur D H,Tanyel F C
An experimental study was planned to evaluate if contralateral testicular deterioration following ipsilateral torsion requires the presence of a twisted ipsilateral testis and/or epididymis. Five groups, each containing 6 rats, were established. The groups underwent sham operation, epididymo-orchiectomy, testicular torsion, torsion following subepididymal orchiectomy and torsion following epididymo-orchiectomy. After 24 h, the contralateral testes were harvested and the percentage of haploid cells was determined by DNA flow cytometry. Ipsilateral torsion, in the presence and absence of testis and epididymis, significantly decreased the number of haploid cells compared to sham and epididymo-orchiectomy procedures. Torsion of only the ipsilateral spermatic cord and adjacent vasculature seemed to suffice to damage the contralateral testis. Since the presence of the ipsilateral testis and epididymis is not mandatory for this acquired damage, which occurs within 24 h, a role for a preexisting congenital defect and autoimmunity seems unlikely.
Targeted expression of μ-opioid receptors in a subset of striatal direct-pathway neurons restores opiate reward.
μ-opioid receptors (MORs) are necessary for the analgesic and addictive effects of opioids such as morphine, but the MOR-expressing neuronal populations that mediate the distinct opiate effects remain elusive. Here we devised a new conditional bacterial artificial chromosome rescue strategy to show, in mice, that targeted MOR expression in a subpopulation of striatal direct-pathway neurons enriched in the striosome and nucleus accumbens, in an otherwise MOR-null background, restores opiate reward and opiate-induced striatal dopamine release and partially restores motivation to self administer an opiate. However, these mice lack opiate analgesia or withdrawal. We used Cre-mediated deletion of the rescued MOR transgene to establish that expression of the MOR transgene in the striatum, rather than in extrastriatal sites, is needed for the restoration of opiate reward. Our study demonstrates that a subpopulation of striatal direct-pathway neurons is sufficient to support opiate reward-driven behaviors and provides a new intersectional genetic approach to dissecting neurocircuit-specific gene function in vivo.
Regulatory B cells are induced by gut microbiota-driven interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 production.
Rosser Elizabeth C,Oleinika Kristine,Tonon Silvia,Doyle Ronan,Bosma Anneleen,Carter Natalie A,Harris Kathryn A,Jones Simon A,Klein Nigel,Mauri Claudia
Regulatory B cells (Breg cells) differentiate in response to inflammation and subsequently restrain excessive immune responses via the release of interleukin-10 (IL-10). However, the precise inflammatory signals governing their differentiation remain to be elucidated. Here we show that the gut microbiota promotes the differentiation of Breg cells in the spleen as well as in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Perturbation of the gut microbiome imposed either by antibiotic treatment or by changes in the sterility of housing conditions reduces the number and function of Breg cells. Following the induction of arthritis, IL-1β and IL-6 are produced only in conventionally housed mice and both cytokines directly promote Breg cell differentiation and IL-10 production. Mice lacking IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) or IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1) specifically on B cells have a reduced number of IL-10-producing B cells and develop exacerbated arthritis compared to control animals. Thus, in response to inflammatory signals induced by both the gut flora and arthritis, Breg cells increase in number and restrain excessive inflammation.
Chemokine-coupled β2 integrin-induced macrophage Rac2-Myosin IIA interaction regulates VEGF-A mRNA stability and arteriogenesis.
Morrison Alan R,Yarovinsky Timur O,Young Bryan D,Moraes Filipa,Ross Tyler D,Ceneri Nicolle,Zhang Jiasheng,Zhuang Zhen W,Sinusas Albert J,Pardi Ruggero,Schwartz Martin A,Simons Michael,Bender Jeffrey R
The Journal of experimental medicine
Myeloid cells are important contributors to arteriogenesis, but their key molecular triggers and cellular effectors are largely unknown. We report, in inflammatory monocytes, that the combination of chemokine receptor (CCR2) and adhesion receptor (β2 integrin) engagement leads to an interaction between activated Rac2 and Myosin 9 (Myh9), the heavy chain of Myosin IIA, resulting in augmented vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) expression and induction of arteriogenesis. In human monocytes, CCL2 stimulation coupled to ICAM-1 adhesion led to rapid nuclear-to-cytosolic translocation of the RNA-binding protein HuR. This activation of HuR and its stabilization of VEGF-A mRNA were Rac2-dependent, and proteomic analysis for Rac2 interactors identified the 226 kD protein Myh9. The level of induced Rac2-Myh9 interaction strongly correlated with the degree of HuR translocation. CCL2-coupled ICAM-1 adhesion-driven HuR translocation and consequent VEGF-A mRNA stabilization were absent in Myh9(-/-) macrophages. Macrophage VEGF-A production, ischemic tissue VEGF-A levels, and flow recovery to hind limb ischemia were impaired in myeloid-specific Myh9(-/-) mice, despite preserved macrophage recruitment to the ischemic muscle. Micro-CT arteriography determined the impairment to be defective induced arteriogenesis, whereas developmental vasculogenesis was unaffected. These results place the macrophage at the center of ischemia-induced arteriogenesis, and they establish a novel role for Myosin IIA in signal transduction events modulating VEGF-A expression in tissue.
High-dimensional assessment of B-cell responses to quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate and plain polysaccharide vaccine.
O'Connor Daniel,Clutterbuck Elizabeth A,Thompson Amber J,Snape Matthew D,Ramasamy Maheshi N,Kelly Dominic F,Pollard Andrew J
BACKGROUND:Neisseria meningitidis is a globally important cause of meningitis and septicaemia. Twelve capsular groups of meningococci are known, and quadrivalent vaccines against four of these (A, C, W and Y) are available as plain-polysaccharide and protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines. Here we apply contemporary methods to describe B-cell responses to meningococcal polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines. METHODS:Twenty adults were randomly assigned to receive either a meningococcal plain-polysaccharide or conjugate vaccine; one month later all received the conjugate vaccine. Blood samples were taken pre-vaccination and 7, 21 and 28 days after vaccination; B-cell responses were assessed by ELISpot, serum bactericidal assay, flow cytometry and gene expression microarray. RESULTS:Seven days after an initial dose of either vaccine, a gene expression signature characteristic of plasmablasts was detectable. The frequency of newly generated plasma cells (CXCR3HLA-DR) and the expression of transcripts derived from IGKC and IGHG2 correlated with immunogenicity. Notably, using an independent dataset, the expression of glucosamine (N-acetyl)-6-sulfatase was found to reproducibly correlate with the magnitude of immune response. Transcriptomic and flow cytometric data revealed depletion of switched memory B cells following plain-polysaccharide vaccine. CONCLUSIONS:These data describe distinct gene signatures associated with the production of high-avidity antibody and a plain-polysaccharide-specific signature, possibly linked to polysaccharide-induced hyporesponsiveness.
Human iPSC-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells can myelinate and rescue a mouse model of congenital hypomyelination.
Wang Su,Bates Janna,Li Xiaojie,Schanz Steven,Chandler-Militello Devin,Levine Corri,Maherali Nimet,Studer Lorenz,Hochedlinger Konrad,Windrem Martha,Goldman Steven A
Cell stem cell
Neonatal engraftment by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) permits the myelination of the congenitally dysmyelinated brain. To establish a potential autologous source of these cells, we developed a strategy by which to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into OPCs. From three hiPSC lines, as well as from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we generated highly enriched OLIG2(+)/PDGFRα(+)/NKX2.2(+)/SOX10(+) human OPCs, which could be further purified using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. hiPSC OPCs efficiently differentiated into both myelinogenic oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, in vitro and in vivo. Neonatally engrafted hiPSC OPCs robustly myelinated the brains of myelin-deficient shiverer mice and substantially increased their survival. The speed and efficiency of myelination by hiPSC OPCs was higher than that previously observed using fetal-tissue-derived OPCs, and no tumors from these grafts were noted as long as 9 months after transplant. These results suggest the potential utility of hiPSC-derived OPCs in treating disorders of myelin loss.
Isolation of HLA-DR-naturally presented peptides identifies T-cell epitopes for rheumatoid arthritis.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases
OBJECTIVE:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) immunopathogenesis revolves around the presentation of poorly characterised self-peptides by human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-class II molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells to autoreactive CD4 +T cells. Here, we analysed the HLA-DR-associated peptidome of synovial tissue (ST) and of dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with synovial fluid (SF) or ST, to identify potential T-cell epitopes for RA. METHODS:HLA-DR/peptide complexes were isolated from RA ST samples (n=3) and monocyte-derived DCs, generated from healthy donors carrying RA-associated shared epitope positive HLA-DR molecules and pulsed with RA SF (n=7) or ST (n=2). Peptide sequencing was performed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The immunostimulatory capacity of selected peptides was evaluated on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with RA (n=29) and healthy subjects (n=12) by flow cytometry. RESULTS:We identified between 103 and 888 HLA-DR-naturally presented peptides per sample. We selected 37 native and six citrullinated (cit)-peptides for stimulation assays. Six of these peptides increased the expression of CD40L on CD4 +T cells patients with RA, and specifically triggered IFN-γ expression on RA CD4 +T cells compared with healthy subjects. Finally, the frequency of IFN-γ-producing CD4 +T cells specific for a myeloperoxidase-derived peptide showed a positive correlation with disease activity. CONCLUSIONS:We significantly expanded the peptide repertoire presented by HLA-DR molecules in a physiologically relevant context, identifying six new epitopes recognised by CD4 +T cells from patients with RA. This information is important for a better understanding of the disease immunopathology, as well as for designing tolerising antigen-specific immunotherapies.
Auxilin is a novel susceptibility gene for congenital heart block which directly impacts fetal heart function.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases
OBJECTIVE:Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) may develop after transplacental transfer of maternal autoantibodies with cardiac manifestations (congenital heart block, CHB) including atrioventricular block, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathies. The association with anti-Ro/SSA antibodies is well established, but a recurrence rate of only 12%-16% despite persisting maternal autoantibodies suggests that additional factors are required for CHB development. Here, we identify fetal genetic variants conferring risk of CHB and elucidate their effects on cardiac function. METHODS:A genome-wide association study was performed in families with at least one case of CHB. Gene expression was analysed by microarrays, RNA sequencing and PCR and protein expression by western blot, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Calcium regulation and connectivity were analysed in primary cardiomyocytes and cells induced from pleuripotent stem cells. Fetal heart performance was analysed by Doppler/echocardiography. RESULTS:We identified as a novel fetal susceptibility gene, with decreased cardiac expression of associated with the disease risk genotype. We further demonstrate that fetal cardiomyocytes deficient in auxilin, the protein encoded by , have abnormal connectivity and Ca homoeostasis in culture, as well as decreased cell surface expression of the Ca1.3 calcium channel. Doppler echocardiography of auxilin-deficient fetal mice revealed cardiac NLE abnormalities in utero, including abnormal heart rhythm with atrial and ventricular ectopias, as well as a prolonged atrioventricular time intervals. CONCLUSIONS:Our study identifies auxilin as the first genetic susceptibility factor in NLE modulating cardiac function, opening new avenues for the development of screening and therapeutic strategies in CHB.
24-Norursodeoxycholic acid reshapes immunometabolism in CD8 T cells and alleviates hepatic inflammation.
Zhu Ci,Boucheron Nicole,Müller André C,Májek Peter,Claudel Thierry,Halilbasic Emina,Baazim Hatoon,Lercher Alexander,Viczenczova Csilla,Hainberger Daniela,Preglej Teresa,Sandner Lisa,Alteneder Marlis,Gülich Alexandra F,Khan Matarr,Hamminger Patricia,Remetic Jelena,Ohradanova-Repic Anna,Schatzlmaier Philipp,Donner Clemens,Fuchs Claudia D,Stojakovic Tatjana,Scharnagl Hubert,Sakaguchi Shinya,Weichhart Thomas,Bergthaler Andreas,Stockinger Hannes,Ellmeier Wilfried,Trauner Michael
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:24-Norursodeoxycholic acid (NorUDCA) is a novel therapeutic bile acid used to treat immune-mediated cholestatic liver diseases, such as primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), where dysregulated T cells including CD8 T cells contribute to hepatobiliary immunopathology. We hypothesized that NorUDCA may directly modulate CD8 T cell function thus contributing to its therapeutic efficacy. METHODS:NorUDCA's immunomodulatory effects were first studied in Mdr2 mice, as a cholestatic model of PSC. To differentiate NorUDCA's immunomodulatory effects on CD8 T cell function from its anticholestatic actions, we also used a non-cholestatic model of hepatic injury induced by an excessive CD8 T cell immune response upon acute non-cytolytic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Studies included molecular and biochemical approaches, flow cytometry and metabolic assays in murine CD8 T cells in vitro. Mass spectrometry was used to identify potential CD8 T cell targets modulated by NorUDCA. The signaling effects of NorUDCA observed in murine cells were validated in circulating T cells from patients with PSC. RESULTS:NorUDCA demonstrated immunomodulatory effects by reducing hepatic innate and adaptive immune cells, including CD8 T cells in the Mdr2 model. In the non-cholestatic model of CD8 T cell-driven immunopathology induced by acute LCMV infection, NorUDCA ameliorated hepatic injury and systemic inflammation. Mechanistically, NorUDCA demonstrated strong immunomodulatory efficacy in CD8 T cells affecting lymphoblastogenesis, expansion, glycolysis and mTORC1 signaling. Mass spectrometry identified that NorUDCA regulates CD8 T cells by targeting mTORC1. NorUDCA's impact on mTORC1 signaling was further confirmed in circulating PSC CD8 T cells. CONCLUSIONS:NorUDCA has a direct modulatory impact on CD8 T cells and attenuates excessive CD8 T cell-driven hepatic immunopathology. These findings are relevant for treatment of immune-mediated liver diseases such as PSC. LAY SUMMARY:Elucidating the mechanisms by which 24-norursodeoxycholic acid (NorUDCA) works for the treatment of immune-mediated liver diseases, such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, is of considerable clinical interest. Herein, we uncovered an unrecognized property of NorUDCA in the immunometabolic regulation of CD8 T cells, which has therapeutic relevance for immune-mediated liver diseases, including PSC.
Regulatory T cells in rheumatoid arthritis showed increased plasticity toward Th17 but retained suppressive function in peripheral blood.
Wang Tian,Sun Xiaolin,Zhao Jing,Zhang Jing,Zhu Huaqun,Li Chun,Gao Na,Jia Yuan,Xu Dakang,Huang Fang-Ping,Li Ningli,Lu Liwei,Li Zhan-Guo
Annals of the rheumatic diseases
OBJECTIVE:Regulatory T cells (Tregs) with the plasticity of producing proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 have been demonstrated under normal and pathogenic conditions. However, it remains unclear whether IL-17-producing Tregs lose their suppressive functions because of their plasticity toward Th17 in autoimmunity. The aim of this study was to investigate IL-17-producing Tregs from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and characterise their regulatory capacity and clinical significance. METHODS:Foxp3 and IL-17 coexpression were evaluated in CD4 T lymphocytes from RA patients. An in vitro T cell polarisation assay was performed to investigate the role of proinflammatory cytokines in IL-17-producing Treg polarisation. The suppressive function of IL-17-producing Tregs in RA was assessed by an in vitro suppression assay. The relationship between this Treg subset and clinical features in RA patients was analysed using Spearman's rank correlation test. RESULTS:A higher frequency of IL-17-producing Tregs was present in the peripheral blood of RA patients compared with healthy subjects. These cells from peripheral blood showed phenotypic characteristics of Th17 and Treg cells, and suppressed T cell proliferation in vitro. Tregs in RA synovial fluid lost suppressive function. The Th17 plasticity of Tregs could be induced by IL-6 and IL-23. An increased ratio of this Treg subset was associated with decreased levels of inflammatory markers, including the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level, in patients with RA. CONCLUSIONS:Increased levels of IL-17-producing Tregs were identified in RA patients. This Treg subset with Th17 plasticity in peripheral blood retained suppressive functions and was associated with milder inflammatory conditions, suggesting that this Treg population works as a negative regulator in RA, but in RA synovial site it may be pathogenic.
Neonatal Fc receptor expression in dendritic cells mediates protective immunity against colorectal cancer.
Baker Kristi,Rath Timo,Flak Magdalena B,Arthur Janelle C,Chen Zhangguo,Glickman Jonathan N,Zlobec Inti,Karamitopoulou Eva,Stachler Matthew D,Odze Robert D,Lencer Wayne I,Jobin Christian,Blumberg Richard S
Cancers arising in mucosal tissues account for a disproportionately large fraction of malignancies. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) have an important function in the mucosal immune system that we have now shown extends to the induction of CD8(+) T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. We demonstrate that FcRn within dendritic cells (DCs) was critical for homeostatic activation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells that drove protection against the development of colorectal cancers and lung metastases. FcRn-mediated tumor protection was driven by DCs activation of endogenous tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells via the cross-presentation of IgG complexed antigens (IgG IC), as well as the induction of cytotoxicity-promoting cytokine secretion, particularly interleukin-12, both of which were independently triggered by the FcRn-IgG IC interaction in murine and human DCs. FcRn thus has a primary role within mucosal tissues in activating local immune responses that are critical for priming efficient anti-tumor immunosurveillance.
TIM-4 glycoprotein-mediated degradation of dying tumor cells by autophagy leads to reduced antigen presentation and increased immune tolerance.
Baghdadi Muhammad,Yoneda Akihiro,Yamashina Tsunaki,Nagao Hiroko,Komohara Yoshihiro,Nagai Shigenori,Akiba Hisaya,Foretz Marc,Yoshiyama Hironori,Kinoshita Ichiro,Dosaka-Akita Hirotoshi,Takeya Motohiro,Viollet Benoit,Yagita Hideo,Jinushi Masahisa
Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by myeloid cells has been implicated in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. In this study, we found that T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin domain-containing molecule-4 (TIM-4) repressed tumor-specific immunity triggered by chemotherapy-induced tumor cell death. TIM-4 was found to be highly expressed on tumor-associated myeloid cells such as macrophages (TAMs) and dendritic cells (TADCs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released from chemotherapy-damaged tumor cells induced TIM-4 on tumor-associated myeloid cells recruited from bone marrow-derived precursors. TIM-4 directly interacted with AMPKα1 and activated autophagy-mediated degradation of ingested tumors, leading to reduced antigen presentation and impaired CTL responses. Consistently, blockade of the TIM-4-AMPKα1-autophagy pathway augmented the antitumor effect of chemotherapeutics by enhancing tumor-specific CTL responses. Our finding provides insight into the immune tolerance mediated by phagocytosis of dying cells, and targeting of the TIM-4-AMPKα1 interaction constitutes a unique strategy for augmenting antitumor immunity and improving cancer chemotherapy.
The inhibitory receptor BTLA controls γδ T cell homeostasis and inflammatory responses.
Bekiaris Vasileios,Šedý John R,Macauley Matthew G,Rhode-Kurnow Antje,Ware Carl F
γδ T cells rapidly secrete inflammatory cytokines at barrier sites that aid in protection from pathogens, but mechanisms limiting inflammatory damage remain unclear. We found that retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma-t (RORγt) and interleukin-7 (IL-7) influence γδ T cell homeostasis and function by regulating expression of the inhibitory receptor, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA). The transcription factor RORγt, via its activating function-2 domain, repressed Btla transcription, whereas IL-7 increased BTLA levels on the cell surface. BTLA expression limited γδ T cell numbers and sustained normal γδ T cell subset frequencies by restricting IL-7 responsiveness and expansion of the CD27(-)RORγt(+) population. BTLA also negatively regulated IL-17 and TNF production in CD27(-) γδ T cells. Consequently, BTLA-deficient mice exhibit enhanced disease in a γδ T cell-dependent model of dermatitis, whereas BTLA agonism reduced inflammation. Therefore, by coordinating expression of BTLA, RORγt and IL-7 balance suppressive and activation stimuli to regulate γδ T cell homeostasis and inflammatory responses.
Mutations in PIGS, Encoding a GPI Transamidase, Cause a Neurological Syndrome Ranging from Fetal Akinesia to Epileptic Encephalopathy.
Nguyen Thi Tuyet Mai,Murakami Yoshiko,Wigby Kristen M,Baratang Nissan V,Rousseau Justine,St-Denis Anik,Rosenfeld Jill A,Laniewski Stephanie C,Jones Julie,Iglesias Alejandro D,Jones Marilyn C,Masser-Frye Diane,Scheuerle Angela E,Perry Denise L,Taft Ryan J,Le Deist Françoise,Thompson Miles,Kinoshita Taroh,Campeau Philippe M
American journal of human genetics
Inherited GPI deficiencies (IGDs) are a subset of congenital disorders of glycosylation that are increasingly recognized as a result of advances in whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). IGDs cause a series of overlapping phenotypes consisting of seizures, dysmorphic features, multiple congenital malformations, and severe intellectual disability. We present a study of six individuals from three unrelated families in which WES or WGS identified bi-allelic phosphatidylinositol glycan class S (PIGS) biosynthesis mutations. Phenotypes included severe global developmental delay, seizures (partly responding to pyridoxine), hypotonia, weakness, ataxia, and dysmorphic facial features. Two of them had compound-heterozygous variants c.108G>A (p.Trp36) and c.101T>C (p.Leu34Pro), and two siblings of another family were homozygous for a deletion and insertion leading to p.Thr439_Lys451delinsArgLeuLeu. The third family had two fetuses with multiple joint contractures consistent with fetal akinesia. They were compound heterozygous for c.923A>G (p.Glu308Gly) and c.468+1G>C, a splicing mutation. Flow-cytometry analyses demonstrated that the individuals with PIGS mutations show a GPI-AP deficiency profile. Expression of the p.Trp36 variant in PIGS-deficient HEK293 cells revealed only partial restoration of cell-surface GPI-APs. In terms of both biochemistry and phenotype, loss of function of PIGS shares features with PIGT deficiency and other IGDs. This study contributes to the understanding of the GPI-AP biosynthesis pathway by describing the consequences of PIGS disruption in humans and extending the family of IGDs.
DeCoN: genome-wide analysis of in vivo transcriptional dynamics during pyramidal neuron fate selection in neocortex.
Molyneaux Bradley J,Goff Loyal A,Brettler Andrea C,Chen Hsu-Hsin,Hrvatin Siniša,Rinn John L,Arlotta Paola
Neuronal development requires a complex choreography of transcriptional decisions to obtain specific cellular identities. Realizing the ultimate goal of identifying genome-wide signatures that define and drive specific neuronal fates has been hampered by enormous complexity in both time and space during development. Here, we have paired high-throughput purification of pyramidal neuron subclasses with deep profiling of spatiotemporal transcriptional dynamics during corticogenesis to resolve lineage choice decisions. We identified numerous features ranging from spatial and temporal usage of alternative mRNA isoforms and promoters to a host of mRNA genes modulated during fate specification. Notably, we uncovered numerous long noncoding RNAs with restricted temporal and cell-type-specific expression. To facilitate future exploration, we provide an interactive online database to enable multidimensional data mining and dissemination. This multifaceted study generates a powerful resource and informs understanding of the transcriptional regulation underlying pyramidal neuron diversity in the neocortex. VIDEO ABSTRACT:
Transcriptional correlates of malaria in RTS,S/AS01-vaccinated African children: a matched case-control study.
Background:In a phase 3 trial in African infants and children, the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine (GSK) showed moderate efficacy against clinical malaria. We sought to further understand RTS,S/AS01-induced immune responses associated with vaccine protection. Methods:Applying the blood transcriptional module (BTM) framework, we characterized the transcriptomic response to RTS,S/AS01 vaccination in antigen-stimulated (and vehicle control) peripheral blood mononuclear cells sampled from a subset of trial participants at baseline and month 3 (1-month post-third dose). Using a matched case-control study design, we evaluated which of these 'RTS,S/AS01 signature BTMs' associated with malaria case status in RTS,S/AS01 vaccinees. Antigen-specific T-cell responses were analyzed by flow cytometry. We also performed a cross-study correlates analysis where we assessed the generalizability of our findings across three controlled human malaria infection studies of healthy, malaria-naive adult RTS,S/AS01 recipients. Results:RTS,S/AS01 vaccination was associated with downregulation of B-cell and monocyte-related BTMs and upregulation of T-cell-related BTMs, as well as higher month 3 (vs. baseline) circumsporozoite protein-specific CD4 T-cell responses. There were few RTS,S/AS01-associated BTMs whose month 3 levels correlated with malaria risk. In contrast, baseline levels of BTMs associated with dendritic cells and with monocytes (among others) correlated with malaria risk. The baseline dendritic cell- and monocyte-related BTM correlations with malaria risk appeared to generalize to healthy, malaria-naive adults. Conclusions:A prevaccination transcriptomic signature associates with malaria in RTS,S/AS01-vaccinated African children, and elements of this signature may be broadly generalizable. The consistent presence of monocyte-related modules suggests that certain monocyte subsets may inhibit protective RTS,S/AS01-induced responses. Funding:Funding was obtained from the NIH-NIAID (R01AI095789), NIH-NIAID (U19AI128914), PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI), and Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Instituto de Salud Carlos III, PI11/00423 and PI14/01422). The RNA-seq project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under grant number U19AI110818 to the Broad Institute. This study was also supported by the Vaccine Statistical Support (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation award INV-008576/OPP1154739 to R.G.). C.D. was the recipient of a Ramon y Cajal Contract from the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (RYC-2008-02631). G.M. was the recipient of a Sara Borrell-ISCIII fellowship (CD010/00156) and work was performed with the support of Department of Health, Catalan Government grant (SLT006/17/00109). This research is part of the ISGlobal's Program on the Molecular Mechanisms of Malaria which is partially supported by the Fundación Ramón Areces and we acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through the 'Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa 2019-2023' Program (CEX2018-000806-S), and support from the Generalitat de Catalunya through the CERCA Program.
Genomic mosaicism with increased amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene copy number in single neurons from sporadic Alzheimer's disease brains.
Bushman Diane M,Kaeser Gwendolyn E,Siddoway Benjamin,Westra Jurgen W,Rivera Richard R,Rehen Stevens K,Yung Yun C,Chun Jerold
Previous reports have shown that individual neurons of the brain can display somatic genomic mosaicism of unknown function. In this study, we report altered genomic mosaicism in single, sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) neurons characterized by increases in DNA content and amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene copy number. AD cortical nuclei displayed large variability with average DNA content increases of ~8% over non-diseased controls that were unrelated to trisomy 21. Two independent single-cell copy number analyses identified amplifications at the APP locus. The use of single-cell qPCR identified up to 12 copies of APP in sampled neurons. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes targeting APP, combined with super-resolution microscopy detected primarily single fluorescent signals of variable intensity that paralleled single-cell qPCR analyses. These data identify somatic genomic changes in single neurons, affecting known and unknown loci, which are increased in sporadic AD, and further indicate functionality for genomic mosaicism in the CNS.
Dual receptor T cells mediate pathologic alloreactivity in patients with acute graft-versus-host disease.
Morris Gerald P,Uy Geoffrey L,Donermeyer David,Dipersio John F,Allen Paul M
Science translational medicine
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) results from a robust response of donor T cells transferred during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to allogeneic peptide-major histocompatibility complex antigens. Previous investigations have not identified T cell subsets that selectively mediate either protective immunity or pathogenic alloreactivity. We demonstrate that the small subset of peripheral T cells that naturally express two T cell receptors (TCRs) on the cell surface contributes disproportionately to aGVHD in patients after allogeneic HSCT. Dual TCR T cells from patients with aGVHD demonstrate an activated phenotype and produce pathogenic cytokines ex vivo. Dual receptor clones from a patient with symptomatic aGVHD responded specifically to mismatched recipient human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), demonstrating pathologic alloreactivity. Human dual TCR T cells are strongly activated and expanded by allogeneic stimulation in vitro, and disproportionately contribute to the repertoire of T cells recognizing both major (HLA) and minor histocompatibility antigens, providing a mechanism for their observed activity in vivo in patients with aGVHD. These results identify dual TCR T cells as a target for focused analysis of a T cell subset mediating GVHD and as a potential prognostic indicator.
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin-mediated extramedullary hematopoiesis promotes allergic inflammation.
