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    Remodeling phenotype of human subcutaneous adipose tissue macrophages. Bourlier V,Zakaroff-Girard A,Miranville A,De Barros S,Maumus M,Sengenes C,Galitzky J,Lafontan M,Karpe F,Frayn K N,Bouloumié A Circulation BACKGROUND:Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) have become a focus of attention recently because they have been shown to accumulate with an increase in fat mass and to be involved in the genesis of insulin resistance in obese mice. However, the phenotype and functions of human ATMs are still to be defined. METHODS AND RESULTS:The present study, performed on human subcutaneous AT, showed that ATMs from lean to overweight individuals are composed of distinct macrophage subsets based on the expression of several cell surface markers: CD45, CD14, CD31, CD44, HLA-DR, CD206, and CD16, as assessed by flow cytometry. ATMs isolated by an immunoselection protocol showed a mixed expression of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-23, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-8, cyclooxygenase-2) and antiinflammatory (IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta, alternative macrophage activation-associated cc chemokine-1, cyclooxygenase-1) factors. Fat mass enlargement is associated with accumulation of the CD206+/CD16- macrophage subset that exhibits an M2 remodeling phenotype characterized by decreased expression of proinflammatory IL-8 and cyclooxygenase-2 and increased expression of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1. ATMs specifically produced and released matrix metalloproteinase-9 compared with adipocytes and capillary endothelial cells, and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 from human AT in vivo, assessed by arteriovenous difference measurement, was correlated with body mass index. Finally, ATMs exerted a marked proangiogenic effect on AT-derived endothelial and progenitor cells. CONCLUSIONS:The present results showed that the ATMs that accumulate with fat mass development exhibit a particular M2 remodeling phenotype. ATMs may be active players in the process of AT development through the extension of the capillary network and in the genesis of obesity-associated cardiovascular pathologies. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.724096
    NBR1 is a new PB1 signalling adapter in Th2 differentiation and allergic airway inflammation in vivo. Yang Jun-Qi,Liu Hongzhu,Diaz-Meco Maria T,Moscat Jorge The EMBO journal Allergic airway inflammation is a disease in which T helper 2 (Th2) cells have a critical function. The molecular mechanisms controlling Th2 differentiation and function are of paramount importance in biology and immunology. Recently, a network of PB1-containing adapters and kinases has been shown to be essential in this process owing to its function in regulating cell polarity and the activation of critical transcription factors. Here, we show in vivo data showing that T-cell-specific NBR1-deficient mice show impaired lung inflammation and have defective Th2 differentiation ex vivo with alterations in T-cell polarity and the selective inhibition of Gata3 and nuclear factor of activated T c1 activation. These results establish NBR1 as a novel PB1 adapter in Th2 differentiation and asthma. 10.1038/emboj.2010.214
    Evidence for the role of interferon-alfa production by dendritic cells in the Th1 response in celiac disease. Di Sabatino Antonio,Pickard Karen M,Gordon John N,Salvati Virginia,Mazzarella Giuseppe,Beattie Robert M,Vossenkaemper Anna,Rovedatti Laura,Leakey Nicholas A B,Croft Nicholas M,Troncone Riccardo,Corazza Gino R,Stagg Andrew J,Monteleone Giovanni,MacDonald Thomas T Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in immune responses by controlling the extent and type of T-cell response to antigen. Celiac disease is a condition in which T-cell immunity to gluten plays an important pathogenic role, yet information on DCs is scant. We examined mucosal DCs in celiac disease in terms of phenotype, activation/maturation state, cytokine production, and function. METHODS:Mucosal DCs from 48 celiacs and 30 controls were investigated by flow cytometry. In situ distribution of DCs was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Interferon (IFN)-alfa, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-18, IL-23p19, IL-27, and transforming growth factor-beta transcripts were measured by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in sorted DCs. DC expression of IL-6, IL-12p40, and IL-10 was assessed by intracellular cytokine staining. The effect of IFN-alfa and IL-18 blockade on the gluten-induced IFN-gamma response in celiac biopsy specimens grown ex vivo also was investigated. RESULTS:Mucosal DCs were increased in untreated, but not treated, celiacs. The majority of them were plasmacytoid with higher levels of maturation (CD83) and activation (CD80/CD86) markers. Higher transcripts of Th1 relevant cytokines, such as IFN-alfa, IL-18, and IL-23p19, were produced by celiac DCs, but because IL-12p40 was undetectable, a role for IL-23 is unlikely. Intracellular cytokine staining of celiac DCs showed higher IL-6, but lower IL-10 expression, and confirmed the lack of IL-12p40. Blocking IFN-alfa inhibited IFN-gamma transcripts in ex vivo organ culture of celiac biopsy specimens challenged with gluten. CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that IFN-alfa-producing DCs contribute to the Th1 response in celiac disease. 10.1053/j.gastro.2007.08.018
    High-efficiency labeling of sialylated glycoproteins on living cells. Zeng Ying,Ramya T N C,Dirksen Anouk,Dawson Philip E,Paulson James C Nature methods We describe a simple method for efficiently labeling cell-surface sialic acid-containing glycans on living animal cells. The method uses mild periodate oxidation to generate an aldehyde on sialic acids, followed by aniline-catalyzed oxime ligation with a suitable tag. Aniline catalysis dramatically accelerates oxime ligation, allowing use of low concentrations of aminooxy-biotin at neutral pH to label the majority of cell-surface sialylated glycoproteins while maintaining high cell viability. 10.1038/nmeth.1305
    Pleiotropic effects of transforming growth factor-β1 on pericardial interstitial cells. Implications for fibrosis and calcification in idiopathic constrictive pericarditis. Liu Xiaohong,Bai Chenguang,Gong Dejun,Yuan Yang,Han Lin,Lu Fanglin,Han Qinqi,Tang Hao,Huang Shengdong,Xu Zhiyun Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.10.054
    Interleukin-12 converts Foxp3+ regulatory T cells to interferon-γ-producing Foxp3+ T cells that inhibit colitis. Feng Ting,Cao Anthony T,Weaver Casey T,Elson Charles O,Cong Yingzi Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Regulatory T (Treg) cells are plastic, but the in vivo mechanisms by which they are converted into foxhead box p3 (Foxp3+) interferon (IFN)-γ+ T cells and whether these converted cells retain the ability to inhibit colitis are not clear. METHODS:Foxp3+ Treg cells were generated by culture of naïve CD4+ T cells from Foxp3GFP CBir1 T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic (Tg) (CBir1-Tg) mice, which are specific for CBir1 flagellin (an immunodominant microbiota antigen), with transforming growth factor-β. Foxp3GFP+ CBir1-Tg Treg cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and transferred into TCRβxδ-/- mice. Colitis was induced by transfer of naïve CBir1-Tg CD4+ T cells into immunodeficient mice. RESULTS:Microbiota antigen-specific Foxp3+ Treg cells were converted, in the intestine, to IFN-γ+ T-helper (Th)1 cells, interleukin (IL)-17+ Th17 cells, and Foxp3+ T cells that coexpress IFN-γ and/or IL-17. Conversion of Treg cells into IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells and Foxp3+IFN-γ+ T cells required innate cell production of IL-12 in the intestine; blocking IL-12 with an antibody inhibited their conversion to Th1 and Foxp3+IFN-γ+ T cells in the intestines of mice that were recipients of Treg cells. Addition of IL-12, but not IL-23, promoted conversion of Treg cells into Th1 and Foxp3+IFN-γ+ T cells, in vitro. Foxp3+IFN-γ+ T cells had regulatory activity because they suppressed proliferation of naïve T cells, in vitro, and inhibited induction of colitis by microbiota antigen-specific T cells. IFN-γ+ Th1 cells were not converted into Treg cells; Foxp3+IFN-γ+ T cells differentiated into IFN-γ+ but not Foxp3+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS:IL-12 promotes conversion of Treg cells into IFN-γ-expressing cells; Foxp3+IFN-γ+ T cells retain their regulatory functions and develop during the transition of Foxp3+ Treg cells into IFN-γ+ Th1 cells. 10.1053/j.gastro.2011.03.009
    Suppression of cancer cell growth by promoting cyclin D1 degradation. Shan Jing,Zhao Wenhui,Gu Wei Molecular cell The cyclin D1 proto-oncoprotein is a crucial regulator in cell-cycle progression, and aberrant overexpression of cyclin D1 is linked to tumorigenesis of many different cancer types. By screening ubiquitinated cyclin D1 as a substrate with a deubiquitinase library, we have identified USP2 as a specific deubiquitinase for cyclin D1. USP2 directly interacts with cyclin D1 and promotes its stabilization by antagonizing ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Conversely, USP2 knockdown destabilizes cyclin D1 and induces growth arrest in the human cancer lines where cell growth is dependent on cyclin D1 expression. Of note, cyclin D1 is not universally required for cell-cycle progression. Inactivation of USP2 has either very mild effects on cell growth in normal human fibroblasts or no effect in the cancer cells that do not express cyclin D1. These findings suggest that targeting USP2 is an effective approach to induce growth suppression in the cancer cells addicted to cyclin D1 expression. 10.1016/j.molcel.2009.10.018
    MICL controls inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. Redelinghuys Pierre,Whitehead Lauren,Augello Andrea,Drummond Rebecca A,Levesque Jean-Michel,Vautier Simon,Reid Delyth M,Kerscher Bernhard,Taylor Julie A,Nigrovic Peter A,Wright John,Murray Graeme I,Willment Janet A,Hocking Lynne J,Fernandes Maria J G,De Bari Cosimo,Mcinnes Iain B,Brown Gordon D Annals of the rheumatic diseases BACKGROUND:Myeloid inhibitory C-type lectin-like receptor (MICL, Clec12A) is a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) expressed predominantly by myeloid cells. Previous studies have suggested that MICL is involved in controlling inflammation. OBJECTIVE:To determine the role of this CLR in inflammatory pathology using Clec12A(-/-) mice. METHODS:Clec12A(-/-) mice were generated commercially and primarily characterised using the collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) model. Mechanisms and progress of disease were characterised by clinical scoring, histology, flow cytometry, irradiation bone-marrow chimera generation, administration of blocking antibodies and in vivo imaging. Characterisation of MICL in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was determined by immunohistochemistry and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. Anti-MICL antibodies were detected in patient serum by ELISA and dot-blot analysis. RESULTS:MICL-deficient animals did not present with pan-immune dysfunction, but exhibited markedly exacerbated inflammation during CAIA, owing to the inappropriate activation of myeloid cells. Polymorphisms of MICL were not associated with disease in patients with RA, but this CLR was the target of autoantibodies in a subset of patients with RA. In wild-type mice the administration of such antibodies recapitulated the Clec12A(-/-) phenotype. CONCLUSIONS:MICL plays an essential role in regulating inflammation during arthritis and is an autoantigen in a subset of patients with RA. These data suggest an entirely new mechanism underlying RA pathogenesis, whereby the threshold of myeloid cell activation can be modulated by autoantibodies that bind to cell membrane-expressed inhibitory receptors. 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-206644
    Acute serum amyloid A is an endogenous TLR2 ligand that mediates inflammatory and angiogenic mechanisms. Connolly Mary,Rooney Peter R,McGarry Trudy,Maratha Ashwini X,McCormick Jennifer,Miggin Sinead M,Veale Douglas J,Fearon Ursula Annals of the rheumatic diseases INTRODUCTION:Acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA) has cytokine-like properties and is expressed at sites of inflammation. We examined whether A-SAA-induced pro-inflammatory mechanisms are mediated through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS:The effect of A-SAA on human embryonic kidney (HEK), TLR2 or TLR4 cells was quantified by nuclear factor (NF)-κB luciferase reporter assays. A-SAA-induced RASFC and dHMVEC function were performed in the presence of a specific neutralising anti-TLR2 mAb (OPN301) (1 μg/mL) and matched IgG isotype control Ab (1 μg/mL). Cell surface expression of intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, chemokine expression, cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis were assessed by flow cytometry, ELISA, Matrigel invasion chambers and tube formation assays. MyD88 expression was assessed by real-time PCR and western blot. RESULTS:A-SAA induced TLR2 activation through induction of NF-κB (p<0.05), but failed to induce NF-κB in HEK-TLR4 cells, confirming specificity for TLR2. A-SAA-induced proliferation, invasion and migration were significantly inhibited in the presence of anti-TLR2 (all p<0.05), with no significant effect observed for tumour necrosis factor-α-induced events. Additionally, A-SAA-induced ICAM-1, interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, RANTES and GRO-α expression were significantly reduced in the presence of anti-TLR2 (all p<0.05), as was A-SAA induced angiogenesis (p<0.05). Finally, A-SAA induced MyD88 signalling in RASFC and dHMVEC (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A-SAA is an endogenous ligand for TLR2, inducing pro-inflammatory effects in RA. Blocking the A-SAA/TLR2 interaction may be a potential therapeutic intervention in RA. 10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-207655
    A perivascular origin for mesenchymal stem cells in multiple human organs. Crisan Mihaela,Yap Solomon,Casteilla Louis,Chen Chien-Wen,Corselli Mirko,Park Tea Soon,Andriolo Gabriella,Sun Bin,Zheng Bo,Zhang Li,Norotte Cyrille,Teng Pang-Ning,Traas Jeremy,Schugar Rebecca,Deasy Bridget M,Badylak Stephen,Buhring Hans-Jörg,Giacobino Jean-Paul,Lazzari Lorenza,Huard Johnny,Péault Bruno Cell stem cell Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the archetypal multipotent progenitor cells derived in cultures of developed organs, are of unknown identity and native distribution. We have prospectively identified perivascular cells, principally pericytes, in multiple human organs including skeletal muscle, pancreas, adipose tissue, and placenta, on CD146, NG2, and PDGF-Rbeta expression and absence of hematopoietic, endothelial, and myogenic cell markers. Perivascular cells purified from skeletal muscle or nonmuscle tissues were myogenic in culture and in vivo. Irrespective of their tissue origin, long-term cultured perivascular cells retained myogenicity; exhibited at the clonal level osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic potentials; expressed MSC markers; and migrated in a culture model of chemotaxis. Expression of MSC markers was also detected at the surface of native, noncultured perivascular cells. Thus, blood vessel walls harbor a reserve of progenitor cells that may be integral to the origin of the elusive MSCs and other related adult stem cells. 10.1016/j.stem.2008.07.003
    Isolation of intact RNA from cytometrically sorted Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the analysis of intrapopulation diversity of gene expression. Achilles Jeannette,Stahl Frank,Harms Hauke,Müller Susann Nature protocols Characterizing and understanding the functional heterogeneity in a given population on the cellular and molecular level is a great challenge in microbiology. Each microorganism contributes differently to the overall performance of the community and responds differently to changing microenvironmental conditions. Here, we present a method for isolation of intact RNA out of small subpopulations of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells for differential gene expression analysis. The protocol includes fluorescence staining, flow cytometric analysis and sorting of live yeast cells, subsequent isolation of RNA from the resulting subpopulations and finally RNA quantification and integrity check. The isolated RNA can be transcribed into cDNA and successfully used for microarray analysis. This aids in relating molecular regulation processes within subpopulations with the dynamics and functioning of the entire population. The procedure can be accomplished in 2 d. 10.1038/nprot.2007.322
    The human syndrome of dendritic cell, monocyte, B and NK lymphoid deficiency. Bigley Venetia,Haniffa Muzlifah,Doulatov Sergei,Wang Xiao-Nong,Dickinson Rachel,McGovern Naomi,Jardine Laura,Pagan Sarah,Dimmick Ian,Chua Ignatius,Wallis Jonathan,Lordan Jim,Morgan Cliff,Kumararatne Dinakantha S,Doffinger Rainer,van der Burg Mirjam,van Dongen Jacques,Cant Andrew,Dick John E,Hambleton Sophie,Collin Matthew The Journal of experimental medicine Congenital or acquired cellular deficiencies in humans have the potential to reveal much about normal hematopoiesis and immune function. We show that a recently described syndrome of monocytopenia, B and NK lymphoid deficiency additionally includes the near absence of dendritic cells. Four subjects showed severe depletion of the peripheral blood HLA-DR(+) lineage(-) compartment, with virtually no CD123(+) or CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) and very few CD14(+) or CD16(+) monocytes. The only remaining HLA-DR(+) lineage(-) cells were circulating CD34(+) progenitor cells. Dermal CD14(+) and CD1a(+) DC were also absent, consistent with their dependence on blood-derived precursors. In contrast, epidermal Langerhans cells and tissue macrophages were largely preserved. Combined loss of peripheral DCs, monocytes, and B and NK lymphocytes was mirrored in the bone marrow by complete absence of multilymphoid progenitors and depletion of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. Depletion of the HLA-DR(+) peripheral blood compartment was associated with elevated serum fms-like tyrosine kinase ligand and reduced circulating CD4(+)CD25(hi)FoxP3(+) T cells, supporting a role for DC in T reg cell homeostasis. 10.1084/jem.20101459
    Growth differentiation factor 15 deficiency protects against atherosclerosis by attenuating CCR2-mediated macrophage chemotaxis. de Jager Saskia C A,Bermúdez Beatriz,Bot Ilze,Koenen Rory R,Bot Martine,Kavelaars Annemieke,de Waard Vivian,Heijnen Cobi J,Muriana Francisco J G,Weber Christian,van Berkel Theo J C,Kuiper Johan,Lee Se-Jin,Abia Rocio,Biessen Erik A L The Journal of experimental medicine Growth differentiation factor (GDF) 15 is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily, which operates in acute phase responses through a currently unknown receptor. Elevated GDF-15 serum levels were recently identified as a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes. We show that GDF-15 expression is up-regulated as disease progresses in murine atherosclerosis and primarily colocalizes with plaque macrophages. Hematopoietic GDF-15 deficiency in low density lipoprotein receptor(-/-) mice led to impaired initial lesion formation and increased collagen in later lesions. Although lesion burden in GDF-15(-/-) chimeras was unaltered, plaques had reduced macrophage infiltrates and decreased necrotic core formation, all features of improved plaque stability. In vitro studies pointed to a TGFβRII-dependent regulatory role of GDF-15 in cell death regulation. Importantly, GDF-15(-/-) macrophages displayed reduced CCR2 expression, whereas GDF-15 promoted macrophage chemotaxis in a strictly CCR2- and TGFβRII-dependent manner, a phenomenon which was not observed in G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2(+/-) macrophages. In conclusion, GDF-15 deletion has a beneficial effect both in early and later atherosclerosis by inhibition of CCR2-mediated chemotaxis and by modulating cell death. Our study is the first to identify GDF-15 as an acute phase modifier of CCR2/TGFβRII-dependent inflammatory responses to vascular injury. 10.1084/jem.20100370
    The Wnt agonist R-spondin1 regulates systemic graft-versus-host disease by protecting intestinal stem cells. Takashima Shuichiro,Kadowaki Masanori,Aoyama Kazutoshi,Koyama Motoko,Oshima Takeshi,Tomizuka Kazuma,Akashi Koichi,Teshima Takanori The Journal of experimental medicine Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), and damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a critical role in amplifying systemic disease. Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) play a pivotal role not only in physiological tissue renewal but also in regeneration of the intestinal epithelium after injury. In this study, we have discovered that pretransplant conditioning regimen damaged ISCs; however, the ISCs rapidly recovered and restored the normal architecture of the intestine. ISCs are targets of GVHD, and this process of ISC recovery was markedly inhibited with the development of GVHD. Injection of Wnt agonist R-spondin1 (R-Spo1) protected against ISC damage, enhanced restoration of injured intestinal epithelium, and inhibited subsequent inflammatory cytokine cascades. R-Spo1 ameliorated systemic GVHD after allogeneic BMT by a mechanism dependent on repair of conditioning-induced GI tract injury. Our results demonstrate for the first time that ISC damage plays a central role in amplifying systemic GVHD; therefore, we propose ISC protection by R-Spo1 as a novel strategy to improve the outcome of allogeneic BMT. 10.1084/jem.20101559
    Expression of the G-CSF receptor in monocytic cells is sufficient to mediate hematopoietic progenitor mobilization by G-CSF in mice. Christopher Matthew J,Rao Mahil,Liu Fulu,Woloszynek Jill R,Link Daniel C The Journal of experimental medicine Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), the prototypical mobilizing cytokine, induces hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization from the bone marrow in a cell-nonautonomous fashion. This process is mediated, in part, through suppression of osteoblasts and disruption of CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling. The cellular targets of G-CSF that initiate the mobilization cascade have not been identified. We use mixed G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR)-deficient bone marrow chimeras to show that G-CSF-induced mobilization of HSPCs correlates poorly with the number of wild-type neutrophils. We generated transgenic mice in which expression of the G-CSFR is restricted to cells of the monocytic lineage. G-CSF-induced HSPC mobilization, osteoblast suppression, and inhibition of CXCL12 expression in the bone marrow of these transgenic mice are intact, demonstrating that G-CSFR signals in monocytic cells are sufficient to induce HSPC mobilization. Moreover, G-CSF treatment of wild-type mice is associated with marked loss of monocytic cells in the bone marrow. Finally, we show that bone marrow macrophages produce factors that support the growth and/or survival of osteoblasts in vitro. Together, these data suggest a model in which G-CSFR signals in bone marrow monocytic cells inhibit the production of trophic factors required for osteoblast lineage cell maintenance, ultimately leading to HSPC mobilization. 10.1084/jem.20101700
    PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibitory co-receptors act synergistically to prevent autoimmunity in mice. Okazaki Taku,Okazaki Il-mi,Wang Jian,Sugiura Daisuke,Nakaki Fumio,Yoshida Taku,Kato Yu,Fagarasan Sidonia,Muramatsu Masamichi,Eto Tomoo,Hioki Kyoji,Honjo Tasuku The Journal of experimental medicine Stimulatory and inhibitory co-receptors play fundamental roles in the regulation of the immune system. We describe a new mouse model of spontaneous autoimmune disease. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase-linked autoimmunity (aida) mice harbor a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3), an inhibitory co-receptor. Although LAG-3 deficiency alone did not induce autoimmunity in nonautoimmune-prone mouse strains, it induced lethal myocarditis in BALB/c mice deficient for the gene encoding the inhibitory co-receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). In addition, LAG-3 deficiency alone accelerated type 1 diabetes mellitus in nonobese diabetic mice. These results demonstrate that LAG-3 acts synergistically with PD-1 and/or other immunoregulatory genes to prevent autoimmunity in mice. 10.1084/jem.20100466
    Dynamic variation in cycling of hematopoietic stem cells in steady state and inflammation. Takizawa Hitoshi,Regoes Roland R,Boddupalli Chandra S,Bonhoeffer Sebastian,Manz Markus G The Journal of experimental medicine Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain blood production. How often mouse HSCs divide and whether each HSC contributes simultaneously, sequentially, or repetitively to hematopoiesis remains to be determined. We track division of 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labeled HSC in vivo. We found that, in steady-state mice, bone marrow cells capable of reconstituting lifelong hematopoiesis are found within both fast-cycling (undergoing five or more divisions in 7 wk) and quiescent (undergoing zero divisions in 12-14 wk) lineage marker-negative c-Kit(+) Sca-1(+) populations. The contribution of each population to hematopoiesis can fluctuate with time, and cells with extensive proliferative history are prone to return to quiescence. Furthermore, injection of the bacterial component lipopolysaccharide increased the proliferation and self-renewal capacity of HSCs. These findings suggest a model in which all HSCs undergo dynamic and demand-adapted entry into and exit out of the cell cycle over time. This may facilitate a similar degree of turnover of the entire HSC pool at the end of life. 10.1084/jem.20101643
    Dectin-1 diversifies Aspergillus fumigatus-specific T cell responses by inhibiting T helper type 1 CD4 T cell differentiation. Rivera Amariliz,Hohl Tobias M,Collins Nichole,Leiner Ingrid,Gallegos Alena,Saijo Shinobu,Coward Jesse W,Iwakura Yoichiro,Pamer Eric G The Journal of experimental medicine Pulmonary infection of mice with Aspergillus fumigatus induces concurrent T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 responses that depend on Toll-like receptor/MyD88 and Dectin-1, respectively. However, the mechanisms balancing Th1 and Th17 CD4 T cell populations during infection remain incompletely defined. In this study, we show that Dectin-1 deficiency disproportionally increases Th1 responses and decreases Th17 differentiation after A. fumigatus infection. Dectin-1 signaling in A. fumigatus-infected wild-type mice reduces IFN-γ and IL-12p40 expression in the lung, thereby decreasing T-bet expression in responding CD4 T cells and enhancing Th17 responses. Absence of IFN-γ or IL-12p35 in infected mice or T-bet in responding CD4 T cells enhances Th17 differentiation, independent of Dectin-1 expression, in A. fumigatus-infected mice. Transient deletion of monocyte-derived dendritic cells also reduces Th1 and boosts Th17 differentiation of A. fumigatus-specific CD4 T cells. Our findings indicate that Dectin-1-mediated signals alter CD4 T cell responses to fungal infection by decreasing the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ in innate cells, thereby decreasing T-bet expression in A. fumigatus-specific CD4 T cells and enabling Th17 differentiation. 10.1084/jem.20100906
    Hexokinase 2 is a key mediator of aerobic glycolysis and promotes tumor growth in human glioblastoma multiforme. Wolf Amparo,Agnihotri Sameer,Micallef Johann,Mukherjee Joydeep,Sabha Nesrin,Cairns Rob,Hawkins Cynthia,Guha Abhijit The Journal of experimental medicine Proliferating embryonic and cancer cells preferentially use aerobic glycolysis to support growth, a metabolic alteration commonly referred to as the "Warburg effect." Here, we show that the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 2 (HK2) is crucial for the Warburg effect in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common malignant brain tumor. In contrast to normal brain and low-grade gliomas, which express predominantly HK1, GBMs show increased HK2 expression. HK2 expression correlates with worse overall survival of GBM patients. Depletion of HK2, but neither HK1 nor pyruvate kinase M2, in GBM cells restored oxidative glucose metabolism and increased sensitivity to cell death inducers such as radiation and temozolomide. Intracranial xenografts of HK2-depleted GBM cells showed decreased proliferation and angiogenesis, but increased invasion, as well as diminished expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α and vascular endothelial growth factor. In contrast, exogenous HK2 expression in GBM cells led to increased proliferation, therapeutic resistance, and intracranial growth. Growth was dependent on both glucose phosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation mediated by AKT signaling, which is often aberrantly activated in GBMs. Collectively, these findings suggest that therapeutic strategies to modulate the Warburg effect, such as targeting of HK2, may interfere with growth and therapeutic sensitivity of some GBMs. 10.1084/jem.20101470