Siracusa Mark C,Saenz Steven A,Wojno Elia D Tait,Kim Brian S,Osborne Lisa C,Ziegler Carly G,Benitez Alain J,Ruymann Kathryn R,Farber Donna L,Sleiman Patrick M,Hakonarson Hakon,Cianferoni Antonella,Wang Mei-Lun,Spergel Jonathan M,Comeau Michael R,Artis David
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) refers to the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into effector cells that occurs in compartments outside of the bone marrow. Previous studies linked pattern-recognition receptor (PRR)-expressing HSCs, EMH, and immune responses to microbial stimuli. However, whether EMH operates in broader immune contexts remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in promoting the population expansion of progenitor cells in the periphery and identify that TSLP-elicited progenitors differentiated into effector cells including macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes and that these cells contributed to type 2 cytokine responses. The frequency of circulating progenitor cells was also increased in allergic patients with a gain-of-function polymorphism in TSLP, suggesting the TSLP-EMH pathway might operate in human disease. These data identify that TSLP-induced EMH contributes to the development of allergic inflammation and indicate that EMH is a conserved mechanism of innate immunity.
Interferon regulatory factor 9 is a key mediator of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Wang Pi-Xiao,Zhang Ran,Huang Ling,Zhu Li-Hua,Jiang Ding-Sheng,Chen Hou-Zao,Zhang Yan,Tian Song,Zhang Xiao-Fei,Zhang Xiao-Dong,Liu De-Pei,Li Hongliang
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is characterized by anoxic cell injury and the generation of inflammatory mediators, leading to hepatic parenchymal cell death. The activation of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) has been implicated in hepatic I/R injury, but the role of IRF9 in this progression is unclear. METHODS:We investigated the function and molecular mechanisms of IRF9 in transgene and knockout mice subjected to warm I/R of the liver. Isolated hepatocytes from IRF9 transgene and knockout mice were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury to determine the in vitro effects of IRF9. RESULTS:The injuries were augmented in IRF9-overexpressing mice that were subjected to warm I/R of the liver. In contrast, a deficiency in IRF9 markedly reduced the necrotic area, serum alanine amino transferase/aspartate amino transferase (ALT/AST), immune cell infiltration, inflammatory cytokine levels, and hepatocyte apoptosis after liver I/R. Sirtuin (SIRT) 1 levels were significantly higher and the acetylation of p53 was decreased in the IRF9 knockout mice. Notably, IRF9 suppressed the activity of the SIRT1 promoter luciferase reporter and deacetylase activity. Liver injuries were significantly more severe in the IRF9/SIRT1 double knockout (DKO) mice in the I/R model, eliminating the protective effects observed in the IRF9 knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS:IRF9 has a novel function of inducing hepatocyte apoptosis after I/R injury by decreasing SIRT1 expression and increasing acetyl-p53 levels. Targeting IRF9 may be a potential strategy for ameliorating ischemic liver injury after liver surgery.
Multipotent RAG1+ progenitors emerge directly from haemogenic endothelium in human pluripotent stem cell-derived haematopoietic organoids.
Motazedian Ali,Bruveris Freya F,Kumar Santhosh V,Schiesser Jacqueline V,Chen Tyrone,Ng Elizabeth S,Chidgey Ann P,Wells Christine A,Elefanty Andrew G,Stanley Edouard G
Nature cell biology
Defining the ontogeny of the human adaptive immune system during embryogenesis has implications for understanding childhood diseases including leukaemias and autoimmune conditions. Using RAG1:GFP human pluripotent stem cell reporter lines, we examined human T-cell genesis from pluripotent-stem-cell-derived haematopoietic organoids. Under conditions favouring T-cell development, RAG1+ cells progressively upregulated a cohort of recognized T-cell-associated genes, arresting development at the CD4+CD8+ stage. Sort and re-culture experiments showed that early RAG1+ cells also possessed B-cell, myeloid and erythroid potential. Flow cytometry and single-cell-RNA-sequencing data showed that early RAG1+ cells co-expressed the endothelial/haematopoietic progenitor markers CD34, VECAD and CD90, whereas imaging studies identified RAG1+ cells within CD31+ endothelial structures that co-expressed SOX17+ or the endothelial marker CAV1. Collectively, these observations provide evidence for a wave of human T-cell development that originates directly from haemogenic endothelium via a RAG1+ intermediate with multilineage potential.
iMyoblasts for ex vivo and in vivo investigations of human myogenesis and disease modeling.
Guo Dongsheng,Daman Katelyn,Chen Jennifer Jc,Shi Meng-Jiao,Yan Jing,Matijasevic Zdenka,Rickard Amanda M,Bennett Monica H,Kiselyov Alex,Zhou Haowen,Bang Anne G,Wagner Kathryn R,Maehr René,King Oliver D,Hayward Lawrence J,Emerson Charles P
Skeletal muscle myoblasts (iMyoblasts) were generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using an efficient and reliable transgene-free induction and stem cell selection protocol. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, qPCR, digital RNA expression profiling, and scRNA-Seq studies identify iMyoblasts as a skeletal myogenic lineage with a fetal-like transcriptome signature, distinct from adult muscle biopsy myoblasts (bMyoblasts) and iPSC-induced muscle progenitors. iMyoblasts can be stably propagated for >12 passages or 30 population doublings while retaining their dual commitment for myotube differentiation and regeneration of reserve cells. iMyoblasts also efficiently xenoengrafted into irradiated and injured mouse muscle where they undergo differentiation and fetal-adult MYH isoform switching, demonstrating their regulatory plasticity for adult muscle maturation in response to signals in the host muscle. Xenograft muscle retains PAX3+ muscle progenitors and can regenerate human muscle in response to secondary injury. As models of disease, iMyoblasts from individuals with Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy revealed a previously unknown epigenetic regulatory mechanism controlling developmental expression of the pathological gene. iMyoblasts from Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy R7 and R9 and Walker Warburg Syndrome patients modeled their molecular disease pathologies and were responsive to small molecule and gene editing therapeutics. These findings establish the utility of iMyoblasts for ex vivo and in vivo investigations of human myogenesis and disease pathogenesis and for the development of muscle stem cell therapeutics.
Recapitulation of spinal motor neuron-specific disease phenotypes in a human cell model of spinal muscular atrophy.
Wang Zhi-Bo,Zhang Xiaoqing,Li Xue-Jun
Establishing human cell models of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) to mimic motor neuron-specific phenotypes holds the key to understanding the pathogenesis of this devastating disease. Here, we developed a closely representative cell model of SMA by knocking down the disease-determining gene, survival motor neuron (SMN), in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Our study with this cell model demonstrated that knocking down of SMN does not interfere with neural induction or the initial specification of spinal motor neurons. Notably, the axonal outgrowth of spinal motor neurons was significantly impaired and these disease-mimicking neurons subsequently degenerated. Furthermore, these disease phenotypes were caused by SMN-full length (SMN-FL) but not SMN-Δ7 (lacking exon 7) knockdown, and were specific to spinal motor neurons. Restoring the expression of SMN-FL completely ameliorated all of the disease phenotypes, including specific axonal defects and motor neuron loss. Finally, knockdown of SMN-FL led to excessive mitochondrial oxidative stress in human motor neuron progenitors. The involvement of oxidative stress in the degeneration of spinal motor neurons in the SMA cell model was further confirmed by the administration of N-acetylcysteine, a potent antioxidant, which prevented disease-related apoptosis and subsequent motor neuron death. Thus, we report here the successful establishment of an hESC-based SMA model, which exhibits disease gene isoform specificity, cell type specificity, and phenotype reversibility. Our model provides a unique paradigm for studying how motor neurons specifically degenerate and highlights the potential importance of antioxidants for the treatment of SMA.
Single-cell transcriptomics of 20 mouse organs creates a Tabula Muris.
Here we present a compendium of single-cell transcriptomic data from the model organism Mus musculus that comprises more than 100,000 cells from 20 organs and tissues. These data represent a new resource for cell biology, reveal gene expression in poorly characterized cell populations and enable the direct and controlled comparison of gene expression in cell types that are shared between tissues, such as T lymphocytes and endothelial cells from different anatomical locations. Two distinct technical approaches were used for most organs: one approach, microfluidic droplet-based 3'-end counting, enabled the survey of thousands of cells at relatively low coverage, whereas the other, full-length transcript analysis based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting, enabled the characterization of cell types with high sensitivity and coverage. The cumulative data provide the foundation for an atlas of transcriptomic cell biology.
An increase in the Akkermansia spp. population induced by metformin treatment improves glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese mice.
Shin Na-Ri,Lee June-Chul,Lee Hae-Youn,Kim Min-Soo,Whon Tae Woong,Lee Myung-Shik,Bae Jin-Woo
BACKGROUND:Recent evidence indicates that the composition of the gut microbiota contributes to the development of metabolic disorders by affecting the physiology and metabolism of the host. Metformin is one of the most widely prescribed type 2 diabetes (T2D) therapeutic agents. OBJECTIVE:To determine whether the antidiabetic effect of metformin is related to alterations of intestinal microbial composition. DESIGN:C57BL/6 mice, fed either a normal-chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD), were treated with metformin for 6 weeks. The effect of metformin on the composition of the gut microbiota was assessed by analysing 16S rRNA gene sequences with 454 pyrosequencing. Adipose tissue inflammation was examined by flow cytometric analysis of the immune cells present in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). RESULTS:Metformin treatment significantly improved the glycaemic profile of HFD-fed mice. HFD-fed mice treated with metformin showed a higher abundance of the mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia than HFD-fed control mice. In addition, the number of mucin-producing goblet cells was significantly increased by metformin treatment (p<0.0001). Oral administration of Akkermansia muciniphila to HFD-fed mice without metformin significantly enhanced glucose tolerance and attenuated adipose tissue inflammation by inducing Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the VAT. CONCLUSIONS:Modulation of the gut microbiota (by an increase in the Akkermansia spp. population) may contribute to the antidiabetic effects of metformin, thereby providing a new mechanism for the therapeutic effect of metformin in patients with T2D. This suggests that pharmacological manipulation of the gut microbiota in favour of Akkermansia may be a potential treatment for T2D.
Inhibiting PGGT1B Disrupts Function of RHOA, Resulting in T-cell Expression of Integrin α4β7 and Development of Colitis in Mice.
López-Posadas Rocío,Fastancz Petra,Martínez-Sánchez Luz Del Carmen,Panteleev-Ivlev Julia,Thonn Veronika,Kisseleva Tatyana,Becker Lukas S,Schulz-Kuhnt Anja,Zundler Sebastian,Wirtz Stefan,Atreya Raja,Carlé Birgitta,Friedrich Oliver,Schürmann Sebastian,Waldner Maximilian J,Neufert Clemens,Brakebusch Cord H,Bergö Martin O,Neurath Markus F,Atreya Imke
BACKGROUND & AIMS:It is not clear how regulation of T-cell function is altered during development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We studied the mechanisms by which geranylgeranyltransferase-mediated prenylation controls T-cell localization to the intestine and chronic inflammation. METHODS:We generated mice with T-cell-specific disruption of the geranylgeranyltransferase type I, beta subunit gene (Pggt1b), called Pggt1b mice, or the ras homolog family member A gene (Rhoa), called Rhoa mice. We also studied mice with knockout of CDC42 or RAC1 and wild-type mice (controls). Intestinal tissues were analyzed by histology, multiphoton and confocal microscopy, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Activation of CDC42, RAC1, and RHOA were measured with G-LISA, cell fractionation, and immunoblots. T cells and lamina propria mononuclear cells from mice were analyzed by flow cytometry or transferred to Rag1 mice. Mice were given injections of antibodies against integrin alpha4beta7 or gavaged with the RORC antagonist GSK805. We obtained peripheral blood and intestinal tissue samples from patients with and without IBD and analyzed them by flow cytometry. RESULTS:Pggt1b mice developed spontaneous colitis, characterized by thickening of the intestinal wall, edema, fibrosis, accumulation of T cells in the colon, and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. Compared with control CD4+ T cells, PGGT1B-deficient CD4+ T cells expressed significantly higher levels of integrin alpha4beta7, which regulates their localization to the intestine. Inflammation induced by transfer of PGGT1B-deficient CD4+ T cells to Rag1 mice was blocked by injection of an antibody against integrin alpha4beta7. Lamina propria of Pggt1b mice had increased numbers of CD4+ T cells that expressed RORC and higher levels of cytokines produced by T-helper 17 cells (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin [IL]17A, IL17F, IL22, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]). The RORC inverse agonist GSK805, but not antibodies against IL17A or IL17F, prevented colitis in Pggt1b mice. PGGT1B-deficient CD4+ T cells had decreased activation of RHOA. RhoA mice had a similar phenotype to Pggt1b mice, including development of colitis, increased numbers of CD4+ T cells in colon, increased expression of integrin alpha4beta7 by CD4+ T cells, and increased levels of IL17A and other inflammatory cytokines in lamina propria. T cells isolated from intestinal tissues from patients with IBD had significantly lower levels of PGGT1B than tissues from individuals without IBD. CONCLUSION:Loss of PGGT1B from T cells in mice impairs RHOA function, increasing CD4+ T-cell expression of integrin alpha4beta7 and localization to colon, resulting in increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and colitis. T cells isolated from gut tissues from patients with IBD have lower levels of PGGT1B than tissues from patients without IBD.
Bidirectional intragraft alloreactivity drives the repopulation of human intestinal allografts and correlates with clinical outcome.
Zuber Julien,Shonts Brittany,Lau Sai-Ping,Obradovic Aleksandar,Fu Jianing,Yang Suxiao,Lambert Marion,Coley Shana,Weiner Joshua,Thome Joseph,DeWolf Susan,Farber Donna L,Shen Yufeng,Caillat-Zucman Sophie,Bhagat Govind,Griesemer Adam,Martinez Mercedes,Kato Tomoaki,Sykes Megan
A paradigm in transplantation states that graft-infiltrating T cells are largely non-alloreactive "bystander" cells. However, the origin and specificity of allograft T cells over time has not been investigated in detail in animals or humans. Here, we use polychromatic flow cytometry and high throughput TCR sequencing of serial biopsies to show that gut-resident T cell turnover kinetics in human intestinal allografts are correlated with the balance between intra-graft host-vs-graft (HvG) and graft-vs-host (GvH) reactivities and with clinical outcomes. In the absence of rejection, donor T cells were enriched for GvH-reactive clones that persisted long-term in the graft. Early expansion of GvH clones in the graft correlated with rapid replacement of donor APCs by the recipient. Rejection was associated with transient infiltration by blood-like recipient CD28+ NKG2D CD8+ alpha beta T cells, marked predominance of HvG clones, and accelerated T cell turnover in the graft. Ultimately, these recipient T cells acquired a steady state tissue-resident phenotype, but regained CD28 expression during rejections. Increased ratios of GvH to HvG clones were seen in non-rejectors, potentially mitigating the constant threat of rejection posed by HvG clones persisting within the tissue-resident graft T cell population.
Fetal hematopoietic stem cell homing is controlled by VEGF regulating the integrity and oxidative status of the stromal-vascular bone marrow niches.
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) engraftment after transplantation during anticancer treatment depends on support from the recipient bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Here, by studying physiological homing of fetal HSPCs, we show the critical requirement of balanced local crosstalk within the skeletal niche for successful HSPC settlement in BM. Transgene-induced overproduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by osteoprogenitor cells elicits stromal and endothelial hyperactivation, profoundly impacting the stromal-vessel interface and vascular architecture. Concomitantly, HSPC homing and survival are drastically impaired. Transcriptome profiling, flow cytometry, and high-resolution imaging indicate alterations in perivascular and endothelial cell characteristics, vascular function and cellular metabolism, associated with increased oxidative stress within the VEGF-enriched BM environment. Thus, developmental HSPC homing to bone is controlled by local stromal-vascular integrity and the oxidative-metabolic status of the recipient milieu. Interestingly, irradiation of adult mice also induces stromal VEGF expression and similar osteo-angiogenic niche changes, underscoring that our findings may contribute targets for improving stem cell therapies.
iPSC-derived dopamine neurons reveal differences between monozygotic twins discordant for Parkinson's disease.
Woodard Chris M,Campos Brian A,Kuo Sheng-Han,Nirenberg Melissa J,Nestor Michael W,Zimmer Matthew,Mosharov Eugene V,Sulzer David,Zhou Hongyan,Paull Daniel,Clark Lorraine,Schadt Eric E,Sardi Sergio Pablo,Rubin Lee,Eggan Kevin,Brock Mathew,Lipnick Scott,Rao Mahendra,Chang Stephen,Li Aiqun,Noggle Scott A
Parkinson's disease (PD) has been attributed to a combination of genetic and nongenetic factors. We studied a set of monozygotic twins harboring the heterozygous glucocerebrosidase mutation (GBA N370S) but clinically discordant for PD. We applied induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology for PD disease modeling using the twins' fibroblasts to evaluate and dissect the genetic and nongenetic contributions. Utilizing fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we obtained a homogenous population of "footprint-free" iPSC-derived midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. The mDA neurons from both twins had ∼50% GBA enzymatic activity, ∼3-fold elevated α-synuclein protein levels, and a reduced capacity to synthesize and release dopamine. Interestingly, the affected twin's neurons showed an even lower dopamine level, increased monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) expression, and impaired intrinsic network activity. Overexpression of wild-type GBA and treatment with MAO-B inhibitors normalized α-synuclein and dopamine levels, suggesting a combination therapy for the affected twin.
A regulatory role for repeated decoy transcription factor binding sites in target gene expression.
Lee Tek-Hyung,Maheshri Narendra
Molecular systems biology
Tandem repeats of DNA that contain transcription factor (TF) binding sites could serve as decoys, competitively binding to TFs and affecting target gene expression. Using a synthetic system in budding yeast, we demonstrate that repeated decoy sites inhibit gene expression by sequestering a transcriptional activator and converting the graded dose-response of target promoters to a sharper, sigmoidal-like response. On the basis of both modeling and chromatin immunoprecipitation measurements, we attribute the altered response to TF binding decoy sites more tightly than promoter binding sites. Tight TF binding to arrays of contiguous repeated decoy sites only occurs when the arrays are mostly unoccupied. Finally, we show that the altered sigmoidal-like response can convert the graded response of a transcriptional positive-feedback loop to a bimodal response. Together, these results show how changing numbers of repeated TF binding sites lead to qualitative changes in behavior and raise new questions about the stability of TF/promoter binding.
Natural killer T cell-derived IL-17 mediates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Sharma Ashish K,LaPar Damien J,Zhao Yunge,Li Li,Lau Christine L,Kron Irving L,Iwakura Yoichiro,Okusa Mark D,Laubach Victor E
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
RATIONALE:We recently implicated a role for CD4(+) T cells and demonstrated elevated IL-17A expression in lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, identification of the specific subset of CD4(+) T cells and their mechanistic role in IR injury remains unknown. OBJECTIVES:We tested the hypothesis that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells mediate lung IR injury via IL-17A signaling. METHODS:Mice underwent lung IR via left hilar ligation. Pulmonary function was measured using an isolated lung system. Lung injury was assessed by measuring edema (wet/dry weight) and vascular permeability (Evans blue dye). Inflammation was assessed by measuring proinflammatory cytokines in lungs, and neutrophil infiltration was measured by immunohistochemistry and myeloperoxidase levels. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Pulmonary dysfunction (increased airway resistance and pulmonary artery pressure and decreased pulmonary compliance), injury (edema, vascular permeability), and inflammation (elevated IL-17A; IL-6; tumor necrosis factor-α; monocyte chemotactic protein-1; keratinocyte-derived chemokine; regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted; and neutrophil infiltration) after IR were attenuated in IL-17A(-/-) and Rag-1(-/-) mice. Anti-IL-17A antibody attenuated lung dysfunction in wild-type mice after IR. Reconstitution of Rag-1(-/-) mice with wild-type, but not IL-17A(-/-), CD4(+) T cells restored lung dysfunction, injury, and inflammation after IR. Lung dysfunction, injury, IL-17A expression, and neutrophil infiltration were attenuated in Jα18(-/-) mice after IR, all of which were restored by reconstitution with wild-type, but not IL-17A(-/-), iNKT cells. Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay confirmed IL-17A production by iNKT cells after IR. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrate that CD4(+) iNKT cells play a pivotal role in initiating lung injury, inflammation, and neutrophil recruitment after IR via an IL-17A-dependent mechanism.
Airway fibroblasts in asthma manifest an invasive phenotype.
Ingram Jennifer L,Huggins Molly J,Church Tony D,Li Yuejuan,Francisco Dave C,Degan Simone,Firszt Rafael,Beaver Denise M,Lugogo Njira L,Wang Ying,Sunday Mary E,Noble Paul W,Kraft Monica
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
RATIONALE:Invasive cell phenotypes have been demonstrated in malignant transformation, but not in other diseases, such as asthma. Cellular invasiveness is thought to be mediated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). IL-13 is a key T(H)2 cytokine that directs many features of airway remodeling through TGF-β1 and MMPs. OBJECTIVES:We hypothesized that, in human asthma, IL-13 stimulates increased airway fibroblast invasiveness via TGF-β1 and MMPs in asthma compared with normal controls. METHODS:Fibroblasts were cultured from endobronchial biopsies in 20 subjects with mild asthma (FEV(1): 90 ± 3.6% pred) and 17 normal control subjects (FEV(1): 102 ± 2.9% pred) who underwent bronchoscopy. Airway fibroblast invasiveness was investigated using Matrigel chambers. IL-13 or IL-13 with TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody or pan-MMP inhibitor (GM6001) was added to the lower chamber as a chemoattractant. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry were performed in a subset of subjects to evaluate IL-13 receptor levels. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:IL-13 significantly stimulated invasion in asthmatic airway fibroblasts, compared with normal control subjects. Inhibitors of both TGF-β1 and MMPs blocked IL-13-induced invasion in asthma, but had no effect in normal control subjects. At baseline, in airway tissue, IL-13 receptors were expressed in significantly higher levels in asthma, compared with normal control subjects. In airway fibroblasts, baseline IL-13Rα2 was reduced in asthma compared with normal control subjects. CONCLUSIONS:IL-13 potentiates airway fibroblast invasion through a mechanism involving TGF-β1 and MMPs. IL-13 receptor subunits are differentially expressed in asthma. These effects may result in IL-13-directed airway remodeling in asthma.
Type 2 immunity induced by bladder extracellular matrix enhances corneal wound healing.
The avascular nature of cornea tissue limits its regenerative potential, which may lead to incomplete healing and formation of scars when damaged. Here, we applied micro- and ultrafine porcine urinary bladder matrix (UBM) particulate to promote type 2 immune responses in cornea wounds. Results demonstrated that UBM particulate substantially reduced corneal haze formation as compared to the saline-treated group. Flow cytometry and gene expression analysis showed that UBM particulate suppressed the differentiation of corneal stromal cells into α-smooth muscle actin-positive (αSMA) myofibroblasts. UBM treatments up-regulated interleukin-4 (IL-4) produced primarily by eosinophils in the wounded corneas and CD4 T cells in draining lymph nodes, suggesting a cross-talk between local and peripheral immunity. Gata1 mice lacking eosinophils did not respond to UBM treatment and had impaired wound healing. In summary, stimulating type 2 immune responses in the wounded cornea can promote proregenerative environments that lead to improved wound healing for vision restoration.
Cytotoxic activities of CD8⁺ T cells collaborate with macrophages to protect against blood-stage murine malaria.
Imai Takashi,Ishida Hidekazu,Suzue Kazutomo,Taniguchi Tomoyo,Okada Hiroko,Shimokawa Chikako,Hisaeda Hajime
The protective immunity afforded by CD8(+) T cells against blood-stage malaria remains controversial because no MHC class I molecules are displayed on parasite-infected human erythrocytes. We recently reported that rodent malaria parasites infect erythroblasts that express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens, which are recognized by CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) T cells contributes to the protection of mice against blood-stage malaria in a Fas ligand (FasL)-dependent manner. Erythroblasts infected with malarial parasites express the death receptor Fas. CD8(+) T cells induce the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the infected erythroblasts in a cell-to-cell contact-dependent manner. PS enhances the engulfment of the infected erythroid cells by phagocytes. As a PS receptor, T-cell immunoglobulin-domain and mucin-domain-containing molecule 4 (Tim-4) contributes to the phagocytosis of malaria-parasite-infected cells. Our findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective immunity exerted by CD8(+) T cells in collaboration with phagocytes.
Expansion of T follicular helper-T helper 1 like cells through epigenetic regulation by signal transducer and activator of transcription factors.
Ma Xiaoxue,Nakayamada Shingo,Kubo Satoshi,Sakata Kei,Yamagata Kaoru,Miyazaki Yusuke,Yoshikawa Maiko,Kitanaga Yukihiro,Zhang Mingzeng,Tanaka Yoshiya
Annals of the rheumatic diseases
OBJECTIVES:T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are critical in the development and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To assess the characteristics and mechanisms of differentiation of Tfh cells, we investigated the phenotype of T helper cells in patients with SLE and underlying epigenetic modifications by cytokine-induced signal transducer and activators of transcription (STAT) family factors. METHODS:Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients and healthy donors were analysed by flow cytometry. CD4 T cells were isolated and cultured under various stimulations. Expression of characteristic markers and phosphorylation of STATs were analysed by flow cytometry and quantitative PCR. Histone modifications were analysed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR. RESULTS:Differentiation of CD4CXCR5CXCR3Bcl-6T-betIL-21IFN-γTfh-Th1-like cells was induced by interleukin (IL)-12-induced activation of STAT1 and STAT4 simultaneously. The loci of Bcl-6 and T-bet at STAT binding sites were marked by bivalent histone modifications. After IL-12 stimulation, both STAT1 and STAT4 directly bound on and gene loci accompanied by suppression of repressive histone mark trimethylated histone 3 lysine 27. Levels of serum IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ, expression of IL-12 receptors and proportion of CXCR5CXCR3 activated Tfh-Th1-like cells were increased in patients with SLE. Furthermore, the level of pSTAT1, pSTAT4 and T-bet were higher in activated Tfh-Th1-like cells than non-Tfh-Th1 cells. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that IL-12-mediated co-activation of STAT1 and STAT4 alters histone modification, resulting in differentiation of Tfh-Th1-like cells that are characteristically expanded in patients with SLE. This could be one of the underlying mechanisms responsible for expansion of Tfh-Th1-like cells and potentially helpful towards development of cell-specific treatment for SLE.
Neutrophils recruited to sites of infection protect from virus challenge by releasing neutrophil extracellular traps.
Jenne Craig N,Wong Connie H Y,Zemp Franz J,McDonald Braedon,Rahman Masmudur M,Forsyth Peter A,McFadden Grant,Kubes Paul
Cell host & microbe
Neutrophils mediate bacterial clearance through various mechanisms, including the release of mesh-like DNA structures or neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that capture bacteria. Although neutrophils are also recruited to sites of viral infection, their role in antiviral innate immunity is less clear. We show that systemic administration of virus analogs or poxvirus infection induces neutrophil recruitment to the liver microvasculature and the release of NETs that protect host cells from virus infection. After systemic intravenous poxvirus challenge, mice exhibit thrombocytopenia and the recruitment of both neutrophils and platelets to the liver vasculature. Circulating platelets interact with, roll along, and adhere to the surface of adherent neutrophils, forming large, dynamic aggregates. These interactions facilitate the release of NETs within the liver vasculature that are able to protect host cells from poxvirus infection. These findings highlight the role of NETs and early tissue-wide responses in preventing viral infection.
Ig Superfamily Ligand and Receptor Pairs Expressed in Synaptic Partners in Drosophila.
Tan Liming,Zhang Kelvin Xi,Pecot Matthew Y,Nagarkar-Jaiswal Sonal,Lee Pei-Tseng,Takemura Shin-Ya,McEwen Jason M,Nern Aljoscha,Xu Shuwa,Tadros Wael,Chen Zhenqing,Zinn Kai,Bellen Hugo J,Morey Marta,Zipursky S Lawrence
Information processing relies on precise patterns of synapses between neurons. The cellular recognition mechanisms regulating this specificity are poorly understood. In the medulla of the Drosophila visual system, different neurons form synaptic connections in different layers. Here, we sought to identify candidate cell recognition molecules underlying this specificity. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that neurons with different synaptic specificities express unique combinations of mRNAs encoding hundreds of cell surface and secreted proteins. Using RNA-seq and protein tagging, we demonstrate that 21 paralogs of the Dpr family, a subclass of immunoglobulin (Ig)-domain containing proteins, are expressed in unique combinations in homologous neurons with different layer-specific synaptic connections. Dpr interacting proteins (DIPs), comprising nine paralogs of another subclass of Ig-containing proteins, are expressed in a complementary layer-specific fashion in a subset of synaptic partners. We propose that pairs of Dpr/DIP paralogs contribute to layer-specific patterns of synaptic connectivity.