    Homeostatic proliferation generates long-lived natural killer cells that respond against viral infection. Sun Joseph C,Beilke Joshua N,Bezman Natalie A,Lanier Lewis L The Journal of experimental medicine Cells of the immune system undergo homeostatic proliferation during times of lymphopenia induced by certain viral infections or caused by chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Natural killer (NK) cells are no exception and can rapidly expand in number when placed into an environment devoid of these cells. We explored the lifespan and function of mouse NK cells that have undergone homeostatic proliferation in various settings of immunodeficiency. Adoptive transfer of mature NK cells into lymphopenic mice resulted in the generation of a long-lived population of NK cells. These homeostasis-driven NK cells reside in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs for >6 mo and, similar to memory T cells, self-renew and slowly turn over at steady state. Furthermore, homeostatically expanded NK cells retained their functionality many months after initial transfer and responded robustly to viral infection. These findings highlight the ability of mature NK cells to self-renew and possibly persist in the host for months or years and might be of clinical importance during NK cell adoptive immunotherapy for the treatment of certain cancers. 10.1084/jem.20100479
    Bone marrow CD169+ macrophages promote the retention of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the mesenchymal stem cell niche. Chow Andrew,Lucas Daniel,Hidalgo Andrés,Méndez-Ferrer Simón,Hashimoto Daigo,Scheiermann Christoph,Battista Michela,Leboeuf Marylene,Prophete Colette,van Rooijen Nico,Tanaka Masato,Merad Miriam,Frenette Paul S The Journal of experimental medicine Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in specialized bone marrow (BM) niches regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Here, we have examined whether mononuclear phagocytes modulate the HSC niche. We defined three populations of BM mononuclear phagocytes that include Gr-1(hi) monocytes (MOs), Gr-1(lo) MOs, and macrophages (MΦ) based on differential expression of Gr-1, CD115, F4/80, and CD169. Using MO and MΦ conditional depletion models, we found that reductions in BM mononuclear phagocytes led to reduced BM CXCL12 levels, the selective down-regulation of HSC retention genes in Nestin(+) niche cells, and egress of HSCs/progenitors to the bloodstream. Furthermore, specific depletion of CD169(+) MΦ, which spares BM MOs, was sufficient to induce HSC/progenitor egress. MΦ depletion also enhanced mobilization induced by a CXCR4 antagonist or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. These results highlight two antagonistic, tightly balanced pathways that regulate maintenance of HSCs/progenitors in the niche during homeostasis, in which MΦ cross talk with the Nestin(+) niche cell promotes retention, and in contrast, SNS signals enhance egress. Thus, strategies that target BM MΦ hold the potential to augment stem cell yields in patients that mobilize HSCs/progenitors poorly. 10.1084/jem.20101688
    Defective IL-10 signaling in hyper-IgE syndrome results in impaired generation of tolerogenic dendritic cells and induced regulatory T cells. Saito Masako,Nagasawa Masayuki,Takada Hidetoshi,Hara Toshiro,Tsuchiya Shigeru,Agematsu Kazunaga,Yamada Masafumi,Kawamura Nobuaki,Ariga Tadashi,Tsuge Ikuya,Nonoyama Shigeaki,Karasuyama Hajime,Minegishi Yoshiyuki The Journal of experimental medicine Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent staphylococcal infections and atopic dermatitis associated with elevated serum IgE levels. Although defective differentiation of IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th17) partly accounts for the susceptibility to staphylococcal skin abscesses and pneumonia, the pathogenesis of atopic manifestations in HIES still remains an enigma. In this study, we examined the differentiation and function of Th1, Th2, regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells), and dendritic cells (DCs) in HIES patients carrying either STAT3 or TYK2 mutations. Although the in vitro differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells and the number and function of T(reg) cells in the peripheral blood were normal in HIES patients with STAT3 mutations, primary and monocyte-derived DCs showed defective responses to IL-10 and thus failed to become tolerogenic. When treated with IL-10, patient DCs showed impaired up-regulation of inhibitory molecules on their surface, including PD-L1 and ILT-4, compared with control DCs. Moreover, IL-10-treated DCs from patients displayed impaired ability to induce the differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells to FOXP3(+) induced T(reg) cells (iT(reg) cells). These results suggest that the defective generation of IL-10-induced tolerogenic DCs and iT(reg) cells may contribute to inflammatory changes in HIES. 10.1084/jem.20100799
    Circulating and Tissue-Resident CD4 T Cells With Reactivity to Intestinal Microbiota Are Abundant in Healthy Individuals and Function Is Altered During Inflammation. Hegazy Ahmed N,West Nathaniel R,Stubbington Michael J T,Wendt Emily,Suijker Kim I M,Datsi Angeliki,This Sebastien,Danne Camille,Campion Suzanne,Duncan Sylvia H,Owens Benjamin M J,Uhlig Holm H,McMichael Andrew, ,Bergthaler Andreas,Teichmann Sarah A,Keshav Satish,Powrie Fiona Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Interactions between commensal microbes and the immune system are tightly regulated and maintain intestinal homeostasis, but little is known about these interactions in humans. We investigated responses of human CD4 T cells to the intestinal microbiota. We measured the abundance of T cells in circulation and intestinal tissues that respond to intestinal microbes and determined their clonal diversity. We also assessed their functional phenotypes and effects on intestinal resident cell populations, and studied alterations in microbe-reactive T cells in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation. METHODS:We collected samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestinal tissues from healthy individuals (controls, n = 13-30) and patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (n = 119; 59 with ulcerative colitis and 60 with Crohn's disease). We used 2 independent assays (CD154 detection and carboxy-fluorescein succinimidyl ester dilution assays) and 9 intestinal bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides vulgatus, Roseburia intestinalis, Ruminococcus obeum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Clostridium difficile) to quantify, expand, and characterize microbe-reactive CD4 T cells. We sequenced T-cell receptor Vβ genes in expanded microbe-reactive T-cell lines to determine their clonal diversity. We examined the effects of microbe-reactive CD4 T cells on intestinal stromal and epithelial cell lines. Cytokines, chemokines, and gene expression patterns were measured by flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:Circulating and gut-resident CD4 T cells from controls responded to bacteria at frequencies of 40-4000 per million for each bacterial species tested. Microbiota-reactive CD4 T cells were mainly of a memory phenotype, present in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestinal tissue, and had a diverse T-cell receptor Vβ repertoire. These cells were functionally heterogeneous, produced barrier-protective cytokines, and stimulated intestinal stromal and epithelial cells via interleukin 17A, interferon gamma, and tumor necrosis factor. In patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, microbiota-reactive CD4 T cells were reduced in the blood compared with intestine; T-cell responses that we detected had an increased frequency of interleukin 17A production compared with responses of T cells from blood or intestinal tissues of controls. CONCLUSIONS:In an analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestinal tissues from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases vs controls, we found that reactivity to intestinal bacteria is a normal property of the human CD4 T-cell repertoire, and does not necessarily indicate disrupted interactions between immune cells and the commensal microbiota. T-cell responses to commensals might support intestinal homeostasis, by producing barrier-protective cytokines and providing a large pool of T cells that react to pathogens. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.07.047
    Aire-dependent production of XCL1 mediates medullary accumulation of thymic dendritic cells and contributes to regulatory T cell development. Lei Yu,Ripen Adiratna Mat,Ishimaru Naozumi,Ohigashi Izumi,Nagasawa Takashi,Jeker Lukas T,Bösl Michael R,Holländer Georg A,Hayashi Yoshio,Malefyt Rene de Waal,Nitta Takeshi,Takahama Yousuke The Journal of experimental medicine Dendritic cells (DCs) in the thymus (tDCs) are predominantly accumulated in the medulla and contribute to the establishment of self-tolerance. However, how the medullary accumulation of tDCs is regulated and involved in self-tolerance is unclear. We show that the chemokine receptor XCR1 is expressed by tDCs, whereas medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) express the ligand XCL1. XCL1-deficient mice are defective in the medullary accumulation of tDCs and the thymic generation of naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nT reg cells). Thymocytes from XCL1-deficient mice elicit dacryoadenitis in nude mice. mTEC expression of XCL1, tDC medullary accumulation, and nT reg cell generation are diminished in Aire-deficient mice. These results indicate that the XCL1-mediated medullary accumulation of tDCs contributes to nT reg cell development and is regulated by Aire. 10.1084/jem.20102327
    CXCR7 influences leukocyte entry into the CNS parenchyma by controlling abluminal CXCL12 abundance during autoimmunity. Cruz-Orengo Lillian,Holman David W,Dorsey Denise,Zhou Liang,Zhang Penglie,Wright Melissa,McCandless Erin E,Patel Jigisha R,Luker Gary D,Littman Dan R,Russell John H,Klein Robyn S The Journal of experimental medicine Loss of CXCL12, a leukocyte localizing cue, from abluminal surfaces of the blood-brain barrier occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. However, the mechanisms and consequences of reduced abluminal CXCL12 abundance remain unclear. Here, we show that activation of CXCR7, which scavenges CXCL12, is essential for leukocyte entry via endothelial barriers into the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for MS. CXCR7 expression on endothelial barriers increased during EAE at sites of inflammatory infiltration. Treatment with a CXCR7 antagonist ameliorated EAE, reduced leukocyte infiltration into the CNS parenchyma and parenchymal VCAM-1 expression, and increased abluminal levels of CXCL12. Interleukin 17 and interleukin 1β increased, whereas interferon-γ decreased, CXCR7 expression on and CXCL12 internalization in primary brain endothelial cells in vitro. These findings identify molecular requirements for the transvascular entry of leukocytes into the CNS and suggest that CXCR7 blockade may have therapeutic utility for the treatment of MS. 10.1084/jem.20102010
    Interactions Between Platelets and Inflammatory Monocytes Affect Sickness Behavior in Mice With Liver Inflammation. D'Mello Charlotte,Almishri Wagdi,Liu Hongqun,Swain Mark Gordon Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Patients with inflammatory liver disease commonly develop debilitating symptoms, called sickness behaviors, which arise via changes in brain function. Monocytes that produce tumor necrosis factor interact with cerebral endothelial cells to activate microglial cells and promote sickness behavior. Platelets regulate inflammation, and aggregates of monocytes and platelets are increased in the circulation of patients with liver disease. We investigated the role of platelets in inducing inflammatory features of circulating monocytes and promoting sickness behaviors in mice with cholestatic liver injury. METHODS:We performed bile-duct ligations or sham surgeries on C57BL/6 or toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-knockout mice to induce liver inflammation. Liver inflammation was also induced in a separate group of mice by administration of concanavalin A. Circulating platelets, aggregates of monocytes and platelets, and activation of microglial cells were measured by flow cytometry. To deplete platelets, mice were given anti-thrombocyte serum or normal rabbit serum (control) 4 days after surgery. Interactions between monocytes and cerebral endothelial cells were analyzed by intravital microscopy. Sickness behaviors were quantified based on time spent by adult mice engaging in social behaviors toward a juvenile mouse, compared with time spent in nonsocial behavior or remaining immobile. RESULTS:Aggregates of monocytes and platelets in circulation of mice increased significantly following bile-duct ligation. Platelet-monocyte interactions were required for activation of inflammatory monocytes and production of tumor necrosis factor. Platelet depletion greatly reduced adhesive interactions between inflammatory monocytes and adhesive interactions with cerebral endothelial cells and activation of the microglia, as well as development of sickness behavior. Furthermore, TLR4 signaling was important for aggregation of monocytes and platelets, and development of sickness behavior following bile-duct ligation. These findings were confirmed in mice with concanavalin A-induced liver injury. CONCLUSIONS:In mice with liver inflammation, we found TLR4 and aggregates of monocytes and platelets to regulate microglial activation and development of sickness behavior. These findings might lead to new therapeutic strategies for liver disease-associated symptoms. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.08.011
    Intra-Hepatic Depletion of Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Liver Inflammation. Bolte Fabian J,O'Keefe Ashley C,Webb Lauren M,Serti Elisavet,Rivera Elenita,Liang T Jake,Ghany Marc,Rehermann Barbara Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Chronic hepatitis affects phenotypes of innate and adaptive immune cells. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are enriched in the liver as compared with the blood, respond to intra-hepatic cytokines, and (via the semi-invariant T-cell receptor) to bacteria translocated from the gut. Little is known about the role of MAIT cells in livers of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and their fate after antiviral therapy. METHODS:We collected blood samples from 42 patients with chronic HCV infection who achieved a sustained virologic response after 12 weeks of treatment with sofosbuvir and velpatasvir. Mononuclear cells were isolated from blood before treatment, at weeks 4 and 12 during treatment, and 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Liver biopsies were collected from 37 of the patients prior to and at week 4 of treatment. Mononuclear cells from 56 blood donors and 10 livers that were not suitable for transplantation were used as controls. Liver samples were assessed histologically for inflammation and fibrosis. Mononuclear cells from liver and blood were studied by flow cytometry and analyzed for responses to cytokine and bacterial stimulation. RESULTS:The frequency of MAIT cells among T cells was significantly lower in blood and liver samples of patients with HCV infection than of controls (median, 1.31% vs 2.32% for blood samples, P = .0048; and median, 4.34% vs 13.40% for liver samples, P = .001). There was an inverse correlation between the frequency of MAIT cells in the liver and histologically determined levels of liver inflammation (r = -.5437, P = .0006) and fibrosis (r = -.5829, P = .0002). MAIT cells from the liver had higher levels of activation and cytotoxicity than MAIT cells from blood (P < .0001). Production of interferon gamma by MAIT cells was dependent on monocyte-derived interleukin 18, and was reduced in patients with HCV infection in response to T-cell receptor-mediated but not cytokine-mediated stimulation, as compared with controls. Anti-viral therapy rapidly decreased liver inflammation and MAIT cell activation and cytotoxicity, and increased the MAIT cell frequency among intra-hepatic but not blood T cells. The MAIT cell response to T-cell receptor-mediated stimulation did not change during the 12 weeks of antiviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS:In analyses of paired blood and liver samples from patients with chronic HCV infection before, during, and after antiviral therapy with sofosbuvir and velpatasvir, we found that intrahepatic MAIT cells are activated by monocyte-derived cytokines and depleted in HCV-induced liver inflammation. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.07.043
    Innate immune lectins kill bacteria expressing blood group antigen. Stowell Sean R,Arthur Connie M,Dias-Baruffi Marcelo,Rodrigues Lilian C,Gourdine Jean-Philippe,Heimburg-Molinaro Jamie,Ju Tongzhong,Molinaro Ross J,Rivera-Marrero Carlos,Xia Baoyun,Smith David F,Cummings Richard D Nature medicine The expression of ABO(H) blood group antigens causes deletion of cells that generate self-specific antibodies to these antigens but this deletion limits adaptive immunity toward pathogens bearing cognate blood group antigens. To explore potential defense mechanisms against such pathogens, given these limitations in adaptive immunity, we screened for innate proteins that could recognize human blood group antigens. Here we report that two innate immune lectins, galectin-4 (Gal-4) and Gal-8, which are expressed in the intestinal tract, recognize and kill human blood group antigen-expressing Escherichia coli while failing to alter the viability of other E. coli strains or other Gram-negative or Gram-positive organisms both in vitro and in vivo. The killing activity of both Gal-4 and Gal-8 is mediated by their C-terminal domains, occurs rapidly and independently of complement and is accompanied by disruption of membrane integrity. These results demonstrate that innate defense lectins can provide immunity against pathogens that express blood group-like antigens on their surface. 10.1038/nm.2103
    Macrophage tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces epithelial expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: impact on alveolar epithelial repair. Cakarova Lidija,Marsh Leigh M,Wilhelm Jochen,Mayer Konstantin,Grimminger Friedrich,Seeger Werner,Lohmeyer Juergen,Herold Susanne American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine RATIONALE:Resident alveolar macrophages have been attributed a crucial role in host defense toward pulmonary infection. Their contribution to alveolar repair processes, however, remains elusive. OBJECTIVES:We investigated whether activated resident alveolar macrophages contribute to alveolar epithelial repair on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in vitro and in vivo and analyzed the molecular interaction pathways involved. METHODS:We evaluated macrophage-epithelial cross-talk mediators for epithelial cell proliferation in an in vitro coculture system and an in vivo model of LPS-induced acute lung injury comparing wild-type, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-deficient (GM(-/-)), and human SPC-GM mice (GM(-/-) mice expressing an SPC-promotor-regulated GM-CSF transgene). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and ELISA we showed that LPS-activated alveolar macrophages stimulated alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) to express growth factors, particularly GM-CSF, in coculture. Antibody neutralization experiments revealed epithelial GM-CSF expression to be macrophage tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha dependent. GM-CSF elicited proliferative signaling in AEC via autocrine stimulation. Notably, macrophage TNF-alpha induced epithelial proliferation in wild-type but not in GM-CSF-deficient AEC as shown by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and cell counting. Moreover, intraalveolar TNF-alpha neutralization impaired AEC proliferation in LPS-injured mice, as investigated by flow cytometric Ki-67 staining. Additionally, GM-CSF-deficient mice displayed reduced AEC proliferation and sustained alveolar barrier dysfunction on LPS treatment compared with wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, these findings indicate that TNF-alpha released from activated resident alveolar macrophages induces epithelial GM-CSF expression, which in turn initiates AEC proliferation and contributes to restoring alveolar barrier function. 10.1164/rccm.200812-1837OC
    Bacterial characterization by flow cytometry. Van Dilla M A,Langlois R G,Pinkel D,Yajko D,Hadley W K Science (New York, N.Y.) Bacteria were analyzed in a dual-beam flow cytometer after double staining with the fluorescent dyes chromomycin A3 and Hoechst 33258, which bind preferentially to DNA that is rich in guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine, respectively. The measurements were indicative of the cellular DNA content and base composition, cell concentration, and proliferative state of the population. The ratio of the chromomycin A3 signal to the Hoechst 33258 signal increased with the guanine-cytosine content of the cellular DNA for the six cultured species measured, following expectation. Bacteria in urine from patients with urinary tract infections were characterized without interference from host cell DNA, debris, or other particulates. 10.1126/science.6188215
    Correlated measurements of DNA, RNA, and protein in individual cells by flow cytometry. Crissman H A,Darzynkiewicz Z,Tobey R A,Steinkamp J A Science (New York, N.Y.) A cytochemical method was developed to differentially stain cellular DNA, RNA, and proteins with fluorochromes Hoechst 33342, pyronin Y, and fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively. The fluorescence intensities, reflecting the DNA, RNA, and protein content of individual cells, were measured in a flow cytometer after sequential excitation by three lasers tuned to different excitation wavelengths. The method offers rapid analysis of changes in the cellular content of RNA and protein as well as in the RNA-protein, RNA-DNA, and protein-DNA ratios in relation to cell cycle position for large cell populations. An analysis of cycling cell populations (exponentially growing CHO cultures) and noncycling CHO cells arrested in the G1 phase by growth in isoleucine-free medium demonstrated the potential of the technique. 10.1126/science.2408339
    Natural variation in genome architecture among 205 Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel lines. Huang Wen,Massouras Andreas,Inoue Yutaka,Peiffer Jason,Ràmia Miquel,Tarone Aaron M,Turlapati Lavanya,Zichner Thomas,Zhu Dianhui,Lyman Richard F,Magwire Michael M,Blankenburg Kerstin,Carbone Mary Anna,Chang Kyle,Ellis Lisa L,Fernandez Sonia,Han Yi,Highnam Gareth,Hjelmen Carl E,Jack John R,Javaid Mehwish,Jayaseelan Joy,Kalra Divya,Lee Sandy,Lewis Lora,Munidasa Mala,Ongeri Fiona,Patel Shohba,Perales Lora,Perez Agapito,Pu LingLing,Rollmann Stephanie M,Ruth Robert,Saada Nehad,Warner Crystal,Williams Aneisa,Wu Yuan-Qing,Yamamoto Akihiko,Zhang Yiqing,Zhu Yiming,Anholt Robert R H,Korbel Jan O,Mittelman David,Muzny Donna M,Gibbs Richard A,Barbadilla Antonio,Johnston J Spencer,Stone Eric A,Richards Stephen,Deplancke Bart,Mackay Trudy F C Genome research The Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) is a community resource of 205 sequenced inbred lines, derived to improve our understanding of the effects of naturally occurring genetic variation on molecular and organismal phenotypes. We used an integrated genotyping strategy to identify 4,853,802 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1,296,080 non-SNP variants. Our molecular population genomic analyses show higher deletion than insertion mutation rates and stronger purifying selection on deletions. Weaker selection on insertions than deletions is consistent with our observed distribution of genome size determined by flow cytometry, which is skewed toward larger genomes. Insertion/deletion and single nucleotide polymorphisms are positively correlated with each other and with local recombination, suggesting that their nonrandom distributions are due to hitchhiking and background selection. Our cytogenetic analysis identified 16 polymorphic inversions in the DGRP. Common inverted and standard karyotypes are genetically divergent and account for most of the variation in relatedness among the DGRP lines. Intriguingly, variation in genome size and many quantitative traits are significantly associated with inversions. Approximately 50% of the DGRP lines are infected with Wolbachia, and four lines have germline insertions of Wolbachia sequences, but effects of Wolbachia infection on quantitative traits are rarely significant. The DGRP complements ongoing efforts to functionally annotate the Drosophila genome. Indeed, 15% of all D. melanogaster genes segregate for potentially damaged proteins in the DGRP, and genome-wide analyses of quantitative traits identify novel candidate genes. The DGRP lines, sequence data, genotypes, quality scores, phenotypes, and analysis and visualization tools are publicly available. 10.1101/gr.171546.113
    H3K79 methylation profiles define murine and human MLL-AF4 leukemias. Krivtsov Andrei V,Feng Zhaohui,Lemieux Madeleine E,Faber Joerg,Vempati Sridhar,Sinha Amit U,Xia Xiaobo,Jesneck Jonathan,Bracken Adrian P,Silverman Lewis B,Kutok Jeffery L,Kung Andrew L,Armstrong Scott A Cancer cell We created a mouse model wherein conditional expression of an Mll-AF4 fusion oncogene induces B precursor acute lymphoblastic (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemias (AML). Gene expression profile analysis of the ALL cells demonstrated significant overlap with human MLL-rearranged ALL. ChIP-chip analysis demonstrated histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methylation profiles that correlated with Mll-AF4-associated gene expression profiles in murine ALLs and in human MLL-rearranged leukemias. Human MLL-rearranged ALLs could be distinguished from other ALLs by their H3K79 profiles, and suppression of the H3K79 methyltransferase DOT1L inhibited expression of critical MLL-AF4 target genes. We thus demonstrate that ectopic H3K79 methylation is a distinguishing feature of murine and human MLL-AF4 ALLs and is important for maintenance of MLL-AF4-driven gene expression. 10.1016/j.ccr.2008.10.001
    Overexpression of interleukin-1beta induces gastric inflammation and cancer and mobilizes myeloid-derived suppressor cells in mice. Tu Shuiping,Bhagat Govind,Cui Guanglin,Takaishi Shigeo,Kurt-Jones Evelyn A,Rickman Barry,Betz Kelly S,Penz-Oesterreicher Melitta,Bjorkdahl Olle,Fox James G,Wang Timothy C Cancer cell Polymorphisms of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) are associated with an increased risk of solid malignancies. Here, we show that stomach-specific expression of human IL-1beta in transgenic mice leads to spontaneous gastric inflammation and cancer that correlate with early recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to the stomach. IL-1beta activates MDSCs in vitro and in vivo through an IL-1RI/NF-kappaB pathway. IL-1beta transgenic mice deficient in T and B lymphocytes develop gastric dysplasia accompanied by a marked increase in MDSCs in the stomach. Antagonism of IL-1 receptor signaling inhibits the development of gastric preneoplasia and suppresses MDSC mobilization. These results demonstrate that pathologic elevation of a single proinflammatory cytokine may be sufficient to induce neoplasia and provide a direct link between IL-1beta, MDSCs, and carcinogenesis. 10.1016/j.ccr.2008.10.011
    Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT7765 induces an M2 anti-inflammatory transition in macrophages from patients with cirrhosis. Moratalla Alba,Caparrós Esther,Juanola Oriol,Portune Kevin,Puig-Kröger Amaya,Estrada-Capetillo Lizbeth,Bellot Pablo,Gómez-Hurtado Isabel,Piñero Paula,Zapater Pedro,González-Navajas José M,Such José,Sanz Yolanda,Francés Rubén Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Patients with cirrhosis show recurrent access of bacterial products into the bloodstream inducing a multi-altered immunological status leading to relevant complications. We aimed at evaluating Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT7765 effect on the host's macrophage function. PATIENTS & METHODS:Patients with cirrhosis and ascites were included. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) monocyte-derived and ascitic fluid (AF) macrophages were cultured with M-CSF, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or the bifidobacterial strain. Pellets and supernatants were evaluated for gene expression of M1 and M2-related genes and cytokine secretion. Cell surface expression molecules were evaluated by flow cytometry. Kupffer cells from bile duct ligated and CCl4 rats were also evaluated. RESULTS:Experiments were run on GM-CSF blood-derived and AF macrophages from 10 patients with cirrhosis and 10 healthy donors. Different macrophage morphology was observed by optical microscopy in cells stimulated with bifidobacteria vs. LPS. M2-like expression of CD206, CD163 and CD16 was significantly increased in macrophages after stimulation with the bifidobacterial strain vs. LPS. B. pseudocatenulatum CECT7765 was able to significantly change the cytokine secretion pattern of blood-derived and AF macrophages and Kupffer cells from bile duct ligated and CCl4 cirrhotic rats compared to that induced by LPS. B. pseudocatenulatum CECT7765 was also effective in inducing a phenotype transition and a functional change from an M1- to an M2-related gene expression and cytokine secretion pattern in AF macrophages even after LPS-pretreatment. B. pseudocatenulatum CECT7765 did not reduce AF macrophage bacterial killing capacity. CONCLUSION:B. pseudocatenulatum CECT7765 induces a morphologic, phenotypic and functional transition towards an anti-inflammatory profile in GM-CSF monocyte-derived and AF macrophages from patients with cirrhosis that may help in controlling sustained inflammation in decompensated cirrhosis. 10.1016/j.jhep.2015.08.020
    Neutrophils orchestrate post-myocardial infarction healing by polarizing macrophages towards a reparative phenotype. Horckmans Michael,Ring Larisa,Duchene Johan,Santovito Donato,Schloss Maximilian J,Drechsler Maik,Weber Christian,Soehnlein Oliver,Steffens Sabine European heart journal Aims:Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Anti-inflammatory strategies to reduce neutrophil-driven acute post-MI injury have been shown to limit acute cardiac tissue damage. On the other hand, whether neutrophils are required for resolving post-MI inflammation and repair is unknown. Methods and Results:We show that neutrophil-depleted mice subjected to MI had worsened cardiac function, increased fibrosis, and progressively developed heart failure. Flow cytometry of blood, lymphoid organs and digested hearts revealed reduced numbers of Ly6Chigh monocytes in infarcts of neutrophil-depleted mice, whereas the number of macrophages increased, which was paralleled by reduced splenic Ly6Chigh monocyte mobilization but enhanced proliferation of cardiac macrophages. Macrophage subtype analysis revealed reduced cardiac expression of M1 markers, whereas M2 markers were increased in neutrophil-depleted mice. Surprisingly, we found reduced expression of phagocytosis receptor myeloid-epithelial-reproductive tyrosine kinase, a marker of reparative M2c macrophages which mediate clearance of apoptotic cells. In agreement with this finding, neutrophil-depleted mice had increased numbers of TUNEL-positive cells within infarcts. We identified neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the neutrophil secretome as a key inducer of macrophages with high capacity to engulf apoptotic cells. The cardiac macrophage phenotype in neutrophil-depleted mice was restored by administration of neutrophil secretome or NGAL. Conclusion:Neutrophils are crucially involved in cardiac repair after MI by polarizing macrophages towards a reparative phenotype. Therapeutic strategies to reduce acute neutrophil-driven inflammation after MI should be carefully balanced as they might interfere with the healing response and cardiac remodelling. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw002
    Differentiated human colorectal cancer cells protect tumor-initiating cells from irinotecan. Emmink Benjamin L,Van Houdt Winan J,Vries Robert G,Hoogwater Frederik J H,Govaert Klaas M,Verheem Andre,Nijkamp Maarten W,Steller Ernst J A,Jimenez Connie R,Clevers Hans,Borel Rinkes Inne H M,Kranenburg Onno Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Stem cells of normal tissues have resistance mechanisms that allow them to survive genotoxic insults. The stem cell-like cells of tumors are defined by their tumor-initiating capacity and may have retained these resistance mechanisms, making them resistant to chemotherapy. We studied the relationship between resistance to the topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan and tumor-initiating potential in human colonosphere cultures and in mice with colorectal xenograft tumors. METHODS:Colonosphere cultures were established from human colorectal tumor specimens obtained from patients who underwent colon or liver resection for primary or metastatic adenocarcinoma. Stem cell and differentiation markers were analyzed by immunoblotting and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Clone- and tumor-initiating capacities were assessed by single-cell cloning and in immune-deficient mice. Sensitivity to irinotecan was assessed in vitro and in tumor-bearing mice. The relationship between drug resistance and tumor-initiating capacity was tested by fluorescence-activated cell sorting of colonosphere cells, based on expression of ABCB1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. RESULTS:Colonosphere cultures had a high capacity to initiate tumors in mice and were resistant to irinotecan. Inhibition of the drug-efflux pump ABCB1 by PSC-833 allowed irinotecan to eradicate tumor-initiating cells. However, ABCB1 was expressed only by a subpopulation of differentiated tumor cells that did not form clones or tumors. Conversely, tumor-initiating cells were ABCB1-negative and were identified by high ALDH activity. Tumorigenic ALDHhigh/ABCB1negative cells generated nontumorigenic ALDHlow/ABCB1positive daughter cells in vitro and in tumor xenografts. PSC-833 increased the antitumor efficacy of irinotecan in mice. CONCLUSIONS:The resistance of colorectal tumors to irinotecan requires the cooperative action of tumor-initiating ALDHhigh/ABCB1negative cells and their differentiated, drug-expelling, ALDHlow/ABCB1positive daughter cells. 10.1053/j.gastro.2011.03.052
    Activation of the receptor NKG2D leads to production of Th17 cytokines in CD4+ T cells of patients with Crohn's disease. Pariente Benjamin,Mocan Iulia,Camus Matthieu,Dutertre Charles-Antoine,Ettersperger Julien,Cattan Pierre,Gornet Jean-Marc,Dulphy Nicolas,Charron Dominique,Lémann Marc,Toubert Antoine,Allez Matthieu Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:The natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) is a stimulatory receptor expressed on a subset of mucosal and peripheral CD4+ T cells in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and other inflammatory diseases. Ligand activation of NKG2D in patients induces CD4+ T cells to release T-helper (Th) 1 cytokines and become cytotoxic. We investigated the Th17 cytokines produced by T cells that express NKG2D in blood and intestinal mucosa samples from patients with CD. METHODS:We isolated CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood and lamina propria samples of patients with CD or ulcerative colitis (UC) and healthy individuals (controls). We analyzed the phenotype and functions of the CD4+NKG2D+ T cells and the cytokines they produce in response to NKG2D stimulation. RESULTS:In patients with CD, CD4+ T cells that express NKG2D produced high levels of interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 and expressed high levels of CCR6, the IL-23 receptor, CD161, and RORC (a transcription factor that regulates expression of Th17 cytokines). CD4+ T cells that produced IL-17 expressed high levels of NKG2D and CD161. Costimulation of NKG2D and the T-cell receptor (TCR) significantly increased production of IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor α by CD4+ T cells, compared with activation of only the TCR. CD4+NKG2D+ T cells also responded to Th17 polarization. CONCLUSIONS:NKG2D is a functional marker of CD4+ T cells that produce IL-17 in patients with CD, via costimulation of the TCR and NKG2D. Reagents developed to block NKG2D might reduce gastrointestinal inflammation in patients with CD. 10.1053/j.gastro.2011.03.061
    Regulatory CD4 T Cells Recognize Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Molecule-Restricted Peptide Epitopes of Apolipoprotein B. Kimura Takayuki,Kobiyama Kouji,Winkels Holger,Tse Kevin,Miller Jacqueline,Vassallo Melanie,Wolf Dennis,Ryden Christian,Orecchioni Marco,Dileepan Thamotharampillai,Jenkins Marc K,James Eddie A,Kwok William W,Hanna David B,Kaplan Robert C,Strickler Howard D,Durkin Helen G,Kassaye Seble G,Karim Roksana,Tien Phyllis C,Landay Alan L,Gange Stephen J,Sidney John,Sette Alessandro,Ley Klaus Circulation BACKGROUND:CD4 T cells play an important role in atherosclerosis, but their antigen specificity is poorly understood. Immunization with apolipoprotein B (ApoB, core protein of low density lipoprotein) is known to be atheroprotective in animal models. Here, we report on a human APOB peptide, p18, that is sequence-identical in mouse ApoB and binds to both mouse and human major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. METHODS:We constructed p18 tetramers to detect human and mouse APOB-specific T cells and assayed their phenotype by flow cytometry including CD4 lineage transcription factors, intracellular cytokines, and T cell receptor activation. Apolipoprotein E-deficient ( Apoe) mice were vaccinated with p18 peptide or adjuvants alone, and atherosclerotic burden in the aorta was determined. RESULTS:In human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from donors without cardiovascular disease, p18 specific CD4 T cells detected by a new human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related-p18 tetramers were mostly Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs). Donors with subclinical cardiovascular disease as detected by carotid artery ultrasound had Tregs coexpressing retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t or T-bet, which were both almost absent in donors without cardiovascular disease. In Apoe mice, immunization with p18 induced Tregs and reduced atherosclerotic lesions. After peptide restimulation, responding CD4 T cells identified by Nur77-GFP (green fluorescent protein) were highly enriched in Tregs. A new mouse I-A-p18 tetramer identified the expansion of p18-specific CD4 T cells on vaccination, which were enriched for interleukin-10-producing Tregs. CONCLUSIONS:These findings show that APOB p18-specific CD4 T cells are mainly Tregs in healthy donors, but coexpress other CD4 lineage transcription factors in donors with subclinical cardiovascular disease. This study identifies ApoB peptide 18 as the first Treg epitope in human and mouse atherosclerosis. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.031420
    Viral Load Affects the Immune Response to HBV in Mice With Humanized Immune System and Liver. Dusséaux Mathilde,Masse-Ranson Guillemette,Darche Sylvie,Ahodantin James,Li Yan,Fiquet Oriane,Beaumont Elodie,Moreau Pierrick,Rivière Lise,Neuveut Christine,Soussan Patrick,Roingeard Philippe,Kremsdorf Dina,Di Santo James P,Strick-Marchand Helene Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects hepatocytes, but the mechanisms of the immune response against the virus and how it affects disease progression are unclear. METHODS:We performed studies with BALB/c Rag2Il2rgSirpaAlb-uPA mice, stably engrafted with human hepatocytes (HUHEP) with or without a human immune system (HIS). HUHEP and HIS-HUHEP mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of HBV. Mononuclear cells were isolated from spleen and liver for analysis by flow cytometry. Liver was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and mRNA levels were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasma levels of HBV DNA were quantified by PCR reaction, and antigen-specific antibodies were detected by immunocytochemistry of HBV-transfected BHK-21 cells. RESULTS:Following HBV infection, a complete viral life cycle, with production of HBV DNA, hepatitis B e (HBe), core (HBc) and surface (HBs) antigens, and covalently closed circular DNA, was observed in HUHEP and HIS-HUHEP mice. HBV replicated unrestricted in HUHEP mice resulting in high viral titers without pathologic effects. In contrast, HBV-infected HIS-HUHEP mice developed chronic hepatitis with 10-fold lower titers and antigen-specific IgGs, (anti-HBs, anti-HBc), consistent with partial immune control. HBV-infected HIS-HUHEP livers contained infiltrating Kupffer cells, mature activated natural killer cells (CD69+), and PD-1+ effector memory T cells (CD45RO+). Reducing the viral inoculum resulted in more efficient immune control. Plasma from HBV-infected HIS-HUHEP mice had increased levels of inflammatory and immune-suppressive cytokines (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 and interleukin 10), which correlated with populations of intrahepatic CD4+ T cells (CD45RO+PD-1+). Mice with high levels of viremia had HBV-infected liver progenitor cells. Giving the mice the nucleoside analogue entecavir reduced viral loads and decreased liver inflammation. CONCLUSION:In HIS-HUHEP mice, HBV infection completes a full life cycle and recapitulates some of the immunopathology observed in patients with chronic infection. Inoculation with different viral loads led to different immune responses and levels of virus control. We found HBV to infect liver progenitor cells, which could be involved in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. This is an important new system to study anti-HBV immune responses and screen for combination therapies against hepatotropic viruses. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.08.034
    Gavage of Fecal Samples From Patients With Colorectal Cancer Promotes Intestinal Carcinogenesis in Germ-Free and Conventional Mice. Wong Sunny H,Zhao Liuyang,Zhang Xiang,Nakatsu Geicho,Han Juqiang,Xu Weiqi,Xiao Xue,Kwong Thomas N Y,Tsoi Ho,Wu William K K,Zeng Benhua,Chan Francis K L,Sung Joseph J Y,Wei Hong,Yu Jun Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Altered gut microbiota is implicated in development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Some intestinal bacteria have been reported to potentiate intestinal carcinogenesis by producing genotoxins, altering the immune response and intestinal microenvironment, and activating oncogenic signaling pathways. We investigated whether stool from patients with CRC could directly induce colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. METHODS:We obtained stored stool samples from participants in a metagenome study performed in Hong Kong. Conventional (male C57BL/6) mice were given azoxymethane to induce colon neoplasia after receiving a course of antibiotics in drinking water. Mice were gavaged twice weekly with stool from 5 patients with CRC or 5 healthy individuals (controls) for 5 weeks. Germ-free C57BL/6 mice were gavaged once with stool from 5 patients with CRC or 5 controls. We collected intestinal tissues from mice and performed histology, immunohistochemistry, expression microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, and flow cytometry analyses. We performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing analysis of feces from mice. RESULTS:Significantly higher proportions of conventional mice fed with stool from individuals with CRC than control stool developed high-grade dysplasia (P < .05) and macroscopic polyps (P < .01). We observed a higher proportion of proliferating (Ki-67-positive) cells in colons of germ-free mice fed with stool from patients with CRC vs those fed with stool from controls (P < .05). Feces from germ-free and conventional mice fed with stool from patients with CRC vs controls contained different microbial compositions, with lower richness in mice fed with stool from patients with CRC. Intestines collected from conventional and germ-free mice fed with stool from patients with CRC had increased expression of cytokines that modulate inflammation, including C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 1, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2, interleukin 17A (IL17A), IL22, and IL23A. Intestines from conventional and germ-free mice fed with stool from patients with CRC contained higher proportions of T-helper 1 (Th1) cells (2.25% vs 0.44%) and Th17 cells (2.08% vs 0.31%) (P < .05 for each) than mice fed with stool from controls. Real-time polymerase chain reaction arrays revealed up-regulation of genes involved in cell proliferation, stemness, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasiveness, and metastasis in mice fed with stool from patients with CRC. CONCLUSIONS:We fed stool samples from patients with CRC and heathy individuals to germ-free mice and conventional mice with azoxymethane. We found stool from patients with CRC to increase the numbers of polyps, levels of intestinal dysplasia and proliferation, markers of inflammation, and proportions of Th1 and Th17 cells in colon, compared with stool from individuals without CRC. This study provides evidence that the fecal microbiota from patients with CRC can promote tumorigenesis in germ-free mice and mice given a carcinogen. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.08.022
    VISTA, a novel mouse Ig superfamily ligand that negatively regulates T cell responses. Wang Li,Rubinstein Rotem,Lines Janet L,Wasiuk Anna,Ahonen Cory,Guo Yanxia,Lu Li-Fan,Gondek David,Wang Yan,Fava Roy A,Fiser Andras,Almo Steve,Noelle Randolph J The Journal of experimental medicine The immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily consists of many critical immune regulators, including the B7 family ligands and receptors. In this study, we identify a novel and structurally distinct Ig superfamily inhibitory ligand, whose extracellular domain bears homology to the B7 family ligand PD-L1. This molecule is designated V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA). VISTA is primarily expressed on hematopoietic cells, and VISTA expression is highly regulated on myeloid antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells. A soluble VISTA-Ig fusion protein or VISTA expression on APCs inhibits T cell proliferation and cytokine production in vitro. A VISTA-specific monoclonal antibody interferes with VISTA-induced suppression of T cell responses by VISTA-expressing APCs in vitro. Furthermore, anti-VISTA treatment exacerbates the development of the T cell-mediated autoimmune disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. Finally, VISTA overexpression on tumor cells interferes with protective antitumor immunity in vivo in mice. These findings show that VISTA, a novel immunoregulatory molecule, has functional activities that are nonredundant with other Ig superfamily members and may play a role in the development of autoimmunity and immune surveillance in cancer. 10.1084/jem.20100619
    Memory T cells in nonlymphoid tissue that provide enhanced local immunity during infection with herpes simplex virus. Gebhardt Thomas,Wakim Linda M,Eidsmo Liv,Reading Patrick C,Heath William R,Carbone Francis R Nature immunology Effective immunity is dependent on long-surviving memory T cells. Various memory subsets make distinct contributions to immune protection, especially in peripheral infection. It has been suggested that T cells in nonlymphoid tissues are important during local infection, although their relationship with populations in the circulation remains poorly defined. Here we describe a unique memory T cell subset present after acute infection with herpes simplex virus that remained resident in the skin and in latently infected sensory ganglia. These T cells were in disequilibrium with the circulating lymphocyte pool and controlled new infection with this virus. Thus, these cells represent an example of tissue-resident memory T cells that can provide protective immunity at points of pathogen entry. 10.1038/ni.1718
    Cross-presentation of viral and self antigens by skin-derived CD103+ dendritic cells. Bedoui Sammy,Whitney Paul G,Waithman Jason,Eidsmo Liv,Wakim Linda,Caminschi Irina,Allan Rhys S,Wojtasiak Magdalena,Shortman Ken,Carbone Francis R,Brooks Andrew G,Heath William R Nature immunology Skin-derived dendritic cells (DCs) include Langerhans cells, classical dermal DCs and a langerin-positive CD103(+) dermal subset. We examined their involvement in the presentation of skin-associated viral and self antigens. Only the CD103(+) subset efficiently presented antigens of herpes simplex virus type 1 to naive CD8(+) T cells, although all subsets presented these antigens to CD4(+) T cells. This showed that CD103(+) DCs were the migratory subset most efficient at processing viral antigens into the major histocompatibility complex class I pathway, potentially through cross-presentation. This was supported by data showing only CD103(+) DCs efficiently cross-presented skin-derived self antigens. This indicates CD103(+) DCs are the main migratory subtype able to cross-present viral and self antigens, which identifies another level of specialization for skin DCs. 10.1038/ni.1724
    Transcription factor Foxo3 controls the magnitude of T cell immune responses by modulating the function of dendritic cells. Dejean Anne S,Beisner Daniel R,Ch'en Irene L,Kerdiles Yann M,Babour Anna,Arden Karen C,Castrillon Diego H,DePinho Ronald A,Hedrick Stephen M Nature immunology Foxo transcription factors regulate cell cycle progression, cell survival and DNA-repair pathways. Here we demonstrate that deficiency in Foxo3 resulted in greater expansion of T cell populations after viral infection. This exaggerated expansion was not T cell intrinsic. Instead, it was caused by the enhanced capacity of Foxo3-deficient dendritic cells to sustain T cell viability by producing more interleukin 6. Stimulation of dendritic cells mediated by the coinhibitory molecule CTLA-4 induced nuclear localization of Foxo3, which in turn inhibited the production of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor. Thus, Foxo3 acts to constrain the production of key inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and to control T cell survival. 10.1038/ni.1729
    Effect of Losartan on Mitral Valve Changes After Myocardial Infarction. Bartko Philipp E,Dal-Bianco Jacob P,Guerrero J Luis,Beaudoin Jonathan,Szymanski Catherine,Kim Dae-Hee,Seybolt Margo M,Handschumacher Mark D,Sullivan Suzanne,Garcia Michael L,Titus James S,Wylie-Sears Jill,Irvin Whitney S,Messas Emmanuel,Hagège Albert A,Carpentier Alain,Aikawa Elena,Bischoff Joyce,Levine Robert A, Journal of the American College of Cardiology BACKGROUND:After myocardial infarction (MI), mitral valve (MV) tethering stimulates adaptive leaflet growth, but counterproductive leaflet thickening and fibrosis augment mitral regurgitation (MR), doubling heart failure and mortality. MV fibrosis post-MI is associated with excessive endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), driven by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β overexpression. In vitro, losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition reduces EMT of MV endothelial cells. OBJECTIVES:This study tested the hypothesis that profibrotic MV changes post-MI are therapeutically accessible, specifically by losartan-mediated TGF-β inhibition. METHODS:The study assessed 17 sheep, including 6 sham-operated control animals and 11 with apical MI and papillary muscle retraction short of producing MR; 6 of the 11 were treated with daily losartan, and 5 were untreated, with flexible epicardial mesh comparably limiting left ventricular (LV) remodeling. LV volumes, tethering, and MV area were quantified by using three-dimensional echocardiography at baseline and at 60 ± 6 days, and excised leaflets were analyzed by histopathology and flow cytometry. RESULTS:Post-MI LV dilation and tethering were comparable in the losartan-treated and untreated LV constraint sheep. Telemetered sensors (n = 6) showed no significant losartan-induced changes in arterial pressure. Losartan strongly reduced leaflet thickness (0.9 ± 0.2 mm vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 mm; p < 0.05; 0.4 ± 0.1 mm sham animals), TGF-β, and downstream phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and EMT (27.2 ± 12.0% vs. 51.6 ± 11.7% α-smooth muscle actin-positive endothelial cells, p < 0.05; 7.2 ± 3.5% sham animals), cellular proliferation, collagen deposition, endothelial cell activation (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression), neovascularization, and cells positive for cluster of differentiation (CD) 45, a hematopoietic marker associated with post-MI valve fibrosis. Leaflet area increased comparably (17%) in constrained and losartan-treated sheep. CONCLUSIONS:Profibrotic changes of tethered MV leaflets post-MI can be modulated by losartan without eliminating adaptive growth. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms could provide new opportunities to reduce ischemic MR. 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.07.734
    Bone Marrow-Derived Tenascin-C Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy by Controlling Inflammation. Song Lei,Wang Lai,Li Fuqiang,Yukht Ada,Qin Minghui,Ruther Haley,Yang Mingjie,Chaux Aurelio,Shah Prediman K,Sharifi Behrooz G Journal of the American College of Cardiology BACKGROUND:Tenascin-C (TNC) is a highly conserved matricellular protein with a distinct expression pattern during development and disease. Remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) in response to pressure overload leads to the re-expression of the fetal gene program. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to investigate the function of TNC in cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. METHODS:Pressure overload was induced in TNC knockout and wild-type mice by constricting their abdominal aorta or by infusion of angiotensin II. Echocardiography, immunostaining, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and reciprocal bone marrow transplantation were used to evaluate the effect of TNC deficiency. RESULTS:Echocardiographic analysis of pressure overloaded hearts revealed that all LV parameters (LV end-diastolic and -systolic dimensions, ejection fraction, and fractional shortening) deteriorated in TNC-deficient mice compared with their wild-type counterparts. Cardiomyocyte size and collagen accumulation were significantly greater in the absence of TNC. Mechanistically, TNC deficiency promoted rapid accumulation of the CCR2/Ly6C monocyte/macrophage subset into the myocardium in response to pressure overload. Further, echocardiographic and immunohistochemical analyses of recipient hearts showed that expression of TNC in the bone marrow, but not the myocardium, protected the myocardium against excessive remodeling of the pressure-overloaded heart. CONCLUSIONS:TNC deficiency further impaired cardiac function in response to pressure overload and exacerbated fibrosis by enhancing inflammation. In addition, expression of TNC in the bone marrow, but not the myocardium, protected the myocardium against excessive remodeling in response to mild pressure overload. 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.07.789
    miR-24 inhibits apoptosis and represses Bim in mouse cardiomyocytes. Qian Li,Van Laake Linda W,Huang Yu,Liu Siyuan,Wendland Michael F,Srivastava Deepak The Journal of experimental medicine Acute myocardial infarction (MI) involves necrotic and apoptotic loss of cardiomyocytes. One strategy to salvage ischemic cardiomyocytes is to modulate gene expression to promote cell survival without disturbing normal cardiac function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as powerful regulators of multiple cellular processes, including apoptosis, suggesting that regulation of miRNA function could serve a cardioprotective function. In this study, we report that miR-24 (miRNA-24) expression is down-regulated in the ischemic border zone of the murine left ventricle after MI. miR-24 suppresses cardiomyocyte apoptosis, in part by direct repression of the BH3-only domain-containing protein Bim, which positively regulates apoptosis. In vivo expression of miR-24 in a mouse MI model inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis, attenuated infarct size, and reduced cardiac dysfunction. This antiapoptotic effect on cardiomyocytes in vivo was partially mediated by Bim. Our results suggest that manipulating miRNA levels during stress-induced apoptosis may be a novel therapeutic strategy for cardiac disease. 10.1084/jem.20101547