TGFβ receptor mutations impose a strong predisposition for human allergic disease.
Frischmeyer-Guerrerio Pamela A,Guerrerio Anthony L,Oswald Gretchen,Chichester Kristin,Myers Loretha,Halushka Marc K,Oliva-Hemker Maria,Wood Robert A,Dietz Harry C
Science translational medicine
Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is a multifunctional cytokine that plays diverse roles in physiologic processes as well as human disease, including cancer, heart disease, and fibrotic disorders. In the immune system, TGFβ regulates regulatory T cell (Treg) maturation and immune homeostasis. Although genetic manipulation of the TGFβ pathway modulates immune tolerance in mouse models, the contribution of this pathway to human allergic phenotypes is not well understood. We demonstrate that patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding receptor subunits for TGFβ, TGFBR1 and TGFBR2, are strongly predisposed to develop allergic disease, including asthma, food allergy, eczema, allergic rhinitis, and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease. LDS patients exhibited elevated immunoglobulin E levels, eosinophil counts, and T helper 2 (TH2) cytokines in their plasma. They had an increased frequency of CD4(+) T cells that expressed both Foxp3 and interleukin-13, but retained the ability to suppress effector T cell proliferation. TH2 cytokine-producing cells accumulated in cultures of naïve CD4(+) T cells from LDS subjects, but not controls, after stimulation with TGFβ, suggesting that LDS mutations support TH2 skewing in naïve lymphocytes in a cell-autonomous manner. The monogenic nature of LDS demonstrates that altered TGFβ signaling can predispose to allergic phenotypes in humans and underscores a prominent role for TGFβ in directing immune responses to antigens present in the environment and foods. This paradigm may be relevant to nonsyndromic presentations of allergic disease and highlights the potential therapeutic benefit of strategies that inhibit TGFβ signaling.
Notch signaling regulates gastric antral LGR5 stem cell function.
Demitrack Elise S,Gifford Gail B,Keeley Theresa M,Carulli Alexis J,VanDussen Kelli L,Thomas Dafydd,Giordano Thomas J,Liu Zhenyi,Kopan Raphael,Samuelson Linda C
The EMBO journal
The major signaling pathways regulating gastric stem cells are unknown. Here we report that Notch signaling is essential for homeostasis of LGR5(+) antral stem cells. Pathway inhibition reduced proliferation of gastric stem and progenitor cells, while activation increased proliferation. Notch dysregulation also altered differentiation, with inhibition inducing mucous and endocrine cell differentiation while activation reduced differentiation. Analysis of gastric organoids demonstrated that Notch signaling was intrinsic to the epithelium and regulated growth. Furthermore, in vivo Notch manipulation affected the efficiency of organoid initiation from glands and single Lgr5-GFP stem cells, suggesting regulation of stem cell function. Strikingly, constitutive Notch activation in LGR5(+) stem cells induced tissue expansion via antral gland fission. Lineage tracing using a multi-colored reporter demonstrated that Notch-activated stem cells rapidly generate monoclonal glands, suggesting a competitive advantage over unmanipulated stem cells. Notch activation was associated with increased mTOR signaling, and mTORC1 inhibition normalized NICD-induced increases in proliferation and gland fission. Chronic Notch activation induced undifferentiated, hyper-proliferative polyps, suggesting that aberrant activation of Notch in gastric stem cells may contribute to gastric tumorigenesis.
Autoantibodies targeting telomere-associated proteins in systemic sclerosis.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases
OBJECTIVES:Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune fibrotic disease affecting multiple tissues including the lung. A subset of patients with SSc with lung disease exhibit short telomeres in circulating lymphocytes, but the mechanisms underlying this observation are unclear. METHODS:Sera from the Johns Hopkins and University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Scleroderma Centers were screened for autoantibodies targeting telomerase and the shelterin proteins using immunoprecipitation and ELISA. We determined the relationship between autoantibodies targeting the shelterin protein TERF1 and telomere length in peripheral leucocytes measured by qPCR and flow cytometry and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (Flow-FISH). We also explored clinical associations of these autoantibodies. RESULTS:In a subset of patients with SSc, we identified autoantibodies targeting telomerase and the shelterin proteins that were rarely present in rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and healthy controls. TERF1 autoantibodies were present in 40/442 (9.0%) patients with SSc and were associated with severe lung disease (OR 2.4, p=0.04, Fisher's exact test) and short lymphocyte telomere length. 6/6 (100%) patients with TERF1 autoantibodies in the Hopkins cohort and 14/18 (78%) patients in the UCSF cohort had a shorter telomere length in lymphocytes or leukocytes, respectively, relative to the expected age-adjusted telomere length. TERF1 autoantibodies were present in 11/152 (7.2%) patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a fibrotic lung disease believed to be mediated by telomere dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS:Autoantibodies targeting telomere-associated proteins in a subset of patients with SSc are associated with short lymphocyte telomere length and lung disease. The specificity of these autoantibodies for SSc and IPF suggests that telomere dysfunction may have a distinct role in the pathogenesis of SSc and pulmonary fibrosis.
A new strategy for intracellular delivery of enzyme using mesoporous silica nanoparticles: superoxide dismutase.
Chen Yi-Ping,Chen Chien-Tsu,Hung Yann,Chou Chih-Ming,Liu Tsang-Pai,Liang Ming-Ren,Chen Chao-Tsen,Mou Chung-Yuan
Journal of the American Chemical Society
We developed mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) as a multifunctional vehicle for enzyme delivery. Enhanced transmembrane delivery of a superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme embedded in MSN was demonstrated. Conjugation of the cell-penetrating peptide derived from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV) transactivator protein (TAT) to mesoporous silica nanoparticle is shown to be an effective way to enhance transmembrane delivery of nanoparticles for intracellular and molecular therapy. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a key antioxidant enzyme that detoxifies intracellular reactive oxygen species, ROS, thereby protecting cells from oxidative damage. In this study, we fused a human Cu,Zn-SOD gene with TAT in a bacterial expression vector to produce a genetic in-frame His-tagged TAT-SOD fusion protein. The His-tagged TAT-SOD fusion protein was expressed in E. coli using IPTG induction and purified using FMSN-Ni-NTA. The purified TAT-SOD was conjugated to FITC-MSN forming FMSN-TAT-SOD. The effectiveness of FMSN-TAT-SOD as an agent against ROS was investigated, which included the level of ROS and apoptosis after free radicals induction and functional recovery after ROS damage. Confocal microscopy on live unfixed cells and flow cytometry analysis showed characteristic nonendosomal distribution of FMSN-TAT-SOD. Results suggested that FMSN-TAT-SOD may provide a strategy for the therapeutic delivery of antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from ROS damage.
Partial exhaustion of CD8 T cells and clinical response to teplizumab in new-onset type 1 diabetes.
Long S Alice,Thorpe Jerill,DeBerg Hannah A,Gersuk Vivian,Eddy James,Harris Kristina M,Ehlers Mario,Herold Kevan C,Nepom Gerald T,Linsley Peter S
Biologic treatment of T1D typically results in transient stabilization of C-peptide levels (a surrogate for endogenous insulin secretion) in some patients, followed by progression at the same rate as in untreated control groups. Here, we used integrated systems biology and flow cytometry approaches with clinical trial blood samples to elucidate pathways associated with C-peptide stabilization in T1D subjects treated with the anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody teplizumab. We identified a population of CD8 T cells that accumulated in subjects with the best response to treatment (responders) and showed that these cells phenotypically resembled exhausted T cells by expressing high levels of the transcription factor EOMES, effector molecules, and multiple inhibitory receptors (IRs), including TIGIT and KLRG1. These cells expanded after treatment, with levels peaking after 3-6 months. To functionally characterize these exhausted-like T cells, we isolated memory CD8 TIGIT+KLRG1+ T cells from responders and showed that they exhibited expanded TCR clonotypes, indicative of prior in vivo expansion; recognized a broad-based spectrum expressed of environmental and auto-antigens; and were hypo-proliferative during polyclonal stimulation, increasing expression of IR genes and decreasing cell cycle genes. Triggering these cells with a recombinant ligand for TIGIT during polyclonal stimulation further downregulated their activation, demonstrating their exhausted phenotype was not terminal. These findings identify and functionally characterize a partially exhausted cell type associated with response to teplizumab therapy and suggest that pathways regulating T cell exhaustion may play a role in successful immune interventions for T1D.
Aptamer and Antisense-Mediated Two-Dimensional Isolation of Specific Cancer Cell Subpopulations.
Labib Mahmoud,Green Brenda,Mohamadi Reza M,Mepham Adam,Ahmed Sharif U,Mahmoudian Laili,Chang I-Hsin,Sargent Edward H,Kelley Shana O
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Cancer cells, and in particular those found circulating in blood, can have widely varying phenotypes and molecular profiles despite a common origin. New methods are needed that can deconvolute the heterogeneity of cancer cells and sort small numbers of cells to aid in the characterization of cancer cell subpopulations. Here, we describe a new molecular approach to capturing cancer cells that isolates subpopulations using two-dimensional sorting. Using aptamer-mediated capture and antisense-triggered release, the new strategy sorts cells according to levels of two different markers and thereby separates them into their corresponding subpopulations. Using a phenotypic assay, we demonstrate that the subpopulations isolated have markedly different properties. This system provides an important new tool for identifying circulating tumor cell subtypes.
The tetraspanin CD9 affords high-purity capture of all murine hematopoietic stem cells.
Karlsson Göran,Rörby Emma,Pina Cristina,Soneji Shamit,Reckzeh Kristian,Miharada Kenichi,Karlsson Christine,Guo Yanping,Fugazza Cristina,Gupta Rajeev,Martens Joost H A,Stunnenberg Hendrik G,Karlsson Stefan,Enver Tariq
Prospective isolation is critical for understanding the cellular and molecular aspects of stem cell heterogeneity. Here, we identify the cell surface antigen CD9 as a positive marker that provides a simple alternative for hematopoietic stem cell isolation at high purity. Crucially, CD9 affords the capture of all hematopoietic stem cells in murine bone marrow in the absence of contaminating populations that lack authentic stem cell function. Using CD9 as a tool to subdivide hematopoietic stem-cell-containing populations, we provide evidence for heterogeneity at the cellular, functional, and molecular levels.
UBE2L3 polymorphism amplifies NF-κB activation and promotes plasma cell development, linking linear ubiquitination to multiple autoimmune diseases.
American journal of human genetics
UBE2L3 is associated with increased susceptibility to numerous autoimmune diseases, but the underlying mechanism is unexplained. By using data from a genome-wide association study of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we observed a single risk haplotype spanning UBE2L3, consistently aligned across multiple autoimmune diseases, associated with increased UBE2L3 expression in B cells and monocytes. rs140490 in the UBE2L3 promoter region showed the strongest association. UBE2L3 is an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, specially adapted to function with HECT and RING-in-between-RING (RBR) E3 ligases, including HOIL-1 and HOIP, components of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC). Our data demonstrate that UBE2L3 is the preferred E2 conjugating enzyme for LUBAC in vivo, and UBE2L3 is essential for LUBAC-mediated activation of NF-κB. By accurately quantifying NF-κB translocation in primary human cells from healthy individuals stratified by rs140490 genotype, we observed that the autoimmune disease risk UBE2L3 genotype was correlated with basal NF-κB activation in unstimulated B cells and monocytes and regulated the sensitivity of NF-κB to CD40 stimulation in B cells and TNF stimulation in monocytes. The UBE2L3 risk allele correlated with increased circulating plasmablast and plasma cell numbers in SLE individuals, consistent with substantially elevated UBE2L3 protein levels in plasmablasts and plasma cells. These results identify key immunological consequences of the UBE2L3 autoimmune risk haplotype and highlight an important role for UBE2L3 in plasmablast and plasma cell development.
Identification of the determinants of tRNA function and susceptibility to rapid tRNA decay by high-throughput in vivo analysis.
Guy Michael P,Young David L,Payea Matthew J,Zhang Xiaoju,Kon Yoshiko,Dean Kimberly M,Grayhack Elizabeth J,Mathews David H,Fields Stanley,Phizicky Eric M
Genes & development
Sequence variation in tRNA genes influences the structure, modification, and stability of tRNA; affects translation fidelity; impacts the activity of numerous isodecoders in metazoans; and leads to human diseases. To comprehensively define the effects of sequence variation on tRNA function, we developed a high-throughput in vivo screen to quantify the activity of a model tRNA, the nonsense suppressor SUP4oc of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a highly sensitive fluorescent reporter gene with an ochre mutation, fluorescence-activated cell sorting of a library of SUP4oc mutant yeast strains, and deep sequencing, we scored 25,491 variants. Unexpectedly, SUP4oc tolerates numerous sequence variations, accommodates slippage in tertiary and secondary interactions, and exhibits genetic interactions that suggest an alternative functional tRNA conformation. Furthermore, we used this methodology to define tRNA variants subject to rapid tRNA decay (RTD). Even though RTD normally degrades tRNAs with exposed 5' ends, mutations that sensitize SUP4oc to RTD were found to be located throughout the sequence, including the anti-codon stem. Thus, the integrity of the entire tRNA molecule is under surveillance by cellular quality control machinery. This approach to assess activity at high throughput is widely applicable to many problems in tRNA biology.
Specification of type 2 innate lymphocytes by the transcriptional determinant Gfi1.
Spooner Chauncey J,Lesch Justin,Yan Donghong,Khan Aly A,Abbas Alex,Ramirez-Carrozzi Vladimir,Zhou Meijuan,Soriano Robert,Eastham-Anderson Jeffrey,Diehl Lauri,Lee Wyne P,Modrusan Zora,Pappu Rajita,Xu Min,DeVoss Jason,Singh Harinder
Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) participate in host defense against helminth parasites and in allergic inflammation. Given their functional relatedness to type 2 helper T cells (T(H)2 cells), we explored whether Gfi1 acts as a shared transcriptional determinant in ILC2 cells. Gfi1 promoted the development of ILC2 cells and controlled their responsiveness during infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and protease allergen-induced lung inflammation. Gfi1 'preferentially' regulated the responsiveness of ILC2 cells to interleukin 33 (IL-33) by directly activating Il1rl1, which encodes the IL-33 receptor (ST2). Loss of Gfi1 in activated ILC2 cells resulted in impaired expression of the transcription factor GATA-3 and a dysregulated genome-wide effector state characterized by coexpression of IL-13 and IL-17. Our findings establish Gfi1 as a shared determinant that reciprocally regulates the type 2 and IL-17 effector states in cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems.
Transcriptional downregulation of S1pr1 is required for the establishment of resident memory CD8+ T cells.
Skon Cara N,Lee June-Yong,Anderson Kristin G,Masopust David,Hogquist Kristin A,Jameson Stephen C
Cell-mediated immunity critically depends on the localization of lymphocytes at sites of infection. While some memory T cells recirculate, a distinct lineage (resident memory T cells (T(RM) cells)) are embedded in nonlymphoid tissues (NLTs) and mediate potent protective immunity. However, the defining transcriptional basis for the establishment of T(RM) cells is unknown. We found that CD8(+) T(RM) cells lacked expression of the transcription factor KLF2 and its target gene S1pr1 (which encodes S1P1, a receptor for sphingosine 1-phosphate). Forced expression of S1P1 prevented the establishment of T(RM) cells. Cytokines that induced a T(RM) cell phenotype (including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin 33 (IL-33) and tumor-necrosis factor) elicited downregulation of KLF2 expression in a pathway dependent on phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and the kinase Akt, which suggested environmental regulation. Hence, regulation of KLF2 and S1P1 provides a switch that dictates whether CD8(+) T cells commit to recirculating or tissue-resident memory populations.
Addendum: IgE+ memory B cells and plasma cells generated through a germinal-center pathway.
Talay Oezcan,Yan Donghong,Brightbill Hans D,Straney Elizabeth E M,Zhou Meijuan,Ladi Ena,Lee Wyne P,Egen Jackson G,Austin Cary D,Xu Min,Wu Lawren C
GPR18 is required for a normal CD8αα intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte compartment.
Wang Xiaoming,Sumida Hayakazu,Cyster Jason G
The Journal of experimental medicine
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) play an important role in maintaining the physiology of the small intestine. The majority of mouse IELs express CD8αα and are either γδ or αβ T cells. Although the development and homing of CD8αα IELs have been studied in some detail, the factors controlling their homeostasis and positioning are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that G protein-coupled receptor 18 (GPR18) is abundantly expressed in CD8αα IELs and that mice lacking this orphan receptor have reduced numbers of γδT IELs. Mixed bone marrow chimera experiments reveal a markedly reduced contribution of GPR18-deficient cells to the CD8αα IEL compartment and a reduction in the CD8αβ T cell subset. These defects could be rescued by transduction with a GPR18-expressing retrovirus. The GPR18-deficient γδT IELs that remained in mixed chimeras had elevated Thy1, and there were less granzyme B(+) and Vγ7(+) cells, indicating a greater reduction in effector-type cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated GPR18 deficiency more strongly affected the CD8αα cells in the intraepithelial compared with the adjacent lamina propria compartment. These findings establish a requirement for GPR18 in CD8αα and CD8αβ IELs, and we suggest the receptor has a role in augmenting the accumulation of CD8 T cells in the intraepithelial versus lamina propria compartment.
Intratumoral stem-like CCR4+ regulatory T cells orchestrate the immunosuppressive microenvironment in HCC associated with hepatitis B.
Gao Yanan,You Maojun,Fu Junliang,Tian Meijie,Zhong Xinyue,Du Chengzhi,Hong Zhixian,Zhu Zhenyu,Liu Junliang,Markowitz Geoffrey J,Wang Fu-Sheng,Yang Pengyuan
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Regulatory T cell (Treg) depletion increases antitumor immunity. However, severe autoimmunity can occur following systemic loss of Tregs, which could be avoided by selectively depleting intratumoral Tregs. Herein, we aimed to investigate the role of tumor-infiltrating CCR4 Tregs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to provide a potential target strategy for immunotherapy. METHODS:CCR4 Tregs were analyzed by flow cytometry in murine models and clinical samples. The function of tumor-infiltrating and induced CCR4 Tregs was interrogated by genetic and epigenetic approaches. To block CCR4 Treg chemotaxis, we developed an N-terminus recombinant protein of CCR4 (N-CCR4-Fc) as a neutralizing pseudo-receptor that effectively bound to its ligand CCL22. The efficacy of CCR4 antagonism as an immunotherapeutic agent was evaluated by tumor weights, growth kinetics and survival curves. RESULTS:CCR4 Tregs were the predominant type of Tregs recruited to hepatitis B-associated HCC (HBV HCC), correlating with sorafenib resistance and HBV load titers. Compared with CCR4 Tregs, CCR4 Tregs exhibited increased IL-10 and IL-35 expression, and enhanced functionality in suppressing CD8 T cells. CCR4 Tregs also displayed PD-1TCF1 stem-like properties. ATAC-seq data revealed substantial chromatin remodeling between tumor-infiltrating Tregs (TIL-Tregs) and induced Tregs, suggesting that long-term chromatin reprogramming accounted for the acquisition of enhanced immunosuppressive stem-like specificity by CCR4 TIL-Tregs. Treatment with a CCR4 antagonist or N-CCR4-Fc blocked intratumoral Treg accumulation, overcame sorafenib resistance, and sensitized tumors to PD-1 checkpoint blockade. CONCLUSIONS:Intratumoral stem-like CCR4 Tregs orchestrated immunosuppressive resource cells in the tumor microenvironment. CCR4 could be targeted to enhance antitumor immunity by specifically blocking infiltration of Tregs into the tumor microenvironment and inhibiting maintenance of the TIL-Treg pool. LAY SUMMARY:Targeting regulatory T cells is a promising approach in cancer immunotherapy; however, severe autoimmunity can occur following systemic regulatory T cell loss. This could be avoided by selectively depleting intratumoral regulatory T cells. Herein, targeting intratumoral stem-like CCR4 regulatory T cells helped to overcome sorafenib resistance and sensitize tumors to immune checkpoint blockade in mouse models of liver cancer. This approach could have wide clinical applicability.
DNA cage delivery to mammalian cells.
Walsh Anthony S,Yin HaiFang,Erben Christoph M,Wood Matthew J A,Turberfield Andrew J
DNA cages are nanometer-scale polyhedral structures formed by self-assembly from synthetic DNA oligonucleotides. Potential applications include in vivo imaging and the targeted delivery of macromolecules into living cells. We report an investigation of the ability of a model cage, a DNA tetrahedron, to enter live cultured mammalian cells. Cultured human embryonic kidney cells were treated with a range of fluorescently labeled DNA tetrahedra and subsequently examined using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Substantial uptake of tetrahedra into cells was observed both when the cells were treated with tetrahedra alone and when the cells were treated with a mixture of tetrahedra and a transfection reagent. Analysis of the subcellular localization of transfected tetrahedra using confocal microscopy and organelle staining indicates that the cages are located in the cytoplasm. FRET experiments indicate that the DNA cages remain substantially intact within the cells for at least 48 h after transfection. This is a first step toward the use of engineered DNA nanostructures to deliver and control the activity of cargoes within cells.
Asymmetric positive feedback loops reliably control biological responses.
Molecular systems biology
Positive feedback is a common mechanism enabling biological systems to respond to stimuli in a switch-like manner. Such systems are often characterized by the requisite formation of a heterodimer where only one of the pair is subject to feedback. This ASymmetric Self-UpREgulation (ASSURE) motif is central to many biological systems, including cholesterol homeostasis (LXRα/RXRα), adipocyte differentiation (PPARγ/RXRα), development and differentiation (RAR/RXR), myogenesis (MyoD/E12) and cellular antiviral defense (IRF3/IRF7). To understand why this motif is so prevalent, we examined its properties in an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional regulatory network in yeast (Oaf1p/Pip2p). We demonstrate that the asymmetry in positive feedback confers a competitive advantage and allows the system to robustly increase its responsiveness while precisely tuning the response to a consistent level in the presence of varying stimuli. This study reveals evolutionary advantages for the ASSURE motif, and mechanisms for control, that are relevant to pharmacologic intervention and synthetic biology applications.
Tissue-resident natural killer (NK) cells are cell lineages distinct from thymic and conventional splenic NK cells.
Sojka Dorothy K,Plougastel-Douglas Beatrice,Yang Liping,Pak-Wittel Melissa A,Artyomov Maxim N,Ivanova Yulia,Zhong Chao,Chase Julie M,Rothman Paul B,Yu Jenny,Riley Joan K,Zhu Jinfang,Tian Zhigang,Yokoyama Wayne M
Natural killer (NK) cells belong to the innate immune system; they can control virus infections and developing tumors by cytotoxicity and producing inflammatory cytokines. Most studies of mouse NK cells, however, have focused on conventional NK (cNK) cells in the spleen. Recently, we described two populations of liver NK cells, tissue-resident NK (trNK) cells and those resembling splenic cNK cells. However, their lineage relationship was unclear; trNK cells could be developing cNK cells, related to thymic NK cells, or a lineage distinct from both cNK and thymic NK cells. Herein we used detailed transcriptomic, flow cytometric, and functional analysis and transcription factor-deficient mice to determine that liver trNK cells form a distinct lineage from cNK and thymic NK cells. Taken together with analysis of trNK cells in other tissues, there are at least four distinct lineages of NK cells: cNK, thymic, liver (and skin) trNK, and uterine trNK cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01659.001.
Application of sorting and next generation sequencing to study 5΄-UTR influence on translation efficiency in Escherichia coli.
Evfratov Sergey A,Osterman Ilya A,Komarova Ekaterina S,Pogorelskaya Alexandra M,Rubtsova Maria P,Zatsepin Timofei S,Semashko Tatiana A,Kostryukova Elena S,Mironov Andrey A,Burnaev Evgeny,Krymova Ekaterina,Gelfand Mikhail S,Govorun Vadim M,Bogdanov Alexey A,Sergiev Petr V,Dontsova Olga A
Nucleic acids research
Yield of protein per translated mRNA may vary by four orders of magnitude. Many studies analyzed the influence of mRNA features on the translation yield. However, a detailed understanding of how mRNA sequence determines its propensity to be translated is still missing. Here, we constructed a set of reporter plasmid libraries encoding CER fluorescent protein preceded by randomized 5΄ untranslated regions (5΄-UTR) and Red fluorescent protein (RFP) used as an internal control. Each library was transformed into Escherchia coli cells, separated by efficiency of CER mRNA translation by a cell sorter and subjected to next generation sequencing. We tested efficiency of translation of the CER gene preceded by each of 48 natural 5΄-UTR sequences and introduced random and designed mutations into natural and artificially selected 5΄-UTRs. Several distinct properties could be ascribed to a group of 5΄-UTRs most efficient in translation. In addition to known ones, several previously unrecognized features that contribute to the translation enhancement were found, such as low proportion of cytidine residues, multiple SD sequences and AG repeats. The latter could be identified as translation enhancer, albeit less efficient than SD sequence in several natural 5΄-UTRs.
Light-scattering detection below the level of single fluorescent molecules for high-resolution characterization of functional nanoparticles.
Zhu Shaobin,Ma Ling,Wang Shuo,Chen Chaoxiang,Zhang Wenqiang,Yang Lingling,Hang Wei,Nolan John P,Wu Lina,Yan Xiaomei
Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of single nanoparticles (<100 nm) is important in nanotechnology and life sciences. Direct measurement of the elastically scattered light from individual nanoparticles represents the simplest and the most direct method for particle detection. However, the sixth-power dependence of scattering intensity on particle size renders very small particles indistinguishable from the background. Adopting strategies for single-molecule fluorescence detection in a sheathed flow, here we report the development of high sensitivity flow cytometry (HSFCM) that achieves real-time light-scattering detection of single silica and gold nanoparticles as small as 24 and 7 nm in diameter, respectively. This unprecedented sensitivity enables high-resolution sizing of single nanoparticles directly based on their scattered intensity. With a resolution comparable to that of TEM and the ease and speed of flow cytometric analysis, HSFCM is particularly suitable for nanoparticle size distribution analysis of polydisperse/heterogeneous/mixed samples. Through concurrent fluorescence detection, simultaneous insights into the size and payload variations of engineered nanoparticles are demonstrated with two forms of clinical nanomedicine. By offering quantitative multiparameter analysis of single nanoparticles in liquid suspensions at a throughput of up to 10 000 particles per minute, HSFCM represents a major advance both in light-scattering detection technology and in nanoparticle characterization.
The kinase mTOR modulates the antibody response to provide cross-protective immunity to lethal infection with influenza virus.
Keating Rachael,Hertz Tomer,Wehenkel Marie,Harris Tarsha L,Edwards Benjamin A,McClaren Jennifer L,Brown Scott A,Surman Sherri,Wilson Zachary S,Bradley Philip,Hurwitz Julia,Chi Hongbo,Doherty Peter C,Thomas Paul G,McGargill Maureen A
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses pose a continuing global threat. Current vaccines will not protect against newly evolved pandemic viruses. The creation of 'universal' vaccines has been unsuccessful because the immunological mechanisms that promote heterosubtypic immunity are incompletely defined. We found here that rapamycin, an immunosuppressive drug that inhibits the kinase mTOR, promoted cross-strain protection against lethal infection with influenza virus of various subtypes when administered during immunization with influenza virus subtype H3N2. Rapamycin reduced the formation of germinal centers and inhibited class switching in B cells, which yielded a unique repertoire of antibodies that mediated heterosubtypic protection. Our data established a requirement for the mTORC1 complex in B cell class switching and demonstrated that rapamycin skewed the antibody response away from high-affinity variant epitopes and targeted more conserved elements of hemagglutinin. Our findings have implications for the design of a vaccine against influenza virus.