    Relapse of ovarian cancer with bone marrow infiltration and concurrent emergence of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia: a case report. Christoulas Dimitrios,Matsouka Charis,Chatzinikolaou Ioannis,Barmparoussi Despoina,Dimopoulos Meletios A,Papadimitriou Christos A Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 10.1200/JCO.2010.33.0704
    Dynamic equilibrium and heterogeneity of mouse pluripotent stem cells with distinct functional and epigenetic states. Hayashi Katsuhiko,de Sousa Lopes Susana M Chuva,Tang Fuchou,Lao Kaiqin,Surani M Azim Cell stem cell Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are apparently homogeneous self-renewing cells, but we observed heterogeneous expression of Stella in ESCs, which is a marker of pluripotency and germ cells. Here we show that, whereas Stella-positive ESCs were like the inner cell mass (ICM), Stella-negative cells were like the epiblast cells. These states were interchangeable, which reflects the metastability and plasticity of ESCs. The established equilibrium was skewed reversibly in the absence of signals from feeder cells, which caused a marked shift toward an epiblast-like state, while trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deactelylase, restored Stella-positive population. The two populations also showed different histone modifications and striking functional differences, as judged by their potential for differentiation. The Stella-negative ESCs were more like the postimplantation epiblast-derived stem cells (EpiSCs), albeit the stella locus was repressed by DNA methylation in the latter, which signifies a robust epigenetic boundary between ESCs and EpiSCs. 10.1016/j.stem.2008.07.027
    CXCL13 production in B cells via Toll-like receptor/lymphotoxin receptor signaling is involved in lymphoid neogenesis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Litsiou Eleni,Semitekolou Maria,Galani Ioanna E,Morianos Ioannis,Tsoutsa Aikaterini,Kara Panagiota,Rontogianni Dimitra,Bellenis Ion,Konstantinou Maria,Potaris Konstantinos,Andreakos Evangelos,Sideras Paschalis,Zakynthinos Spyros,Tsoumakidou Maria American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine RATIONALE:Little is known about what drives the appearance of lymphoid follicles (LFs), which may function as lymphoid organs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In animal infection models, pulmonary LF formation requires expression of homeostatic chemokines by stromal cells and dendritic cells, partly via lymphotoxin. OBJECTIVES:To study the role of homeostatic chemokines in LF formation in COPD and to identify mechanism(s) responsible for their production. METHODS:Peripheral lung homeostatic chemokine and lymphotoxin expression were visualized by immunostainings and quantified by ELISA/quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in patients with COPD with and without LFs. Expression of lymphotoxin and homeostatic chemokine receptors was investigated by flow cytometry. Primary lung cell cultures, followed by ELISA/quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction/flow cytometry, were performed to identify mechanisms of chemokine expression. Polycarbonate membrane filters were used to assess primary lung cell migration toward lung homogenates. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:LFs expressed the homeostatic chemokine CXCL13. Total CXCL13 levels correlated with LF density. Lung B cells of patients with COPD were important sources of CXCL13 and lymphotoxin and also expressed their receptors. Cigarette smoke extract, H2O2, and LPS exposure up-regulated B cell-derived CXCL13. The LPS-induced increase in CXCL13 was partly mediated via lymphotoxin. Notably, CXCL13 was required for efficient lung B-cell migration toward COPD lung homogenates and induced lung B cells to up-regulate lymphotoxin, which further promoted CXCL13 production, establishing a positive feedback loop. CONCLUSIONS:LF formation in COPD may be driven by lung B cells via a CXCL13-dependent mechanism that involves toll-like receptor and lymphotoxin receptor signaling. 10.1164/rccm.201208-1543OC
    Conformationally altered p53: a novel Alzheimer's disease marker? Lanni C,Racchi M,Mazzini G,Ranzenigo A,Polotti R,Sinforiani E,Olivari L,Barcikowska M,Styczynska M,Kuznicki J,Szybinska A,Govoni S,Memo M,Uberti D Molecular psychiatry The identification of biological markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be extremely useful to improve diagnostic accuracy and/or to monitor the efficacy of putative therapies. In this regard, peripheral cells may be of great importance, because of their easy accessibility. After subjects were grouped according to diagnosis, the expression of conformationally mutant p53 in blood cells was compared by immunoprecipitation or by a cytofluorimetric assay. In total, 104 patients with AD, 92 age-matched controls, 15 patients with Parkinson's disease and 9 with other types of dementia were analyzed. Two independent methods to evaluate the differential expression of a conformational mutant p53 were developed. Mononuclear cells were analyzed by immunoprecipitation or by flow-cytometric analysis, following incubation with a conformation-specific p53 antibody, which discriminates unfolded p53 tertiary structure. Mononuclear cells from AD patients express a higher amount of mutant-like p53 compared to non-AD subjects, thus supporting the study of conformational mutant p53 as a new putative marker to discriminate AD from non-AD patients. We also observed a strong positive correlation between the expression of p53 and the age of patients. The expression of p53 was independent from the length of illness and from the Mini Mental State Examination value. 10.1038/sj.mp.4002060
    Unusual CD4+CD28null T lymphocytes and recurrence of acute coronary events. Liuzzo Giovanna,Biasucci Luigi M,Trotta Graziana,Brugaletta Salvatore,Pinnelli Michela,Digianuario Giovanna,Rizzello Vittoria,Rebuzzi Antonio G,Rumi Carlo,Maseri Attilio,Crea Filippo Journal of the American College of Cardiology OBJECTIVES:We hypothesized that the expansion of unusual T lymphocytes, CD4+CD28null T cells, might represent a key pathogenetic mechanism of recurrent instability. BACKGROUND:Clinical presentation of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is variable. Some patients have recurrent episodes of instability, despite optimal treatment, whereas others have a single acute event in their life. The CD4+CD28null T cells, with a functional profile that favors vascular injury, have recently been found both in peripheral blood and in unstable coronary plaques of patients with ACS. METHODS:Peripheral blood T cells from 120 consecutive unstable angina (UA) patients were analyzed for the distribution of T-cell subsets by flow cytometry. Patients were subgrouped according to the occurrence of prior (during the 24 months before the study enrollment) and subsequent (during the 24 months of follow-up) acute coronary events. For 51 patients, the index event was the first ever (G1); 30 patients had prior events (G2); and 39 patients had further events at follow-up (death, myocardial infarction, or UA) or both before and after the index event (G3). RESULTS:The CD4+CD28null T-cell frequency was higher in G3 than in G2 and G1 (median 9.5% [range 2.4% to 48.0%] vs. 5.1% [range 0.4% to 27.8%] and 2.3% [range 0.2% to 22.8%], respectively; p < 0.001). The expansion of these unusual T lymphocytes was higher in patients with elevated C-reactive protein levels, and it was reduced by statin therapy. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, CD4+CD28null T-cell frequency was an independent predictor of future acute coronary events (odds ratio 3.01, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 8.25; p = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS:A perturbation of T-cell repertoire is strongly associated with the recurrence of acute coronary events, conceivably playing a key pathogenetic role. 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.06.040
    C-C chemokine receptor 6-regulated entry of TH-17 cells into the CNS through the choroid plexus is required for the initiation of EAE. Reboldi Andrea,Coisne Caroline,Baumjohann Dirk,Benvenuto Federica,Bottinelli Denise,Lira Sergio,Uccelli Antonio,Lanzavecchia Antonio,Engelhardt Britta,Sallusto Federica Nature immunology Interleukin 17-producing T helper cells (T(H)-17 cells) are important in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but their route of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) and their contribution relative to that of other effector T cells remain to be determined. Here we found that mice lacking CCR6, a chemokine receptor characteristic of T(H)-17 cells, developed T(H)-17 responses but were highly resistant to the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Disease susceptibility was reconstituted by transfer of wild-type T cells that entered into the CNS before disease onset and triggered massive CCR6-independent recruitment of effector T cells across activated parenchymal vessels. The CCR6 ligand CCL20 was constitutively expressed in epithelial cells of choroid plexus in mice and humans. Our results identify distinct molecular requirements and ports of lymphocyte entry into uninflamed versus inflamed CNS and suggest that the CCR6-CCL20 axis in the choroid plexus controls immune surveillance of the CNS. 10.1038/ni.1716
    HoxC4 binds to the promoter of the cytidine deaminase AID gene to induce AID expression, class-switch DNA recombination and somatic hypermutation. Park Seok-Rae,Zan Hong,Pal Zsuzsanna,Zhang Jinsong,Al-Qahtani Ahmed,Pone Egest J,Xu Zhenming,Mai Thach,Casali Paolo Nature immunology The cytidine deaminase AID (encoded by Aicda in mice and AICDA in humans) is critical for immunoglobulin class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM). Here we show that AID expression was induced by the HoxC4 homeodomain transcription factor, which bound to a highly conserved HoxC4-Oct site in the Aicda or AICDA promoter. This site functioned in synergy with a conserved binding site for the transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and NF-kappaB. HoxC4 was 'preferentially' expressed in germinal center B cells and was upregulated by engagement of CD40 by CD154, as well as by lipopolysaccharide and interleukin 4. HoxC4 deficiency resulted in impaired CSR and SHM because of lower AID expression and not some other putative HoxC4-dependent activity. Enforced expression of AID in Hoxc4(-/-) B cells fully restored CSR. Thus, HoxC4 directly activates the Aicda promoter, thereby inducing AID expression, CSR and SHM. 10.1038/ni.1725
    Flow cytometry and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. Lev R Gastroenterology 10.1016/0016-5085(90)90061-5
    Circuits between infected macrophages and T cells in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Nature Some patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) develop severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Distinct clinical features in these patients have led to speculation that the immune response to virus in the SARS-CoV-2-infected alveolus differs from that in other types of pneumonia. Here we investigate SARS-CoV-2 pathobiology by characterizing the immune response in the alveoli of patients infected with the virus. We collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from 88 patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced respiratory failure and 211 patients with known or suspected pneumonia from other pathogens, and analysed them using flow cytometry and bulk transcriptomic profiling. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on 10 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples collected from patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) within 48 h of intubation. In the majority of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the alveolar space was persistently enriched in T cells and monocytes. Bulk and single-cell transcriptomic profiling suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infects alveolar macrophages, which in turn respond by producing T cell chemoattractants. These T cells produce interferon-γ to induce inflammatory cytokine release from alveolar macrophages and further promote T cell activation. Collectively, our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 causes a slowly unfolding, spatially limited alveolitis in which alveolar macrophages containing SARS-CoV-2 and T cells form a positive feedback loop that drives persistent alveolar inflammation. 10.1038/s41586-020-03148-w
    Gut-licensed IFNγ NK cells drive LAMP1TRAIL anti-inflammatory astrocytes. Nature Astrocytes are glial cells that are abundant in the central nervous system (CNS) and that have important homeostatic and disease-promoting functions. However, little is known about the homeostatic anti-inflammatory activities of astrocytes and their regulation. Here, using high-throughput flow cytometry screening, single-cell RNA sequencing and CRISPR-Cas9-based cell-specific in vivo genetic perturbations in mice, we identify a subset of astrocytes that expresses the lysosomal protein LAMP1 and the death receptor ligand TRAIL. LAMP1TRAIL astrocytes limit inflammation in the CNS by inducing T cell apoptosis through TRAIL-DR5 signalling. In homeostatic conditions, the expression of TRAIL in astrocytes is driven by interferon-γ (IFNγ) produced by meningeal natural killer (NK) cells, in which IFNγ expression is modulated by the gut microbiome. TRAIL expression in astrocytes is repressed by molecules produced by T cells and microglia in the context of inflammation. Altogether, we show that LAMP1TRAIL astrocytes limit CNS inflammation by inducing T cell apoptosis, and that this astrocyte subset is maintained by meningeal IFNγ NK cells that are licensed by the microbiome. 10.1038/s41586-020-03116-4
    A disease-risk polymorphism increases TPL2 expression thereby leading to increased pattern recognition receptor-initiated caspase-1 and caspase-8 activation, signalling and cytokine secretion. Hedl Matija,Abraham Clara Gut OBJECTIVE:IBD is characterised by dysregulated intestinal immune homeostasis and cytokine secretion. In the intestine, properly regulating pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-mediated signalling and cytokines is crucial given the ongoing host-microbial interactions. TPL2 (MAP3K8, COT) contributes to PRR-initiated pathways, yet the mechanisms for TPL2 signalling contributions in primary human myeloid cells are incompletely understood and its role in intestinal myeloid cells is poorly defined. Furthermore, functional consequences for the IBD-risk locus rs1042058 in are unknown. METHODS:We analysed protein, cytokine and RNA expression, and signalling in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) through western blot, ELISA, real-time PCR and flow cytometry. RESULTS:PRR-induced cytokine secretion was increased in MDMs from rs1042058 GG risk individuals. TPL2 activation by the Crohn's disease-associated PRR nucleotide-oligomerisation domain (NOD)2 required PKC, and IKKβ, IKKα and IKKγ signalling. TPL2, in turn, significantly enhanced NOD2-induced ERK, JNK and NFκB signalling. We found that another major mechanism for the TPL2 contribution to NOD2 signalling was through ERK-dependent and JNK-dependent caspase-1 and caspase-8 activation, which in turn, led to early autocrine interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 secretion and amplification of long-term cytokines. Importantly, -induced cytokines from human intestinal myeloid-derived cells required TPL2 as well as autocrine IL-1β and IL-18. Finally, rs1042058 GG risk carrier MDMs from healthy individuals and patients with Crohn's disease had increased TPL2 expression and NOD2-initiated TPL2 phosphorylation, ERK, JNK and NFκB activation, and early autocrine IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, the rs1042058 GG IBD-risk polymorphism in results in a gain-of-function by increasing TPL2 expression and signalling, thereby amplifying PRR-initiated outcomes. 10.1136/gutjnl-2014-308922
    Halofuginone attenuates osteoarthritis by inhibition of TGF-β activity and H-type vessel formation in subchondral bone. Cui Zhuang,Crane Janet,Xie Hui,Jin Xin,Zhen Gehua,Li Changjun,Xie Liang,Wang Long,Bian Qin,Qiu Tao,Wan Mei,Xie Min,Ding Sheng,Yu Bin,Cao Xu Annals of the rheumatic diseases OBJECTIVES:Examine whether osteoarthritis (OA) progression can be delayed by halofuginone in anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) rodent models. METHODS:3-month-old male C57BL/6J (wild type; WT) mice and Lewis rats were randomised to sham-operated, ACLT-operated, treated with vehicle, or ACLT-operated, treated with halofuginone. Articular cartilage degeneration was graded using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI)-modified Mankin criteria. Immunostaining, flow cytometry, RT-PCR and western blot analyses were conducted to detect relative protein and RNA expression. Bone micro CT (μCT) and CT-based microangiography were quantitated to detect alterations of microarchitecture and vasculature in tibial subchondral bone. RESULTS:Halofuginone attenuated articular cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone deterioration, resulting in substantially lower OARSI scores. Specifically, we found that proteoglycan loss and calcification of articular cartilage were significantly decreased in halofuginone-treated ACLT rodents compared with vehicle-treated ACLT controls. Halofuginone reduced collagen X (Col X), matrix metalloproteinase-13 and A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 (ADAMTS 5) and increased lubricin, collagen II and aggrecan. In parallel, halofuginone-attenuated uncoupled subchondral bone remodelling as defined by reduced subchondral bone tissue volume, lower trabecular pattern factor (Tb.pf) and increased thickness of subchondral bone plate compared with vehicle-treated ACLT controls. We found that halofuginone exerted protective effects in part by suppressing Th17-induced osteoclastic bone resorption, inhibiting Smad2/3-dependent TGF-β signalling to restore coupled bone remodelling and attenuating excessive angiogenesis in subchondral bone. CONCLUSIONS:Halofuginone attenuates OA progression by inhibition of subchondral bone TGF-β activity and aberrant angiogenesis as a potential preventive therapy for OA. 10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-207923
    Gene copy-number variations (CNVs) of complement C4 and C4A deficiency in genetic risk and pathogenesis of juvenile dermatomyositis. Lintner Katherine E,Patwardhan Anjali,Rider Lisa G,Abdul-Aziz Rabheh,Wu Yee Ling,Lundström Emeli,Padyukov Leonid,Zhou Bi,Alhomosh Alaaedin,Newsom David,White Peter,Jones Karla B,O'Hanlon Terrance P,Miller Frederick W,Spencer Charles H,Yu Chack Yung Annals of the rheumatic diseases OBJECTIVE:Complement-mediated vasculopathy of muscle and skin are clinical features of juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). We assess gene copy-number variations (CNVs) for complement C4 and its isotypes, C4A and C4B, in genetic risks and pathogenesis of JDM. METHODS:The study population included 105 patients with JDM and 500 healthy European Americans. Gene copy-numbers (GCNs) for total C4, C4A, C4B and HLA-DRB1 genotypes were determined by Southern blots and qPCRs. Processed activation product C4d bound to erythrocytes (E-C4d) was measured by flow cytometry. Global gene-expression microarrays were performed in 19 patients with JDM and seven controls using PAXgene-blood RNA. Differential expression levels for selected genes were validated by qPCR. RESULTS:Significantly lower GCNs and differences in distribution of GCN groups for total C4 and C4A were observed in JDM versus controls. Lower GCN of C4A in JDM remained among HLA DR3-positive subjects (p=0.015). Homozygous or heterozygous C4A-deficiency was present in 40.0% of patients with JDM compared with 18.2% of controls (OR=3.00 (1.87 to 4.79), p=8.2×10(-6)). Patients with JDM had higher levels of E-C4d than controls (p=0.004). In JDM, C4A-deficient subjects had higher levels of E-C4d (p=0.0003) and higher frequency of elevated levels of multiple serum muscle enzymes at diagnosis (p=0.0025). Microarray profiling of blood RNA revealed upregulation of type I interferon-stimulated genes and lower abundance of transcripts for T-cell and chemokine function genes in JDM, but this was less prominent among C4A-deficient or DR3-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS:Complement C4A deficiency appears to be an important factor for the genetic risk and pathogenesis of JDM, particularly in patients with a DR3-positive background. 10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-207762
    Signs of immune activation and local inflammation are present in the bronchial tissue of patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis. Reynisdottir Gudrun,Olsen Helga,Joshua Vijay,Engström Marianne,Forsslund Helena,Karimi Reza,Sköld C Magnus,Nyren Sven,Eklund Anders,Grunewald Johan,Catrina Anca I Annals of the rheumatic diseases OBJECTIVES:Events in the lungs might contribute to generation of anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated if signs of immune activation are present in bronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of patients with early-untreated RA without clinical signs of lung involvement. METHODS:Twenty-four patients with RA with symptom duration <1 year and naïve to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs were subjected to bronchoscopy where BAL and mucosal bronchial biopsies were retrieved. For comparison, 15 bronchial biopsies and 79 BAL samples from healthy volunteers were available. Histological examination was performed to evaluate lymphocyte infiltration, presence of immune cells (T and B cells, plasma cells, dendritic cells and macrophages) and immune activation markers. Cell composition of BAL samples was analysed by differential counting and T cell subsets by flow cytometry. RESULTS:Lymphocyte infiltration was more frequently found in ACPA-positive patients (50%) as compared with ACPA-negative patients (17%) and controls (13%). Germinal centres, B cells and plasma cells were only found in ACPA-positive patients. The frequency of T cells in bronchial biopsies of patients with ACPA-positive RA was positively associated with expression of immune activation markers. BAL samples of patients with ACPA-positive, but not ACPA-negative, RA had significantly higher relative numbers of lymphocytes and expressed higher levels of activation markers compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS:Signs of immune cell accumulation and activation are present both in the bronchial tissue and in BAL of untreated patients with early RA without concomitant lung disease, strengthening the role of the lung compartment as an important player in ACPA-positive RA. 10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-208216
    High-resolution analysis with novel cell-surface markers identifies routes to iPS cells. O'Malley James,Skylaki Stavroula,Iwabuchi Kumiko A,Chantzoura Eleni,Ruetz Tyson,Johnsson Anna,Tomlinson Simon R,Linnarsson Sten,Kaji Keisuke Nature The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells presents a challenge to normal developmental processes. The low efficiency and heterogeneity of most methods have hindered understanding of the precise molecular mechanisms promoting, and roadblocks preventing, efficient reprogramming. Although several intermediate populations have been described, it has proved difficult to characterize the rare, asynchronous transition from these intermediate stages to iPS cells. The rapid expansion of minor reprogrammed cells in the heterogeneous population can also obscure investigation of relevant transition processes. Understanding the biological mechanisms essential for successful iPS cell generation requires both accurate capture of cells undergoing the reprogramming process and identification of the associated global gene expression changes. Here we demonstrate that in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, reprogramming follows an orderly sequence of stage transitions, marked by changes in the cell-surface markers CD44 and ICAM1, and a Nanog-enhanced green fluorescent protein (Nanog-eGFP) reporter. RNA-sequencing analysis of these populations demonstrates two waves of pluripotency gene upregulation, and unexpectedly, transient upregulation of several epidermis-related genes, demonstrating that reprogramming is not simply the reversal of the normal developmental processes. This novel high-resolution analysis enables the construction of a detailed reprogramming route map, and the improved understanding of the reprogramming process will lead to new reprogramming strategies. 10.1038/nature12243
    Microgranular acute promyelocytic leukemia diagnosed by flow cytometry. Schnitzer B,Lovett E J,Flint A,Hudson J L,Kahn L E,Bricker L J,Griffin J D The New England journal of medicine
    Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1, Increased in Human Gastric Pre-Neoplasia, Promotes Inflammation and Metaplasia in Mice and Is Associated With Type II Hypersensitivity/Autoimmunity. El-Zaatari Mohamad,Bass Adam J,Bowlby Reanne,Zhang Min,Syu Li-Jyun,Yang Yitian,Grasberger Helmut,Shreiner Andrew,Tan Bei,Bishu Shrinivas,Leung Wai K,Todisco Andrea,Kamada Nobuhiko,Cascalho Marilia,Dlugosz Andrzej A,Kao John Y Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation increases the risk of cancer by mechanisms that are not well understood. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a heme-binding enzyme that regulates the immune response via catabolization and regulation of tryptophan availability for immune cell uptake. IDO1 expression is increased during the transition from chronic inflammation to gastric metaplasia. We investigated whether IDO1 contributes to the inflammatory response that mediates loss of parietal cells leading to metaplasia. METHODS:Chronic gastric inflammation was induced in Ido1 and CB57BL/6 (control) mice by gavage with Helicobacter felis or overexpression of interferon gamma in gastric parietal cells. We also performed studies in Jh mice, which are devoid of B cells. Gastric tissues were collected and analyzed by flow cytometry, immunostaining, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Plasma samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gastric tissues were obtained from 20 patients with gastric metaplasia and 20 patients without gastric metaplasia (controls) and analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction; gastric tissue arrays were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. We collected genetic information on gastric cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. RESULTS:H felis gavage induced significantly lower levels of pseudopyloric metaplasia in Ido1 mice, which had lower frequencies of gastric B cells, than in control mice. Blood plasma from H felis-infected control mice had increased levels of autoantibodies against parietal cells, compared to uninfected control mice, but this increase was lower in Ido1 mice. Chronically inflamed stomachs of Ido1 mice had significantly lower frequencies of natural killer cells in contact with parietal cells, compared with stomachs of control mice. Jh mice had lower levels of pseudopyloric metaplasia than control mice in response to H felis infection. Human gastric pre-neoplasia and carcinoma specimens had increased levels of IDO1 messenger RNA compared with control gastric tissues, and IDO1 protein colocalized with B cells. Co-clustering of IDO1 messenger RNA with B-cell markers was corroborated by The Cancer Genome Atlas database. CONCLUSIONS:IDO1 mediates gastric metaplasia by regulating the B-cell compartment. This process appears to be associated with type II hypersensitivity/autoimmunity. The role of autoimmunity in the progression of pseudopyloric metaplasia warrants further investigation. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.09.002