The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 impairs B cell proliferation by inducing TGF-β1 production and FcRL4 expression.
Jelicic Katija,Cimbro Raffaello,Nawaz Fatima,Huang Da Wei,Zheng Xin,Yang Jun,Lempicki Richard A,Pascuccio Massimiliano,Van Ryk Donald,Schwing Catherine,Hiatt Joseph,Okwara Noreen,Wei Danlan,Roby Gregg,David Antonio,Hwang Ii Young,Kehrl John H,Arthos James,Cicala Claudia,Fauci Anthony S
The humoral immune response after acute infection with HIV-1 is delayed and ineffective. The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 binds to and signals through integrin α4β7 on T cells. We found that gp120 also bound to and signaled through α4β7 on naive B cells, which resulted in an abortive proliferative response. In primary B cells, signaling by gp120 through α4β7 resulted in increased expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine TGF-β1 and FcRL4, an inhibitory receptor expressed on B cells. Coculture of B cells with HIV-1-infected autologous CD4(+) T cells also increased the expression of FcRL4 by B cells. Our findings indicated that in addition to mediating chronic activation of the immune system, viral proteins contributed directly to HIV-1-associated B cell dysfunction. Our studies identify a mechanism whereby the virus may subvert the early HIV-1-specific humoral immune response.
The developmental pathway for CD103(+)CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells of skin.
Mackay Laura K,Rahimpour Azad,Ma Joel Z,Collins Nicholas,Stock Angus T,Hafon Ming-Li,Vega-Ramos Javier,Lauzurica Pilar,Mueller Scott N,Stefanovic Tijana,Tscharke David C,Heath William R,Inouye Michael,Carbone Francis R,Gebhardt Thomas
Tissue-resident memory T cells (T(RM) cells) provide superior protection against infection in extralymphoid tissues. Here we found that CD103(+)CD8(+) T(RM) cells developed in the skin from epithelium-infiltrating precursor cells that lacked expression of the effector-cell marker KLRG1. A combination of entry into the epithelium plus local signaling by interleukin 15 (IL-15) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was required for the formation of these long-lived memory cells. Notably, differentiation into T(RM) cells resulted in the progressive acquisition of a unique transcriptional profile that differed from that of circulating memory cells and other types of T cells that permanently reside in skin epithelium. We provide a comprehensive molecular framework for the local differentiation of a distinct peripheral population of memory cells that forms a first-line immunological defense system in barrier tissues.
T cell development requires constraint of the myeloid regulator C/EBP-α by the Notch target and transcriptional repressor Hes1.
De Obaldia Maria Elena,Bell J Jeremiah,Wang Xinxin,Harly Christelle,Yashiro-Ohtani Yumi,DeLong Jonathan H,Zlotoff Daniel A,Sultana Dil Afroz,Pear Warren S,Bhandoola Avinash
Notch signaling induces gene expression of the T cell lineage and discourages alternative fate outcomes. Hematopoietic deficiency in the Notch target Hes1 results in severe T cell lineage defects; however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. We found here that Hes1 constrained myeloid gene-expression programs in T cell progenitor cells, as deletion of the myeloid regulator C/EBP-α restored the development of T cells from Hes1-deficient progenitor cells. Repression of Cebpa by Hes1 required its DNA-binding and Groucho-recruitment domains. Hes1-deficient multipotent progenitor cells showed a developmental bias toward myeloid cells and dendritic cells after Notch signaling, whereas Hes1-deficient lymphoid progenitor cells required additional cytokine signaling for diversion into the myeloid lineage. Our findings establish the importance of constraining developmental programs of the myeloid lineage early in T cell development.
Reactive semiconductor nanocrystals for chemoselective biolabeling and multiplexed analysis.
Jennings Travis L,Becker-Catania Sara G,Triulzi Robert C,Tao Guoliang,Scott Bradley,Sapsford Kim E,Spindel Samantha,Oh Eunkeu,Jain Vaibhav,Delehanty James B,Prasuhn Duane E,Boeneman Kelly,Algar W Russ,Medintz Igor L
Effective biological application of nanocrystalline semiconductor quantum dots continues to be hampered by the lack of easily implemented and widely applicable labeling chemistries. Here, we introduce two new orthogonal nanocrystal bioconjugation chemistries that overcome many of the labeling issues associated with currently utilized approaches. These chemistries specifically target either (1) the ubiquitous amines found on proteins or (2) thiols present in either antibody hinge regions or recombinantly introduced into other proteins to facilitate site-specific labeling. The amine chemistry incorporates aniline-catalyzed hydrazone bond formation, while the sulfhydryl chemistry utilizes nanocrystals displaying surface activated maleimide groups. Both reactive chemistries are rapidly implemented, yielding purified nanocrystal-protein bioconjugates in as little as 3 h. Following initial characterization of the nanocrystal materials, the wide applicability and strong multiplexing potential of these chemistries are demonstrated in an array of applications including immunoassays, immunolabeling in both cellular and tissue samples, in vivo cellular uptake, and flow cytometry. Side-by-side comparison of the immunolabeled cells suggested a functional equivalence between results generated with the amine and thiol-labeled antibody-nanocrystal bioconjugates in that format. Three-color labeling was achieved in the cellular uptake format, with no significant toxicity observed while simultaneous five-color labeling of different epitopes was demonstrated for the immunolabeled tissue sample. Novel labeling applications are also facilitated by these chemistries, as highlighted by the ability to directly label cellular membranes in adherent cell cultures with the thiol-reactive chemistry.
C-kit-positive cells accumulate in remodeled vessels of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Montani David,Perros Frédéric,Gambaryan Natalia,Girerd Barbara,Dorfmuller Peter,Price Laura C,Huertas Alice,Hammad Hamida,Lambrecht Bart,Simonneau Gérald,Launay Jean-Marie,Cohen-Kaminsky Sylvia,Humbert Marc
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
RATIONALE:C-kit(+) cells, including bone marrow (BM)-derived progenitors and mast cells, may participate in vascular remodelling. Because recent studies suggest that c-kit may be a target for innovative therapies in experimental pulmonary hypertension, we investigated the contribution of c-kit(+) cells in human idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). OBJECTIVES:To investigate the contribution of c-kit(+) cells in human IPAH. METHODS:Single c-kit, CXCL12/SDF-1α, CXCR4, CD34, and multiple c-kit, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and tryptase immunostainings were performed in IPAH lungs. C-kit mRNA expression was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in microdissected pulmonary arteries from patients with IPAH and control subjects. Phenotype and function of circulating progenitors were analyzed by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of soluble c-kit and CXCL12/SDF-1α were measured by ELISA. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Infiltration of c-kit(+) cells in pulmonary arterial lesions was associated with an increase in c-kit mRNA expression (P < 0.01 compared with control subjects). Both c-kit(+)/tryptase(+) mast cells and c-kit(+)/tryptase(-) BM-derived cells were increased in pulmonary arteries of patients with IPAH compared with control subjects (106.6 ± 54.5 vs. 28 ± 16.8/mm(2) and 143.8 ± 101.1 vs. 23.3 ± 11.9/mm(2); all P<0.01). Plasma-soluble c-kit was increased in IPAH compared with control subjects (27.4 ± 12.4 vs. 19.5 ± 5.8 ng/ml; P<0.05). Two populations of circulating BM-derived cells (lin-CD34(high)CD133(high) [c-kit(high)CXCR4(low)] and lin-CD34(low)CD133(-) [c-kit(low)CXCR4(high)]) were increased in IPAH compared with control subjects (P=0.01). Pulmonary arterial lesions were associated with vasa vasorum expansion expressing CXL12/SDF-1α that may recruit c-kit(+) cells. CONCLUSIONS:In IPAH, c-kit(+) cells infiltrate pulmonary arterial lesions and may participate to vascular remodeling. Therefore, c-kit may represent a potential target for innovative PAH therapy.
Targeting Tumor-Infiltrating B Cells in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.
Theurich Sebastian,Schlaak Max,Steguweit Harold,Heukamp Lukas C,Wennhold Kerstin,Kurschat Peter,Rabenhorst Anja,Hartmann Karin,Schlösser Hans,Shimabukuro-Vornhagen Alexander,Holtick Udo,Hallek Michael,Stadler Rudolf,von Bergwelt-Baildon Michael
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Tuning of antigen sensitivity by T cell receptor-dependent negative feedback controls T cell effector function in inflamed tissues.
Honda Tetsuya,Egen Jackson G,Lämmermann Tim,Kastenmüller Wolfgang,Torabi-Parizi Parizad,Germain Ronald N
Activated T cells must mediate effector responses sufficiently to clear pathogens while avoiding excessive tissue damage. Here we have combined dynamic intravital microscopy with ex vivo assessments of T cell cytokine responses to generate a detailed spatiotemporal picture of CD4(+) T cell effector regulation in the skin. In response to antigen, effector T cells arrested transiently on antigen-presenting cells, briefly producing cytokine and then resuming migration. Antigen recognition led to upregulation of the programmed death-1 (PD-1) glycoprotein by T cells and blocking its canonical ligand, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), lengthened the duration of migration arrest and cytokine production, showing that PD-1 interaction with PD-L1 is a major negative feedback regulator of antigen responsiveness. We speculate that the immune system employs T cell recruitment, transient activation, and rapid desensitization to allow the T cell response to rapidly adjust to changes in antigen presentation and minimize collateral injury to the host.
Oral tolerance can be established via gap junction transfer of fed antigens from CX3CR1⁺ macrophages to CD103⁺ dendritic cells.
Mazzini Elisa,Massimiliano Lucia,Penna Giuseppe,Rescigno Maria
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the gut are apt at oral tolerance establishment at steady state and immunity after infection; complex tasks in an environment exposed to the inflammatory burden of the microbiota. Here we show an unanticipated division of labor among APCs for the establishment of oral tolerance. Chemokine receptor CX3CR1(+) macrophages were found to take up soluble fed antigens and quickly transfer them to CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs). Antigen transfer occurred via a mechanism that was Connexin 43-dependent and required membrane transfer, indicating a physiological role of gap junctions in antigen presentation. Deletion of Connexin 43 in APCs affected antigen transfer and resulted in the inability of CD103(+) DCs to acquire and present antigens in vivo, to drive T regulatory cell differentiation and to induce tolerance to food antigens. This functional cooperation between intestinal phagocytes might be a mechanism to avoid the exposure of tolerogenic DCs to the intestinal microbiota.
The transcription factor IRF8 activates integrin-mediated TGF-β signaling and promotes neuroinflammation.
Yoshida Yuko,Yoshimi Ryusuke,Yoshii Hiroaki,Kim Daniel,Dey Anup,Xiong Huabao,Munasinghe Jeeva,Yazawa Itaru,O'Donovan Michael J,Maximova Olga A,Sharma Suveena,Zhu Jinfang,Wang Hongsheng,Morse Herbert C,Ozato Keiko
Recent epidemiological studies have identified interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) as a susceptibility factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). However, how IRF8 influences the neuroinflammatory disease has remained unknown. By studying the role of IRF8 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, we found that Irf8(-/-) mice are resistant to EAE. Furthermore, expression of IRF8 in antigen-presenting cells (APCs, such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and microglia), but not in T cells, facilitated disease onset and progression through multiple pathways. IRF8 enhanced αvβ8 integrin expression in APCs and activated TGF-β signaling leading to T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. IRF8 induced a cytokine milieu that favored growth and maintenance of Th1 and Th17 cells, by stimulating interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-23 production, but inhibiting IL-27 during EAE. Finally, IRF8 activated microglia and exacerbated neuroinflammation. Together, this work provides mechanistic bases by which IRF8 contributes to the pathogenesis of MS.
Toll-like receptor and inflammasome signals converge to amplify the innate bactericidal capacity of T helper 1 cells.
O'Donnell Hope,Pham Oanh H,Li Lin-xi,Atif Shaikh M,Lee Seung-Joo,Ravesloot Marietta M,Stolfi Jessica L,Nuccio Sean-Paul,Broz Petr,Monack Denise M,Baumler Andreas J,McSorley Stephen J
T cell effector functions can be elicited by noncognate stimuli, but the mechanism and contribution of this pathway to the resolution of intracellular macrophage infections have not been defined. Here, we show that CD4(+) T helper 1 (Th1) cells could be rapidly stimulated by microbe-associated molecular patterns during active infection with Salmonella or Chlamydia. Further, maximal stimulation of Th1 cells by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) did not require T-cell-intrinsic expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), or interferon-γ receptor (IFN-γR) but instead required IL-18R, IL-33R, and adaptor protein MyD88. Innate stimulation of Th1 cells also required host expression of TLR4 and inflammasome components that together increased serum concentrations of IL-18. Finally, the elimination of noncognate Th1 cell stimulation hindered the resolution of primary Salmonella infection. Thus, the in vivo bactericidal capacity of Th1 cells is regulated by the response to noncognate stimuli elicited by multiple innate immune receptors.
Transposition of native chromatin for fast and sensitive epigenomic profiling of open chromatin, DNA-binding proteins and nucleosome position.
Buenrostro Jason D,Giresi Paul G,Zaba Lisa C,Chang Howard Y,Greenleaf William J
We describe an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq), based on direct in vitro transposition of sequencing adaptors into native chromatin, as a rapid and sensitive method for integrative epigenomic analysis. ATAC-seq captures open chromatin sites using a simple two-step protocol with 500-50,000 cells and reveals the interplay between genomic locations of open chromatin, DNA-binding proteins, individual nucleosomes and chromatin compaction at nucleotide resolution. We discovered classes of DNA-binding factors that strictly avoided, could tolerate or tended to overlap with nucleosomes. Using ATAC-seq maps of human CD4(+) T cells from a proband obtained on consecutive days, we demonstrated the feasibility of analyzing an individual's epigenome on a timescale compatible with clinical decision-making.
Formation of targeted monovalent quantum dots by steric exclusion.
Farlow Justin,Seo Daeha,Broaders Kyle E,Taylor Marcus J,Gartner Zev J,Jun Young-Wook
Precise control over interfacial chemistry between nanoparticles and other materials remains a major challenge that limits broad application of nanotechnology in biology. To address this challenge, we used 'steric exclusion' to completely convert commercial quantum dots (QDs) into monovalent imaging probes by wrapping each QD with a functionalized oligonucleotide. We demonstrated the utility of these QDs as modular and nonperturbing imaging probes by tracking individual Notch receptors on live cells.
Single-cell transcriptome and antigen-immunoglobin analysis reveals the diversity of B cells in non-small cell lung cancer.
Chen Jian,Tan Yun,Sun Fenghuan,Hou Likun,Zhang Chi,Ge Tao,Yu Huansha,Wu Chunxiao,Zhu Yuming,Duan Liang,Wu Liang,Song Nan,Zhang Liping,Zhang Wei,Wang Di,Chen Chang,Wu Chunyan,Jiang Gening,Zhang Peng
BACKGROUND:Malignant transformation and progression of cancer are driven by the co-evolution of cancer cells and their dysregulated tumor microenvironment (TME). Recent studies on immunotherapy demonstrate the efficacy in reverting the anti-tumoral function of T cells, highlighting the therapeutic potential in targeting certain cell types in TME. However, the functions of other immune cell types remain largely unexplored. RESULTS:We conduct a single-cell RNA-seq analysis of cells isolated from tumor tissue samples of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and identify subtypes of tumor-infiltrated B cells and their diverse functions in the progression of NSCLC. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry experiments on two independent cohorts confirm the co-existence of the two major subtypes of B cells, namely the naïve-like and plasma-like B cells. The naïve-like B cells are decreased in advanced NSCLC, and their lower level is associated with poor prognosis. Co-culture of isolated naïve-like B cells from NSCLC patients with two lung cancer cell lines demonstrate that the naïve-like B cells suppress the growth of lung cancer cells by secreting four factors negatively regulating the cell growth. We also demonstrate that the plasma-like B cells inhibit cancer cell growth in the early stage of NSCLC, but promote cell growth in the advanced stage of NSCLC. The roles of the plasma-like B cell produced immunoglobulins, and their interacting proteins in the progression of NSCLC are further validated by proteomics data. CONCLUSION:Our analysis reveals versatile functions of tumor-infiltrating B cells and their potential clinical implications in NSCLC.
A colitogenic memory CD4+ T cell population mediates gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease.
Zhou Vivian,Agle Kimberle,Chen Xiao,Beres Amy,Komorowski Richard,Belle Ludovic,Taylor Carolyn,Zhu Fenlu,Haribhai Dipica,Williams Calvin B,Verbsky James,Blumenschein Wendy,Sadekova Svetlana,Bowman Eddie,Ballantyne Christie,Weaver Casey,Serody David A,Vincent Benjamin,Serody Jonathan,Cua Daniel J,Drobyski William R
The Journal of clinical investigation
Damage to the gastrointestinal tract is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and is attributable to T cell-mediated inflammation. In this work, we identified a unique CD4+ T cell population that constitutively expresses the β2 integrin CD11c and displays a biased central memory phenotype and memory T cell transcriptional profile, innate-like properties, and increased expression of the gut-homing molecules α4β7 and CCR9. Using several complementary murine GVHD models, we determined that adoptive transfer and early accumulation of β2 integrin-expressing CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract initiated Th1-mediated proinflammatory cytokine production, augmented pathological damage in the colon, and increased mortality. The pathogenic effect of this CD4+ T cell population critically depended on coexpression of the IL-23 receptor, which was required for maximal inflammatory effects. Non-Foxp3-expressing CD4+ T cells produced IL-10, which regulated colonic inflammation and attenuated lethality in the absence of functional CD4+Foxp3+ T cells. Thus, the coordinate expression of CD11c and the IL-23 receptor defines an IL-10-regulated, colitogenic memory CD4+ T cell subset that is poised to initiate inflammation when there is loss of tolerance and breakdown of mucosal barriers.
Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor A is an intrinsic, self-limiting suppressor of IL-5-induced eosinophil development.
Ben Baruch-Morgenstern Netali,Shik Dana,Moshkovits Itay,Itan Michal,Karo-Atar Danielle,Bouffi Carine,Fulkerson Patricia,Rashkovan Diana,Jung Steffen,Rothenberg Marc E,Munitz Ariel
Eosinophilia is a hallmark characteristic of T helper type 2 (TH2) cell-associated diseases and is critically regulated by the central eosinophil growth factor interleukin 5 (IL-5). Here we demonstrate that IL-5 activity in eosinophils was regulated by paired immunoglobulin-like receptors PIR-A and PIR-B. Upon self-recognition of β₂-microglobulin (β₂M) molecules, PIR-B served as a permissive checkpoint for IL-5-induced development of eosinophils by suppressing the proapoptotic activities of PIR-A, which were mediated by the Grb2-Erk-Bim pathway. PIR-B-deficient bone marrow eosinophils underwent compartmentalized apoptosis, resulting in decreased blood eosinophilia in naive mice and in mice challenged with IL-5. Subsequently, Pirb(-/-) mice displayed impaired aeroallergen-induced lung eosinophilia and induction of lung TH2 cell responses. Collectively, these data uncover an intrinsic, self-limiting pathway regulating IL-5-induced expansion of eosinophils, which has broad implications for eosinophil-associated diseases.
The favorable IFNL3 genotype escapes mRNA decay mediated by AU-rich elements and hepatitis C virus-induced microRNAs.
McFarland Adelle P,Horner Stacy M,Jarret Abigail,Joslyn Rochelle C,Bindewald Eckart,Shapiro Bruce A,Delker Don A,Hagedorn Curt H,Carrington Mary,Gale Michael,Savan Ram
IFNL3, which encodes interferon-λ3 (IFN-λ3), has received considerable attention in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) field, as many independent genome-wide association studies have identified a strong association between polymorphisms near IFNL3 and clearance of HCV. However, the mechanism underlying this association has remained elusive. In this study, we report the identification of a functional polymorphism (rs4803217) in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of IFNL3 mRNA that dictated transcript stability. We found that this polymorphism influenced AU-rich element (ARE)-mediated decay (AMD) of IFNL3 mRNA, as well as the binding of HCV-induced microRNAs during infection. Together these pathways mediated robust repression of the unfavorable IFNL3 polymorphism. Our data reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which HCV attenuates the antiviral response and indicate new potential therapeutic targets for HCV treatment.
Two waves of distinct hematopoietic progenitor cells colonize the fetal thymus.
Ramond Cyrille,Berthault Claire,Burlen-Defranoux Odile,de Sousa Ana Pereira,Guy-Grand Delphine,Vieira Paulo,Pereira Pablo,Cumano Ana
The generation of T cells depends on the migration of hematopoietic progenitor cells to the thymus throughout life. The identity of the thymus-settling progenitor cells has been a matter of considerable debate. Here we found that thymopoiesis was initiated by a first wave of T cell lineage-restricted progenitor cells with limited capacity for population expansion but accelerated differentiation into mature T cells. They gave rise to αβ and γδ T cells that constituted Vγ3(+) dendritic epithelial T cells. Thymopoiesis was subsequently maintained by less-differentiated progenitor cells that retained the potential to develop into B cells and myeloid cells. In that second wave, which started before birth, progenitor cells had high proliferative capacity but delayed differentiation capacity and no longer gave rise to embryonic γδ T cells. Our work reconciles conflicting hypotheses on the nature of thymus-settling progenitor cells.
A transchromosomic rat model with human chromosome 21 shows robust Down syndrome features.
American journal of human genetics
Progress in earlier detection and clinical management has increased life expectancy and quality of life in people with Down syndrome (DS). However, no drug has been approved to help individuals with DS live independently and fully. Although rat models could support more robust physiological, behavioral, and toxicology analysis than mouse models during preclinical validation, no DS rat model is available as a result of technical challenges. We developed a transchromosomic rat model of DS, TcHSA21rat, which contains a freely segregating, EGFP-inserted, human chromosome 21 (HSA21) with >93% of its protein-coding genes. RNA-seq of neonatal forebrains demonstrates that TcHSA21rat expresses HSA21 genes and has an imbalance in global gene expression. Using EGFP as a marker for trisomic cells, flow cytometry analyses of peripheral blood cells from 361 adult TcHSA21rat animals show that 81% of animals retain HSA21 in >80% of cells, the criterion for a "Down syndrome karyotype" in people. TcHSA21rat exhibits learning and memory deficits and shows increased anxiety and hyperactivity. TcHSA21rat recapitulates well-characterized DS brain morphology, including smaller brain volume and reduced cerebellar size. In addition, the rat model shows reduced cerebellar foliation, which is not observed in DS mouse models. Moreover, TcHSA21rat exhibits anomalies in craniofacial morphology, heart development, husbandry, and stature. TcHSA21rat is a robust DS animal model that can facilitate DS basic research and provide a unique tool for preclinical validation to accelerate DS drug development.
Disruption of SIRT7 Increases the Efficacy of Checkpoint Inhibitor via MEF2D Regulation of Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 1 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.
Xiang Junyu,Zhang Ni,Sun Hui,Su Li,Zhang Chengcheng,Xu Huailong,Feng Juan,Wang Meiling,Chen Jun,Liu Limei,Shan Juanjuan,Shen Junjie,Yang Zhi,Wang Guiqin,Zhou Haijun,Prieto Jesus,Ávila Matías A,Liu Chungang,Qian Cheng
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Immune checkpoint inhibitors have some efficacy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), expressed on some cancer cells, binds to the receptor programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, also called PD1) on T cells to prevent their proliferation and reduce the antigen-tumor immune response. Immune cells that infiltrate some types of HCCs secrete interferon gamma (IFNG). Some HCC cells express myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), which has been associated with shorter survival times of patients. We studied whether HCC cell expression of MEF2D regulates expression of PD-L1 in response to IFNG. METHODS:We analyzed immune cells from 20 fresh HCC tissues by flow cytometry. We analyzed 225 fixed HCC tissues (from 2 cohorts) from patients in China by immunohistochemistry and obtained survival data. We created mice with liver-specific knockout of MEF2D (MEF2D mice). We knocked out or knocked down MEF2D, E1A binding protein p300 (p300), or sirtuin 7 (SIRT7) in SMMC-7721, Huh7, H22, and Hepa1-6 HCC cell lines, some incubated with IFNG. We analyzed liver tissues from mice and cell lines by RNA sequencing, immunoblot, dual luciferase reporter, and chromatin precipitation assays. MEF2D protein acetylation and proteins that interact with MEF2D were identified by coimmunoprecipitation and pull-down assays. H22 cells, with MEF2D knockout or without (controls), were transplanted into BALB/c mice, and some mice were given antibodies to deplete T cells. Mice bearing orthotopic tumors grown from HCC cells, with or without knockout of SIRT7, were given injections of an antibody against PD1. Growth of tumors was measured, and tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. RESULTS:In human HCC specimens, we found an inverse correlation between level of MEF2D and numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells; level of MEF2D correlated with percentages of PD1-positive or TIM3-positive CD8 T cells. Knockout of MEF2D from H22 cells reduced their growth as allograft tumors in immune-competent mice but not in immune-deficient mice or mice with depletion of CD8 T cells. When MEF2D-knockout cells were injected into immune-competent mice, they formed smaller tumors that had increased infiltration and activation of T cells compared with control HCC cells. In human and mouse HCC cells, MEF2D knockdown or knockout reduced expression of PD-L1. MEF2D bound the promoter region of the CD274 gene (encodes PD-L1) and activated its transcription. Overexpression of p300 in HCC cells, or knockout of SIRT7, promoted acetylation of MEF2D and increased its binding, along with acetylated histones, to the promoter region of CD274. Exposure of HCC cells to IFNG induced expression of p300 and its binding MEF2D, which reduced the interaction between MEF2D and SIRT7. MEF2D-induced expression of PD-L1 upon IFNG exposure was independent of interferon-regulatory factors 1 or 9. In HCC cells not exposed to IFNG, SIRT7 formed a complex with MEF2D that attenuated expression of PD-L1. Knockout of SIRT7 reduced proliferation of HCC cells and growth of tumors in immune-deficient mice. Compared with allograft tumors grown from control HCC cells, in immune-competent mice, tumors grown from SIRT7-knockout HCC cells expressed higher levels of PD-L1 and had reduced infiltration and activation of T cells. In immune-competent mice given antibodies to PD1, allograft tumors grew more slowly from SIRT7-knockout HCC cells than from control HCC cells. CONCLUSIONS:Expression of MEF2D by HCC cells increases their expression of PD-L1, which prevents CD8 T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity. When HCC cells are exposed to IFNG, p300 acetylates MEF2D, causing it to bind the CD274 gene promoter and up-regulate PD-L1 expression. In addition to promoting HCC cell proliferation, SIRT7 reduced acetylation of MEF2D and expression of PD-L1 in HCC cells not exposed to IFNG. Strategies to manipulate this pathway might increase the efficacy of immune therapies for HCC.
Innate-like T cells straddle innate and adaptive immunity by altering antigen-receptor responsiveness.
Wencker Melanie,Turchinovich Gleb,Di Marco Barros Rafael,Deban Livija,Jandke Anett,Cope Andrew,Hayday Adrian C
The subclassification of immunology into innate and adaptive immunity is challenged by innate-like T lymphocytes that use innate receptors to respond rapidly to stress despite expressing T cell antigen receptors (TCRs), a hallmark of adaptive immunity. In studies that explain how such cells can straddle innate and adaptive immunity, we found that signaling via antigen receptors, whose conventional role is to facilitate clonal T cell activation, was critical for the development of innate-like T cells but then was rapidly attenuated, which accommodated the cells' innate responsiveness. These findings permitted the identification of a previously unknown innate-like T cell subset and indicate that T cell hyporesponsiveness, a state traditionally linked to tolerance, may be fundamental to T cells entering the innate compartment and thereby providing lymphoid stress surveillance.
Perivascular macrophages mediate neutrophil recruitment during bacterial skin infection.
Abtin Arby,Jain Rohit,Mitchell Andrew J,Roediger Ben,Brzoska Anthony J,Tikoo Shweta,Cheng Qiang,Ng Lai Guan,Cavanagh Lois L,von Andrian Ulrich H,Hickey Michael J,Firth Neville,Weninger Wolfgang
Transendothelial migration of neutrophils in postcapillary venules is a key event in the inflammatory response against pathogens and tissue damage. The precise regulation of this process is incompletely understood. We report that perivascular macrophages are critical for neutrophil migration into skin infected with the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Using multiphoton intravital microscopy we showed that neutrophils extravasate from inflamed dermal venules in close proximity to perivascular macrophages, which are a major source of neutrophil chemoattractants. The virulence factor α-hemolysin produced by S. aureus lyses perivascular macrophages, which leads to decreased neutrophil transmigration. Our data illustrate a previously unrecognized role for perivascular macrophages in neutrophil recruitment to inflamed skin and indicate that S. aureus uses hemolysin-dependent killing of these cells as an immune evasion strategy.