    Host-derived interleukin-5 promotes adenocarcinoma-induced malignant pleural effusion. Stathopoulos Georgios T,Sherrill Taylor P,Karabela Sophia P,Goleniewska Kasia,Kalomenidis Ioannis,Roussos Charis,Fingleton Barbara,Yull Fiona E,Peebles R Stokes,Blackwell Timothy S American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine RATIONALE:IL-5 is a T helper 2 cytokine important in the trafficking and survival of eosinophils. Because eosinophils can be found in malignant pleural effusions (MPE) from mice and humans, we asked whether IL-5 is involved in the pathogenesis of MPE. OBJECTIVES:To determine the role of IL-5 in MPE formation. METHODS:The effects of IL-5 on experimental MPE induced in C57BL/6 mice by intrapleural injection of syngeneic lung (Lewis lung cancer [LLC]) or colon (MC38) adenocarcinoma cells were determined using wild-type (il5(+/+)) and IL-5-deficient (il5⁻(/)⁻) mice, exogenous administration of recombinant mouse (rm) IL-5, and in vivo antibody-mediated neutralization of endogenous IL-5. The direct effects of rmIL-5 on LLC cell proliferation and gene expression in vitro were determined by substrate reduction and microarray. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Eosinophils and IL-5 were present in human and mouse MPE, but the cytokine was not detected in mouse (LLC) or human (A549) lung and mouse colon (MC38) adenocarcinoma-conditioned medium, suggesting production by host cells in MPE. Compared with il5(+/+) mice, il5⁻(/)⁻ mice showed markedly diminished MPE formation in response to both LLC and MC38 cells. Exogenous IL-5 promoted MPE formation in il5(+/+) and il5⁻(/)⁻ mice, whereas anti-IL-5 antibody treatment limited experimental MPE in il5(+/+) mice. Exogenous IL-5 had no effects on LLC cell proliferation and gene expression; however, IL-5 was found to be responsible for recruitment of eosinophils and tumor-promoting myeloid suppressor cells to MPE in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Host-derived IL-5 promotes experimental MPE and may be involved in the pathogenesis of human MPE. 10.1164/rccm.201001-0001OC
    A road map of cellular protein homeostasis. Ang Xiaolu L,Harper J Wade Nature chemical biology 10.1038/nchembio0109-9
    Imaging specific cell-surface proteolytic activity in single living cells. Hobson John P,Liu Shihui,Rønø Birgitte,Leppla Stephen H,Bugge Thomas H Nature methods We describe a simple, sensitive and noninvasive assay that uses nontoxic, reengineered anthrax toxin-beta-lactamase fusion proteins with altered protease cleavage specificity to visualize specific cell-surface proteolytic activity in single living cells. The assay could be used to specifically image endogenous cell-surface furin, urokinase plasminogen activator and metalloprotease activity. We have adapted the assay for fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and fluorescent plate reader formats, and it is amenable for automation and high-throughput analysis. 10.1038/nmeth862
    Robust and sensitive control of a quorum-sensing circuit by two interlocked feedback loops. Williams Joshua W,Cui Xiaohui,Levchenko Andre,Stevens Ann M Molecular systems biology The quorum-sensing (QS) response of Vibrio fischeri involves a rapid switch between low and high induction states of the lux operon over a narrow concentration range of the autoinducer (AI) 3-oxo-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. In this system, LuxR is an AI-dependent positive regulator of the lux operon, which encodes the AI synthase. This creates a positive feedback loop common in many bacterial species that exhibit QS-controlled gene expression. Applying a combination of modeling and experimental analyses, we provide evidence for a LuxR autoregulatory feedback loop that allows LuxR to increase its concentration in the cell during the switch to full lux activation. Using synthetic lux gene fragments, with or without the AI synthase gene, we show that the buildup of LuxR provides more sensitivity to increasing AI, and promotes the induction process. Elevated LuxR levels buffer against spurious variations in AI levels ensuring a robust response that endows the system with enhanced hysteresis. LuxR autoregulation also allows for two distinct responses within the same cell population. 10.1038/msb.2008.70
    Enzymatic detection of protein translocation. Wehrman Tom S,Casipit Clayton L,Gewertz Nevin M,Blau Helen M Nature methods Fundamental to eukaryotic cell signaling is the regulation of protein function by directed localization. Detection of these events has been largely qualitative owing to the limitations of existing technologies. Here we describe a method for quantitatively assessing protein translocation using proximity-induced enzyme complementation. The complementation assay for protein translocation (CAPT) is derived from beta-galactosidase and comprises one enzyme fragment, omega, which is localized to a particular subcellular region, and a small complementing peptide, alpha, which is fused to the protein of interest. The concentration of alpha in the immediate vicinity of omega correlates with the amount of enzyme activity obtained in a dose- and time-dependent manner, thus acting as a genetically encoded biosensor for local protein concentration. Using CAPT, inducible protein movement from the cytosol to the nucleus or plasma membrane was quantitatively monitored in multiwell format and in live mammalian cells by flow cytometry. 10.1038/nmeth771
    Expression of CD133 confers malignant potential by regulating metalloproteinases in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Kohga Keisuke,Tatsumi Tomohide,Takehara Tetsuo,Tsunematsu Hinako,Shimizu Satoshi,Yamamoto Masashi,Sasakawa Akira,Miyagi Takuya,Hayashi Norio Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Although CD133 expression is identified as a cancer stem cell marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the detailed characteristics of HCC cells expressing CD133 remain unclear. METHODS:We examined the malignant characteristics of CD133-expressing HCC cells. RESULTS:CD133-expressing cells could be detected with low frequency in 5 HCC tissues. We derived two different HCC cell lines by (1) transfection of CD133 siRNA in PLC/PRF/5 cells in (CD133si-PLC/PRF/5), and (2) by a magnetic cell sorting method that allowed to divide Huh7 cells into two CD133 positive (+) and negative (-) groups. CD133 knockdown in PLC/PRF/5 cells resulted in a decrease of the mRNA and protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)9. We next examined the malignant characteristics related to decreasing MMP-2 and ADAM9 in HCC cells. In CD133si-PLC/PRF/5 cells and CD133- Huh7 cells, invasiveness and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, which are both related to the activity of MMP-2, were inhibited compared CD133-expressing HCC cells. We previously demonstrated that ADAM9 protease plays critical roles in the shedding of MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) which regulates the sensitivity of tumor cells to natural killer cells (NK). Decreasing ADAM9 expression in CD133si-PLC/PRF/5 cells and CD133- Huh7 cells resulted in an increase in membrane-bound MICA and a decrease in soluble MICA production. Both CD133si-PLC/PRF/5 cells and CD133- Huh7 cells were susceptible to NK activity, depending on the expression levels of membrane-bound MICA, but CD133-expressing HCC cells were not. CONCLUSION:These results demonstrate that CD133 expression in HCC cells confers malignant potential which may contribute to the survival of HCC cells. 10.1016/j.jhep.2009.12.030
    Measuring Ag-specific immune responses: understanding immunopathogenesis and improving diagnostics in infectious disease, autoimmunity and cancer. Kern Florian,LiPira Giuseppina,Gratama Jan W,Manca Fabrizio,Roederer Mario Trends in immunology Characterization of antigen-specific immune responses at the single-cell level has been made possible by recent advancements in reagent and technology development, combined with increasing knowledge of molecular mechanisms. Fluorescently labelled MHC-peptide multimers and antigens identify directly specific T and B cells, respectively, whereas dynamic assays exploit mediator production or secretion, or the changes in surface expression of other proteins, to identify specific lymphocytes--some techniques enabling the recovery of viable cells. Meanwhile, multiparameter flow cytometry has emerged as the most versatile platform for integrating most of these methods. As the complexity of experimental data increases, so does the level of technical sophistication required for analysis and interpretation, both in terms of basic research and modern medicine, with new applications for infectious diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. 10.1016/j.it.2005.07.005
    Mechanisms underlying the morning increase in platelet aggregation: a flow cytometry study. Andrews N P,Gralnick H R,Merryman P,Vail M,Quyyumi A A Journal of the American College of Cardiology OBJECTIVES:Mechanisms underlying the morning increase in platelet aggregation produced by arising and assuming the upright posture were studied by examining 1) the expression on the platelet surface of activation-dependent markers; 2) platelet aggregation in whole blood; and 3) hematologic factors likely to influence aggregation. BACKGROUND:The morning increase in thrombotic cardiovascular events has been attributed, in part, to the morning surge in platelet aggregability, but its mechanisms are poorly understood. METHODS:Expression of seven platelet surface antigens (including P-selectin, activated GPIIb,IIIa and GPIb-IX), whole-blood platelet aggregation, platelet count and hematocrit were measured before and after arising in 17 normal volunteers. The fibrinolytic variables, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and catecholamine levels were also measured. RESULTS:On arising and standing, platelet aggregation increased by 71% (p < 0.01) and 27% (p < 0.03) in response to collagen and adenosine diphosphate, respectively. However, there was no change in any of the activation-dependent platelet surface markers. Whole-blood platelet count and hematocrit increased by 15% and 7% (both p < 0.0001), respectively. Norepinephrine and epinephrine levels increased by 189% (p < 0.0001) and 130% (p < 0.01), respectively. Tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen increased (31%, p < 0.01), but there was no significant increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, suggesting an overall increase in fibrinolysis on standing. Prothrombin fragment 1.2 increased by 28% (p < 0.02), indicating a small increase in thrombin generation. The increases in hematocrit and platelet count that occurred on standing were carefully mimicked in vitro and resulted in a 115% (p < 0.05) increase in platelet aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate. CONCLUSIONS:These data demonstrate that the morning increase in platelet aggregation is not accompanied by expression of activation-dependent platelet surface receptors and suggest that the increase in whole-blood aggregation may be primarily due to the increases in catecholamine levels, platelet count and hemoconcentration. 10.1016/S0735-1097(96)00398-1
    Hepatitis B virus-specific T cells associate with viral control upon nucleos(t)ide-analogue therapy discontinuation. Rivino Laura,Le Bert Nina,Gill Upkar S,Kunasegaran Kamini,Cheng Yang,Tan Damien Zm,Becht Etienne,Hansi Navjyot K,Foster Graham R,Su Tung-Hung,Tseng Tai-Chung,Lim Seng Gee,Kao Jia-Horng,Newell Evan W,Kennedy Patrick Tf,Bertoletti Antonio The Journal of clinical investigation BACKGROUND:The clinical management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients is based exclusively on virological parameters that cannot independently determine in which patients nucleos(t)ide-analogue (NUC) therapy can be safely discontinued. NUCs efficiently suppress viral replication, but do not eliminate HBV. Thus, therapy discontinuation can be associated with virological and biochemical relapse and, consequently, therapy in the majority is life-long. METHODS:Since antiviral immunity is pivotal for HBV control, we investigated potential biomarkers for the safe discontinuation of NUCs within immune profiles of chronic HBV patients by utilizing traditional immunological assays (ELISPOT, flow cytometry) in conjunction with analyses of global non-antigen-specific immune populations (NanoString and CyTOF). Two distinct cohorts of 19 and 27 chronic HBV patients, respectively, were analyzed longitudinally prior to and after discontinuation of 2 different NUC therapy strategies. RESULTS:Absence of hepatic flares following discontinuation of NUC treatment correlated with the presence, during NUC viral suppression, of HBV core and polymerase-specific T cells that were contained within the ex vivo PD-1+ population. CONCLUSIONS:This study identifies the presence of functional HBV-specific T cells as a candidate immunological biomarker for safe therapy discontinuation in chronic HBV patients. Furthermore, the persistent and functional antiviral activity of PD-1+ HBV-specific T cells highlights the potential beneficial role of the expression of T cell exhaustion markers during human chronic viral infection. FUNDING:This work was funded by a Singapore Translational Research Investigator Award (NMRC/STaR/013/2012), the Eradication of HBV TCR Program (NMRC/TCR/014-NUHS/2015), the Singapore Immunology Network, the Wellcome Trust (107389/Z/15/Z), and a Barts and The London Charity (723/1795) grant. 10.1172/JCI92812
    T cell subsets: an immunological biomarker to predict progression to clinical arthritis in ACPA-positive individuals. Hunt L,Hensor E M,Nam J,Burska A N,Parmar R,Emery P,Ponchel F Annals of the rheumatic diseases OBJECTIVES:Anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)+ individuals with non-specific musculoskeletal symptoms are at risk of inflammatory arthritis (IA). This study aims to demonstrate the predictive value of T cell subset quantification for progression towards IA and compare it with previously identified clinical predictors of progression. METHODS:103 ACPA+ individuals without clinical synovitis were observed 3-monthly for 12 months and then as clinically indicated. The end point was the development of IA. Naïve, regulatory T cells (Treg) and inflammation related cells (IRCs) were quantified by flow cytometry. Areas under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated. Adjusted logistic regressions and Cox proportional hazards models for time to progression to IA were constructed. RESULTS:Compared with healthy controls (age adjusted where appropriate), ACPA+ individuals demonstrated reduced naïve (22.1% of subjects) and Treg (35.8%) frequencies and elevated IRC (29.5%). Of the 103 subjects, 48(46.6%) progressed. Individually, T cell subsets were weakly predictive (AUC between 0.63 and 0.66), although the presence of 2 T cell abnormalities had high specificity. Three models were compared: model-1 used T cell subsets only, model-2 used previously published clinical parameters, model-3 combined clinical data and T cell data. Model-3 performed the best (AUC 0.79 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.89)) compared with model-1 (0.75 (0.65 to 0.86)) and particularly with model-2 (0.62 (0.54 to 0.76)) demonstrating the added value of T cell subsets. Time to progression differed significantly between high-risk, moderate-risk and low-risk groups from model-3 (p=0.001, median 15.4 months, 25.8 months and 63.4 months, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:T cell subset dysregulation in ACPA+ individuals predates the onset of IA, predicts the risk and faster progression to IA, with added value over previously published clinical predictors of progression. 10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-207991
    The charged sialic acid exhibits its power again: a new high-throughput screening technology. Wang Peng George Nature methods 10.1038/nmeth0806-589
    High-throughput screening methodology for the directed evolution of glycosyltransferases. Aharoni Amir,Thieme Karena,Chiu Cecilia P C,Buchini Sabrina,Lairson Luke L,Chen Hongming,Strynadka Natalie C J,Wakarchuk Warren W,Withers Stephen G Nature methods Engineering of glycosyltransferases (GTs) with desired substrate specificity for the synthesis of new oligosaccharides holds great potential for the development of the field of glycobiology. However, engineering of GTs by directed evolution methodologies is hampered by the lack of efficient screening systems for sugar-transfer activity. We report here the development of a new fluorescence-based high-throughput screening (HTS) methodology for the directed evolution of sialyltransferases (STs). Using this methodology, we detected the formation of sialosides in intact Escherichia coli cells by selectively trapping the fluorescently labeled transfer products in the cell and analyzing and sorting the resulting cell population using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). We screened a library of >10(6) ST mutants using this methodology and found a variant with up to 400-fold higher catalytic efficiency for transfer to a variety of fluorescently labeled acceptor sugars, including a thiosugar, yielding a metabolically stable product. 10.1038/nmeth899
    Interleukin 35 Expression Correlates With Microvessel Density in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Recruits Monocytes, and Promotes Growth and Angiogenesis of Xenograft Tumors in Mice. Huang Chongbiao,Li Zengxun,Li Na,Li Yang,Chang Antao,Zhao Tiansuo,Wang Xiuchao,Wang Hongwei,Gao Song,Yang Shengyu,Hao Jihui,Ren He Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Cells of the monocyte lineage contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Interleukin 35 (IL35) is a member of the IL12 family produced by regulatory, but not effector, T cells. IL35 is a dimer comprising the IL12 alpha and IL27 beta chains, encoded by IL12A and EBI3, respectively. Expression of IL35 is increased in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) compared with normal pancreatic tissues, and promotes metastasis. We investigated the role of IL35 in monocyte-induced angiogenesis of PDAC in mice. METHODS:We measured levels of IL35 protein, microvessel density, and numbers of monocytes in 123 sequential PDAC tissues from patients who underwent surgery in China in 2010. We performed studies with the human PDAC cell lines CFPAC-1, BxPC-3, Panc-1, MIA-PaCa-2, and mouse PDAC cell line Pan02. Monocyte subsets were isolated by flow cytometry from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Fused human or mouse IL12A and EBI3 genes were overexpressed in PDAC cells or knocked down using small hairpin RNAs. Cells were grown as xenograft tumors in SCID mice; some mice were given injections of an IL35-neutralizing antibody and tumor growth was monitored. We performed chemotaxis assays to measure the ability of IL35 to recruit monocytes. We analyzed mRNA sequences of 179 PDACs in the Cancer Genome Atlas to identify correlations between expression of IL12A and EBI3 and monocyte markers. Monocytes incubated with IL35 or PDAC cell supernatants were analyzed in tube formation and endothelial migration assays. RESULTS:In PDAC samples from patients, levels of IL35 mRNA and protein correlated with microvessel density and infiltration of monocyte lineage cells. In cells and mice with xenograft tumors, IL35 increased recruitment of monocytes into PDAC tumors, which required CCL5. Upon exposure to IL35, monocytes increased expression of genes whose products promote angiogenesis (CXCL1 and CXCL8). IL35 activated transcription of CCL5, CXCL1, and CXCL8 by inducing GP130 signaling, via IL12RB2 and phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT4. A combination of a neutralizing antibody against IL35 and gemcitabine significantly decreased monocyte infiltration, microvessel density, and volume of xenograft tumors grown from PDAC cells in mice. CONCLUSIONS:PDAC cells produce IL35 to recruit monocytes via CCL5 and induce macrophage to promote angiogenesis via expression of CXCL1 and CXCL8. IL35 signaling promotes angiogenesis and growth of xenograft tumors from PDAC cells in mice. IL35 might serve as a therapeutic target for patients with pancreatic cancer. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.09.039
    Transcription and Signaling Regulators in Developing Neuronal Subtypes of Mouse and Human Enteric Nervous System. Memic Fatima,Knoflach Viktoria,Morarach Khomgrit,Sadler Rebecca,Laranjeira Catia,Hjerling-Leffler Jens,Sundström Erik,Pachnis Vassilis,Marklund Ulrika Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:The enteric nervous system (ENS) regulates gastrointestinal function via different subtypes of neurons, organized into fine-tuned neural circuits. It is not clear how cell diversity is created within the embryonic ENS; information required for development of cell-based therapies and models of enteric neuropathies. We aimed to identify proteins that regulate ENS differentiation and network formation. METHODS:We generated and compared RNA expression profiles of the entire ENS, ENS progenitor cells, and non-ENS gut cells of mice, collected at embryonic days 11.5 and 15.5, when different subtypes of neurons are formed. Gastrointestinal tissues from R26ReYFP reporter mice crossed to Sox10-CreER or Wnt1-Cre mice were dissected and the 6 populations of cells were isolated by flow cytometry. We used histochemistry to map differentially expressed proteins in mouse and human gut tissues at different stages of development, in different regions. We examined enteric neuronal diversity and gastric function in Wnt1-Cre x Sox6 mice, which do not express the Sox6 gene in the ENS. RESULTS:We identified 147 transcription and signaling factors that varied in spatial and temporal expression during development of the mouse ENS. Of the factors also analyzed in human ENS, most were conserved. We uncovered 16 signaling pathways (such as fibroblast growth factor and Eph/ephrin pathways). Transcription factors were grouped according to their specific expression in enteric progenitor cells (such as MEF2C), enteric neurons (such as SOX4), or neuron subpopulations (such as SATB1 and SOX6). Lack of SOX6 in the ENS reduced the numbers of gastric dopamine neurons and delayed gastric emptying. CONCLUSIONS:Using transcriptome and histochemical analyses of the developing mouse and human ENS, we mapped expression patterns of transcription and signaling factors. Further studies of these candidate determinants might elucidate the mechanisms by which enteric stem cells differentiate into neuronal subtypes and form distinct connectivity patterns during ENS development. We found expression of SOX6 to be required for development of gastric dopamine neurons. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.10.005
    MicroRNAs 15A and 16-1 Activate Signaling Pathways That Mediate Chemotaxis of Immune Regulatory B cells to Colorectal Tumors. Liu Ronghua,Lu Zhou,Gu Jie,Liu Jiajing,Huang Enyu,Liu Xiaoming,Wang Luman,Yang Jiao,Deng Yuting,Qian Jiawen,Luo Feifei,Wang Zhiming,Zhang Hushan,Jiang Xuechao,Zhang Dan,Qian Jing,Liu Guangwei,Zhu Hongguang,Qian Youcun,Liu Zhanju,Chu Yiwei Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:B cells infiltrate tumors, but little is known about how they affect tumor growth and progression. microRNA15A (MIR15A or miRNA15A) and microRNA16-1 (MIR16-1 or miRNA16-1) regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, and drug resistance. We investigated their involvement in B-cell-mediated immune suppression by colorectal tumors. METHODS:Mice with disruptions of the gene cluster that encodes MIR15A and MIR16-1 (knockout mice), and control (C57BL/B6) mice were given azoxymethane with dextran sodium sulfate (AD) to induce formation of colorectal tumors. Mice were given anti-CD20 to delete B cells, or injections of agomir to increase MIR15A and MIR16-1. Proliferation of CD8T cells was measured by carboxyfluorescein-succinimidyl-ester analysis. Colon tissues were collected from mice and analyzed by flow cytometry, microRNA (miRNA) sequencing, and for cytokine production. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were isolated and transfected with miRNA mimics, to identify their targets. We analyzed miRNA expression patterns and quantified B cells in colorectal cancer tissue microarrays derived from 90 patients who underwent surgical resection, from July 2006 through April 2008, in Shanghai, China; expression data were compared with clinical outcomes. RESULTS:Tumors that developed in knockout mice following administration of AD were larger and contained greater numbers of B cells than tumors that grew in control mice. Most of the B cells in the tumors were positive for immunoglobulin A (IgA). IgA B cells expressed high levels of immune regulatory molecules (programmed death ligand 1, interleukin 10, and transforming growth factor beta), and repressed the proliferation and activation of CD8 T cells. Levels of MIR15A and MIR16-1 were reduced in colon tumors from mice, compared with nontumor colon tissue. Incubation of IECs with IL17A reduced expression of MIR15A and MIR16-1. Transgenic expression of MIR15A and MIR16-1 in IECs decreased activation of NF-κB and STAT1 by reducing expression of I-kappaB kinases; this resulted in reduced production of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands 9 and 10 and decreased chemotaxis of IgA B cells. Tumors in mice injected with AD and agomir grew more slowly than tumors in mice not given in agomir and contained fewer IgA B cells. We found a negative correlation between levels of MIR15A and MIR16-1 and numbers of IgAB cells in human colorectal tumor tissues; high levels of MIR15A and MIR16-1 and low numbers of IgAB cells were associated with longer survival times of patients. CONCLUSIONS:We found increased levels of MIR15A and MIR16-1 to reduce numbers of IgA B cells in colorectal tumor tissues and correlate with increased survival time of patients. In mice that lack MIR15A and MIR16-1, colon tumors grow more rapidly and contain increased numbers of IgA B cells. MIR15A and MIR16-1 appear to activate signaling pathways required for B-cell-mediated immune suppression. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.09.045
    In silico-aided design of a glycan ligand of sialoadhesin for in vivo targeting of macrophages. Nycholat Corwin M,Rademacher Christoph,Kawasaki Norihito,Paulson James C Journal of the American Chemical Society Cell-specific delivery of therapeutic agents using ligand targeting is gaining interest because of its potential for increased efficacy and reduced side effects. The challenge is to develop a suitable ligand for a cell-surface receptor that is selectively expressed on the desired cell. Sialoadhesin (Sn, Siglec-1, CD169), a sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec) expressed on subsets of resident and inflammatory macrophages, is an attractive target for the development of a ligand-targeted delivery system. Here we report the development of a high-affinity and selective ligand for Sn that is an analogue of the natural ligand and is capable of targeting liposomal nanoparticles to Sn-expressing cells in vivo. An efficient in silico screen of a library of ∼8400 carboxylic acids was the key to identifying novel 9-N-acyl-substituted N-acetylneuramic acid (Neu5Ac) substituents as potential lead compounds. A small panel of targets were selected from the screen and synthesized to evaluate their affinities and selectivities. The most potent of these Sn ligands, 9-N-(4H-thieno[3,2-c]chromene-2-carbamoyl)-Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc ((TCC)Neu5Ac), was conjugated to lipids for display on a liposomal nanoparticle for evaluation of targeted delivery to cells. The (TCC)Neu5Ac liposomes were found to target liposomes selectively to cells expressing either murine or human Sn in vitro, and when administered to mice, they exhibited in vivo targeting to Sn-positive macrophages. 10.1021/ja307501e
    Interplay between lysine methylation and Cdk phosphorylation in growth control by the retinoblastoma protein. Carr Simon M,Munro Shonagh,Kessler Benedikt,Oppermann Udo,La Thangue Nicholas B The EMBO journal As a critical target for cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor protein (pRb) controls early cell cycle progression. We report here a new type of regulation that influences Cdk recognition and phosphorylation of substrate proteins, mediated through the targeted methylation of a critical lysine residue in the Cdk substrate recognition site. In pRb, lysine (K) 810 represents the essential and conserved basic residue (SPXK) required for cyclin/Cdk recognition and phosphorylation. Methylation of K810 by the methyltransferase Set7/9 impedes binding of Cdk and thereby prevents subsequent phosphorylation of the associated serine (S) residue, retaining pRb in the hypophosphorylated growth-suppressing state. Methylation of K810 is under DNA damage control, and methylated K810 impacts on phosphorylation at sites throughout the pRb protein. Set7/9 is required for efficient cell cycle arrest, and significantly, a mutant derivative of pRb that cannot be methylated at K810 exhibits compromised cell cycle arrest. Thus, the regulation of phosphorylation by Cdks reflects the combined interplay with methylation events, and more generally the targeted methylation of a lysine residue within a Cdk-consensus site in pRb represents an important point of control in cell cycle progression. 10.1038/emboj.2010.311