The miR-126-VEGFR2 axis controls the innate response to pathogen-associated nucleic acids.
Agudo Judith,Ruzo Albert,Tung Navpreet,Salmon Hélène,Leboeuf Marylène,Hashimoto Daigo,Becker Christian,Garrett-Sinha Lee-Ann,Baccarini Alessia,Merad Miriam,Brown Brian D
miR-126 is a microRNA expressed predominately by endothelial cells and controls angiogenesis. We found miR-126 was required for the innate response to pathogen-associated nucleic acids and that miR-126-deficient mice had greater susceptibility to infection with pseudotyped HIV. Profiling of miRNA indicated that miR-126 had high and specific expression by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Moreover, miR-126 controlled the survival and function of pDCs and regulated the expression of genes encoding molecules involved in the innate response, including Tlr7, Tlr9 and Nfkb1, as well as Kdr, which encodes the growth factor receptor VEGFR2. Deletion of Kdr in DCs resulted in reduced production of type I interferon, which supports the proposal of a role for VEGFR2 in miR-126 regulation of pDCs. Our studies identify the miR-126-VEGFR2 axis as an important regulator of the innate response that operates through multiscale control of pDCs.
Comparative transcriptional and functional profiling defines conserved programs of intestinal DC differentiation in humans and mice.
Watchmaker Payal B,Lahl Katharina,Lee Mike,Baumjohann Dirk,Morton John,Kim Sun Jung,Zeng Ruizhu,Dent Alexander,Ansel K Mark,Diamond Betty,Hadeiba Husein,Butcher Eugene C
Dendritic cells (DCs) that orchestrate mucosal immunity have been studied in mice. Here we characterized human gut DC populations and defined their relationship to previously studied human and mouse DCs. CD103(+)Sirpα(-) DCs were related to human blood CD141(+) DCs and to mouse intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs and expressed markers of cross-presenting DCs. CD103(+)Sirpα(+) DCs aligned with human blood CD1c(+) DCs and mouse intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs and supported the induction of regulatory T cells. Both CD103(+) DC subsets induced the TH17 subset of helper T cells, while CD103(-)Sirpα(+) DCs induced the TH1 subset of helper T cells. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes revealed conserved transcriptional programs among CD103(+) DC subsets and identified a selective role for the transcriptional repressors Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 in the specification of CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs and intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs, respectively. Our results highlight evolutionarily conserved and divergent programming of intestinal DCs.
Stem cell quiescence acts as a tumour suppressor in squamous tumours.
White A C,Khuu J K,Dang C Y,Hu J,Tran K V,Liu A,Gomez S,Zhang Z,Yi R,Scumpia P,Grigorian M,Lowry W E
Nature cell biology
In some organs, adult stem cells are uniquely poised to serve as cancer cells of origin. It is unclear, however, whether tumorigenesis is influenced by the activation state of the adult stem cell. Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) act as cancer cells of origin for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and undergo defined cycles of quiescence and activation. The data presented here show that HFSCs are unable to initiate tumours during the quiescent phase of the hair cycle, indicating that the mechanisms that keep HFSCs dormant are dominant over the gain of oncogenes (such as Ras) or the loss of tumour suppressors (such as p53). Furthermore, Pten activity is necessary for quiescence-based tumour suppression, as its deletion alleviates tumour suppression without affecting proliferation. These data demonstrate that stem cell quiescence is a form of tumour suppression in HFSCs, and that Pten plays a role in maintaining quiescence in the presence of tumorigenic stimuli.
Piezo1 links mechanical forces to red blood cell volume.
Cahalan Stuart M,Lukacs Viktor,Ranade Sanjeev S,Chien Shu,Bandell Michael,Patapoutian Ardem
Red blood cells (RBCs) experience significant mechanical forces while recirculating, but the consequences of these forces are not fully understood. Recent work has shown that gain-of-function mutations in mechanically activated Piezo1 cation channels are associated with the dehydrating RBC disease xerocytosis, implicating a role of mechanotransduction in RBC volume regulation. However, the mechanisms by which these mutations result in RBC dehydration are unknown. In this study, we show that RBCs exhibit robust calcium entry in response to mechanical stretch and that this entry is dependent on Piezo1 expression. Furthermore, RBCs from blood-cell-specific Piezo1 conditional knockout mice are overhydrated and exhibit increased fragility both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we show that Yoda1, a chemical activator of Piezo1, causes calcium influx and subsequent dehydration of RBCs via downstream activation of the KCa3.1 Gardos channel, directly implicating Piezo1 signaling in RBC volume control. Therefore, mechanically activated Piezo1 plays an essential role in RBC volume homeostasis.
A strong regenerative ability of cardiac stem cells derived from neonatal hearts.
Simpson David L,Mishra Rachana,Sharma Sudhish,Goh Saik Kia,Deshmukh Savitha,Kaushal Sunjay
BACKGROUND:Human cardiac stem cells (CSCs) promote myocardial regeneration in adult ischemic myocardium. The regenerative capacity of CSCs in very young patients with nonischemic congenital heart defects has not been explored. We hypothesized that isolated neonatal-derived CSCs may have a higher regenerative ability than adult-derived CSCs and might address the structural deficiencies of congenital heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS:Human specimens were obtained during routine cardiac surgical procedures from right atrial appendage tissue discarded from 2 age groups: neonates and adults patients. We developed a reproducible isolation method that generated cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), regardless of starting tissue weight or age. Neonatal-derived CDCs demonstrated increased number of cardiac progenitor cells expressing c-kit(+), flk-1, and Islet-1 by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. When transplanted into infarcted myocardium, neonatal-derived CDCs had a significantly higher ability to preserve myocardial function, prevent adverse remodeling, and enhance blood vessel preservation and/or formation when compared with adult-derived CDCs. Last, neonatal-derived CDCs were more cardiomyogenic than adult-derived CDCs when cocultured with neonatal cardiomyocytes and displayed enhanced angiogenic function compared with adult-derived CDCs. CONCLUSIONS:Neonatal-derived CDCs have a strong regenerative ability when compared with adult-derived CDCs that may depend on angiogenic cytokines and an increase prevalence of stem cells. This has important implications in the potential use of CDCs in future clinical trials.
Transcriptional switch of hepatocytes initiates macrophage recruitment and T-cell suppression in endotoxemia.
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:The liver plays crucial roles in the regulation of immune defense during acute systemic infections. However, the roles of liver cellular clusters and intercellular communication in the progression of endotoxemia have not been well-characterized. METHODS:Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis was performed, and the transcriptomes of 19,795 single liver cells from healthy and endotoxic mice were profiled. The spatial and temporal changes in hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cell types were validated by multiplex immunofluorescence staining, bulk transcriptomic sequencing, or flow cytometry. Furthermore, we used an adeno-associated virus delivery system to confirm the major mechanisms mediating myeloid cell infiltration and T-cell suppression in septic murine liver. RESULTS:We identified a proinflammatory hepatocyte (PIH) subpopulation that developed primarily from periportal hepatocytes and to a lesser extent from pericentral hepatocytes and played key immunoregulatory roles in endotoxemia. Multicellular cluster modeling of ligand-receptor interactions revealed that PIHs play a crucial role in the recruitment of macrophages via the CCL2-CCR2 interaction. Recruited macrophages (RMs) released cytokines (e.g., IL6, TNFα, and IL17) to induce the expression of inhibitory ligands, such as PD-L1, on hepatocytes. Subsequently, RM-stimulated hepatocytes led to the suppression of CD4 and memory T-cell subsets partly via the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction in endotoxemia. Furthermore, sinusoidal endothelial cells expressed the highest levels of proapoptotic and inflammatory genes around the periportal zone. This pattern of gene expression facilitated increases in the number of fenestrations and infiltration of immune cells in the periportal zone. CONCLUSIONS:Our study elucidates unanticipated aspects of the cellular and molecular effects of endotoxemia on liver cells at the single-cell level and provides a conceptual framework for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for acute infection. LAY SUMMARY:The liver plays a crucial role in the regulation of immune defense during acute systemic infections. We identified a proinflammatory hepatocyte subpopulation and demonstrated that the interactions of this subpopulation with recruited macrophages are pivotal in the immune response during endotoxemia. These novel findings provide a conceptual framework for the discovery of rational therapeutic targets in acute infection.
Hepatic recruitment of eosinophils and their protective function during acute liver injury.
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Beyond the classical description of eosinophil functions in parasite infections and allergic diseases, emerging evidence supports a critical role of eosinophils in resolving inflammation and promoting tissue remodeling. However, the role of eosinophils in liver injury and the underlying mechanism of their recruitment into the liver remain unclear. METHODS:Hepatic eosinophils were detected and quantified using flow cytometry and immunohistochemical staining. Eosinophil-deficient (ΔdblGata1) mice were used to investigate the role of eosinophils in 3 models of acute liver injury. In vivo experiments using Il33 mice and macrophage-depleted mice, as well as in vitro cultures of eosinophils and macrophages, were performed to interrogate the mechanism of eotaxin-2 (CCL24) production. RESULTS:Hepatic accumulation of eosinophils was observed in patients with acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver failure, whereas few eosinophils were detectable in healthy liver tissues. In mice treated with APAP, carbon tetrachloride or concanavalin A, eosinophils were recruited into the liver and played a profound protective role. Mice deficient of macrophages or IL-33 exhibited impaired hepatic eosinophil recruitment during acute liver injury. CCL24, but not CCL11, was increased after treatment of each hepatotoxin in an IL-33 and macrophage-dependent manner. In vitro experiments demonstrated that IL-33, by stimulating IL-4 release from eosinophils, promoted the production of CCL24 by macrophages. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study to demonstrate that hepatic recruitment of and protection by eosinophils occur commonly in various models of acute liver injury. Our findings support further exploration of eosinophils as a therapeutic target to treat APAP-induced acute liver injury. LAY SUMMARY:The current study unveils that eosinophils are recruited into the liver and play a protective function during acute liver injury caused by acetaminophen overdose. The data demonstrate that IL-33-activated eosinophils trigger macrophages to release high amounts of CCL24, which promotes hepatic eosinophil recruitment. Our findings suggest that eosinophils could be an effective cell-based therapy for the treatment of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury.
Loss of SIRT5 promotes bile acid-induced immunosuppressive microenvironment and hepatocarcinogenesis.
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:The liver is a metabolically active organ and is also 'tolerogenic', exhibiting sophisticated mechanisms of immune regulation that prevent pathogen attacks and tumorigenesis. How metabolism impacts the tumor microenvironment (TME) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains understudied. METHODS:We investigated the role of the metabolic regulator SIRT5 in HCC development by conducting metabolomic analysis, gene expression profiling, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analyses in oncogene-induced HCC mouse models and human HCC samples. RESULTS:We show that SIRT5 is downregulated in human primary HCC samples and that Sirt5 deficiency in mice synergizes with oncogenes to increase bile acid (BA) production, via hypersuccinylation and increased BA biosynthesis in the peroxisomes of hepatocytes. BAs act as a signaling mediator to stimulate their nuclear receptor and promote M2-like macrophage polarization, creating an immunosuppressive TME that favors tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Accordingly, high serum levels of taurocholic acid correlate with low SIRT5 expression and increased M2-like tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in HCC patient samples. Finally, administration of cholestyramine, a BA sequestrant and FDA-approved medication for hyperlipemia, reverses the effect of Sirt5 deficiency in promoting M2-like polarized TAMs and liver tumor growth. CONCLUSIONS:This study uncovers a novel function of SIRT5 in orchestrating BA metabolism to prevent tumor immune evasion and suppress HCC development. Our results also suggest a potential strategy of using clinically proven BA sequestrants for the treatment of patients with HCC, especially those with decreased SIRT5 and abnormally high BAs. LAY SUMMARY:Hepatocellular caricinoma (HCC) development is closely linked to metabolic dysregulation and an altered tumor microenvironment. Herein, we show that loss of the metabolic regulator Sirt5 promotes hepatocarcinogenesis, which is associated with abnormally elevated bile acids and subsequently an immunosuppressive microenvironment that favors HCC development. Targeting this mechanism could be a promising clinical strategy for HCC.
Tracking epitope-specific T cells.
Moon James J,Chu H Hamlet,Hataye Jason,Pagán Antonio J,Pepper Marion,McLachlan James B,Zell Traci,Jenkins Marc K
The tracking of antigen-specific T cells in vivo is a useful approach for the study of the adaptive immune response. This protocol describes how populations of T cells specific for a given peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) epitope can be tracked based solely on T-cell receptor (TCR) specificity as opposed to other indirect methods based on function. The methodology involves the adoptive transfer of TCR transgenic T cells with defined epitope specificity into histocompatible mice and the subsequent detection of these cells through the use of congenic or clonotypic markers. Alternatively, endogenous epitope-specific T cells can be tracked directly through the use of pMHC tetramers. Using magnetic bead-based enrichment and advanced multiparameter flow cytometry, populations as small as five epitope-specific T cells can be detected from the peripheral lymphoid organs of a mouse. The adoptive transfer procedure can be completed within 3 h, whereas analysis of epitope-specific cells from mice can be completed within 6 h.
Maternal Type-I interferon signaling adversely affects the microglia and the behavior of the offspring accompanied by increased sensitivity to stress.
Ben-Yehuda Hila,Matcovitch-Natan Orit,Kertser Alexander,Spinrad Amit,Prinz Marco,Amit Ido,Schwartz Michal
Viral infection during pregnancy is often associated with neuropsychiatric conditions. In mice, exposure of pregnant dams to the viral mimetic poly(I:C), serves as a model that simulates such pathology in the offspring, through a process known as Maternal Immune Activation (MIA). To investigate the mechanism of such effect, we hypothesized that maternal upregulation of Type-I interferon (IFN-I), as part of the dam's antiviral response, might contribute to the damage imposed on the offspring. Using mRNA sequencing and flow cytometry analyses we found that poly(I:C) treatment during pregnancy caused reduced expression of genes related to proliferation and cell cycle in the offspring's microglia relative to controls. This was found to be associated with an IFN-I signature in the embryonic yolk sac, the origin of microglia in development. Neutralizing IFN-I signaling in dams attenuated the effect of MIA on the newborn's microglia, while systemic maternal administration of IFNβ was sufficient to mimic the effect of poly(I:C), and led to increased vulnerability of offspring's microglia to subsequent stress. Furthermore, maternal elevation of IFNβ resulted in behavioral manifestations reminiscent of neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition, by adopting a "two-hit" experimental paradigm, we show a higher sensitivity of the offspring to postnatal stress subsequent to the maternal IFNβ elevation, demonstrated by behavioral irregularities. Our results suggest that maternal upregulation of IFN-I, in response to MIA, interferes with the offspring's programmed microglial developmental cascade, increases their susceptibility to postnatal stress, and leads to behavioral abnormalities.
Niche-independent high-purity cultures of Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells and their progeny.
Yin Xiaolei,Farin Henner F,van Es Johan H,Clevers Hans,Langer Robert,Karp Jeffrey M
Although Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells have been expanded in vitro as organoids, homogeneous culture of these cells has not been possible thus far. Here we show that two small molecules, CHIR99021 and valproic acid, synergistically maintain self-renewal of mouse Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells, resulting in nearly homogeneous cultures. The colony-forming efficiency of cells from these cultures is ~100-fold greater than that of cells cultured in the absence of CHIR99021 and valproic acid, and multilineage differentiation ability is preserved. We made use of these homogeneous cultures to identify conditions employing simultaneous modulation of Wnt and Notch signaling to direct lineage differentiation into mature enterocytes, goblet cells and Paneth cells. Expansion in these culture conditions may be feasible for Lgr5(+) cells from the mouse stomach and colon and from the human small intestine. These methods provide new tools for the study and application of multiple intestinal epithelial cell types.
Cross-differentiation from the CD8 lineage to CD4 T cells in the gut-associated microenvironment with a nonessential role of microbiota.
Lui Jen Bon,Devarajan Priyadharshini,Teplicki Sarah A,Chen Zhibin
CD4 and CD8 T cell lineages differentiate through respective thymic selection processes. Here, we report cross-differentiation from the CD8 lineage to CD4 T cells, but not vice versa, predominantly in the large-intestine-associated microenvironment. It occurred in the absence or distal presence of cognate antigens. This pathway produced MHC-class-I-restricted CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) (CI-T(reg)) cells. Blocking T cell-intrinsic TGFβ signaling diminished CI-Treg populations in lamina propria, but it did not preclude the CD8-to-CD4 conversion. Microbiota were not required for the cross-differentiation, but the presence of microbiota led to expansion of the converted CD4 T cell population in the large intestine. CI-T(reg) cells did not promote tolerance to microbiota per se, but they regulated systemic homeostasis of T lymphocytes and protected the large intestine from inflammatory damage. Overall, the clonal conversion from the CD8 lineage to CD4 T cell subsets occurred regardless of "self" or "nonself." This lineage plasticity may promote "selfless" tolerance for immune balance.
Tissue-resident ductal macrophages survey the mammary epithelium and facilitate tissue remodelling.
Dawson Caleb A,Pal Bhupinder,Vaillant François,Gandolfo Luke C,Liu Zhaoyuan,Bleriot Camille,Ginhoux Florent,Smyth Gordon K,Lindeman Geoffrey J,Mueller Scott N,Rios Anne C,Visvader Jane E
Nature cell biology
Macrophages are diverse immune cells that reside in all tissues. Although macrophages have been implicated in mammary-gland function, their diversity has not been fully addressed. By exploiting high-resolution three-dimensional imaging and flow cytometry, we identified a unique population of tissue-resident ductal macrophages that form a contiguous network between the luminal and basal layers of the epithelial tree throughout postnatal development. Ductal macrophages are long lived and constantly survey the epithelium through dendrite movement, revealed via advanced intravital imaging. Although initially originating from embryonic precursors, ductal macrophages derive from circulating monocytes as they expand during puberty. Moreover, they undergo proliferation in pregnancy to maintain complete coverage of the epithelium in lactation, when they are poised to phagocytose milk-producing cells post-lactation and facilitate remodelling. Interestingly, ductal macrophages strongly resemble mammary tumour macrophages and form a network that pervades the tumour. Thus, the mammary epithelium programs specialized resident macrophages in both physiological and tumorigenic contexts.
The tumor suppressor prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is regulated by mutant IDH1 and kills glioma stem cells.
Liu Yinxing,Gilbert Misty R,Kyprianou Natasha,Rangnekar Vivek M,Horbinski Craig
Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is an endogenous tumor suppressor that selectively induces apoptosis in a variety of cancers. Although it has been the subject of intensive research in other cancers, less is known about its significance in gliomas, including whether it is regulated by key driver mutations, has therapeutic potential against glioma stem cells (GSCs), and/or is a prognostic marker. We found that patient-derived gliomas with mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 have markedly lower Par-4 expression (P < 0.0001), which was validated by The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset (P = 2.0 E-13). The metabolic product of mutant IDH1, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), can suppress Par-4 transcription in vitro via inhibition of promoter activity as well as enhanced mRNA degradation, but interestingly not by direct DNA promoter hypermethylation. The Selective for Apoptosis induction in Cancer cells (SAC) domain within Par-4 is highly active against glioma cells, including orthotopic xenografts of patient-derived primary GSCs (P < 0.0001). Among high-grade gliomas that are IDH1 wild type, those that express more Par-4 have significantly longer median survival (18.4 vs. 8.0 months, P = 0.002), a finding confirmed in two external GBM cohorts. Together, these data suggest that Par-4 is a significant component of the mutant IDH1 phenotype, that the activity of 2-HG is complex and can extend beyond direct DNA hypermethylation, and that Par-4 is a promising therapeutic strategy against GSCs. Furthermore, not every effect of mutant IDH1 necessarily contributes to the overall favorable prognosis seen in such tumors; inhibition of Par-4 may be one such effect.
ATM regulation of IL-8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion.
Chen Wei-Ta,Ebelt Nancy D,Stracker Travis H,Xhemalce Blerta,Van Den Berg Carla L,Miller Kyle M
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and is associated with cancer suppression. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. Transcription analyses identified a gene network, including the chemokine IL-8, regulated by ATM. IL-8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. IL-8 was validated as an ATM target by its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL-8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL-8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential. Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression.
Mutations in SPRTN cause early onset hepatocellular carcinoma, genomic instability and progeroid features.
Age-related degenerative and malignant diseases represent major challenges for health care systems. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis and age-associated pathologies is thus of growing biomedical relevance. We identified biallelic germline mutations in SPRTN (also called C1orf124 or DVC1) in three patients from two unrelated families. All three patients are affected by a new segmental progeroid syndrome characterized by genomic instability and susceptibility toward early onset hepatocellular carcinoma. SPRTN was recently proposed to have a function in translesional DNA synthesis and the prevention of mutagenesis. Our in vivo and in vitro characterization of identified mutations has uncovered an essential role for SPRTN in the prevention of DNA replication stress during general DNA replication and in replication-related G2/M-checkpoint regulation. In addition to demonstrating the pathogenicity of identified SPRTN mutations, our findings provide a molecular explanation of how SPRTN dysfunction causes accelerated aging and susceptibility toward carcinoma.
The dynamic lives of T cells: new approaches and themes.
Yamanaka Yvonne J,Gierahn Todd M,Love J Christopher
Trends in immunology
Activated T cells have classically been thought to progress unidirectionally through discrete phenotypic states and differentiate into static lineages. It is increasingly evident, however, that T cells exhibit much more complex and flexible dynamic behaviors than initially appreciated, and that these behaviors influence the efficacy of T cell responses to immunological challenges. In this review, we discuss how new technologies for monitoring the dynamics of T cells are enhancing the resolution of the fine phenotypic and functional heterogeneity within populations of T cells and revealing how individual T cells transition among a continuum of states. Such insights into the dynamic properties of T cells should improve immune monitoring and inform strategies for therapeutic interventions.
Altered Exosomal RNA Profiles in Bronchoalveolar Lavage from Lung Transplants with Acute Rejection.
Gregson Aric L,Hoji Aki,Injean Patil,Poynter Steven T,Briones Claudia,Palchevskiy Vyacheslav,Weigt S Sam,Shino Michael Y,Derhovanessian Ariss,Sayah David,Saggar Rajan,Ross David,Ardehali Abbas,Lynch Joseph P,Belperio John A
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
RATIONALE:The mechanism by which acute allograft rejection leads to chronic rejection remains poorly understood despite its common occurrence. Exosomes, membrane vesicles released from cells within the lung allograft, contain a diverse array of biomolecules that closely reflect the biologic state of the cell and tissue from which they are released. Exosome transcriptomes may provide a better understanding of the rejection process. Furthermore, biomarkers originating from this transcriptome could provide timely and sensitive detection of acute cellular rejection (AR), reducing the incidence of severe AR and chronic lung allograft dysfunction and improving outcomes. OBJECTIVES:To provide an in-depth analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid exosomal shuttle RNA population after lung transplantation and evaluate for differential expression between acute AR and quiescence. METHODS:Serial bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were ultracentrifuged to obtain the exosomal pellet for RNA extraction, on which RNA-Seq was performed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:AR demonstrates an intense inflammatory environment, skewed toward both innate and adaptive immune responses. Novel, potential upstream regulators identified offer potential therapeutic targets. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings validate bronchoalveolar lavage fluid exosomal shuttle RNA as a source for understanding the pathophysiology of AR and for biomarker discovery in lung transplantation.
Interleukin 22 Signaling Regulates Acinar Cell Plasticity to Promote Pancreatic Tumor Development in Mice.
Perusina Lanfranca Mirna,Zhang Yaqing,Girgis Alexander,Kasselman Samantha,Lazarus Jenny,Kryczek Illona,Delrosario Lawrence,Rhim Andrew,Koneva Lada,Sartor Maureen,Sun Lei,Halbrook Christopher,Nathan Hari,Shi Jiaqi,Crawford Howard C,Pasca di Magliano Marina,Zou Weiping,Frankel Timothy L
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy that invades surrounding structures and metastasizes rapidly. Although inflammation is associated with tumor formation and progression, little is known about the mechanisms of this connection. We investigate the effects of interleukin (IL) 22 in the development of pancreatic tumors in mice. METHODS:We performed studies with Pdx1-Cre;LSL-Kras;Trp53;Rosa26 (PKCY) mice, which develop pancreatic tumors, and PKCY mice with disruption of IL22 (PKCY Il22mice). Pancreata were collected at different stages of tumor development and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry. Some mice were given cerulean to induce pancreatitis. Pancreatic cancer cell lines (PD2560) were orthotopically injected into C57BL/6 mice or Il22mice, and tumor development was monitored. Pancreatic cells were injected into the tail veins of mice, and lung metastases were quantified. Acini were collected from C57BL/6 mice and resected human pancreata and were cultured. Cell lines and acini cultures were incubated with IL22 and pharmacologic inhibitors, and protein levels were knocked down with small hairpin RNAs. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of 26 PDACs and 5 nonneoplastic pancreas specimens. RESULTS:We observed increased expression of IL22 and the IL22 receptor (IL22R) in the pancreas compared with other tissues in mice; IL22 increased with pancreatitis and tumorigenesis. Flow cytometry indicated that the IL22 was produced primarily by T-helper 22 cells. PKCY Il22mice did not develop precancerous lesions or pancreatic tumors. The addition of IL22 to cultured acinar cells increased their expression of markers of ductal metaplasia; these effects of IL22 were prevented with inhibitors of Janus kinase signaling to signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) (ruxolitinib) or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) (trametinib) and with STAT3 knockdown. Pancreatic cells injected into Il22 mice formed smaller tumors than those injected into C57BL/6. Incubation of IL22R-expressing PDAC cells with IL22 promoted spheroid formation and invasive activity, resulting in increased expression of stem-associated transcription factors (GATA4, SOX2, SOX17, and NANOG), and increased markers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (CDH1, SNAI2, TWIST1, and beta catenin); ruxolitinib blocked these effects. Human PDAC tissues had higher levels of IL22, phosphorylated STAT3, and markers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition than nonneoplastic tissues. An increased level of STAT3 in IL22R-positive cells was associated with shorter survival times of patients. CONCLUSIONS:We found levels of IL22 to be increased during pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor development and to be required for tumor development and progression in mice. IL22 promotes acinar to ductal metaplasia, stem cell features, and increased expression of markers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition; inhibitors of STAT3 block these effects. Increased expression of IL22 by PDACs is associated with reduced survival times.
Full-range intracellular pH sensing by an aggregation-induced emission-active two-channel ratiometric fluorogen.
Chen Sijie,Hong Yuning,Liu Yang,Liu Jianzhao,Leung Chris W T,Li Min,Kwok Ryan T K,Zhao Engui,Lam Jacky W Y,Yu Yong,Tang Ben Zhong
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Intracellular pH (pHi) is an important parameter associated with cellular behaviors and pathological conditions. Sensing pHi and monitoring its changes in live cells are essential but challenging due to the lack of effective probes. We herein report a pH-sensitive fluorogen for pHi sensing and tracking. The dye is a tetraphenylethene-cyanine adduct (TPE-Cy). It is biocompatible and cell-permeable. Upon diffusing into cells, it responds sensitively to pHi in the entire physiological range, visualizing the acidic and basic compartments with intense red and blue emissions, respectively. The ratiometric signal of the red and blue channels can thus serve as an indicator for local proton concentration. The utility of TPE-Cy in pHi imaging and monitoring is demonstrated with the use of confocal microscopy, ratiometric analysis, and flow cytometry.
Stage-specific control of early B cell development by the transcription factor Ikaros.
Schwickert Tanja A,Tagoh Hiromi,Gültekin Sinan,Dakic Aleksandar,Axelsson Elin,Minnich Martina,Ebert Anja,Werner Barbara,Roth Mareike,Cimmino Luisa,Dickins Ross A,Zuber Johannes,Jaritz Markus,Busslinger Meinrad
The transcription factor Ikaros is an essential regulator of lymphopoiesis. Here we studied its B cell-specific function by conditional inactivation of the gene encoding Ikaros (Ikzf1) in pro-B cells. B cell development was arrested at an aberrant 'pro-B cell' stage characterized by increased cell adhesion and loss of signaling via the pre-B cell signaling complex (pre-BCR). Ikaros activated genes encoding signal transducers of the pre-BCR and repressed genes involved in the downregulation of pre-BCR signaling and upregulation of the integrin signaling pathway. Unexpectedly, derepression of expression of the transcription factor Aiolos did not compensate for the loss of Ikaros in pro-B cells. Ikaros induced or suppressed active chromatin at regulatory elements of activated or repressed target genes. Notably, binding of Ikaros and expression of its target genes were dynamically regulated at distinct stages of early B lymphopoiesis.
Identification of a distinct NK-like hepatic T-cell population activated by NKG2C in a TCR-independent manner.
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:The liver provides a unique niche of lymphocytes enriched with a large proportion of innate-like T cells. However, the heterogeneity and functional characteristics of the hepatic T-cell population remain to be fully elucidated. METHODS:We obtained liver sinusoidal mononuclear cells from the liver perfusate of healthy donors and recipients with HBV-associated chronic liver disease (CLD) during liver transplantation. We performed a CITE-seq analysis of liver sinusoidal CD45 cells in combination with T cell receptor (TCR)-seq and flow cytometry to examine the phenotypes and functions of liver sinusoidal CD8 T cells. RESULTS:We identified a distinct CD56CD161CD8 T-cell population characterized by natural killer (NK)-related gene expression and a uniquely restricted TCR repertoire. The frequency of these cells among the liver sinusoidal CD8 T-cell population was significantly increased in patients with HBV-associated CLD. Although CD56CD161CD8 T cells exhibit weak responsiveness to TCR stimulation, CD56CD161CD8 T cells highly expressed various NK receptors, including CD94, killer immunoglobulin-like receptors, and NKG2C, and exerted NKG2C-mediated NK-like effector functions even in the absence of TCR stimulation. In addition, CD56CD161CD8 T cells highly respond to innate cytokines, such as IL-12/18 and IL-15, in the absence of TCR stimulation. We validated the results from liver sinusoidal CD8 T cells using intrahepatic CD8 T cells obtained from liver tissues. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, the current study found a distinct CD56CD161CD8 T-cell population characterized by NK-like activation via TCR-independent NKG2C ligation. Further studies are required to elucidate the roles of liver sinusoidal CD56CD161CD8 T cells in immune responses to microbial pathogens or liver immunopathology. LAY SUMMARY:The role of different immune cell populations in the liver is becoming an area of increasing interest. Herein, we identified a distinct T-cell population that had features similar to those of natural killer (NK) cells - a type of innate immune cell. This distinct population was expanded in the livers of patients with chronic liver disease and could thus have pathogenic relevance.
Recruitment of beneficial M2 macrophages to injured spinal cord is orchestrated by remote brain choroid plexus.
Shechter Ravid,Miller Omer,Yovel Gili,Rosenzweig Neta,London Anat,Ruckh Julia,Kim Ki-Wook,Klein Eugenia,Kalchenko Vyacheslav,Bendel Peter,Lira Sergio A,Jung Steffen,Schwartz Michal
Monocyte-derived macrophages are essential for recovery after spinal cord injury, but their homing mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we show that although of common origin, the homing of proinflammatory (M1) and the "alternatively activated" anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages to traumatized spinal cord (SC) was distinctly regulated, neither being through breached blood-brain barrier. The M1 macrophages (Ly6c(hi)CX3CR1(lo)) derived from monocytes homed in a CCL2 chemokine-dependent manner through the adjacent SC leptomeninges. The resolving M2 macrophages (Ly6c(lo)CX3CR1(hi)) derived from monocytes trafficked through a remote blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier, the brain-ventricular choroid plexus (CP), via VCAM-1-VLA-4 adhesion molecules and epithelial CD73 enzyme for extravasation and epithelial transmigration. Blockage of these determinants, or mechanical CSF flow obstruction, inhibited M2 macrophage recruitment and impaired motor-function recovery. The CP, along with the CSF and the central canal, provided an anti-inflammatory supporting milieu, potentially priming the trafficking monocytes. Overall, our finding demonstrates that the route of monocyte entry to central nervous system provides an instructional environment to shape their function.
Identification of polarized macrophage subsets in zebrafish.
Nguyen-Chi Mai,Laplace-Builhe Béryl,Travnickova Jana,Luz-Crawford Patricia,Tejedor Gautier,Phan Quang Tien,Duroux-Richard Isabelle,Levraud Jean-Pierre,Kissa Karima,Lutfalla Georges,Jorgensen Christian,Djouad Farida
While the mammalian macrophage phenotypes have been intensively studied in vitro, the dynamic of their phenotypic polarization has never been investigated in live vertebrates. We used the zebrafish as a live model to identify and trail macrophage subtypes. We generated a transgenic line whose macrophages expressing tumour necrosis factor alpha (tnfa), a key feature of classically activated (M1) macrophages, express fluorescent proteins Tg(mpeg1:mCherryF/tnfa:eGFP-F). Using 4D-confocal microscopy, we showed that both aseptic wounding and Escherichia coli inoculation triggered macrophage recruitment, some of which started to express tnfa. RT-qPCR on Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)-sorted tnfa(+) and tnfa(-) macrophages showed that they, respectively, expressed M1 and alternatively activated (M2) mammalian markers. Fate tracing of tnfa(+) macrophages during the time-course of inflammation demonstrated that pro-inflammatory macrophages converted into M2-like phenotype during the resolution step. Our results reveal the diversity and plasticity of zebrafish macrophage subsets and underline the similarities with mammalian macrophages proposing a new system to study macrophage functional dynamic.
Inducible nitric oxide synthase is a major intermediate in signaling pathways for the survival of plasma cells.
Saini Ankur S,Shenoy Gautam N,Rath Satyajit,Bal Vineeta,George Anna
While a number of extrinsic factors are known to promote the survival of plasma cells (PCs), the signaling intermediates involved remain poorly characterized. Here we identified inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as an intermediate that supported the survival of PCs. PCs deficient in iNOS (Nos2(-/-) PCs) showed enhanced death in vitro, after transfer into congenic adoptive hosts, and in chimeras made with wild-type and Nos2(-/-) bone marrow. The iNOS-mediated protection involved activation of protein kinase G and modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress components. Activation of caspases was also diminished. We found that iNOS was required for PCs to respond to some prosurvival mediators associated with bone marrow stromal cells and that at least one mediator, interleukin 6, fed directly into this pathway by inducing iNOS.
The transcriptional regulator Aire coopts the repressive ATF7ip-MBD1 complex for the induction of immunotolerance.
The maintenance of immunological tolerance requires the deletion of self-reactive T cells in the thymus. The expression of genes encoding tissue-specific antigens (TSAs) by thymic epithelial cells is critical for this process and depends on activity of the transcriptional regulator Aire; however, the molecular mechanisms Aire uses to target loci encoding TSAs are unknown. Here we identified two Aire-interacting proteins known to be involved in gene repression, ATF7ip and MBD1, that were required for Aire's targeting of loci encoding TSAs. Moreover, Mbd1(-/-) mice developed pathological autoimmunity and had a defect in Aire-dependent thymic expression of genes encoding TSAs, which underscores the importance of Aire's interaction with the ATF7ip-MBD1 protein complex in maintaining central tolerance.
Intrinsic CD4+ T cell sensitivity and response to a pathogen are set and sustained by avidity for thymic and peripheral complexes of self peptide and MHC.
Persaud Stephen P,Parker Chelsea R,Lo Wan-Lin,Weber K Scott,Allen Paul M
Interactions of T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) with complexes of self peptide and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are crucial to T cell development, but their role in peripheral T cell responses remains unclear. Specific and nonspecific stimulation of LLO56 and LLO118 T cells, which transgenically express a TCR specific for the same Listeria monocytogenes epitope, elicited distinct interleukin 2 (IL-2) and phosphorylated kinase Erk responses, the strength of which was set in the thymus and maintained in the periphery in proportion to the avidity of the binding of the TCR to the self peptide-MHC complex. Deprivation of self peptide-MHC substantially compromised the population expansion of LLO56 T cells in response to L. monocytogenes in vivo. Despite their very different self-reactivity, LLO56 T cells and LLO118 T cells bound cognate peptide-MHC with an identical affinity, which challenges associations made between these parameters. Our findings highlight a crucial role for selecting ligands encountered during thymic 'education' in determining the intrinsic functionality of CD4+ T cells.
Loss of Ikaros DNA-binding function confers integrin-dependent survival on pre-B cells and progression to acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Joshi Ila,Yoshida Toshimi,Jena Nilamani,Qi Xiaoqing,Zhang Jiangwen,Van Etten Richard A,Georgopoulos Katia
Deletion of the DNA-binding domain of the transcription factor Ikaros generates dominant-negative isoforms that interfere with its activity and correlate with poor prognosis in human precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Here we found that conditional inactivation of the Ikaros DNA-binding domain in early pre-B cells arrested their differentiation at a stage at which integrin-dependent adhesion to niches augmented signaling via mitogen-activated protein kinases, proliferation and self-renewal and attenuated signaling via the pre-B cell signaling complex (pre-BCR) and the differentiation of pre-B cells. Transplantation of polyclonal Ikaros-mutant pre-B cells resulted in long-latency oligoclonal pre-B-ALL, which demonstrates that loss of Ikaros contributes to multistep B cell leukemogenesis. Our results explain how normal pre-B cells transit from a highly proliferative and stroma-dependent phase to a stroma-independent phase during which differentiation is enabled, and suggest potential therapeutic strategies for Ikaros-mutant B-ALL.
Apoptosis of regulatory T lymphocytes is increased in chronic inflammatory bowel disease and reversed by anti-TNFα treatment.
Veltkamp Claudia,Anstaett Matthias,Wahl Kristin,Möller Sarah,Gangl Saskia,Bachmann Oliver,Hardtke-Wolenski Matthias,Länger Florian,Stremmel Wolfgang,Manns Michael P,Schulze-Osthoff Klaus,Bantel Heike
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Inappropriate immune responses contribute to the continuous stimulation of the intestinal immune system in chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Among several pathogenic factors, a numerical deficiency of regulatory T (Treg) cells has been suggested to lead to an insufficient compensation of chronically activated T lymphocytes. This study was conducted to investigate whether increased apoptosis contributes to Treg cell deficiency in IBD and whether successful treatment with antitumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) is achieved by reducing of Treg cell apoptosis. METHODS:Apoptosis of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells in tissue sections of patients with active IBD was analysed by immunohistochemistry and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling) staining. Apoptosis of peripheral blood CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells was investigated by flow cytometry and annexin-V staining. In addition, caspase activity and apoptosis were measured in sera of patients with IBD treated with anti-TNFα by a luminometric caspase enzyme assay. RESULTS:It is demonstrated that patients with active IBD revealed increased apoptosis of local CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells in the inflamed mucosa compared with non-inflamed control colon tissue. Moreover, in peripheral blood a reduced frequency and increased apoptosis of Treg cells were found and accompanied by elevated caspase activity in the serum. During anti-TNFα treatment, Treg cell apoptosis declined in close correlation with elevated peripheral Treg cell numbers and a decrease of caspase activation and disease activity. CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that increased apoptosis of Treg cells plays a potentially important role in the pathogenesis of IBD and can be reversed by anti-TNFα treatment. Measurement of Treg cell apoptosis and serum caspase activity might therefore represent promising tools for monitoring disease activity and treatment response in patients with IBD.
BAL Cell Gene Expression Is Indicative of Outcome and Airway Basal Cell Involvement in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.
Prasse Antje,Binder Harald,Schupp Jonas C,Kayser Gian,Bargagli Elena,Jaeger Benedikt,Hess Moritz,Rittinghausen Susanne,Vuga Louis,Lynn Heather,Violette Shelia,Jung Birgit,Quast Karsten,Vanaudenaerde Bart,Xu Yan,Hohlfeld Jens M,Krug Norbert,Herazo-Maya Jose D,Rottoli Paola,Wuyts Wim A,Kaminski Naftali
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
RATIONALE:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease with a variable and unpredictable course. OBJECTIVES:To determine whether BAL cell gene expression is predictive of survival in IPF. METHODS:This retrospective study analyzed the BAL transcriptome of three independent IPF cohorts: Freiburg (Germany), Siena (Italy), and Leuven (Belgium) including 212 patients. BAL cells from 20 healthy volunteers, 26 patients with sarcoidosis stage III and IV, and 29 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were used as control subjects. Survival analysis was performed by Cox models and component-wise boosting. Presence of airway basal cells was tested by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:A total of 1,582 genes were predictive of mortality in the IPF derivation cohort in univariate analyses adjusted for age and sex at false discovery rate less than 0.05. A nine-gene signature, derived from the discovery cohort (Freiburg), performed well in both replication cohorts, Siena (P < 0.0032) and Leuven (P = 0.0033). nCounter expression analysis confirmed the array results (P < 0.0001). The genes associated with mortality in BAL cells were significantly enriched for genes expressed in airway basal cells. Further analyses by gene expression, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry showed an increase in airway basal cells in BAL and tissues of IPF compared with control subjects, but not in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or sarcoidosis. CONCLUSIONS:Our results identify and validate a BAL signature that predicts mortality in IPF and improves the accuracy of outcome prediction based on clinical parameters. The BAL signature associated with mortality unmasks a potential role for airway basal cells in IPF.
Chromatin effector Pygo2 mediates Wnt-notch crosstalk to suppress luminal/alveolar potential of mammary stem and basal cells.
Gu Bingnan,Watanabe Kazuhide,Sun Peng,Fallahi Magid,Dai Xing
Cell stem cell
Epigenetic mechanisms regulating lineage differentiation of mammary stem cells (MaSCs) remain poorly understood. Pygopus 2 (Pygo2) is a histone methylation reader and a context-dependent Wnt/β-catenin coactivator. Here we provide evidence for Pygo2's function in suppressing luminal/alveolar differentiation of MaSC-enriched basal cells. We show that Pygo2-deficient MaSC/basal cells exhibit partial molecular resemblance to luminal cells, such as elevated Notch signaling and reduced mammary repopulating capability upon transplantation. Inhibition of Notch signaling suppresses basal-level and Pygo2-deficiency-induced luminal/alveolar differentiation of MaSC/basal cells, whereas activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling suppresses luminal/alveolar differentiation and Notch3 expression in a Pygo2-dependent manner. We show that Notch3 is a direct target of Pygo2 and that Pygo2 is required for β-catenin binding and maintenance of a poised/repressed chromatin state at the Notch3 locus in MaSC/basal cells. Together, our data support a model where Pygo2-mediated chromatin regulation connects Wnt signaling and Notch signaling to restrict the luminal/alveolar differentiation competence of MaSC/basal cells.
Intrachromosomal looping is required for activation of endogenous pluripotency genes during reprogramming.
Zhang He,Jiao Weiwei,Sun Lin,Fan Jiayan,Chen Mengfei,Wang Hong,Xu Xiaoyi,Shen Adong,Li Tao,Niu Beibei,Ge Shengfang,Li Wei,Cui Jiuwei,Wang Guanjun,Sun Jingnan,Fan Xianqun,Hu Xiang,Mrsny Randall J,Hoffman Andrew R,Hu Ji-Fan
Cell stem cell
Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by defined factors is an extremely inefficient process, because there is a strong epigenetic block preventing cells from achieving pluripotency. Here we report that virally expressed factors bound to the promoters of their target genes to the same extent in both iPSCs and unreprogrammed cells (URCs). However, expression of endogenous pluripotentcy genes was observed only in iPSCs. Comparison of local chromatin structure of the OCT4 locus revealed that there was a cohesin-complex-mediated intrachromosomal loop that juxtaposes a downstream enhancer to the gene's promoter, enabling activation of endogenous stemness genes. None of these long-range interactions were observed in URCs. Knockdown of the cohesin-complex gene SMC1 by RNAi abolished the intrachromosomal interaction and affected pluripotency. These findings highlight the importance of the SMC1-orchestrated intrachromosomal loop as a critical epigenetic barrier to the induction of pluripotency.
Single-cell analysis reveals that expression of nanog is biallelic and equally variable as that of other pluripotency factors in mouse ESCs.
Faddah Dina A,Wang Haoyi,Cheng Albert Wu,Katz Yarden,Buganim Yosef,Jaenisch Rudolf
Cell stem cell
The homeodomain transcription factor Nanog is a central part of the core pluripotency transcriptional network and plays a critical role in embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal. Several reports have suggested that Nanog expression is allelically regulated and that transient downregulation of Nanog in a subset of pluripotent cells predisposes them toward differentiation. Using single-cell gene expression analyses combined with different reporters for the two alleles of Nanog, we show that Nanog is biallelically expressed in ESCs independently of culture condition. We also show that the overall variation in endogenous Nanog expression in ESCs is very similar to that of several other pluripotency markers. Our analysis suggests that reporter-based studies of gene expression in pluripotent cells can be significantly influenced by the gene-targeting strategy and genetic background employed.
The nuclear lamina regulates germline stem cell niche organization via modulation of EGFR signaling.
Chen Haiyang,Chen Xin,Zheng Yixian
Cell stem cell
Stem cell niche interactions have been studied extensively with regard to cell polarity and extracellular signaling. Less is known about the way in which signals and polarity cues integrate with intracellular structures to ensure appropriate niche organization and function. Here, we report that nuclear lamins function in the cyst stem cells (CySCs) of Drosophila testes to control the interaction of CySCs with the hub. This interaction is important for regulation of CySC differentiation and organization of the niche that supports the germline stem cells (GSCs). Lamin promotes nuclear retention of phosphorylated ERK in the CySC lineage by regulating the distribution of specific nucleoporins within the nuclear pores. Lamin-regulated nuclear epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling in the CySC lineage is essential for proliferation and differentiation of the GSCs and the transient amplifying germ cells. Thus, we have uncovered a role for the nuclear lamina in the integration of EGF signaling to regulate stem cell niche function.
SLAM family markers resolve functionally distinct subpopulations of hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitors.
Oguro Hideyuki,Ding Lei,Morrison Sean J
Cell stem cell
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and multipotent hematopoietic progenitors (MPPs) are routinely isolated using various markers but remain heterogeneous. Here we show that four SLAM family markers, CD150, CD48, CD229, and CD244, can distinguish HSCs and MPPs from restricted progenitors and subdivide them into a hierarchy of functionally distinct subpopulations with stepwise changes in cell-cycle status, self-renewal, and reconstituting potential. CD229 expression largely distinguished lymphoid-biased HSCs from rarely dividing myeloid-biased HSCs, enabling prospective enrichment of these HSC subsets. Differences in CD229 and CD244 expression resolved CD150(-)CD48(-/low)Lineage(-/low)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+) cells into a hierarchy of highly purified MPPs that retained erythroid and platelet potential but exhibited progressive changes in mitotic activity and reconstituting potential. Use of these markers, and reconstitution assays, showed that conditional deletion of Scf from endothelial cells and perivascular stromal cells eliminated the vast majority of bone marrow HSCs, including nearly all CD229(-/low) HSCs, demonstrating that quiescent HSCs are maintained by a perivascular niche.
The human milk oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose modulates CD14 expression in human enterocytes, thereby attenuating LPS-induced inflammation.
He YingYing,Liu ShuBai,Kling David E,Leone Serena,Lawlor Nathan T,Huang Yi,Feinberg Samuel B,Hill David R,Newburg David S
BACKGROUND:A major cause of enteric infection, Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria activate mucosal inflammation through lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding to intestinal toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Breast feeding lowers risk of disease, and human milk modulates inflammation. OBJECTIVE:This study tested whether human milk oligosaccharides (HMOSs) influence pathogenic Escherichia coli-induced interleukin (IL)-8 release by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), identified specific proinflammatory signalling molecules modulated by HMOSs, specified the active HMOS and determined its mechanism of action. METHODS:Models of inflammation were IECs invaded by type 1 pili enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in vitro: T84 modelled mature, and H4 modelled immature IECs. LPS-induced signalling molecules co-varying with IL-8 release in the presence or absence of HMOSs were identified. Knockdown and overexpression verified signalling mediators. The oligosaccharide responsible for altered signalling was identified. RESULTS:HMOSs attenuated LPS-dependent induction of IL-8 caused by ETEC, uropathogenic E. coli, and adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) infection, and suppressed CD14 transcription and translation. CD14 knockdown recapitulated HMOS-induced attenuation. Overexpression of CD14 increased the inflammatory response to ETEC and sensitivity to inhibition by HMOSs. 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), at milk concentrations, displayed equivalent ability as total HMOSs to suppress CD14 expression, and protected AIEC-infected mice. CONCLUSIONS:HMOSs and 2'-FL directly inhibit LPS-mediated inflammation during ETEC invasion of T84 and H4 IECs through attenuation of CD14 induction. CD14 expression mediates LPS-TLR4 stimulation of portions of the 'macrophage migration inhibitory factors' inflammatory pathway via suppressors of cytokine signalling 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3/NF-κB. HMOS direct inhibition of inflammation supports its functioning as an innate immune system whereby the mother protects her vulnerable neonate through her milk. 2'-FL, a principal HMOS, quenches inflammatory signalling.
Natural killer cell-mediated inflammation resolution is disabled in severe asthma.
Duvall Melody G,Barnig Cindy,Cernadas Manuela,Ricklefs Isabell,Krishnamoorthy Nandini,Grossman Nicole L,Bhakta Nirav R,Fahy John V,Bleecker Eugene R,Castro Mario,Erzurum Serpil C,Gaston Benjamin M,Jarjour Nizar N,Mauger David T,Wenzel Sally E,Comhair Suzy A,Coverstone Andrea M,Fajt Merritt L,Hastie Annette T,Johansson Mats W,Peters Michael C,Phillips Brenda R,Israel Elliot,Levy Bruce D,
Severe asthma is typically characterized by chronic airway inflammation that is refractory to corticosteroids and associated with excess morbidity. Patients were recruited into the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Severe Asthma Research Program and comprehensively phenotyped by bronchoscopy. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Compared with healthy individuals ( = 21), patients with asthma ( = 53) had fewer BAL natural killer (NK) cells. Patients with severe asthma ( = 29) had a marked increase in the ratios of CD4 T cells to NK cells and neutrophils to NK cells. BAL NK cells in severe asthma were skewed toward the cytotoxic CD56 subset, with significantly increased BAL fluid levels of the cytotoxic mediator granzyme A. The numbers of BAL CD56 NK cells and CCR6CCR4 T helper 1-enriched CD4 T cells correlated inversely with lung function [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) % predicted] in asthma. Relative to cells from healthy controls, peripheral blood NK cells from asthmatic patients had impaired killing of K562 myeloid target cells despite releasing more cytotoxic mediators. Ex vivo exposure to dexamethasone markedly decreased blood NK cell lysis of target cells and cytotoxic mediator release. NK cells expressed airway lipoxin A/formyl peptide receptor 2 receptors, and in contrast to dexamethasone, lipoxin A-exposed NK cells had preserved functional responses. Together, our findings indicate that the immunology of the severe asthma airway is characterized by decreased NK cell cytotoxicity with increased numbers of target leukocytes, which is exacerbated by corticosteroids that further disable NK cell function. These failed resolution mechanisms likely contribute to persistent airway inflammation in severe asthma.
Klf4 organizes long-range chromosomal interactions with the oct4 locus in reprogramming and pluripotency.
Wei Zong,Gao Fan,Kim Sewoon,Yang Hongzhen,Lyu Jungmook,An Woojin,Wang Kai,Lu Wange
Cell stem cell
Epigenetic mechanisms underlying somatic reprogramming have been extensively studied, but little is known about the nuclear architecture of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Using circular chromosome conformation capture with high-throughput sequencing (4C-seq) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we identified chromosomal regions that colocalize frequently with the Oct4 locus in PSCs. These PSC-specific long-range interactions are established prior to transcriptional activation of endogenous Oct4 during reprogramming to induced PSCs and are facilitated by Klf4-mediated recruitment of cohesin. Depletion of Klf4 leads to unloading of cohesin at the Oct4 enhancer and disrupts long-range interactions prior to loss of Oct4 transcription and subsequent PSC differentiation, suggesting a causative role for Klf4 in facilitating long-range interactions independent of its transcriptional activity. Taken together, our results delineate the basic nuclear organization at the Oct4 locus in PSCs and suggest a functional role for Klf4-mediated higher-order chromatin structure in maintaining and inducing pluripotency.
Molecular profiling of human mammary gland links breast cancer risk to a p27(+) cell population with progenitor characteristics.
Choudhury Sibgat,Almendro Vanessa,Merino Vanessa F,Wu Zhenhua,Maruyama Reo,Su Ying,Martins Filipe C,Fackler Mary Jo,Bessarabova Marina,Kowalczyk Adam,Conway Thomas,Beresford-Smith Bryan,Macintyre Geoff,Cheng Yu-Kang,Lopez-Bujanda Zoila,Kaspi Antony,Hu Rong,Robens Judith,Nikolskaya Tatiana,Haakensen Vilde D,Schnitt Stuart J,Argani Pedram,Ethington Gabrielle,Panos Laura,Grant Michael,Clark Jason,Herlihy William,Lin S Joyce,Chew Grace,Thompson Erik W,Greene-Colozzi April,Richardson Andrea L,Rosson Gedge D,Pike Malcolm,Garber Judy E,Nikolsky Yuri,Blum Joanne L,Au Alfred,Hwang E Shelley,Tamimi Rulla M,Michor Franziska,Haviv Izhak,Liu X Shirley,Sukumar Saraswati,Polyak Kornelia
Cell stem cell
Early full-term pregnancy is one of the most effective natural protections against breast cancer. To investigate this effect, we have characterized the global gene expression and epigenetic profiles of multiple cell types from normal breast tissue of nulliparous and parous women and carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We found significant differences in CD44(+) progenitor cells, where the levels of many stem cell-related genes and pathways, including the cell-cycle regulator p27, are lower in parous women without BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. We also noted a significant reduction in the frequency of CD44(+)p27(+) cells in parous women and showed, using explant cultures, that parity-related signaling pathways play a role in regulating the number of p27(+) cells and their proliferation. Our results suggest that pathways controlling p27(+) mammary epithelial cells and the numbers of these cells relate to breast cancer risk and can be explored for cancer risk assessment and prevention.
The chromatin remodeler CHD7 regulates adult neurogenesis via activation of SoxC transcription factors.
Feng Weijun,Khan Muhammad Amir,Bellvis Pablo,Zhu Zhe,Bernhardt Olga,Herold-Mende Christel,Liu Hai-Kun
Cell stem cell
Chromatin factors that regulate neurogenesis in the central nervous system remain to be explored. Here, we demonstrate that the chromatin remodeler chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7), a protein frequently mutated in human CHARGE syndrome, is a master regulator of neurogenesis in mammalian brain. CHD7 is selectively expressed in actively dividing neural stem cells (NSCs) and progenitors. Genetic inactivation of CHD7 in NSCs leads to a reduction of neuronal differentiation and aberrant dendritic development of newborn neurons. Strikingly, physical exercise can rescue the CHD7 mutant phenotype in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus. We further show that in NSCs, CHD7 stimulates the expression of Sox4 and Sox11 genes via remodeling their promoters to an open chromatin state. Our study demonstrates an essential role of CHD7 in activation of the neuronal differentiation program in NSCs, thus providing insights into epigenetic regulation of stem cell differentiation and molecular mechanism of human CHARGE syndrome.
The oncogenic microRNA miR-22 targets the TET2 tumor suppressor to promote hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and transformation.