    Atypical E2F activity coordinates PHR1 photolyase gene transcription with endoreduplication onset. Radziejwoski Amandine,Vlieghe Kobe,Lammens Tim,Berckmans Barbara,Maes Sara,Jansen Marcel A K,Knappe Claudia,Albert Andreas,Seidlitz Harald K,Bahnweg Günther,Inzé Dirk,De Veylder Lieven The EMBO journal Because of their sessile life style, plants have evolved the ability to adjust to environmentally harsh conditions. An important aspect of stress adaptation involves the reprogramming of the cell cycle to ensure optimal growth. The atypical E2F transcription factor DP-E2F-like 1 (E2Fe/DEL1) had been found previously to be an important regulator of the endocycle onset. Here, a novel role for E2Fe/DEL1 was identified as a transcriptional repressor of the type-II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer-photolyase DNA repair gene PHR1. Upon ultraviolet-B (UV-B) treatment, plants knocked out for E2Fe/DEL1 had improved DNA repair abilities when compared with control plants, whereas those overexpressing it performed less well. Better DNA repair allowed E2Fe/DEL1 knockout plants to resume endoreduplication faster than control plants, contributing in this manner to UV-B radiation resistance by compensating the stress-induced reduction in cell number by ploidy-dependent cell growth. As E2Fe/DEL1 levels decreased upon UV-B treatment, we hypothesize that the coordinated transcriptional induction of PHR1 with the endoreduplication onset contributes to the adaptation of plants exposed to UV-B stress. 10.1038/emboj.2010.313
    Caspase-8 and caspase-7 sequentially mediate proteolytic activation of acid sphingomyelinase in TNF-R1 receptosomes. Edelmann Bärbel,Bertsch Uwe,Tchikov Vladimir,Winoto-Morbach Supandi,Perrotta Cristiana,Jakob Marten,Adam-Klages Sabine,Kabelitz Dieter,Schütze Stefan The EMBO journal We previously demonstrated that tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-induced ceramide production by endosomal acid sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) couples to apoptosis signalling via activation of cathepsin D and cleavage of Bid, resulting in caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. The mechanism of TNF-mediated A-SMase activation within the endolysosomal compartment is poorly defined. Here, we show that TNF-induced A-SMase activation depends on functional caspase-8 and caspase-7 expression. The active forms of all three enzymes, caspase-8, caspase-7 and A-SMase, but not caspase-3, colocalize in internalized TNF receptosomes. While caspase-8 and caspase-3 are unable to induce activation of purified pro-A-SMase, we found that caspase-7 mediates A-SMase activation by direct interaction resulting in proteolytic cleavage of the 72-kDa pro-A-SMase zymogen at the non-canonical cleavage site after aspartate 253, generating an active 57 kDa A-SMase molecule. Caspase-7 down modulation revealed the functional link between caspase-7 and A-SMase, confirming proteolytic cleavage as one further mode of A-SMase activation. Our data suggest a signalling cascade within TNF receptosomes involving sequential activation of caspase-8 and caspase-7 for induction of A-SMase activation by proteolytic cleavage of pro-A-SMase. 10.1038/emboj.2010.326
    Detection and manipulation of live antigen-expressing cells using conditionally stable nanobodies. Tang Jonathan Cy,Drokhlyansky Eugene,Etemad Behzad,Rudolph Stephanie,Guo Binggege,Wang Sui,Ellis Emily G,Li Jonathan Z,Cepko Constance L eLife The ability to detect and/or manipulate specific cell populations based upon the presence of intracellular protein epitopes would enable many types of studies and applications. Protein binders such as nanobodies (Nbs) can target untagged proteins (antigens) in the intracellular environment. However, genetically expressed protein binders are stable regardless of antigen expression, complicating their use for applications that require cell-specificity. Here, we created a conditional system in which the stability of an Nb depends upon an antigen of interest. We identified Nb framework mutations that can be used to rapidly create destabilized Nbs. Fusion of destabilized Nbs to various proteins enabled applications in living cells, such as optogenetic control of neural activity in specific cell types in the mouse brain, and detection of HIV-infected human cells by flow cytometry. These approaches are generalizable to other protein binders, and enable the rapid generation of single-polypeptide sensors and effectors active in cells expressing specific intracellular epitopes. 10.7554/eLife.15312
    Methods for detection, isolation and culture of mouse and human invariant NKT cells. Watarai Hiroshi,Nakagawa Ryusuke,Omori-Miyake Miyuki,Dashtsoodol Nyambayar,Taniguchi Masaru Nature protocols This protocol describes methods to identify, purify and culture CD1d restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells from mouse tissue or human blood samples. The methods for identification and purification of iNKT cells are based on the interaction between iNKT cell receptor and its ligand. The iNKT cell receptor is composed of the invariant V alpha 14 J alpha 18/V beta 8.2 in mice or V alpha 24 J alpha 18/V beta 11 in humans and is expressed only on iNKT cells but not on conventional T cells. The iNKT cell antigen receptor in both species recognizes alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) presented by the MHC class I-like CD1d. Thus, alpha-GalCer-loaded CD1d dimer can be used for analysis and purification by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Isolation of 1 x 10(6) purified iNKT cells from mouse thymus, spleen or liver requires 5-6 mice and takes 1-2 h for mononuclear cell preparation from mouse tissues, 1.5 h for enrichment by magnetic beads and 4 h for detection and purification of the iNKT cells by FACS. In the case of isolation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from whole blood, it takes 2 h and requires 5 ml of blood to obtain 5 x 10(6) PBMCs, which contain 500-25,000 iNKT cells. 10.1038/nprot.2007.515
    Live-cell assay to detect antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell responses by CD154 expression. Chattopadhyay Pratip K,Yu Joanne,Roederer Mario Nature protocols This protocol details a method to identify CD4+ T cells that respond to antigens. The method relies on detection of CD154, a costimulatory cell surface protein that is expressed by CD4+ T cells upon activation, and can be used to purify live CD4+ T cells of diverse function. To detect CD154, fluorescently labeled antibodies are cultured with cell samples, peptides (or whole antigens) and monensin during a 6- to 24-h stimulation period. (Note that the assay is not compatible with brefeldin A.) After stimulation, cells are stained with any other antibodies of interest and then are analyzed by flow cytometry or purified by cell sorting. Unlike other assays, this method allows simultaneous assessment of other cell phenotypes or functions, is compatible with downstream RNA-based assays and preserves cell viability. This protocol can be completed in 9 h. 10.1038/nprot.2006.1
    CD4 immunodiagnostics for HIV in the developing world. Redd Andrew D,Quinn Thomas C Nature reviews. Microbiology This supplement on evaluating CD4 diagnostics for HIV is the fourth in a series of user-friendly operational guides explaining how to conduct evaluations of diagnostic tests for infectious diseases that are of public health importance in the developing world. Here, Andrew Redd and Thomas Quinn introduce the supplement. 10.1038/nrmicro1996
    Durable Molecular Remissions in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treated With CD19-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified T Cells After Failure of Ibrutinib. Turtle Cameron J,Hay Kevin A,Hanafi Laïla-Aïcha,Li Daniel,Cherian Sindhu,Chen Xueyan,Wood Brent,Lozanski Arletta,Byrd John C,Heimfeld Shelly,Riddell Stanley R,Maloney David G Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Purpose We evaluated the safety and feasibility of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cell therapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who had previously received ibrutinib. Methods Twenty-four patients with CLL received lymphodepleting chemotherapy and anti-CD19 CAR-T cells at one of three dose levels (2 × 10, 2 × 10, or 2 × 10 CAR-T cells/kg). Nineteen patients experienced disease progression while receiving ibrutinib, three were ibrutinib intolerant, and two did not experience progression while receiving ibrutinib. Six patients were venetoclax refractory, and 23 had a complex karyotype and/or 17p deletion. Results Four weeks after CAR-T cell infusion, the overall response rate (complete response [CR] and/or partial response [PR]) by International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (IWCLL) criteria was 71% (17 of 24). Twenty patients (83%) developed cytokine release syndrome, and eight (33%) developed neurotoxicity, which was reversible in all but one patient with a fatal outcome. Twenty of 24 patients received cyclophosphamide and fludarabine lymphodepletion and CD19 CAR-T cells at or below the maximum tolerated dose (≤ 2 × 10 CAR-T cells/kg). In 19 of these patients who were restaged, the overall response rate by IWCLL imaging criteria 4 weeks after infusion was 74% (CR, 4/19, 21%; PR, 10/19, 53%), and 15/17 patients (88%) with marrow disease before CAR-T cells had no disease by flow cytometry after CAR-T cells. Twelve of these patients underwent deep IGH sequencing, and seven (58%) had no malignant IGH sequences detected in marrow. Absence of the malignant IGH clone in marrow of patients with CLL who responded by IWCLL criteria was associated with 100% progression-free survival and overall survival (median 6.6 months follow-up) after CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The progression-free survival was similar in patients with lymph node PR or CR by IWCLL criteria. Conclusion CD19 CAR-T cells are highly effective in high-risk patients with CLL after they experience treatment failure with ibrutinib therapy. 10.1200/JCO.2017.72.8519
    Production, concentration and titration of pseudotyped HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors. Kutner Robert H,Zhang Xian-Yang,Reiser Jakob Nature protocols Over the past decade, lentiviral vectors have emerged as powerful tools for transgene delivery. The use of lentiviral vectors has become commonplace and applications in the fields of neuroscience, hematology, developmental biology, stem cell biology and transgenesis are rapidly emerging. Also, lentiviral vectors are at present being explored in the context of human clinical trials. Here we describe improved protocols to generate highly concentrated lentiviral vector pseudotypes involving different envelope glycoproteins. In this protocol, vector stocks are prepared by transient transfection using standard cell culture media or serum-free media. Such stocks are then concentrated by ultracentrifugation and/or ion exchange chromatography, or by precipitation using polyethylene glycol 6000, resulting in vector titers of up to 10(10) transducing units per milliliter and above. We also provide reliable real-time PCR protocols to titrate lentiviral vectors based on proviral DNA copies present in genomic DNA extracted from transduced cells or on vector RNA. These production/concentration methods result in high-titer vector preparations that show reduced toxicity compared with lentiviral vectors produced using standard protocols involving ultracentrifugation-based methods. The vector production and titration protocol described here can be completed within 8 d. 10.1038/nprot.2009.22
    Long term non-invasive imaging of embryonic stem cells using reporter genes. Sun Ning,Lee Andrew,Wu Joseph C Nature protocols Development of non-invasive and accurate methods to track cell fate after delivery will greatly expedite transition of embryonic stem (ES) cell therapy to the clinic. In this protocol, we describe the in vivo monitoring of stem cell survival, proliferation and migration using reporter genes. We established stable ES cell lines constitutively expressing double fusion (DF; enhanced green fluorescent protein and firefly luciferase) or triple fusion (TF; monomeric red fluorescent protein, firefly luciferase and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk)) reporter genes using lentiviral transduction. We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to purify these populations in vitro, bioluminescence imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to track them in vivo and fluorescence immunostaining to confirm the results ex vivo. Unlike other methods of cell tracking, such as iron particle and radionuclide labeling, reporter genes are inherited genetically and can be used to monitor cell proliferation and survival for the lifetime of transplanted cells and their progeny. 10.1038/nprot.2009.100
    EFHC1 interacts with microtubules to regulate cell division and cortical development. de Nijs Laurence,Léon Christine,Nguyen Laurent,Loturco Joseph J,Delgado-Escueta Antonio V,Grisar Thierry,Lakaye Bernard Nature neuroscience Mutations in the EFHC1 gene are linked to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), one of the most frequent forms of idiopathic generalized epilepsies. JME is associated with subtle alterations of cortical and subcortical architecture, but the underlying pathological mechanism remains unknown. We found that EFHC1 is a microtubule-associated protein involved in the regulation of cell division. In vitro, EFHC1 loss of function disrupted mitotic spindle organization, impaired M phase progression, induced microtubule bundling and increased apoptosis. EFHC1 impairment in the rat developing neocortex by ex vivo and in utero electroporation caused a marked disruption of radial migration. We found that this effect was a result of cortical progenitors failing to exit the cell cycle and defects in the radial glia scaffold organization and in the locomotion of postmitotic neurons. Therefore, we propose that EFHC1 is a regulator of cell division and neuronal migration during cortical development and that disruption of its functions leads to JME. 10.1038/nn.2390
    Analysis of alternative splicing of cassette exons at single-cell level using two fluorescent proteins. Gurskaya Nadya G,Staroverov Dmitry B,Zhang Lijuan,Fradkov Arkady F,Markina Nadezhda M,Pereverzev Anton P,Lukyanov Konstantin A Nucleic acids research Alternative splicing plays a major role in increasing proteome complexity and regulating gene expression. Here, we developed a new fluorescent protein-based approach to quantitatively analyze the alternative splicing of a target cassette exon (skipping or inclusion), which results in an open-reading frame shift. A fragment of a gene of interest is cloned between red and green fluorescent protein (RFP and GFP)-encoding sequences in such a way that translation of the normally spliced full-length transcript results in expression of both RFP and GFP. In contrast, alternative exon skipping results in the synthesis of RFP only. Green and red fluorescence intensities can be used to estimate the proportions of normal and alternative transcripts in each cell. The new method was successfully tested for human PIG3 (p53-inducible gene 3) cassette exon 4. Expected pattern of alternative splicing of PIG3 minigene was observed, including previously characterized effects of UV light irradiation and specific mutations. Interestingly, we observed a broad distribution of normal to alternative transcript ratio in individual cells with at least two distinct populations with ∼45% and >95% alternative transcript. We believe that this method is useful for fluorescence-based quantitative analysis of alternative splicing of target genes in a variety of biological models. 10.1093/nar/gkr1314
    Identification and quantification of aminophospholipid molecular species on the surface of apoptotic and activated cells. Thomas Christopher P,Clark Stephen R,Hammond Victoria J,Aldrovandi Maceler,Collins Peter W,O'Donnell Valerie B Nature protocols This protocol measures externalization of aminophospholipids (APLs) to the outside of the plasma membrane using mass spectrometry (MS). APL externalization occurs in numerous events, and it is relevant for transplant medicine, immunity and cancer. In this protocol, externalized APLs are chemically modified by using a cell-impermeable reagent (sulfo-NHS-biotin), and then they are isolated via a liquid:liquid extraction and quantified by reverse-phase liquid chromatography tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) against in-house-generated standards. This protocol describes a complementary method to existing assays that are not quantitative (e.g., annexin V flow cytometry), and it is applicable to the study of membrane reorganization in all cell types during apoptosis (e.g., during development, cancer, psychiatric disorders and other conditions, aging, vesiculation and cell division). The protocol takes ∼2-4 d, including the generation of standards. 10.1038/nprot.2013.163
    Monocytes promote liver carcinogenesis in an oncogene-specific manner. Juric Vladislava,Ruffell Brian,Evason Kimberley J,Hu Junjie,Che Li,Wang Linlin,Chen Xin,Bishop J Michael Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:The leukocyte composition of tumors is heterogeneous, as is the involvement of each leukocyte subset in promoting or restraining tumorigenesis. This heterogeneity reflects the tissue of origin, tumor stage, and the functional state of leukocyte activation, but its biological roots remain poorly understood. Since tumorigenesis is driven by various genetic events, we assessed the role of driver genes in shaping the profiles and the roles of leukocytes in tumorigenesis. METHODS:Mouse liver tumors were induced by hepatic overexpression of either MYC or the combination of myristoylated AKT and NRAS(V12) oncogenes via hydrodynamic transfection. A comparative, flow cytometry- and histology-based immunophenotyping of liver-infiltrating leukocytes was performed at various stages of liver tumorigenesis. The roles of the most abundant leukocyte subsets in tumorigenesis were addressed by immunodepletion. The contribution of liver injury was assessed by comparing the injury-inducing hydrodynamic transfection model to a model in which MYC is an inducible transgene. RESULTS:Myristoylated AKT and NRAS(V12) promoted a marked recruitment of CD11b(+)Ly6G(hi)Ly6C(int) neutrophils and CD11b(+)Ly6G(-)Ly6C(hi) monocytes to the liver, but their immunodepletion did not alter tumorigenesis. In contrast, despite minimal invasion by monocytes/neutrophils during MYC-driven tumorigenesis, immunodepletion of these cells reduced MYC tumor burden and extended survival. MYC-driven tumor initiation was augmented specifically by Ly6C+ monocytes and their ability to promote liver injury. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate that leukocyte profiles do not necessarily predict their involvement in tumorigenesis, the functional role of leukocytes can be shaped by oncogenes, and that monocyte-dependent tissue injury selectively cooperates with MYC during tumorigenesis. 10.1016/j.jhep.2015.11.025
    Basophils function as antigen-presenting cells for an allergen-induced T helper type 2 response. Sokol Caroline L,Chu Ngoc-Quynh,Yu Shuang,Nish Simone A,Laufer Terri M,Medzhitov Ruslan Nature immunology T helper type 2 (T(H)2)-mediated immune responses are induced after infection with multicellular parasites and can be triggered by a variety of allergens. The mechanisms of induction and the antigen-presenting cells involved in the activation of T(H)2 responses remain poorly defined, and the innate immune sensing pathways activated by parasites and allergens are largely unknown. Basophils are required for the in vivo induction of T(H)2 responses by protease allergens. Here we show that basophils also function as antigen-presenting cells. We show that although dendritic cells were dispensable for allergen-induced activation of T(H)2 responses in vitro and in vivo, antigen presentation by basophils was necessary and sufficient for this. Thus, basophils function as antigen-presenting cells for T(H)2 differentiation in response to protease allergens. 10.1038/ni.1738
    Immune complex relay by subcapsular sinus macrophages and noncognate B cells drives antibody affinity maturation. Phan Tri Giang,Green Jesse A,Gray Elizabeth E,Xu Ying,Cyster Jason G Nature immunology Subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophages capture antigens from lymph and present them intact for B cell encounter and follicular delivery. However, the properties of SCS macrophages are poorly defined. Here we show SCS macrophage development depended on lymphotoxin-alpha1beta2, and the cells had low lysosomal enzyme expression and retained opsonized antigens on their surface. Intravital imaging revealed immune complexes moving along macrophage processes into the follicle. Moreover, noncognate B cells relayed antigen opsonized by newly produced antibodies from the subcapsular region to the germinal center, and affinity maturation was impaired when this transport process was disrupted. Thus, we characterize SCS macrophages as specialized antigen-presenting cells functioning at the apex of an antigen transport chain that promotes humoral immunity. 10.1038/ni.1745
    Enteric Delivery of Regenerating Family Member 3 alpha Alters the Intestinal Microbiota and Controls Inflammation in Mice With Colitis. Darnaud Marion,Dos Santos Alexandre,Gonzalez Patrick,Augui Sandrine,Lacoste Claire,Desterke Christophe,De Hertogh Gert,Valentino Emma,Braun Emilie,Zheng Jinzi,Boisgard Raphael,Neut Christel,Dubuquoy Laurent,Chiappini Franck,Samuel Didier,Lepage Patricia,Guerrieri Francesca,Doré Joel,Bréchot Christian,Moniaux Nicolas,Faivre Jamila Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Paneth cell dysfunction causes deficiencies in intestinal C-type lectins and antimicrobial peptides, which leads to dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, alters the mucosal barrier, and promotes development of inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated whether transgenic (TG) expression of the human regenerating family member 3 alpha gene (REG3A) alters the fecal microbiota and affects development of colitis in mice. METHODS:We performed studies with C57BL/6 mice that express human regenerating family member 3 alpha (hREG3A) in hepatocytes, via the albumin gene promoter. In these mice, hREG3A travels via the bile to the intestinal lumen. Some mice were given dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis. Feces were collected from mice and the composition of the microbiota was analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. The fecal microbiome was also analyzed from mice that express only 1 copy of human REG3A transgene but were fed feces from control mice (not expressing hREG3A) as newborns. Mice expressing hREG3A were monitored for DSS-induced colitis after cohousing or feeding feces from control mice. Colitis was induced in another set of control and hREG3A-TG mice by administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid; some mice were given intrarectal injections of the hREG3A protein. Colon tissues were collected from mice and analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry to detect mucin 2, as well as by 16S ribosomal RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization, transcriptional analyses, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We measured levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bacterial cultures and fecal microbiota using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry. RESULTS:The fecal microbiota of mice that express hREG3A had a significant shift in composition, compared with control mice, with enrichment of Clostridiales (Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae) and depletion of Bacteroidetes (Prevotellaceae); the TG mice developed less-severe colitis following administration of DSS than control mice, associated with preserved gut barrier integrity and reduced bacterial translocation, epithelial inflammation, and oxidative damage. A similar shift in the composition of the fecal microbiota occurred after a few months in TG mice heterozygous for REG3A that harbored a wild-type maternal microbiota at birth; these mice developed less-severe forms of colitis following DSS administration. Cohoused and germ-free mice fed feces from REG3A-TG mice and given DSS developed less-severe forms of colitis and had reduced lipopolysaccharide activation of the toll-like receptor 4 and increased survival times compared with mice not fed feces from REG3A-TG mice. REG3A TG mice developed only mild colonic inflammation after exposure to 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, compared with control mice. Control mice given intrarectal hREG3A and exposed to 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid showed less colon damage and inflammation than mice not given intrarectal hREG3A. Fecal samples from REG3A-TG mice had lower levels of ROS than feces from control mice during DSS administration. Addition of hREG3A to bacterial cultures reduced levels of ROS and increased survival of oxygen-sensitive commensal bacteria (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis). CONCLUSIONS:Mice with hepatocytes that express hREG3A, which travels to the intestinal lumen, are less sensitive to colitis than control mice. We found hREG3A to alter the colonic microbiota by decreasing levels of ROS. Fecal microbiota from REG3A-TG mice protect non-TG mice from induction of colitis. These findings indicate a role for reduction of oxidative stress in preserving the gut microbiota and its ability to prevent inflammation. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.11.003
    Mouse Model of Alagille Syndrome and Mechanisms of Jagged1 Missense Mutations. Andersson Emma R,Chivukula Indira V,Hankeova Simona,Sjöqvist Marika,Tsoi Yat Long,Ramsköld Daniel,Masek Jan,Elmansuri Aiman,Hoogendoorn Anita,Vazquez Elenae,Storvall Helena,Netušilová Julie,Huch Meritxell,Fischler Björn,Ellis Ewa,Contreras Adriana,Nemeth Antal,Chien Kenneth C,Clevers Hans,Sandberg Rickard,Bryja Vitezslav,Lendahl Urban Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Alagille syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by cholestasis, ocular abnormalities, characteristic facial features, heart defects, and vertebral malformations. Most cases are associated with mutations in JAGGED1 (JAG1), which encodes a Notch ligand, although it is not clear how these contribute to disease development. We aimed to develop a mouse model of Alagille syndrome to elucidate these mechanisms. METHODS:Mice with a missense mutation (H268Q) in Jag1 (Jag1 mice) were outbred to a C3H/C57bl6 background to generate a mouse model for Alagille syndrome (Jag1 mice). Liver tissues were collected at different timepoints during development, analyzed by histology, and liver organoids were cultured and analyzed. We performed transcriptome analysis of Jag1 livers and livers from patients with Alagille syndrome, cross-referenced to the Human Protein Atlas, to identify commonly dysregulated pathways and biliary markers. We used species-specific transcriptome separation and ligand-receptor interaction assays to measure Notch signaling and the ability of JAG1 to bind or activate Notch receptors. We studied signaling of JAG1 and JAG1 via NOTCH 1, NOTCH2, and NOTCH3 and resulting gene expression patterns in parental and NOTCH1-expressing C2C12 cell lines. RESULTS:Jag1 mice had many features of Alagille syndrome, including eye, heart, and liver defects. Bile duct differentiation, morphogenesis, and function were dysregulated in newborn Jag1 mice, with aberrations in cholangiocyte polarity, but these defects improved in adult mice. Jag1 liver organoids collapsed in culture, indicating structural instability. Whole-transcriptome sequence analyses of liver tissues from mice and patients with Alagille syndrome identified dysregulated genes encoding proteins enriched at the apical side of cholangiocytes, including CFTR and SLC5A1, as well as reduced expression of IGF1. Exposure of Notch-expressing cells to JAG1, compared with JAG1, led to hypomorphic Notch signaling, based on transcriptome analysis. JAG1-expressing cells, but not JAG1-expressing cells, bound soluble Notch1 extracellular domain, quantified by flow cytometry. However, JAG1 and JAG1 cells each bound NOTCH2, and signaling from NOTCH2 signaling was reduced but not completely inhibited, in response to JAG1 compared with JAG1. CONCLUSIONS:In mice, expression of a missense mutant of Jag1 (Jag1) disrupts bile duct development and recapitulates Alagille syndrome phenotypes in heart, eye, and craniofacial dysmorphology. JAG1 does not bind NOTCH1, but binds NOTCH2, and elicits hypomorphic signaling. This mouse model can be used to study other features of Alagille syndrome and organ development. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.11.002
    Prediction of relapse or survival in patients with node-negative breast cancer by DNA flow cytometry. Clark G M,Dressler L G,Owens M A,Pounds G,Oldaker T,McGuire W L The New England journal of medicine More accurate prediction of the prognosis in women with node-negative breast cancer may improve physicians' ability to identify the patients most likely to benefit from systematic adjuvant therapy. With this in mind, we performed DNA flow-cytometric measurements of ploidy and the fraction of cells in the synthesis phase of the cell cycle (S-phase fraction) on 395 specimens of node-negative breast cancer from our bank of frozen tumors, using the aliquots of pulverized frozen tissue from steroid-receptor assays. The median duration of follow-up in patients still alive at the time of analysis was 59 months. Thirty-two percent of the 345 specimens that could be evaluated were diploid, and 68 percent were aneuploid. The probability of disease-free survival at five years was 88 +/- 3 percent in patients with diploid tumors and 74 +/- 3 percent in those with aneuploid tumors (P = 0.02). The S-phase fraction was not a significant additional predictor of disease-free survival in patients with aneuploid tumors. However, the probability of disease-free survival in patients with diploid tumors and low S-phase fractions was 90 +/- 3 percent at five years, as compared with 70 +/- 13 percent in those with diploid tumors and high S-phase fractions (P = 0.007). Similar differences in overall survival were noted. We conclude that DNA flow-cytometric measurements of ploidy and S-phase fraction can be performed on frozen specimens of tumors and are potentially important predictors of disease-free and overall survival in patients with node-negative breast cancer. 10.1056/NEJM198903093201003
    Pyrin Inflammasome Regulates Tight Junction Integrity to Restrict Colitis and Tumorigenesis. Sharma Deepika,Malik Ankit,Guy Clifford S,Karki Rajendra,Vogel Peter,Kanneganti Thirumala-Devi Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) increase risk for colorectal cancer. Mutations in the Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV or pyrin) are associated with hereditary autoinflammatory disease and severe IBD. Expression of MEFV, a sensor protein that the initiates assembly of the inflammasome complex, is increased in colon biopsies from patients with IBD. We investigated the role of pyrin in intestinal homeostasis in mice. METHODS:Mefv mice and C57/BL6 mice (controls) were given azoxymethane followed by multiple rounds of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis and tumorigenesis. In some experiments, Mefv mice were given injections of recombinant interleukin 18 (rIL18) or saline (control) during DSS administration. Colon tissues were collected at different time points during colitis development and analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, immunoblots, or ELISAs (to measure cytokines). Spleen and mesenteric lymph node were collected, processed, and analyzed by flow cytometry. Colon epithelial permeability was measured in mice with colitis by gavage of fluorescent dextran and quantification of serum levels. RESULTS:MEFV was expressed in colons of control mice and expression increased during chronic and acute inflammation; high levels were detected in colon tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues. Mefv-/- mice developed more severe colitis than control mice, with a greater extent of epithelial hyperplasia and a larger tumor burden. Levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL6) and chemokines were significantly higher in colons of Mefv-/- mice than control mice following colitis induction, whereas the level IL18, which depends on the inflammasome for maturation and release, was significantly lower in colons of Mefv-/- mice. Mefv-/- mice had increased epithelial permeability following administration of DSS than control mice, and loss of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-2 from intercellular junctions. STAT3 was activated (phosphorylated) in inflamed colon tissues from Mefv-/-, which also had increased expression of stem cell markers (OLFM4, BMI1, and MSI1) compared with colons from control mice. Administration of rIL18 to Mefv-/- mice reduced epithelial permeability, intestinal inflammation, the severity of colitis, and colon tumorigenesis. CONCLUSIONS:In studies with DSS-induced colitis, we found that pyrin (MEFV) is required for inflammasome activation and IL18 maturation, which promote intestinal barrier integrity and prevent colon inflammation and tumorigenesis. Strategies to increase activity of MEFV or IL18 might be developed for the treatment of IBD and prevention of colitis-associated tumorigenesis. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.11.276
    Nanoliposome C6-Ceramide Increases the Anti-tumor Immune Response and Slows Growth of Liver Tumors in Mice. Li Guangfu,Liu Dai,Kimchi Eric T,Kaifi Jussuf T,Qi Xiaoqiang,Manjunath Yariswamy,Liu Xinjian,Deering Tye,Avella Diego M,Fox Todd,Rockey Don C,Schell Todd D,Kester Mark,Staveley-O'Carroll Kevin F Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Ceramide, a sphingolipid metabolite, affects T-cell signaling, induces apoptosis of cancer cells, and slows tumor growth in mice. However, it has not been used as a chemotherapeutic agent because of its cell impermeability and precipitation in aqueous solution. We developed a nanoliposome-loaded C6-ceremide (LipC6) to overcome this limitation and investigated its effects in mice with liver tumors. METHODS:Immune competent C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal injections of carbon tetrachloride and intra-splenic injections of oncogenic hepatocytes. As a result, tumors resembling human hepatocellular carcinomas developed in a fibrotic liver setting. After tumors formed, mice were given an injection of LipC6 or vehicle via tail vein every other day for 2 weeks. This was followed by administration, also via tail vein, of tumor antigen-specific (TAS) CD8 T cells isolated from the spleens of line 416 mice, and subsequent immunization by intraperitoneal injection of tumor antigen-expressing B6/WT-19 cells. Tumor growth was monitored with magnetic resonance imaging. Tumor apoptosis, proliferation, and AKT expression were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and immunoblots. Cytokine production, phenotype, and function of TAS CD8 T cells and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) were studied with flow cytometry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and ELISA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TAMs and bone marrow-derived macrophages, induced by colony stimulating factor 2 (GMCSF or CSF2) or colony stimulating factor 1 (MCSF or CSF1), were detected using a luminescent assay. RESULTS:Injection of LipC6 slowed tumor growth by reducing tumor cell proliferation and phosphorylation of AKT, and increasing tumor cell apoptosis, compared with vehicle. Tumors grew more slowly in mice given the combination of LipC6 injection and TAS CD8 T cells followed by immunization compared with mice given vehicle, LipC6, the T cells, or immunization alone. LipC6 injection also reduced numbers of TAMs and their production of ROS. LipC6 induced TAMs to differentiate into an M1 phenotype, which reduced immune suppression and increased activity of CD8 T cells. These results were validated by experiments with bone marrow-derived macrophages induced by GMCSF or MCSF. CONCLUSIONS:In mice with liver tumors, injection of LipC6 reduces the number of TAMs and the ability of TAMs to suppress the anti-tumor immune response. LipC6 also increases the anti-tumor effects of TAS CD8 T cells. LipC6 might therefore increase the efficacy of immune therapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.10.050
    Toll-like receptor 9 activation is a key mechanism for the maintenance of chronic lung inflammation. Ito Toshihiro,Schaller Matthew,Raymond Tracy,Joshi Amrita D,Coelho Ana L,Frantz Fabiani G,Carson William F,Hogaboam Cory M,Lukacs Nicholas W,Standiford Theodore J,Phan Sem H,Chensue Stephen W,Kunkel Steven L American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine RATIONALE:Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that the continuous host response to a persistent challenge can polarize the cytokine environment toward a Th2 cytokine phenotype, but the mechanisms responsible for this skewing are not clear. OBJECTIVES:We investigated the role of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in a Th2-driven pulmonary granulomatous response initiated via the embolization of Schistosoma mansoni eggs to the lungs of mice. METHODS:Mice were intravenously injected with S. mansoni eggs. Histological and flow cytometric analysis, cytokine measurement, adoptive transfer of bone marrow (BM)-derived dendritic cells (DCs), and in vitro T-cell treatments with antigen-presenting cells were examined. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:In comparison to wild-type mice, TLR9(-/-) mice showed increased pulmonary granuloma size, augmented collagen deposition, increased Th2 cytokine phenotype, and impaired accumulation of DCs. BM-derived DCs, but not macrophages, recovered from animals with developed Th2-type lung granulomas promoted the production of type 2 cytokines from CD4(+) T cells. BM-derived DCs from TLR9(-/-) mice induced impaired Th1 cytokine and enhanced Th2 cytokine production by T cells, compared with DCs from WT mice. Macrophages from TLR9(-/-) mice expressed a significantly higher alternatively activated (M2) phenotype characterized by increased "found in inflammatory zone-1" (FIZZ1) and arginase-1 expression. The adoptive transfer of BM-derived DCs from syngeneic WT mice into TLR9(-/-) mice restored the granuloma phenotype seen in WT mice. CONCLUSIONS:These studies suggest that TLR9 plays an important mechanistic role in the maintenance of the pulmonary granulomatous response. 10.1164/rccm.200906-0892OC
    MHC class II-dependent basophil-CD4+ T cell interactions promote T(H)2 cytokine-dependent immunity. Perrigoue Jacqueline G,Saenz Steven A,Siracusa Mark C,Allenspach Eric J,Taylor Betsy C,Giacomin Paul R,Nair Meera G,Du Yurong,Zaph Colby,van Rooijen Nico,Comeau Michael R,Pearce Edward J,Laufer Terri M,Artis David Nature immunology Dendritic cells can prime naive CD4+ T cells; however, here we demonstrate that dendritic cell-mediated priming was insufficient for the development of T helper type 2 cell-dependent immunity. We identify basophils as a dominant cell population that coexpressed major histocompatibility complex class II and interleukin 4 message after helminth infection. Basophilia was promoted by thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and depletion of basophils impaired immunity to helminth infection. Basophils promoted antigen-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation and interleukin 4 production in vitro, and transfer of basophils augmented the population expansion of helminth-responsive CD4+ T cells in vivo. Collectively, our studies suggest that major histocompatibility complex class II-dependent interactions between basophils and CD4+ T cells promote T helper type 2 cytokine responses and immunity to helminth infection. 10.1038/ni.1740
    Basophils contribute to T(H)2-IgE responses in vivo via IL-4 production and presentation of peptide-MHC class II complexes to CD4+ T cells. Yoshimoto Tomohiro,Yasuda Koubun,Tanaka Hidehisa,Nakahira Masakiyo,Imai Yasutomo,Fujimori Yoshihiro,Nakanishi Kenji Nature immunology Basophils express major histocompatibility complex class II, CD80 and CD86 and produce interleukin 4 (IL-4) in various conditions. Here we show that when incubated with IL-3 and antigen or complexes of antigen and immunoglobulin E (IgE), basophils internalized, processed and presented antigen as complexes of peptide and major histocompatibility complex class II and produced IL-4. Intravenous administration of ovalbumin-pulsed basophils into naive mice 'preferentially' induced the development of naive ovalbumin-specific CD4+ T cells into T helper type 2 (T(H)2) cells. Mice immunized in this way, when challenged by intravenous administration of ovalbumin, promptly produced ovalbumin-specific IgG1 and IgE. Finally, intravenous administration of IgE complexes rapidly induced T(H)2 cells only in the presence of endogenous basophils, which suggests that basophils are potent antigen-presenting cells that 'preferentially' augment T(H)2-IgE responses by capturing IgE complex. 10.1038/ni.1737
    The receptor S1P1 overrides regulatory T cell-mediated immune suppression through Akt-mTOR. Liu Guangwei,Burns Samir,Huang Gonghua,Boyd Kelli,Proia Richard L,Flavell Richard A,Chi Hongbo Nature immunology Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) are critically involved in maintaining immunological tolerance, but this potent suppression must be 'quenched' to allow the generation of adaptive immune responses. Here we report that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor type 1 (S1P1) delivers an intrinsic negative signal to restrain the thymic generation, peripheral maintenance and suppressive activity of T(reg) cells. Combining loss- and gain-of-function genetic approaches, we found that S1P1 blocked the differentiation of thymic T(reg) precursors and function of mature T(reg) cells and affected T(reg) cell-mediated immune tolerance. S1P1 induced selective activation of the Akt-mTOR kinase pathway to impede the development and function of T(reg) cells. Dynamic regulation of S1P1 contributed to lymphocyte priming and immune homeostasis. Thus, by antagonizing T(reg) cell-mediated immune suppression, the lipid-activated S1P1-Akt-mTOR pathway orchestrates adaptive immune responses. 10.1038/ni.1743
    CPAP is a cell-cycle regulated protein that controls centriole length. Tang Chieh-Ju C,Fu Ru-Huei,Wu Kuo-Sheng,Hsu Wen-Bin,Tang Tang K Nature cell biology Centriole duplication involves the growing of a procentriole (progeny centriole) next to the proximal end of each pre-existing centriole (parental centriole). The molecular mechanisms that regulate procentriole elongation remain obscure. We show here that expression of the centriolar protein CPAP (centrosomal P4.1-associated protein) is carefully regulated during the cell cycle, with the protein being degraded in late mitosis. Depletion of CPAP inhibited centrosome duplication, whereas excess CPAP induced the formation of elongated procentriole-like structures (PLSs), which contain stable microtubules and several centriolar proteins. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that these structures are similar to procentrioles with elongated microtubules. Overexpression of a CPAP mutant (CPAP-377EE) that does not bind to tubulin dimers significantly inhibited the formation of CPAP-induced PLSs. Together, these results suggest that CPAP is a new regulator of centriole length and its intrinsic tubulin-dimer binding activity is required for procentriole elongation. 10.1038/ncb1889
    Immunological synapse formation inhibits, via NF-kappaB and FOXO1, the apoptosis of dendritic cells. Riol-Blanco Lorena,Delgado-Martín Cristina,Sánchez-Sánchez Noelia,Alonso-C Luis M,Gutiérrez-López María Dolores,Del Hoyo Gloria Martínez,Navarro Joaquín,Sánchez-Madrid Francisco,Cabañas Carlos,Sánchez-Mateos Paloma,Rodríguez-Fernández José Luis Nature immunology The immunological synapse (IS) is a cell-cell junction formed between CD4(+) T cells and dendritic cells (DCs). Here we show in vitro and in vivo that IS formation inhibits apoptosis of DCs. Consistent with these results, IS formation induced antiapoptotic signaling events, including activation of the kinase Akt1 and localization of the prosurvival transcription factor NF-kappaB and the proapoptotic transcription factor FOXO1 to the nucleus and cytoplasm, respectively. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase and Akt1 partially prevented the antiapoptotic effects of IS formation. Direct stimulation of the IS component CD40 on DCs leads to the activation of Akt1, suggesting the involvement of this receptor in the antiapoptotic effects observed upon IS formation. 10.1038/ni.1750
    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces the proliferation and survival of macrophages via a pathway involving DAP12 and beta-catenin. Otero Karel,Turnbull Isaiah R,Poliani Pietro Luigi,Vermi William,Cerutti Elisa,Aoshi Taiki,Tassi Ilaria,Takai Toshiyuki,Stanley Samuel L,Miller Mark,Shaw Andrey S,Colonna Marco Nature immunology Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) influences the proliferation and survival of mononuclear phagocytes through the receptor CSF-1R. The adaptor protein DAP12 is critical for the function of mononuclear phagocytes. DAP12-mutant mice and humans have defects in osteoclasts and microglia, as well as brain and bone abnormalities. Here we show DAP12 deficiency impaired the M-CSF-induced proliferation and survival of macrophages in vitro. DAP12-deficient mice had fewer microglia in defined central nervous system areas, and DAP12-deficient progenitors regenerated myeloid cells inefficiently after bone marrow transplantation. Signaling by M-CSF through CSF-1R induced the stabilization and nuclear translocation of beta-catenin, which activated genes involved in the cell cycle. DAP12 was essential for phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin. Our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the many defects of DAP12-deficient mononuclear phagocytes. 10.1038/ni.1744
    Aerosol Delivery of Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles Target and Activate Dendritic Cells in a 3D Lung Cellular Model. Fytianos Kleanthis,Chortarea Savvina,Rodriguez-Lorenzo Laura,Blank Fabian,von Garnier Christophe,Petri-Fink Alke,Rothen-Rutishauser Barbara ACS nano Nanocarrier design combined with pulmonary drug delivery holds great promise for the treatment of respiratory tract disorders. In particular, targeting of dendritic cells that are key immune cells to enhance or suppress an immune response in the lung is a promising approach for the treatment of allergic diseases. Fluorescently encoded poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-coated gold nanoparticles, functionalized with either negative (-COO) or positive (-NH) surface charges, were functionalized with a DC-SIGN antibody on the particle surface, enabling binding to a dendritic cell surface receptor. A 3D coculture model consisting of epithelial and immune cells (macrophages and dendritic cells) mimicking the human lung epithelial tissue barrier was employed to assess the effects of aerosolized AuNPs. PVA-NH AuNPs showed higher uptake compared to that of their -COOH counterparts, with the highest uptake recorded in macrophages, as shown by flow cytometry. None of the AuNPs induced cytotoxicity or necrosis or increased cytokine secretion, whereas only PVA-NH AuNPs induced higher apoptosis levels. DC-SIGN AuNPs showed significantly increased uptake by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) with subsequent activation compared to non-antibody-conjugated control AuNPs, independent of surface charge. Our results show that DC-SIGN conjugation to the AuNPs enhanced MDDC targeting and activation in a complex 3D lung cell model. These findings highlight the potential of immunoengineering approaches to the targeting and activation of immune cells in the lung by nanocarriers. 10.1021/acsnano.6b06061
    Dephosphorylation of Carma1 by PP2A negatively regulates T-cell activation. Eitelhuber Andrea C,Warth Sebastian,Schimmack Gisela,Düwel Michael,Hadian Kamyar,Demski Katrin,Beisker Wolfgang,Shinohara Hisaaki,Kurosaki Tomohiro,Heissmeyer Vigo,Krappmann Daniel The EMBO journal The Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 (CBM) complex bridges T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling to the canonical IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB pathway. NF-κB activation is triggered by PKCθ-dependent phosphorylation of Carma1 after TCR/CD28 co-stimulation. PKCθ-phosphorylated Carma1 was suggested to function as a molecular scaffold that recruits preassembled Bcl10-Malt1 complexes to the membrane. We have identified the serine-threonine protein phosphatase PP2A regulatory subunit Aα (PPP2R1A) as a novel interaction partner of Carma1. PPP2R1A is associated with Carma1 in resting as well as activated T cells in the context of the active CBM complex. By siRNA-mediated knockdown and in vitro dephosphorylation, we demonstrate that PP2A removes PKCθ-dependent phosphorylation of Ser645 in Carma1, and show that maintenance of this phosphorylation is correlated with increased T-cell activation. As a result of PP2A inactivation, we find that enhanced Carma1 S645 phosphorylation augments CBM complex formation, NF-κB activation and IL-2 or IFN-γ production after stimulation of Jurkat T cells or murine Th1 cells. Thus, our data define PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of Carma1 as a critical step to limit T-cell activation and effector cytokine production. 10.1038/emboj.2010.331
    Adipose stem cell treatment in mice attenuates lung and systemic injury induced by cigarette smoking. Schweitzer Kelly S,Johnstone Brian H,Garrison Jana,Rush Natalia I,Cooper Scott,Traktuev Dmitry O,Feng Dongni,Adamowicz Jeremy J,Van Demark Mary,Fisher Amanda J,Kamocki Krzysztof,Brown Mary Beth,Presson Robert G,Broxmeyer Hal E,March Keith L,Petrache Irina American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine RATIONALE:Adipose-derived stem cells express multiple growth factors that inhibit endothelial cell apoptosis, and demonstrate substantial pulmonary trapping after intravascular delivery. OBJECTIVES:We hypothesized that adipose stem cells would ameliorate chronic lung injury associated with endothelial cell apoptosis, such as that occurring in emphysema. METHODS:Therapeutic effects of systemically delivered human or mouse adult adipose stem cells were evaluated in murine models of emphysema induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke or by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Adipose stem cells were detectable in the parenchyma and large airways of lungs up to 21 days after injection. Adipose stem cell treatment was associated with reduced inflammatory infiltration in response to cigarette smoke exposure, and markedly decreased lung cell death and airspace enlargement in both models of emphysema. Remarkably, therapeutic results of adipose stem cells extended beyond lung protection by rescuing the suppressive effects of cigarette smoke on bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cell function, and by restoring weight loss sustained by mice during cigarette smoke exposure. Pulmonary vascular protective effects of adipose stem cells were recapitulated by application of cell-free conditioned medium, which improved lung endothelial cell repair and recovery in a wound injury repair model and antagonized effects of cigarette smoke in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest a useful therapeutic effect of adipose stem cells on both lung and systemic injury induced by cigarette smoke, and implicate a lung vascular protective function of adipose stem cell derived paracrine factors. 10.1164/rccm.201001-0126OC
    Inhibition of allergic bronchial asthma by thrombomodulin is mediated by dendritic cells. Takagi Takehiro,Taguchi Osamu,Toda Masaaki,Ruiz Daniel Boveda,Bernabe Paloma Gil,D'Alessandro-Gabazza Corina N,Miyake Yasushi,Kobayashi Tetsu,Aoki Shinya,Chiba Fumiko,Yano Yutaka,Conway Edward M,Munesue Seiichi,Yamamoto Yasuhiko,Yamamoto Hiroshi,Suzuki Koji,Takei Yoshiyuki,Morser John,Gabazza Esteban C American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine RATIONALE:bronchial asthma is caused by inappropriate acquired immune responses to environmental allergens. It is a major health problem, with a prevalence that is rapidly increasing. Curative therapy is not currently available. OBJECTIVES:to test the hypothesis that thrombomodulin (TM) inhibits allergic bronchial asthma by inducing tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs). METHODS:the protective effect of TM was evaluated using a murine asthma model. Asthma was induced in mice by exposure to chicken egg ovalbumin, and the effects of inhaled TM or TM-treated DCs were assessed by administering before ovalbumin exposure. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:treatment with TM protects against bronchial asthma measured as improved lung function and reduced IgE and cells in alveolar lavage fluid by inducing tolerogenic dendritic dells. These are characterized by high expression of surface TM (CD141/TM(+)) and low expression of maturation markers and possess reduced T-cell costimulatory activity. The CD141/TM(+) DCs migrate less toward chemokines, and after TM treatment there are fewer DCs in the draining lymph node and more in the lungs. The TM effect is independent of its role in coagulation. Rather, it is mediated via the TM lectin domain directly interacting with the DCs. CONCLUSIONS:the results of this study show that TM is a modulator of DC immunostimulatory properties and a novel candidate drug for the prevention of bronchial asthma in atopic patients. 10.1164/rccm.201001-0107OC
    PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies reverse the pro-inflammatory profile of monocytes in familial hypercholesterolaemia. Bernelot Moens Sophie J,Neele Annette E,Kroon Jeffrey,van der Valk Fleur M,Van den Bossche Jan,Hoeksema Marten A,Hoogeveen Renate M,Schnitzler Johan G,Baccara-Dinet Marie T,Manvelian Garen,de Winther Menno P J,Stroes Erik S G European heart journal AIMS:Migration of monocytes into the arterial wall contributes to arterial inflammation and atherosclerosis progression. Since elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels have been associated with activation of plasma monocytes, intensive LDL-C lowering may reverse these pro-inflammatory changes. Using proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which selectively reduce LDL-C, we studied the impact of LDL-C lowering on monocyte phenotype and function in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) not using statins due to statin-associated muscle symptoms. METHODS AND RESULTS:We assessed monocyte phenotype and function using flow cytometry and a trans-endothelial migration assay in FH patients (n = 22: LDL 6.8 ± 1.9 mmol/L) and healthy controls (n = 18, LDL 2.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L). Monocyte chemokine receptor (CCR) 2 expression was approximaterly three-fold higher in FH patients compared with controls. C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) expression correlated significantly with plasma LDL-C levels (r = 0.709) and was positively associated with intracellular lipid accumulation. Monocytes from FH patients also displayed enhanced migratory capacity ex vivo. After 24 weeks of PCSK9 mAb treatment (n = 17), plasma LDL-C was reduced by 49%, which coincided with reduced intracellular lipid accumulation and reduced CCR2 expression. Functional relevance was substantiated by the reversal of enhanced migratory capacity of monocytes following PCSK9 mAb therapy. CONCLUSIONS:Monocytes of FH patients have a pro-inflammatory phenotype, which is dampened by LDL-C lowering by PCSK9 mAb therapy. LDL-C lowering was paralleled by reduced intracellular lipid accumulation, suggesting that LDL-C lowering itself is associated with anti-inflammatory effects on circulating monocytes. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehx002