Song Su Jung,Ito Keisuke,Ala Ugo,Kats Lev,Webster Kaitlyn,Sun Su Ming,Jongen-Lavrencic Mojca,Manova-Todorova Katia,Teruya-Feldstein Julie,Avigan David E,Delwel Ruud,Pandolfi Pier Paolo
Cell stem cell
MicroRNAs are frequently deregulated in cancer. Here we show that miR-22 is upregulated in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and leukemia and its aberrant expression correlates with poor survival. To explore its role in hematopoietic stem cell function and malignancy, we generated transgenic mice conditionally expressing miR-22 in the hematopoietic compartment. These mice displayed reduced levels of global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) and increased hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal accompanied by defective differentiation. Conversely, miR-22 inhibition blocked proliferation in both mouse and human leukemic cells. Over time, miR-22 transgenic mice developed MDS and hematological malignancies. We also identify TET2 as a key target of miR-22 in this context. Ectopic expression of TET2 suppressed the miR-22-induced phenotypes. Downregulation of TET2 protein also correlated with poor clinical outcomes and miR-22 overexpression in MDS patients. Our results therefore identify miR-22 as a potent proto-oncogene and suggest that aberrations in the miR-22/TET2 regulatory network are common in hematopoietic malignancies.
Characteristics of differentiated CD8(+) and CD4 (+) T cells present in the human brain.
Smolders Joost,Remmerswaal Ester B M,Schuurman Karianne G,Melief Jeroen,van Eden Corbert G,van Lier René A W,Huitinga Inge,Hamann Jörg
Immune surveillance of the central nervous system (CNS) by T cells is important to keep CNS-trophic viruses in a latent state, yet our knowledge of the characteristics of CNS-populating T cells is incomplete. We performed a comprehensive, multi-color flow-cytometric analysis of isolated T cells from paired corpus callosum (CC) and peripheral blood (PB) samples of 20 brain donors. Compared to PB, CC T cells, which were mostly located in the perivascular space and sporadically in the parenchyma, were enriched for cells expressing CD8. Both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the CC had a late-differentiated phenotype, as indicated by lack of expression of CD27 and CD28. The CC contained high numbers of T cells expressing chemokine receptor CX3CR1 and CXCR3 that allow for homing to inflamed endothelium and tissue, but hardly cells expressing the lymph node-homing receptor CCR7. Despite the late-differentiated phenotype, CC T cells had high expression of the IL-7 receptor α-chain CD127 and did not contain the neurotoxic cytolytic enzymes perforin, granzyme A, and granzyme B. We postulate that CNS T cells make up a population of tissue-adapted differentiated cells, which use CX3CR1 and CXCR3 to home into the perivascular space, use IL-7 for maintenance, and lack immediate cytolytic activity, thereby preventing immunopathology in response to low or non-specific stimuli. The presence of these cells in this tightly regulated environment likely enables a fast response to local threats. Our results will enable future detailed exploration of T-cell subsets in the brain involved in neurological diseases.
Dissecting intratumour heterogeneity of nodal B-cell lymphomas at the transcriptional, genetic and drug-response levels.
Nature cell biology
Tumour heterogeneity encompasses both the malignant cells and their microenvironment. While heterogeneity between individual patients is known to affect the efficacy of cancer therapy, most personalized treatment approaches do not account for intratumour heterogeneity. We addressed this issue by studying the heterogeneity of nodal B-cell lymphomas by single-cell RNA-sequencing and transcriptome-informed flow cytometry. We identified transcriptionally distinct malignant subpopulations and compared their drug-response and genomic profiles. Malignant subpopulations from the same patient responded strikingly differently to anti-cancer drugs ex vivo, which recapitulated subpopulation-specific drug sensitivity during in vivo treatment. Infiltrating T cells represented the majority of non-malignant cells, whose gene-expression signatures were similar across all donors, whereas the frequencies of T-cell subsets varied significantly between the donors. Our data provide insights into the heterogeneity of nodal B-cell lymphomas and highlight the relevance of intratumour heterogeneity for personalized cancer therapy.
Natural display of nuclear-encoded RNA on the cell surface and its impact on cell interaction.
Huang Norman,Fan Xiaochen,Zaleta-Rivera Kathia,Nguyen Tri C,Zhou Jiarong,Luo Yingjun,Gao Jie,Fang Ronnie H,Yan Zhangming,Chen Zhen Bouman,Zhang Liangfang,Zhong Sheng
BACKGROUND:Compared to proteins, glycans, and lipids, much less is known about RNAs on the cell surface. We develop a series of technologies to test for any nuclear-encoded RNAs that are stably attached to the cell surface and exposed to the extracellular space, hereafter called membrane-associated extracellular RNAs (maxRNAs). RESULTS:We develop a technique called Surface-seq to selectively sequence maxRNAs and validate two Surface-seq identified maxRNAs by RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. To test for cell-type specificity of maxRNA, we use antisense oligos to hybridize to single-stranded transcripts exposed on the surface of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Combining this strategy with imaging flow cytometry, single-cell RNA sequencing, and maxRNA sequencing, we identify monocytes as the major type of maxRNA+ PBMCs and prioritize 11 candidate maxRNAs for functional tests. Extracellular application of antisense oligos of FNDC3B and CTSS transcripts inhibits monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, these data highlight maxRNAs as functional components of the cell surface, suggesting an expanded role for RNA in cell-cell and cell-environment interactions.
Quartz-Seq2: a high-throughput single-cell RNA-sequencing method that effectively uses limited sequence reads.
Sasagawa Yohei,Danno Hiroki,Takada Hitomi,Ebisawa Masashi,Tanaka Kaori,Hayashi Tetsutaro,Kurisaki Akira,Nikaido Itoshi
High-throughput single-cell RNA-seq methods assign limited unique molecular identifier (UMI) counts as gene expression values to single cells from shallow sequence reads and detect limited gene counts. We thus developed a high-throughput single-cell RNA-seq method, Quartz-Seq2, to overcome these issues. Our improvements in the reaction steps make it possible to effectively convert initial reads to UMI counts, at a rate of 30-50%, and detect more genes. To demonstrate the power of Quartz-Seq2, we analyzed approximately 10,000 transcriptomes from in vitro embryonic stem cells and an in vivo stromal vascular fraction with a limited number of reads.
Gliadin Nanoparticles Induce Immune Tolerance to Gliadin in Mouse Models of Celiac Disease.
Freitag Tobias L,Podojil Joseph R,Pearson Ryan M,Fokta Frank J,Sahl Cecilia,Messing Marcel,Andersson Leif C,Leskinen Katarzyna,Saavalainen Päivi,Hoover Lisa I,Huang Kelly,Phippard Deborah,Maleki Sanaz,King Nicholas J C,Shea Lonnie D,Miller Stephen D,Meri Seppo K,Getts Daniel R
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Celiac disease could be treated, and potentially cured, by restoring T-cell tolerance to gliadin. We investigated the safety and efficacy of negatively charged 500-nm poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles encapsulating gliadin protein (TIMP-GLIA) in 3 mouse models of celiac disease. Uptake of these nanoparticles by antigen-presenting cells was shown to induce immune tolerance in other animal models of autoimmune disease. METHODS:We performed studies with C57BL/6; RAG1 (C57BL/6); and HLA-DQ8, huCD4 transgenic Ab0 NOD mice. Mice were given 1 or 2 tail-vein injections of TIMP-GLIA or control nanoparticles. Some mice were given intradermal injections of gliadin in complete Freund's adjuvant (immunization) or of soluble gliadin or ovalbumin (ear challenge). RAG mice were given intraperitoneal injections of CD4CD62LCD44 T cells from gliadin-immunized C57BL/6 mice and were fed with an AIN-76A-based diet containing wheat gluten (oral challenge) or without gluten. Spleen or lymph node cells were analyzed in proliferation and cytokine secretion assays or by flow cytometry, RNA sequencing, or real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples were analyzed by gliadin antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and intestinal tissues were analyzed by histology. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, or immature dendritic cells derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, were cultured in medium containing TIMP-GLIA, anti-CD3 antibody, or lipopolysaccharide (controls) and analyzed in proliferation and cytokine secretion assays or by flow cytometry. Whole blood or plasma from healthy volunteers was incubated with TIMP-GLIA, and hemolysis, platelet activation and aggregation, and complement activation or coagulation were analyzed. RESULTS:TIMP-GLIA did not increase markers of maturation on cultured human dendritic cells or induce activation of T cells from patients with active or treated celiac disease. In the delayed-type hypersensitivity (model 1), the HLA-DQ8 transgenic (model 2), and the gliadin memory T-cell enteropathy (model 3) models of celiac disease, intravenous injections of TIMP-GLIA significantly decreased gliadin-specific T-cell proliferation (in models 1 and 2), inflammatory cytokine secretion (in models 1, 2, and 3), circulating gliadin-specific IgG/IgG2c (in models 1 and 2), ear swelling (in model 1), gluten-dependent enteropathy (in model 3), and body weight loss (in model 3). In model 1, the effects were shown to be dose dependent. Splenocytes from HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice given TIMP-GLIA nanoparticles, but not control nanoparticles, had increased levels of FOXP3 and gene expression signatures associated with tolerance induction. CONCLUSIONS:In mice with gliadin sensitivity, injection of TIMP-GLIA nanoparticles induced unresponsiveness to gliadin and reduced markers of inflammation and enteropathy. This strategy might be developed for the treatment of celiac disease.
Isolation and expansion of human and mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells.
Navone Stefania E,Marfia Giovanni,Invernici Gloria,Cristini Silvia,Nava Sara,Balbi Sergio,Sangiorgi Simone,Ciusani Emilio,Bosutti Alessandra,Alessandri Giulio,Slevin Mark,Parati Eugenio A
Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) have an important role in the constitution of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is involved in the disease processes of a number of neurological disorders in which its permeability increases. Isolation of BMVECs could elucidate the mechanism involved in these processes. This protocol describes how to isolate and expand human and mouse BMVECs. The procedure covers brain-tissue dissociation, digestion and cell selection. Cells are selected on the basis of time-responsive differential adhesiveness to a collagen type I-precoated surface. The protocol also describes immunophenotypic characterization, cord formation and functional assays to confirm that these cells in endothelial proliferation medium (EndoPM) have an endothelial origin. The entire technique requires ∼7 h of active time. Endothelial cell clusters are readily visible after 48 h, and expansion of BMVECs occurs over the course of ∼60 d.
Tailoring Nanostructure Morphology for Enhanced Targeting of Dendritic Cells in Atherosclerosis.
Yi Sijia,Allen Sean David,Liu Yu-Gang,Ouyang Brian Zhou,Li Xiaomo,Augsornworawat Punn,Thorp Edward Benjamin,Scott Evan Alexander
Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of heart disease, results from chronic vascular inflammation that is driven by diverse immune cell populations. Nanomaterials may function as powerful platforms for diagnostic imaging and controlled delivery of therapeutics to inflammatory cells in atherosclerosis, but efficacy is limited by nonspecific uptake by cells of the mononuclear phagocytes system (MPS). MPS cells located in the liver, spleen, blood, lymph nodes, and kidney remove from circulation the vast majority of intravenously administered nanomaterials regardless of surface functionalization or conjugation of targeting ligands. Here, we report that nanostructure morphology alone can be engineered for selective uptake by dendritic cells (DCs), which are critical mediators of atherosclerotic inflammation. Employing near-infrared fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry as a multimodal approach, we compared organ and cellular level biodistributions of micelles, vesicles (i.e., polymersomes), and filomicelles, all assembled from poly(ethylene glycol)-bl-poly(propylene sulfide) (PEG-bl-PPS) block copolymers with identical surface chemistries. While micelles and filomicelles were respectively found to associate with liver macrophages and blood-resident phagocytes, polymersomes were exceptionally efficient at targeting splenic DCs (up to 85% of plasmacytoid DCs) and demonstrated significantly lower uptake by other cells of the MPS. In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, polymersomes demonstrated superior specificity for DCs (p < 0.005) in atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, significant differences in polymersome cellular biodistributions were observed in atherosclerotic compared to naïve mice, including impaired targeting of phagocytes in lymph nodes. These results present avenues for immunotherapies in cardiovascular disease and demonstrate that nanostructure morphology can be tailored to enhance targeting specificity.
Heparanase promotes tumor infiltration and antitumor activity of CAR-redirected T lymphocytes.
Caruana Ignazio,Savoldo Barbara,Hoyos Valentina,Weber Gerrit,Liu Hao,Kim Eugene S,Ittmann Michael M,Marchetti Dario,Dotti Gianpietro
Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T lymphocytes (CAR-T cells) has had less striking therapeutic effects in solid tumors than in lymphoid malignancies. Although active tumor-mediated immunosuppression may have a role in limiting the efficacy of CAR-T cells, functional changes in T lymphocytes after their ex vivo manipulation may also account for the reduced ability of cultured CAR-T cells to penetrate stroma-rich solid tumors compared with lymphoid tissues. We therefore studied the capacity of human in vitro-cultured CAR-T cells to degrade components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In contrast to freshly isolated T lymphocytes, we found that in vitro-cultured T lymphocytes lack expression of the enzyme heparanase (HPSE), which degrades heparan sulfate proteoglycans, the main components of ECM. We found that HPSE mRNA is downregulated in in vitro-expanded T cells, which may be a consequence of p53 (officially known as TP53, encoding tumor protein 53) binding to the HPSE gene promoter. We therefore engineered CAR-T cells to express HPSE and showed their improved capacity to degrade the ECM, which promoted tumor T cell infiltration and antitumor activity. The use of this strategy may enhance the activity of CAR-T cells in individuals with stroma-rich solid tumors.
Polyfunctional T-Cell Signatures to Predict Protection from Cytomegalovirus after Lung Transplantation.
Snyder Laurie D,Chan Cliburn,Kwon Darongsae,Yi John S,Martissa Jessica A,Copeland C Ashley Finlen,Osborne Robyn J,Sparks Sara D,Palmer Scott M,Weinhold Kent J
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
RATIONALE:Cytomegalovirus (CMV), which is one of the most common infections after lung transplantation, is associated with chronic lung allograft dysfunction and worse post-transplantation survival. Current approaches for at-risk patients include a fixed duration of antiviral prophylaxis despite the associated cost and side effects. OBJECTIVES:We sought to identify a specific immunologic signature that predicted protection from subsequent CMV. METHODS:CMV-seropositive lung transplantation recipients were included in the discovery (n = 43) and validation (n = 28) cohorts. Polyfunctional CMV-specific immunity was assessed by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with CMV pp65 or IE-1 peptide pools and then by measuring T-cell expression of CD107a, IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-2. Recipients were prospectively monitored for subsequent viremia. A Cox proportional hazards regression model that considered cytokine responses individually and in combination was used to create a predictive model for protection from CMV reactivation. This model was then applied to the validation cohort. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Using the discovery cohort, we identified a specific combination of polyfunctional T-cell subsets to pp65 that predicted protection from subsequent CMV viremia (concordance index 0.88 [SE, 0.087]). The model included both protective (CD107a(-)/IFN-γ(+)/IL-2(+)/TNF-α(+) CD4(+) T cells, CD107a(-)/IFN-γ(+)/IL-2(+)/TNF-α(+) CD8(+) T cells) and detrimental (CD107a(+)/IFN-γ(+)/IL-2(-)/TNF-α(-) CD8(+) T cells) subsets. The model was robust in the validation cohort (concordance index 0.81 [SE, 0.103]). CONCLUSIONS:We identified and validated a specific T-cell polyfunctional response to CMV antigen stimulation that provides a clinically useful prediction of subsequent cytomegalovirus risk. This novel diagnostic approach could inform the optimal duration of individual prophylaxis.
NUDT1 promotes the accumulation and longevity of CD103 T cells in primary biliary cholangitis.
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC)-E2 specific CD8 T cells play a leading role in biliary destruction in PBC. However, there are limited data on the characterization of these autoantigen-specific CD8 T cells, particularly in the liver. Herein, we aimed to identify pathogenic intrahepatic CD8 T-cell subpopulations and investigate their immunobiology in PBC. METHODS:Phenotypic and functional analysis of intrahepatic T-cell subsets were performed by flow cytometry. CD103 T cell frequency was evaluated by histological staining. The transcriptome and metabolome were analyzed by RNA-seq and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Cytotoxicity of T cells against cholangiocytes was assayed in a 3D organoid co-culture system. Moreover, the longevity (long-term survival) of T cells in vivo was studied by 2-octynoic acid-BSA (2OA-BSA) immunization, Nudt1 conditional knock-out and adoptive co-transfer in a murine model. RESULTS:Intrahepatic CD103 T (CD69CD103CD8) cells were significantly expanded, hyperactivated, and potentially specifically reactive to PDC-E2 in patients with PBC. CD103 T cell frequencies correlated with clinical and histological indices of PBC and predicted poor ursodeoxycholic acid response. NUDT1 blockade suppressed the cytotoxic effector functions of CD103 T cells upon PDC-E2 re-stimulation. NUDT1 overexpression in CD8 T cells promoted tissue-residence programming in vitro; inhibition or knockdown of NUDT1 had the opposite effect. Pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of NUDT1 eliminated CD103 T cells and alleviated cholangitis in mice immunized with 2OA-BSA. Significantly, NUDT1-dependent DNA damage resistance potentiates CD8 T-cell tissue-residency via the PARP1-TGFβR axis in vitro. Consistently, PARP1 inhibition restored NUDT1-deficient CD103 T cell durable survival and TGFβ-Smad signaling. CONCLUSIONS:CD103 T cells are the dominant population of PDC-E2-specific CD8 T lymphocytes in the livers of patients with PBC. The role of NUDT1 in promoting pathogenic CD103 T cell accumulation and longevity represents a novel therapeutic target in PBC. LAY SUMMARY:Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a rare inflammatory condition of the bile ducts. It can be treated with ursodeoxycholic acid, but a large percentage of patients respond poorly to this treatment. Liver-infiltrating memory CD8 T cells recognizing the PDC-E2 immunodominant epitope are critical in the pathogenesis of PBC. We identifed the key pathogenic CD8 T cell subset, and worked out the mechanisms of its hyperactivation and longevity, which could be exploited therapeutically.
Inhibition of the glucose transporter SGLT2 with dapagliflozin in pancreatic alpha cells triggers glucagon secretion.
Bonner Caroline,Kerr-Conte Julie,Gmyr Valéry,Queniat Gurvan,Moerman Ericka,Thévenet Julien,Beaucamps Cédric,Delalleau Nathalie,Popescu Iuliana,Malaisse Willy J,Sener Abdullah,Deprez Benoit,Abderrahmani Amar,Staels Bart,Pattou François
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from a deficiency in insulin signaling, because of insulin resistance and/or defects in insulin secretion; it is also associated with increases in glucagon and endogenous glucose production (EGP). Gliflozins, including dapagliflozin, are a new class of approved oral antidiabetic agents that specifically inhibit sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) function in the kidney, thus preventing renal glucose reabsorption and increasing glycosuria in diabetic individuals while reducing hyperglycemia. However, gliflozin treatment in subjects with T2D increases both plasma glucagon and EGP by unknown mechanisms. In spite of the rise in EGP, T2D patients treated with gliflozin have lower blood glucose levels than those receiving placebo, possibly because of increased glycosuria; however, the resulting increase in plasma glucagon levels represents a possible concerning side effect, especially in a patient population already affected by hyperglucagonemia. Here we demonstrate that SGLT2 is expressed in glucagon-secreting alpha cells of the pancreatic islets. We further found that expression of SLC5A2 (which encodes SGLT2) was lower and glucagon (GCG) gene expression was higher in islets from T2D individuals and in normal islets exposed to chronic hyperglycemia than in islets from non-diabetics. Moreover, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-α (HNF4A) is specifically expressed in human alpha cells, in which it controls SLC5A2 expression, and its expression is downregulated by hyperglycemia. In addition, inhibition of either SLC5A2 via siRNA-induced gene silencing or SGLT2 via dapagliflozin treatment in human islets triggered glucagon secretion through KATP channel activation. Finally, we found that dapagliflozin treatment further promotes glucagon secretion and hepatic gluconeogenesis in healthy mice, thereby limiting the decrease of plasma glucose induced by fasting. Collectively, these results identify a heretofore unknown role of SGLT2 and designate dapagliflozin an alpha cell secretagogue.
Single-cell transcriptomics reveals a distinct developmental state of KMT2A-rearranged infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
KMT2A-rearranged infant ALL is an aggressive childhood leukemia with poor prognosis. Here, we investigated the developmental state of KMT2A-rearranged infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) using bulk messenger RNA (mRNA) meta-analysis and examination of single lymphoblast transcriptomes against a developing bone marrow reference. KMT2A-rearranged infant B-ALL was uniquely dominated by an early lymphocyte precursor (ELP) state, whereas less adverse NUTM1-rearranged infant ALL demonstrated signals of later developing B cells, in line with most other childhood B-ALLs. We compared infant lymphoblasts with ELP cells and revealed that the cancer harbored hybrid myeloid-lymphoid features, including nonphysiological antigen combinations potentially targetable to achieve cancer specificity. We validated surface coexpression of exemplar combinations by flow cytometry. Through analysis of shared mutations in separate leukemias from a child with infant KMT2A-rearranged B-ALL relapsing as AML, we established that KMT2A rearrangement occurred in very early development, before hematopoietic specification, emphasizing that cell of origin cannot be inferred from the transcriptional state.
Novel self-amplificatory loop between T cells and tenocytes as a driver of chronicity in tendon disease.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases
OBJECTIVES:Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory mechanisms play a key role in chronic tendon disease. After observing T cell signatures in human tendinopathy, we explored the interaction between T cells and tendon stromal cells or tenocytes to define their functional contribution to tissue remodelling and inflammation amplification and hence disease perpetuation. METHODS:T cells were quantified and characterised in healthy and tendinopathic tissues by flow cytometry (FACS), imaging mass cytometry (IMC) and single cell RNA-seq. Tenocyte activation induced by conditioned media from primary damaged tendon or interleukin-1β was evaluated by qPCR. The role of tenocytes in regulating T cell migration was interrogated in a standard transwell membrane system. T cell activation (cell surface markers by FACS and cytokine release by ELISA) and changes in gene expression in tenocytes (qPCR) were assessed in cocultures of T cells and explanted tenocytes. RESULTS:Significant quantitative differences were observed in healthy compared with tendinopathic tissues. IMC showed T cells in close proximity to tenocytes, suggesting tenocyte-T cell interactions. On activation, tenocytes upregulated inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules implicated in T cell recruitment and activation. Conditioned media from activated tenocytes induced T cell migration and coculture of tenocytes with T cells resulted in reciprocal activation of T cells. In turn, these activated T cells upregulated production of inflammatory mediators in tenocytes, while increasing the pathogenic collagen 3/collagen 1 ratio. CONCLUSIONS:Interaction between T cells and tenocytes induces the expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in tenocytes, alters collagen composition favouring collagen 3 and self-amplifies T cell activation via an auto-regulatory feedback loop. Selectively targeting this adaptive/stromal interface may provide novel translational strategies in the management of human tendon disorders.
Multitheragnostic Multi-GNRs Crystal-Seeded Magnetic Nanoseaurchin for Enhanced In Vivo Mesenchymal-Stem-Cell Homing, Multimodal Imaging, and Stroke Therapy.
Chen Po-Jung,Kang Yi-Da,Lin Chen-Huan,Chen San-Yuan,Hsieh Chia-Hung,Chen You-Yin,Chiang Chun-Wei,Lee Wei,Hsu Chung-Y,Liao Lun-De,Fan Chih-Tai,Li Meng-Lin,Shyu Woei-Cherng
Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.)
A multifunctional nanoseaurchin probe in which mesoporous silica nanobeads with iron oxide nanoparticles embedded and multi-gold nanorods crystal-seeded are fabricated and labeled with umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells through endocytosis. This nanoplatform enables efficient magnetic remote-controlled guiding for stem cell homing, and provides dual modalities of photoacoustic imaging and magnetic resonance imaging for in situ tracking and long-term monitoring to achieve therapeutic efficacy.
Hypoxia induced HMGB1 and mitochondrial DNA interactions mediate tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma through Toll-like receptor 9.
Liu Yao,Yan Wei,Tohme Samer,Chen Man,Fu Yu,Tian Dean,Lotze Michael,Tang Daolin,Tsung Allan
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:The mechanisms of hypoxia-induced tumor growth remain unclear. Hypoxia induces intracellular translocation and release of a variety of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as nuclear HMGB1 and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In inflammation, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-9 activation by DNA-containing immune complexes has been shown to be mediated by HMGB1. We thus hypothesize that HMGB1 binds mtDNA in the cytoplasm of hypoxic tumor cells and promotes tumor growth through activating TLR9 signaling pathways. METHODS:C57BL6 mice were injected with Hepa1-6 cancer cells. TLR9 and HMGB1 were inhibited using shRNA or direct antagonists. HuH7 and Hepa1-6 cancer cells were investigated in vitro to determine how the interaction of HMGB1 and mtDNA activates TLR9 signaling pathways. RESULTS:During hypoxia, HMGB1 translocates from the nucleus to the cytosol and binds to mtDNA released from damaged mitochondria. This complex subsequently activates TLR9 signaling pathways to promote tumor cell proliferation. Loss of HMGB1 or mtDNA leads to a defect in TLR9 signaling pathways in response to hypoxia, resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation. Also, the addition of HMGB1 and mtDNA leads to the activation of TLR9 and subsequent tumor cell proliferation. Moreover, TLR9 is overexpressed in both hypoxic tumor cells in vitro and in human hepatocellular cancer (HCC) specimens; and, injection in mice to knockdown either HMGB1 or TLR9 from HCC cells suppressed tumor growth in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Our data reveals a novel mechanism by which the interactions of HMGB1 and mtDNA activate TLR9 signaling during hypoxia to induce tumor growth.
CD4⁺ T cells from IPEX patients convert into functional and stable regulatory T cells by FOXP3 gene transfer.
Passerini Laura,Rossi Mel Eva,Sartirana Claudia,Fousteri Georgia,Bondanza Attilio,Naldini Luigi,Roncarolo Maria Grazia,Bacchetta Rosa
Science translational medicine
In humans, mutations in the gene encoding for forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), a critically important transcription factor for CD4⁺CD25⁺ regulatory T (T(reg)) cell function, lead to a life-threatening systemic poly-autoimmune disease, known as immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome. Severe autoimmunity results from the inborn dysfunction and instability of FOXP3-mutated T(reg) cells. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only current curative option for affected patients. We show here that when CD4⁺ T cells are converted into T(reg) cells after lentivirus-mediated FOXP3 gene transfer, the resulting CD4(FOXP3) T cell population displays stable phenotype and suppressive function, especially when naïve T cells are converted. We further demonstrate that CD4(FOXP3) T cells are stable in inflammatory conditions not only in vitro but also in vivo in a model of xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease. We therefore applied this FOXP3 gene transfer strategy for the development of a T(reg) cell-based therapeutic approach to restore tolerance in IPEX syndrome. IPEX-derived CD4(FOXP3) T cells mirrored T(reg) cells from healthy donors in terms of cellular markers, anergic phenotype, cytokine production, and suppressive function. These findings pave the way for the treatment of IPEX patients by adoptive cell therapy with genetically engineered T(reg) cells and are seminal for future potential application in patients with autoimmune disorders of different origin.
Virus-specific CD4+ T cell responses in chronic HCV infection in blood and liver identified by antigen-specific upregulation of CD154.
Mueller Mareike,Spangenberg Hans Christian,Kersting Nadine,Altay Tayibe,Blum Hubert E,Klenerman Paul,Thimme Robert,Semmo Nasser
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Virus-specific CD4+ T cells play a major role in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Viral clearance is associated with vigorous and multispecific CD4+ T cell responses, while chronic infection has been shown to be associated with weak or absent T cell responses. Most of these studies, however, have used functional assays to analyse virus-specific CD4+ T cell responses. Therefore, the important question, of whether virus-specific CD4+ T cells are completely absent or primarily impaired in specific effector functions during chronic infection, has yet to be analysed in detail. METHODS:To address this issue, a novel assay, where CD4+ T cell frequencies can be determined by de novo CD154 (CD40 ligand) expression in response to HCV antigens, was used in a cohort of chronically infected HCV patients and patients who spontaneously resolved HCV infection. These responses were compared to functional assays, such as the IFN-gamma ELISpot and flow cytometry-based proliferative assays. RESULTS:Our results reveal that using the CD154 assay, virus-specific CD4+ T cells are readily detectable during chronic HCV infection albeit at a lower frequency when compared to patients who spontaneously resolved the infection. Importantly, no CD4+ T cell responses were detectable from these patients when using functional assays. Finally, these cell populations were enriched in the intrahepatic compartment. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that HCV-specific CD4+ T cell responses are readily detectable in chronic HCV infection and enriched in the infected liver.
The CUL5 ubiquitin ligase complex mediates resistance to CDK9 and MCL1 inhibitors in lung cancer cells.
Kabir Shaheen,Cidado Justin,Andersen Courtney,Dick Cortni,Lin Pei-Chun,Mitros Therese,Ma Hong,Baik Seung Hyun,Belmonte Matthew A,Drew Lisa,Corn Jacob E
Overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins MCL1 and Bcl-xL are frequently observed in many cancers. Inhibitors targeting MCL1 are in clinical development, however numerous cancer models are intrinsically resistant to this approach. To discover mechanisms underlying resistance to MCL1 inhibition, we performed multiple flow-cytometry based genome-wide CRISPR screens interrogating two drugs that directly (MCL1i) or indirectly (CDK9i) target MCL1. Remarkably, both screens identified three components (CUL5, RNF7 and UBE2F) of a cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase complex (CRL5) that resensitized cells to MCL1 inhibition. We find that levels of the BH3-only pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and Noxa are proteasomally regulated by the CRL5 complex. Accumulation of Noxa caused by depletion of CRL5 components was responsible for re-sensitization to CDK9 inhibitor, but not MCL1 inhibitor. Discovery of a novel role of CRL5 in apoptosis and resistance to multiple types of anticancer agents suggests the potential to improve combination treatments.
Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells Program a Distinct Subset of IL-22BP-Producing Dendritic Cells Demarcating Solitary Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues.
Guendel Fabian,Kofoed-Branzk Michael,Gronke Konrad,Tizian Caroline,Witkowski Mario,Cheng Hung-Wei,Heinz Gitta Anne,Heinrich Frederik,Durek Pawel,Norris Paula S,Ware Carl F,Ruedl Christiane,Herold Susanne,Pfeffer Klaus,Hehlgans Thomas,Waisman Ari,Becher Burkhard,Giannou Anastasios D,Brachs Sebastian,Ebert Karolina,Tanriver Yakup,Ludewig Burkhard,Mashreghi Mir-Farzin,Kruglov Andrey A,Diefenbach Andreas
Solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues such as cryptopatches (CPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) constitute steady-state activation hubs containing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) that continuously produce interleukin (IL)-22. The outer surface of CPs and ILFs is demarcated by a poorly characterized population of CD11c cells. Using genome-wide single-cell transcriptional profiling of intestinal mononuclear phagocytes and multidimensional flow cytometry, we found that CP- and ILF-associated CD11c cells were a transcriptionally distinct subset of intestinal cDCs, which we term CIA-DCs. CIA-DCs required programming by CP- and ILF-resident CCR6 ILC3 via lymphotoxin-β receptor signaling in cDCs. CIA-DCs differentially expressed genes associated with immunoregulation and were the major cellular source of IL-22 binding protein (IL-22BP) at steady state. Mice lacking CIA-DC-derived IL-22BP exhibited diminished expression of epithelial lipid transporters, reduced lipid resorption, and changes in body fat homeostasis. Our findings provide insight into the design principles of an immunoregulatory checkpoint controlling nutrient absorption.
Inflammatory type 2 conventional dendritic cells contribute to murine and human cholangitis.
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive cholangiopathy characterised by fibrotic stricturing and inflammation of bile ducts, which seems to be driven by a maladaptive immune response to bile duct injury. The histological finding of dendritic cell expansion in portal fields of patients with PSC prompted us to investigate the role of dendritic cells in orchestrating the immune response to bile duct injury. METHODS:Dendritic cell numbers and subtypes were determined in different mouse models of cholangitis by flow cytometry based on lineage-imprinted markers. Findings were confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy of murine livers, and liver samples from patients with PSC were compared to control samples from bariatric surgery patients. Using genetic tools, selected dendritic cell subsets were depleted in murine cholangitis. The dendritic cell response to bile duct injury was determined by single-cell transcriptomics. RESULTS:Cholangitis mouse models were characterised by selective intrahepatic expansion of type 2 conventional dendritic cells, whereas plasmacytoid and type 1 conventional dendritic cells were not expanded. Expansion of type 2 conventional dendritic cells in human PSC lesions was confirmed by histology. Depletion studies revealed a proinflammatory role of type 2 conventional dendritic cells. Single-cell transcriptomics confirmed inflammatory maturation of the intrahepatic type 2 conventional dendritic cells and identified dendritic cell-derived inflammatory mediators. CONCLUSIONS:Cholangitis is characterised by intrahepatic expansion and inflammatory maturation of type 2 conventional dendritic cells in response to biliary injury. Therefore, type 2 conventional dendritic cells and their inflammatory mediators might be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of PSC. LAY SUMMARY:Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an inflammatory liver disease of the bile ducts for which there is no effective treatment. Herein, we show that the inflammatory immune response to bile duct injury is organised by a specific subtype of immune cell called conventional type 2 dendritic cells. Our findings suggest that this cell subtype and the inflammatory molecules it produces are potential therapeutic targets for PSC.
Abnormal plasma microparticles impair vasoconstrictor responses in patients with cirrhosis.
Rautou Pierre-Emmanuel,Bresson Julie,Sainte-Marie Yannis,Vion Anne-Clemence,Paradis Valerie,Renard Jean-Marie,Devue Cecile,Heymes Christophe,Letteron Philippe,Elkrief Laure,Lebrec Didier,Valla Dominique,Tedgui Alain,Moreau Richard,Boulanger Chantal M
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Circulating membrane-shed microparticles (MPs) participate in regulation of vascular tone. We investigated the cellular origins of MPs in plasma from patients with cirrhosis and assessed the contribution of MPs to arterial vasodilation, a mechanism that contributes to portal hypertension. METHODS:We analyzed MPs from blood samples of 91 patients with cirrhosis and 30 healthy individuals (controls) using flow cytometry; their effects on the vascular response to vasoconstrictors were examined in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS:Circulating levels of leuko-endothelial (CD31(+)/41(-)), pan-leukocyte (CD11a(+)), lymphocyte (CD4(+)), and erythrocyte (CD235a(+)) MPs were higher in patients with cirrhosis than in controls. Plasma of patients with cirrhosis contained hepatocyte-derived MPs (cytokeratin-18(+)), whereas plasma from controls did not. The severity of cirrhosis and systemic inflammation were major determinants of the levels of leuko-endothelial and hepatocyte MPs. MPs from patients with advanced cirrhosis significantly impaired contraction of vessels in response to phenylephrine, whereas MPs from healthy controls or from patients of Child-Pugh class A did not. This effect depended on cyclooxygenase type 1 and required phosphatidylserine on the surface of MPs. Intravenous injection of MPs from patients with cirrhosis into BALB/C mice decreased mean arterial blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS:Cirrhosis is associated with increases in circulating subpopulations of MPs, likely resulting from systemic inflammation and liver cell damage. The overall pool of circulating MPs from patients with advanced cirrhosis impairs vasoconstrictor responses and decreases blood pressure, contributing to the arterial vasodilation associated with portal hypertension.
Acalabrutinib, venetoclax, and obinutuzumab as frontline treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a single-arm, open-label, phase 2 study.
Davids Matthew S,Lampson Benjamin L,Tyekucheva Svitlana,Wang Zixu,Lowney Jessica C,Pazienza Samantha,Montegaard Josie,Patterson Victoria,Weinstock Matthew,Crombie Jennifer L,Ng Samuel Y,Kim Austin I,Jacobson Caron A,LaCasce Ann S,Armand Philippe,Arnason Jon E,Fisher David C,Brown Jennifer R
The Lancet. Oncology
BACKGROUND:Both continuous therapy with acalabrutinib and fixed-duration therapy with venetoclax-obinutuzumab are effective for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. We hypothesised that frontline time-limited, minimal residual disease (MRD)-guided triplet therapy with acalabrutinib, venetoclax, and obinutuzumab would induce deep (ie, more patients with undetectable MRD) and durable remissions. METHODS:In this open-label, single-arm, investigator-sponsored, phase 2 study, patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma were recruited from two academic hospitals in Boston, MA, USA. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and were treatment naive. Patients were treated in 28 day cycles. Acalabrutinib monotherapy was given orally at 100 mg twice daily for cycle 1, then combined for six cycles with intravenous obinutuzumab (100 mg on cycle 2 day 1, 900 mg on day 2, 1000 mg on day 8, and 1000 mg on day 15 and on day 1 of cycles 3-7); and from the beginning of cycle 4, oral venetoclax was dosed daily using an accelerated ramp-up from 20 mg on day 1 to 400 mg by day 22 and continued at this dose thereafter. Patients continued on acalabrutinib 100 mg twice daily and venetoclax 400 mg once daily until day 1 of cycle 16 or day 1 of cycle 25. If the patient had undetectable MRD in the bone marrow they were given the option to discontinue therapy at the start of cycle 16 (if also in complete remission) or at the start of cycle 25 (if at least in partial remission). The primary endpoint was complete remission with undetectable MRD in the bone marrow (defined as <1 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cell per 10 000 leucocytes as measured by four-colour flow cytometry), at cycle 16 day 1. Safety and activity endpoints were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of any study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03580928, and is ongoing. FINDINGS:Between Aug 2, 2018, and May 23, 2019, 37 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were enrolled and all received at least one dose of any study drug. The median age of patients was 63 years (IQR 57-70), and ten (27%) were female and 27 (73%) were male. Median follow-up was 27·6 months (IQR 25·1-28·2). At cycle 16 day 1, 14 (38% [95% CI 22-55]) of 37 participants had a complete remission with undetectable MRD in the bone marrow. The most common grade 3 or 4 haematological adverse event was neutropenia (16 [43%] of 37 patients). The most common grade 3-4 non-haematological adverse events were hyperglycaemia (three [8%]) and hypophosphataemia (three [8%]). Serious adverse events occurred in nine (24%) patients; the most common was neutropenia in three (8%) patients. There have been no deaths on study. INTERPRETATION:Acalabrutinib, venetoclax, and obinutuzumab is a highly active and well tolerated frontline therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Although the primary endpoint of this study was not met, the high proportion of patients who had undetectable MRD in the bone marrow supports further investigation of this regimen, which is being tested against acalabrutinib-venetoclax and chemoimmunotherapy in an ongoing phase 3 study (NCT03836261). FUNDING:AstraZeneca and a Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Collaborative Award.
Selection of a T7 promoter mutant with enhanced in vitro activity by a novel multi-copy bead display approach for in vitro evolution.
Paul Siddhartha,Stang Alexander,Lennartz Klaus,Tenbusch Matthias,Überla Klaus
Nucleic acids research
In vitro evolution of nucleic acids and proteins is a powerful strategy to optimize their biological and physical properties. To select proteins with the desired phenotype from large gene libraries, the proteins need to be linked to the gene they are encoded by. To facilitate selection of the desired phenotype and isolation of the encoding DNA, a novel bead display approach was developed, in which each member of a library of beads is first linked to multiple copies of a clonal gene variant by emulsion polymerase chain reaction. Beads are transferred to a second emulsion for an in vitro transcription-translation reaction, in which the protein encoded by each bead's amplicon covalently binds to the bead present in the same picoliter reactor. The beads then contain multiple copies of a clonal gene variant and multiple molecules of the protein encoded by the bead's gene variant and serve as the unit of selection. As a proof of concept, we screened a randomized library of the T7 promoter for high expression levels by flow cytometry and identified a T7 promoter variant with an ~10-fold higher in vitro transcriptional activity, confirming that the multi-copy bead display approach can be efficiently applied to in vitro evolution.
The activation trajectory of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in vivo during a viral infection.
Abbas Abdenour,Vu Manh Thien-Phong,Valente Michael,Collinet Nils,Attaf Noudjoud,Dong Chuang,Naciri Karima,Chelbi Rabie,Brelurut Geoffray,Cervera-Marzal Inaki,Rauwel Benjamin,Davignon Jean-Luc,Bessou Gilles,Thomas-Chollier Morgane,Thieffry Denis,Villani Alexandra-Chloé,Milpied Pierre,Dalod Marc,Tomasello Elena
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a major source of type I interferon (IFN-I). What other functions pDCs exert in vivo during viral infections is controversial, and more studies are needed to understand their orchestration. In the present study, we characterize in depth and link pDC activation states in animals infected by mouse cytomegalovirus by combining Ifnb1 reporter mice with flow cytometry, single-cell RNA sequencing, confocal microscopy and a cognate CD4 T cell activation assay. We show that IFN-I production and T cell activation were performed by the same pDC, but these occurred sequentially in time and in different micro-anatomical locations. In addition, we show that pDC commitment to IFN-I production was marked early on by their downregulation of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor and was promoted by cell-intrinsic tumor necrosis factor signaling. We propose a new model for how individual pDCs are endowed to exert different functions in vivo during a viral infection, in a manner tightly orchestrated in time and space.
Stimulation of hepatocarcinogenesis by neutrophils upon induction of oncogenic kras expression in transgenic zebrafish.
Yan Chuan,Huo Xiaojing,Wang Shu,Feng Yi,Gong Zhiyuan
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Chronic inflammation is a major etiological factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but how immune cells respond in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis remains uncharacterized. This study aims to investigate the response and roles of neutrophils in early hepatocarcinogenesis. METHODS:By inducible expression of oncogenic kras(V12) in hepatocytes in transgenic zebrafish combined with live imaging of neutrophils in transparent larvae, the response of neutrophils to oncogenic liver was characterized and their roles investigated by pharmaceutical and genetic manipulations. RESULTS:We found a rapid recruitment of neutrophils to the liver upon induction of kras(V12) expression. Pharmaceutical stimulation of neutrophils resulted in further increases of neutrophils in oncogenic livers, liver size and tumor severity, while inhibition of neutrophils caused decreases of liver-associated neutrophils and liver size. Time-lapse video indicated that neutrophils had a stagnant migratory pattern meandering along the tumor edge but became relatively stationary upon entering the kras(V12)-expressing liver. Both oncogenic hepatocytes and tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) were isolated via fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Molecular analyses indicated a pro-inflammatory microenvironment, as marked by increased tgfβ1a expression in kras(V12)-expressing hepatocytes and a loss of anti-tumor activities in TANs. Depletion of Tgf-β significantly reduced the number of TANs and the size of oncogenic liver. CONCLUSIONS:An inflammatory cue from oncogenic hepatocytes upon induction of kras(V12) expression causes a rapid recruitment of neutrophils to oncogenic liver and the neutrophils play a promoting role in early hepatocarcinogenesis.
Circulating endothelial progenitor cells in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Borghesi Alessandro,Massa Margherita,Campanelli Rita,Bollani Lina,Tzialla Chryssoula,Figar Tiziana A,Ferrari Giovanna,Bonetti Elisa,Chiesa Gaia,de Silvestri Annalisa,Spinillo Arsenio,Rosti Vittorio,Stronati Mauro
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
RATIONALE:The new form of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by lung immaturity with disrupted alveolar and capillary development after extremely premature birth, but the mechanism of impaired lung vascular formation is still not completely understood. OBJECTIVES:We tested the hypothesis that reduced numbers of circulating endothelial progenitor cells at birth are associated with the development of BPD. METHODS:We studied ninety-eight preterm infants with gestational age of less than 32 weeks or a birth weight less than 1,500 g. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) were assessed by clonogenic analysis in infants for whom cord blood was available. The proportion of circulating endothelial and hematopoietic cells was measured by flow cytometry at birth, at 48 hours, and at 7 days of life. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:ECFCs in cord blood were lower in infants who later developed BPD (median [range]: 0.00 [0.00-0.48] vs. 2.00 [0.00-21.87]; P = 0.002). ECFCs decreased with decreasing gestational age (r = 0.41; P = 0.02), but even at extremely low gestational ages, infants with higher numbers of ECFCs were protected from BPD. The endothelial and hematopoietic cell subsets studied by flow cytometry were comparable in infants with and without BPD and rapidly decreased after birth. CONCLUSIONS:ECFCs are low at extremely low gestational ages and increase during gestation; extremely preterm infants who display lower numbers at birth have an increased risk of developing BPD. Our findings suggest that decreased ECFCs following extremely preterm birth may be associated with the risk for developing lung vascular immaturity characteristic of new BPD.
Quantitative microbiome profiling links gut community variation to microbial load.
Vandeputte Doris,Kathagen Gunter,D'hoe Kevin,Vieira-Silva Sara,Valles-Colomer Mireia,Sabino João,Wang Jun,Tito Raul Y,De Commer Lindsey,Darzi Youssef,Vermeire Séverine,Falony Gwen,Raes Jeroen
Current sequencing-based analyses of faecal microbiota quantify microbial taxa and metabolic pathways as fractions of the sample sequence library generated by each analysis. Although these relative approaches permit detection of disease-associated microbiome variation, they are limited in their ability to reveal the interplay between microbiota and host health. Comparative analyses of relative microbiome data cannot provide information about the extent or directionality of changes in taxa abundance or metabolic potential. If microbial load varies substantially between samples, relative profiling will hamper attempts to link microbiome features to quantitative data such as physiological parameters or metabolite concentrations. Saliently, relative approaches ignore the possibility that altered overall microbiota abundance itself could be a key identifier of a disease-associated ecosystem configuration. To enable genuine characterization of host-microbiota interactions, microbiome research must exchange ratios for counts. Here we build a workflow for the quantitative microbiome profiling of faecal material, through parallelization of amplicon sequencing and flow cytometric enumeration of microbial cells. We observe up to tenfold differences in the microbial loads of healthy individuals and relate this variation to enterotype differentiation. We show how microbial abundances underpin both microbiota variation between individuals and covariation with host phenotype. Quantitative profiling bypasses compositionality effects in the reconstruction of gut microbiota interaction networks and reveals that the taxonomic trade-off between Bacteroides and Prevotella is an artefact of relative microbiome analyses. Finally, we identify microbial load as a key driver of observed microbiota alterations in a cohort of patients with Crohn's disease, here associated with a low-cell-count Bacteroides enterotype (as defined through relative profiling).
Circulating microparticles as disease-specific biomarkers of severity of inflammation in patients with hepatitis C or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
Kornek Miroslaw,Lynch Michael,Mehta Shruti H,Lai Michelle,Exley Mark,Afdhal Nezam H,Schuppan Detlef
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Microparticles released into the bloodstream upon activation or apoptosis of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells correlate with inflammation as determined by histologic analysis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can be differentiated from those with CHC based on activation of distinct sets of immune cells in the liver. METHODS:We compared profiles of circulating microparticles from patients with NAFL and NASH (n = 67) to those of CHC (n = 42), with healthy individuals (controls) using flow cytometry; the profiles were correlated with inflammation grade and fibrosis stage based on histologic analyses. We assessed the ability of the profiles to determine the severity of inflammation and fibrosis based on serologic and histologic analyses. RESULTS:Patients with CHC had increased levels of microparticles from CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells; the levels correlated with disease severity based on histologic analysis and levels of alanine aminotransferase. Patients with NAFL or NASH had significant increases in numbers of microparticles from invariant natural killer T cells and macrophages/monocytes (CD14(+)), which mediate pathogenesis of NASH. Microparticles from CD14(+) and invariant natural killer T cells correlated with levels of alanine aminotransferase and severity of NASH (based on histology). Levels of microparticles could differentiate between patients with NAFL or NASH and those with CHC, or either group of patients and controls (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves ranging from 0.56 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS:Quantification of immune cell microparticles from serum samples can be used to assess the extent and characteristics of hepatic inflammation in patients with chronic liver disease.
Exploring the neuropsychiatric spectrum using high-content functional analysis of single-cell signaling networks.
Neuropsychiatric disorders overlap in symptoms and share genetic risk factors, challenging their current classification into distinct diagnostic categories. Novel cross-disorder approaches are needed to improve our understanding of the heterogeneous nature of neuropsychiatric diseases and overcome existing bottlenecks in their diagnosis and treatment. Here we employ high-content multi-parameter phospho-specific flow cytometry, fluorescent cell barcoding and automated sample preparation to characterize ex vivo signaling network responses (n = 1764) measured at the single-cell level in B and T lymphocytes across patients diagnosed with four major neuropsychiatric disorders: autism spectrum condition (ASC), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ; n = 25 each), alongside matched healthy controls (n = 100). We identified 25 nodes (individual cell subtype-epitope-ligand combinations) significantly altered relative to the control group, with variable overlap between different neuropsychiatric diseases and heterogeneously expressed at the level of each individual patient. Reconstruction of the diagnostic categories from the altered nodes revealed an overlapping neuropsychiatric spectrum extending from MDD on one end, through BD and SCZ, to ASC on the other end. Network analysis showed that although the pathway structure of the epitopes was broadly preserved across the clinical groups, there were multiple discrete alterations in network connectivity, such as disconnections within the antigen/integrin receptor pathway and increased negative regulation within the Akt1 pathway in CD4 T cells from ASC and SCZ patients, in addition to increased correlation of Stat1 (pY701) and Stat5 (pY694) responses in B cells from BD and MDD patients. Our results support the "dimensional" approach to neuropsychiatric disease classification and suggest potential novel drug targets along the neuropsychiatric spectrum.
Multiscale PHATE identifies multimodal signatures of COVID-19.
As the biomedical community produces datasets that are increasingly complex and high dimensional, there is a need for more sophisticated computational tools to extract biological insights. We present Multiscale PHATE, a method that sweeps through all levels of data granularity to learn abstracted biological features directly predictive of disease outcome. Built on a coarse-graining process called diffusion condensation, Multiscale PHATE learns a data topology that can be analyzed at coarse resolutions for high-level summarizations of data and at fine resolutions for detailed representations of subsets. We apply Multiscale PHATE to a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) dataset with 54 million cells from 168 hospitalized patients and find that patients who die show CD16CD66b neutrophil and IFN-γ granzyme B Th17 cell responses. We also show that population groupings from Multiscale PHATE directly fed into a classifier predict disease outcome more accurately than naive featurizations of the data. Multiscale PHATE is broadly generalizable to different data types, including flow cytometry, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), single-cell sequencing assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (scATAC-seq), and clinical variables.
The Cell-Intrinsic Circadian Clock Is Dispensable for Lymphocyte Differentiation and Function.
Hemmers Saskia,Rudensky Alexander Y
Circadian rhythms regulate many aspects of physiology, ranging from sleep-wake cycles and metabolic parameters to susceptibility to infection. The molecular clock, with transcription factor BMAL1 at its core, controls both central and cell-intrinsic circadian rhythms. Using a circadian reporter, we observed dynamic regulation of clock activity in lymphocytes. However, its disruption upon conditional Bmal1 ablation did not alter T- or B-cell differentiation or function. Although the magnitude of interleukin 2 (IL-2) production was affected by the time of bacterial infection, it was independent of cell-intrinsic expression of BMAL1. The circadian gating of the IL-2 response was preserved in Bmal1-deficient T cells, despite a slight reduction in cytokine production in a competitive setting. Our results suggest that, contrary to the prevailing view, the adaptive immune response is not affected by the cell-intrinsic clock but is likely influenced by cell-extrinsic circadian cues operating across multiple cell types.
Quantitative High-Resolution Cellular Map of the Organ of Corti.
Waldhaus Jörg,Durruthy-Durruthy Robert,Heller Stefan
The organ of Corti harbors highly specialized sensory hair cells and surrounding supporting cells that are essential for the sense of hearing. Here, we report a single cell gene expression data analysis and visualization strategy that allows for the construction of a quantitative spatial map of the neonatal organ of Corti along its major anatomical axes. The map displays gene expression levels of 192 genes for all organ of Corti cell types ordered along the apex-to-base axis of the cochlea. Statistical interrogation of cell-type-specific gene expression patterns along the longitudinal gradient revealed features of apical supporting cells indicative of a propensity for proliferative hair cell regeneration. This includes reduced expression of Notch effectors, receptivity for canonical Wnt signaling, and prominent expression of early cell-cycle genes. Cochlear hair cells displayed expression gradients of genes indicative of cellular differentiation and the establishment of the tonotopic axis.
Transcriptional profiling of cells sorted by RNA abundance.
Klemm Sandy,Semrau Stefan,Wiebrands Kay,Mooijman Dylan,Faddah Dina A,Jaenisch Rudolf,van Oudenaarden Alexander
We have developed a quantitative technique for sorting cells on the basis of endogenous RNA abundance, with a molecular resolution of 10-20 transcripts. We demonstrate efficient and unbiased RNA extraction from transcriptionally sorted cells and report a high-fidelity transcriptome measurement of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) isolated from a heterogeneous reprogramming culture. This method is broadly applicable to profiling transcriptionally distinct cellular states without requiring antibodies or transgenic fluorescent proteins.
Individual Human Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Exhibit Intraclonal Heterogeneity during Sustained Killing.
Vasconcelos Zilton,Müller Sabina,Guipouy Delphine,Yu Wong,Christophe Claire,Gadat Sébastien,Valitutti Salvatore,Dupré Loïc
The killing of antigen-bearing cells by clonal populations of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is thought to be a rapid phenomenon executed uniformly by individual CTLs. We combined bulk and single-CTL killing assays over a prolonged time period to provide the killing statistics of clonal human CTLs against an excess of target cells. Our data reveal efficiency in sustained killing at the population level, which relied on a highly heterogeneous multiple killing performance at the individual level. Although intraclonal functional heterogeneity was a stable trait in clonal populations, it was reset in the progeny of individual CTLs. In-depth mathematical analysis of individual CTL killing data revealed a substantial proportion of high-rate killer CTLs with burst killing activity. Importantly, such activity was delayed and required activation with strong antigenic stimulation. Our study implies that functional heterogeneity allows CTL populations to calibrate prolonged cytotoxic activity to the size of target cell populations.
FIREWACh: high-throughput functional detection of transcriptional regulatory modules in mammalian cells.
Murtha Matthew,Tokcaer-Keskin Zeynep,Tang Zuojian,Strino Francesco,Chen Xi,Wang Yatong,Xi Xiangmei,Basilico Claudio,Brown Stuart,Bonneau Richard,Kluger Yuval,Dailey Lisa
Promoters and enhancers establish precise gene transcription patterns. The development of functional approaches for their identification in mammalian cells has been complicated by the size of these genomes. Here we report a high-throughput functional assay for directly identifying active promoter and enhancer elements called FIREWACh (Functional Identification of Regulatory Elements Within Accessible Chromatin), which we used to simultaneously assess over 80,000 DNA fragments derived from nucleosome-free regions within the chromatin of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and identify 6,364 active regulatory elements. Many of these represent newly discovered ESC-specific enhancers, showing enriched binding-site motifs for ESC-specific transcription factors including SOX2, POU5F1 (OCT4) and KLF4. The application of FIREWACh to additional cultured cell types will facilitate functional annotation of the genome and expand our view of transcriptional network dynamics.
Nilotinib reduces muscle fibrosis in chronic muscle injury by promoting TNF-mediated apoptosis of fibro/adipogenic progenitors.
Lemos Dario R,Babaeijandaghi Farshad,Low Marcela,Chang Chih-Kai,Lee Sunny T,Fiore Daniela,Zhang Regan-Heng,Natarajan Anuradha,Nedospasov Sergei A,Rossi Fabio M V
Depending on the inflammatory milieu, injury can result either in a tissue's complete regeneration or in its degeneration and fibrosis, the latter of which could potentially lead to permanent organ failure. Yet how inflammatory cells regulate matrix-producing cells involved in the reparative process is unknown. Here we show that in acutely damaged skeletal muscle, sequential interactions between multipotent mesenchymal progenitors and infiltrating inflammatory cells determine the outcome of the reparative process. We found that infiltrating inflammatory macrophages, through their expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), directly induce apoptosis of fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs). In states of chronic damage, however, such as those in mdx mice, macrophages express high levels of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), which prevents the apoptosis of FAPs and induces their differentiation into matrix-producing cells. Treatment with nilotinib, a kinase inhibitor with proposed anti-fibrotic activity, can block the effect of TGF-β1 and reduce muscle fibrosis in mdx mice. Our findings reveal an unexpected anti-fibrotic role of TNF and suggest that disruption of the precisely timed progression from a TNF-rich to a TGF-β-rich environment favors fibrotic degeneration of the muscle during chronic injury.