    Essential role of CCR2 in neutrophil tissue infiltration and multiple organ dysfunction in sepsis. Souto Fabricio O,Alves-Filho José C,Turato Walter M,Auxiliadora-Martins Maria,Basile-Filho Aníbal,Cunha Fernando Q American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine RATIONALE:Sepsis is defined as a systemic inflammatory response to infection, which in its severe form is associated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The precise mechanisms by which MODS develops remain unclear. Neutrophils have a pivotal role in the defense against infections; however, overwhelming activation of neutrophils is known to elicit tissue damage. OBJECTIVES:We investigated the role of the chemokine receptor CCR2 in driving neutrophil infiltration and eliciting tissue damage in remote organs during sepsis. METHODS:Sepsis was induced in wild-type mice treated with CCR2 antagonist (RS504393) or CCR2(-/-) mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Neutrophil infiltration into the organs was measured by myeloperoxidase activity and fluorescence-activated cell sorter. CCR2 expression and chemotaxis were determined in neutrophils stimulated with Toll-like receptor agonists or isolated from septic mice and patients. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:CCR2 expression and responsiveness to its ligands was induced in circulating neutrophils during CLP-induced sepsis by a mechanism dependent on Toll-like receptor/nuclear factor-κB pathway. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of CCR2 protected mice from CLP-induced mortality. This protection was associated with lower infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs, heart, and kidneys and reduced serum biochemical indicators of organ injury and dysfunction. Importantly, neutrophils from septic patients express high levels of CCR2, and the severity of patient illness correlated positively with increasing neutrophil chemotaxis to CCR2 ligands. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, these data identify CCR2 as a key receptor that drives the inappropriate infiltration of neutrophils into remote organs during sepsis. Therefore, CCR2 blockade is a novel potential therapeutic target for treatment of sepsis-induced MODS. 10.1164/rccm.201003-0416OC
    Single-gene association between GATA-2 and autoimmune hepatitis: A novel genetic insight highlighting immunologic pathways to disease. Webb Gwilym,Chen Yung-Yi,Li Ka-Kit,Neil Desley,Oo Ye Htun,Richter Alex,Bigley Venetia,Collin Matthew,Adams David H,Hirschfield Gideon M Journal of hepatology Background & Aims Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), an immune-mediated liver disease, originates as a consequence of interacting genetic and environmental risk factors. Treatment remains non-specific and prone to side effects. Deficiencies in regulatory T cell (Treg) function are hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of AIH. Methods We describe an adult patient who presented with AIH in the context of monocytopenia. The patient was characterized by GATA2 gene sequencing, flow cytometry of peripheral blood for leucocyte subsets, ELISA for serum Flt-3 ligand, and immunohistochemistry of liver biopsy tissue. Results Sequencing confirmed a GATA2 mutation. Peripheral Treg were absent in the context of a preserved total T cell count. Immunostaining for the Treg transcription factor FOXP3 was reduced in liver tissue as compared to a control AIH specimen. There were marked deficiencies in multiple antigen-presenting cell subsets and Flt-3 ligand was elevated. These findings are consistent with previous reports of GATA2 dysfunction. Conclusions The association of a GATA2 mutation with AIH is previously unrecognized. GATA2 encodes a hematopoietic cell transcription factor, and mutations may manifest as monocytopenia, dendritic and B cell deficiencies, myelodysplasia, and immunodeficiency. Tregs may be depleted as in this case. Our findings provide support for the role of Tregs in AIH, complement reports of other deficiencies in T cell regulation causing AIH-like syndromes, and support the rationale of attempting to modulate the Treg axis for the therapeutic benefit of AIH patients. 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.01.017
    Effector role of neonatal hepatic CD8+ lymphocytes in epithelial injury and autoimmunity in experimental biliary atresia. Shivakumar Pranavkumar,Sabla Gregg,Mohanty Sujit,McNeal Monica,Ward Richard,Stringer Keith,Caldwell Charles,Chougnet Claire,Bezerra Jorge A Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Lymphocytes populate the livers of infants with biliary atresia, but it is unknown whether neonatal lymphocytes regulate pathogenesis of disease. Here, we investigate this question by examining the role of T lymphocytes in the destruction of extrahepatic bile ducts of neonatal mice using an experimental model of biliary atresia. METHODS:Inoculation of neonatal mice with rhesus rotavirus followed by multistaining flow cytometry to quantify expression of interferon-gamma by hepatic lymphocytes, and real-time polymerase chain reaction for mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This was followed by determining the consequences of antibody-mediated depletion of lymphocyte subtypes on the development of biliary obstruction, and coculture and cell transfer experiments to investigate the effector role of lymphocyte subtypes on neonatal biliary disease. RESULTS:Rotavirus infection results in overexpression of interferon-gamma by neonatal hepatic T cells. Among these cells, depletion of CD4(+) cells did not change the course of inflammatory injury and obstruction of neonatal bile ducts. In contrast, loss of CD8(+) cells remarkably suppressed duct injury, prevented luminal obstruction, and restored bile flow. Coculture experiments showed that rotavirus-primed, but not naïve, CD8(+) cells were cytotoxic to cholangiocytes. In adoptive transfer experiments, we found that primed CD8(+) cells preferentially homed to extrahepatic bile ducts of neonatal mice and invaded their epithelial lining. CONCLUSIONS:Primed neonatal CD8(+) cells can activate a pro-inflammatory program, target diseased and healthy duct epithelium, and drive the phenotypic expression of biliary atresia, thus constituting a potential therapeutic target to halt disease progression. 10.1053/j.gastro.2007.04.031
    Long-term self-renewal of human pluripotent stem cells on human recombinant laminin-511. Rodin Sergey,Domogatskaya Anna,Ström Susanne,Hansson Emil M,Chien Kenneth R,Inzunza José,Hovatta Outi,Tryggvason Karl Nature biotechnology We describe a system for culturing human embryonic stem (hES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells on a recombinant form of human laminin-511, a component of the natural hES cell niche. The system is devoid of animal products and feeder cells and contains only one undefined component, human albumin. The hES cells self-renewed with normal karyotype for at least 4 months (20 passages), after which the cells could produce teratomas containing cell lineages of all three germ layers. When plated on laminin-511 in small clumps, hES cells spread out in a monolayer, maintaining cellular homogeneity with approximately 97% OCT4-positive cells. Adhesion of hES cells was dependent on alpha6beta1 integrin. The use of homogeneous monolayer hES or iPS cell cultures provides more controllable conditions for the design of differentiation methods. This xeno-free and feeder-free system may be useful for the development of cell lineages for therapeutic purposes. 10.1038/nbt.1620
    Stem cell defects in ATM-deficient undifferentiated spermatogonia through DNA damage-induced cell-cycle arrest. Takubo Keiyo,Ohmura Masako,Azuma Masaki,Nagamatsu Go,Yamada Wakako,Arai Fumio,Hirao Atsushi,Suda Toshio Cell stem cell Mammalian spermatogenesis is maintained by stem cell capacity within undifferentiated spermatogonial subpopulation. Here, using a combination of surface markers, we describe a purification method for undifferentiated spermatogonia. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that this population is composed of Plzf-positive cells and exhibits quiescence and the side population phenotype, fulfilling general stem cell criteria. We then applied this method to analyze undifferentiated spermatogonia and stem cell activity of Atm(-/-) mice. Atm(-/-) testis shows progressive depletion of undifferentiated spermatogonia accompanied by cell-cycle arrest. In Atm(-/-) undifferentiated spermatogonia, a self-renewal defect was observed in vitro and in vivo. Accumulation of DNA damage and activation of the p19(Arf)-p53-p21(Cip1/Waf1) pathway were observed in Atm(-/-) undifferentiated spermatogonia. Moreover, suppression of p21(Cip1/Waf1) in an Atm(-/-) background restored transplantation ability of undifferentiated spermatogonia, indicating that ATM plays an essential role in maintenance of undifferentiated spermatogonia and their stem cell capacity by suppressing DNA damage-induced cell-cycle arrest. 10.1016/j.stem.2007.10.023
    Loss of Gut Microbiota Alters Immune System Composition and Cripples Postinfarction Cardiac Repair. Tang Tony W H,Chen Hung-Chih,Chen Chen-Yun,Yen Christopher Y T,Lin Chen-Ju,Prajnamitra Ray P,Chen Li-Lun,Ruan Shu-Chian,Lin Jen-Hao,Lin Po-Ju,Lu Hsueh-Han,Kuo Chiung-Wen,Chang Cindy M,Hall Alexander D,Vivas Eugenio I,Shui Jr-Wen,Chen Peilin,Hacker Timothy A,Rey Federico E,Kamp Timothy J,Hsieh Patrick C H Circulation BACKGROUND:The impact of gut microbiota on the regulation of host physiology has recently garnered considerable attention, particularly in key areas such as the immune system and metabolism. These areas are also crucial for the pathophysiology of and repair after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the role of the gut microbiota in the context of MI remains to be fully elucidated. METHODS:To investigate the effects of gut microbiota on cardiac repair after MI, C57BL/6J mice were treated with antibiotics 7 days before MI to deplete mouse gut microbiota. Flow cytometry was applied to examine the changes in immune cell composition in the heart. 16S rDNA sequencing was conducted as a readout for changes in gut microbial composition. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) species altered after antibiotic treatment were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Fecal reconstitution, transplantation of monocytes, or dietary SCFA or Lactobacillus probiotic supplementation was conducted to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of microbiota on the mice after MI. RESULTS:Antibiotic-treated mice displayed drastic, dose-dependent mortality after MI. We observed an association between the gut microbiota depletion and significant reductions in the proportion of myeloid cells and SCFAs, more specifically acetate, butyrate, and propionate. Infiltration of CX3CR1+ monocytes to the peri-infarct zone after MI was also reduced, suggesting impairment of repair after MI. Accordingly, the physiological status and survival of mice were significantly improved after fecal reconstitution, transplantation of monocytes, or dietary SCFA supplementation. MI was associated with a reorganization of the gut microbial community such as a reduction in Lactobacillus. Supplementing antibiotic-treated mice with a Lactobacillus probiotic before MI restored myeloid cell proportions, yielded cardioprotective effects, and shifted the balance of SCFAs toward propionate. CONCLUSIONS:Gut microbiota-derived SCFAs play an important role in maintaining host immune composition and repair capacity after MI. This suggests that manipulation of these elements may provide opportunities to modulate pathological outcome after MI and indeed human health and disease as a whole. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.035235
    Dysfunctional and Proinflammatory Regulatory T-Lymphocytes Are Essential for Adverse Cardiac Remodeling in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy. Bansal Shyam S,Ismahil Mohamed Ameen,Goel Mehak,Zhou Guihua,Rokosh Gregg,Hamid Tariq,Prabhu Sumanth D Circulation BACKGROUND:Heart failure (HF) is a state of inappropriately sustained inflammation, suggesting the loss of normal immunosuppressive mechanisms. Regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs) are considered key suppressors of immune responses; however, their role in HF is unknown. We hypothesized that Tregs are dysfunctional in ischemic cardiomyopathy and HF, and they promote immune activation and left ventricular (LV) remodeling. METHODS:Adult male wild-type C57BL/6 mice, Foxp3-diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α receptor-1 (TNFR1) mice underwent nonreperfused myocardial infarction to induce HF or sham operation. LV remodeling was assessed by echocardiography as well as histological and molecular phenotyping. Alterations in Treg profile and function were examined by flow cytometry, immunostaining, and in vitro cell assays. RESULTS:Compared with wild-type sham mice, CD4Foxp3 Tregs in wild-type HF mice robustly expanded in the heart, circulation, spleen, and lymph nodes in a phasic manner after myocardial infarction, beyond the early phase of wound healing, and exhibited proinflammatory T helper 1-type features with interferon-γ, TNFα, and TNFR1 expression, loss of immunomodulatory capacity, heightened proliferation, and potentiated antiangiogenic and profibrotic properties. Selective Treg ablation in Foxp3-diphtheria toxin receptor mice with ischemic cardiomyopathy reversed LV remodeling and dysfunction, alleviating hypertrophy and fibrosis, while suppressing circulating CD4 T cells and systemic inflammation and enhancing tissue neovascularization. Tregs reconstituted after ablation exhibited restoration of immunosuppressive capacity and normalized TNFR1 expression. Treg dysfunction was also tightly coupled to Treg-endothelial cell contact- and TNFR1-dependent inhibition of angiogenesis and the mobilization and tissue infiltration of CD34Flk1 circulating angiogenic cells in a C-C chemokine ligand 5/C-C chemokine receptor 5-dependent manner. Anti-CD25-mediated Treg depletion in wild-type mice imparted similar benefits on LV remodeling, circulating angiogenic cells, and tissue neovascularization. CONCLUSIONS:Proinflammatory and antiangiogenic Tregs play an essential pathogenetic role in chronic ischemic HF to promote immune activation and pathological LV remodeling. The restoration of normal Treg function may be a viable approach to therapeutic immunomodulation in this disease. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.036065
    Interaction between tumour-infiltrating B cells and T cells controls the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Garnelo Marta,Tan Alex,Her Zhisheng,Yeong Joe,Lim Chun Jye,Chen Jinmiao,Lim Kiat Hon,Weber Achim,Chow Pierce,Chung Alexander,Ooi London Lucien Pj,Toh Han Chong,Heikenwalder Mathias,Ng Irene O L,Nardin Alessandra,Chen Qingfeng,Abastado Jean-Pierre,Chew Valerie Gut OBJECTIVE:The nature of the tumour-infiltrating leucocytes (TILs) is known to impact clinical outcome in carcinomas, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of tumour-infiltrating B cells (TIBs) remains controversial. Here, we investigate the impact of TIBs and their interaction with T cells on HCC patient prognosis. DESIGN:Tissue samples were obtained from 112 patients with HCC from Singapore, Hong Kong and Zurich and analysed using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. RNA expression of CD19, CD8A, IFNG was analysed using quantitative PCR. The phenotype of freshly isolated TILs was analysed using flow cytometry. A mouse model depleted of mature B cells was used for functional study. RESULTS:Tumour-infiltrating T cells and B cells were observed in close contact with each other and their densities are correlated with superior survival in patients with HCC. Furthermore, the density of TIBs was correlated with an enhanced expression of granzyme B and IFN-γ, as well as with reduced tumour viability defined by low expression of Ki-67, and an enhanced expression of activated caspase-3 on tumour cells. CD27 and CD40 costimulatory molecules and TILs expressing activation marker CD38 in the tumour were also correlated with patient survival. Mice depleted of mature B cells and transplanted with murine hepatoma cells showed reduced tumour control and decreased local T cell activation, further indicating the important role of B cells. CONCLUSIONS:The close proximity of tumour-infiltrating T cells and B cells indicates a functional interaction between them that is linked to an enhanced local immune activation and contributes to better prognosis for patients with HCC. 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-310814
    Simultaneous detection of many T-cell specificities using combinatorial tetramer staining. Newell Evan W,Klein Lawrence O,Yu Wong,Davis Mark M Nature methods The direct detection of antigen-specific T cells using tetramers of soluble peptide-major histocompatibilty complex (pMHC) molecules is widely used in both basic and clinical immunology. However, the number of specificities that can be assessed simultaneously has been a major limitation. Here we describe and validate a method using combinations of fluorescent pMHC tetramers to simultaneously detect and enrich for many (>or=15) T-cell specificities in a single human blood sample. 10.1038/nmeth.1344
    Among human macrophages polarised to different phenotypes, the M-CSF-oriented cells present the highest pro-inflammatory response to the rheumatoid arthritis-specific immune complexes containing ACPA. Clavel Cyril,Ceccato Laurie,Anquetil Florence,Serre Guy,Sebbag Mireille Annals of the rheumatic diseases OBJECTIVES:In the inflamed synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA) probably form immune complexes (IC) on deposits of citrullinated fibrin. We showed that in vitro such ACPA-IC activate a pro-inflammatory cytokine response in M-CSF-differentiated macrophages. Our objective was to evaluate how macrophage polarisation influences this response. METHODS:CD14-positive monocytes from healthy donors were cultured in the presence of M-CSF, IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-10. Expression of markers specific for polarised macrophages was analysed by flow cytometry. Their cytokine secretion was prompted by in vitro generated autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins immune complexes (ACPA-IC) and assayed in the culture supernatants. RESULTS:IFN-γ-polarised cells exhibited high levels of CD64 and CD80. Low expression of CD14 and high expression of CD206 characterised the IL-4-polarised cells. Exposure to IL-10 or M-CSF raised the expression of CD14, CD32 and CD163. The two cell types lacked CD80 and exhibited similar expression of CD64, CD200R and CD206. In response to ACPA-IC, the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 was similar among cells exposed to IFN-γ, IL-4 or IL-10. However, the later cells were associated with the highest IL-1Ra:IL-1β ratio and the lowest tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α:IL-10 ratio. Conversely, M-CSF-exposed cells secreted the highest levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, exhibited a high TNF-α:IL-10 ratio and the lowest IL-1Ra:IL-1β ratio. CONCLUSIONS:Despite their phenotypic similarity, IL-10-polarised and M-CSF-polarised macrophages clearly differ in their cytokine response to ACPA-IC. M-CSF-polarised cells exhibit the highest pro-inflammatory potential. Since M-CSF is abundant in the RA synovium, therein it probably drives macrophages towards a strong pro-inflammatory cytokine response to the locally formed ACPA-IC. 10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-208887
    A dynamic T cell-limited checkpoint regulates affinity-dependent B cell entry into the germinal center. Schwickert Tanja A,Victora Gabriel D,Fooksman David R,Kamphorst Alice O,Mugnier Monica R,Gitlin Alexander D,Dustin Michael L,Nussenzweig Michel C The Journal of experimental medicine The germinal center (GC) reaction is essential for the generation of the somatically hypermutated, high-affinity antibodies that mediate adaptive immunity. Entry into the GC is limited to a small number of B cell clones; however, the process by which this limited number of clones is selected is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that low-affinity B cells intrinsically capable of seeding a GC reaction fail to expand and become activated in the presence of higher-affinity B cells even before GC coalescence. Live multiphoton imaging shows that selection is based on the amount of peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) presented to cognate T cells within clusters of responding B and T cells at the T-B border. We propose a model in which T cell help is restricted to the B cells with the highest amounts of pMHC, thus allowing for a dynamic affinity threshold to be imposed on antigen-binding B cells. 10.1084/jem.20102477
    The Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin binds to T cells via LFA-1 and induces its disengagement from the immune synapse. Paccani Silvia Rossi,Finetti Francesca,Davi Marilyne,Patrussi Laura,D'Elios Mario M,Ladant Daniel,Baldari Cosima T The Journal of experimental medicine The Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) assists infection by potently suppressing the host immune response. Although CyaA effectively targets T lymphocytes, its putative receptor on these cells is unknown. Here, we show that CyaA binds to T cells via the β₂ integrin LFA-1 in its active conformation. CyaA clusters with LFA-1 at the immune synapse (IS), from which it induces the premature disengagement of LFA-1 concomitant with the dissipation of talin, which tethers the integrin to the underlying actin cytoskeleton. The CyaA-induced redistribution of LFA-1 was cAMP- and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent. These results not only identify LFA-1 as a CyaA receptor on T cells but unveil a novel mechanism of immunosuppression whereby the toxin parasitizes its interaction with LFA-1 to inhibit signaling at the IS through the local production of cAMP. The data also provide novel insights into the role of cAMP/PKA signaling in controlling the dynamics of the IS. 10.1084/jem.20101558
    Hierarchical organization and early hematopoietic specification of the developing HSC lineage in the AGM region. Rybtsov Stanislav,Sobiesiak Malgorzata,Taoudi Samir,Souilhol Céline,Senserrich Jordi,Liakhovitskaia Anna,Ivanovs Andrejs,Frampton Jon,Zhao Suling,Medvinsky Alexander The Journal of experimental medicine The aorta-gonad-mesonephros region plays an important role in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development during mouse embryogenesis. The vascular endothelial cadherin⁺ CD45⁺ (VE-cad⁺CD45⁺) population contains the major type of immature pre-HSCs capable of developing into long-term repopulating definitive HSCs. In this study, we developed a new coaggregation culture system, which supports maturation of a novel population of CD45-negative (VE-cad⁺CD45⁻CD41⁺) pre-HSCs into definitive HSCs. The appearance of these pre-HSCs precedes development of the VE-cad⁺CD45⁺ pre-HSCs (termed here type I and type II pre-HSCs, respectively), thus establishing a hierarchical directionality in the developing HSC lineage. By labeling the luminal surface of the dorsal aorta, we show that both type I and type II pre-HSCs are distributed broadly within the endothelial and subendothelial aortic layers, in contrast to mature definitive HSCs which localize to the aortic endothelial layer. In agreement with expression of CD41 in pre-HSCs, in vivo CD41-Cre-mediated genetic tagging occurs in embryonic pre-HSCs and persists in all lymphomyeloid lineages of the adult animal. 10.1084/jem.20102419
    Hemophagocytosis causes a consumptive anemia of inflammation. Zoller Erin E,Lykens Jennifer E,Terrell Catherine E,Aliberti Julio,Filipovich Alexandra H,Henson Peter M,Jordan Michael B The Journal of experimental medicine Cytopenias of uncertain etiology are commonly observed in patients during severe inflammation. Hemophagocytosis, the histological appearance of blood-eating macrophages, is seen in the disorder hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and other inflammatory contexts. Although it is hypothesized that these phenomena are linked, the mechanisms facilitating acute inflammation-associated cytopenias are unknown. We report that interferon γ (IFN-γ) is a critical driver of the acute anemia observed during diverse microbial infections in mice. Furthermore, systemic exposure to physiologically relevant levels of IFN-γ is sufficient to cause acute cytopenias and hemophagocytosis. Demonstrating the significance of hemophagocytosis, we found that IFN-γ acts directly on macrophages in vivo to alter endocytosis and provoke blood cell uptake, leading to severe anemia. These findings define a unique pathological process of broad clinical and immunological significance, which we term the consumptive anemia of inflammation. 10.1084/jem.20102538
    Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group D Member 1 Regulates Circadian Activity of NLRP3 Inflammasome to Reduce the Severity of Fulminant Hepatitis in Mice. Pourcet Benoit,Zecchin Mathilde,Ferri Lise,Beauchamp Justine,Sitaula Sadicha,Billon Cyrielle,Delhaye Stéphane,Vanhoutte Jonathan,Mayeuf-Louchart Alicia,Thorel Quentin,Haas Joel T,Eeckhoute Jérome,Dombrowicz David,Duhem Christian,Boulinguiez Alexis,Lancel Steve,Sebti Yasmine,Burris Thomas P,Staels Bart,Duez Hélène M Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:The innate immune system responds not only to bacterial signals, but also to non-infectious danger-associated molecular patterns that activate the NLRP3 inflammasome complex after tissue injury. Immune functions vary over the course of the day, but it is not clear whether these changes affect the activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome. We investigated whether the core clock component nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 1 (NR1D1, also called Rev-erbα) regulates expression, activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and its signaling pathway. METHODS:We collected naïve peritoneal macrophages and plasma, at multiple times of day, from Nr1d1 mice and their Nr1d1 littermates (controls) and analyzed expression NLRP3, interleukin 1β (IL1B, in plasma), and IL18 (in plasma). We also collected bone marrow-derived primary macrophages from these mice. Levels of NR1D1 were knocked down with small hairpin RNAs in human primary macrophages. Bone marrow-derived primary macrophages from mice and human primary macrophages were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce expression of NLRP3, IL1B, and IL18; cells were incubated with LPS and adenosine triphosphate to activate the NLRP3 complex. We analyzed caspase 1 activity and cytokine secretion. NR1D1 was activated in primary mouse and human macrophages by incubation with SR9009; some of the cells were also incubated with an NLRP3 inhibitor or inhibitors of caspase 1. Nr1d1 mice and control mice were given intraperitoneal injections of LPS to induce peritoneal inflammation; plasma samples were isolated and levels of cytokines were measured. Nr1d1 mice, control mice, and control mice given injections of SR9009 were given LPS and D-galactosamine to induce fulminant hepatitis and MCC950 to specifically inhibit NLRP3; plasma was collected to measure cytokines and a marker of liver failure (alanine aminotransferase); liver tissues were collected and analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. RESULTS:In peritoneal macrophages, expression of NLRP3 and activation of its complex varied with time of day (circadian rhythm)-this regulation required NR1D1. Primary macrophages from Nr1d1 mice and human macrophages with knockdown of NR1D1 had altered expression patterns of NLRP3, compared to macrophages that expressed NR1D1, and altered patterns of IL1B and 1L18 production. Mice with disruption of Nr1d1 developed more-severe acute peritoneal inflammation and fulminant hepatitis than control mice. Incubation of macrophage with the NR1D1 activator SR9009 reduced expression of NLRP3 and secretion of cytokines. Mice given SR9009 developed less-severe liver failure and had longer survival times than mice given saline (control). CONCLUSIONS:In studies of Nr1d1 mice and human macrophages with pharmacologic activation of NR1D1, we found NR1D1 to regulate the timing of NLRP3 expression and production of inflammatory cytokines by macrophages. Activation of NR1D1 reduced the severity of peritoneal inflammation and fulminant hepatitis in mice. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.12.019
    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Diller Gerhard-Paul,van Eijl Sven,Okonko Darlington O,Howard Luke S,Ali Omar,Thum Thomas,Wort Stephen J,Bédard Elisabeth,Gibbs J Simon R,Bauersachs Johann,Hobbs Adrian J,Wilkins Martin R,Gatzoulis Michael A,Wharton John Circulation BACKGROUND:Impaired endothelial homeostasis underlies the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We speculated that PAH patients are deficient in circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), potentially contributing to endothelial dysfunction and disease progression. METHODS AND RESULTS:We recruited 41 patients with Eisenmenger syndrome (13 with Down syndrome), 55 with idiopathic PAH, and 47 healthy control subjects. Flow cytometry and in vitro assays were used to quantify EPCs and to assess cell function. The number of circulating CD34+, CD34+/AC133+, CD34+/KDR+, and CD34+/AC133+/KDR+ progenitor cells was low in Eisenmenger patients compared with healthy control subjects, and those with Down syndrome displayed even fewer EPCs. Reductions in EPC numbers correlated with New York Heart Association functional class, 6-minute walk distance, and plasma brain-type natriuretic peptide levels. The capacity of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells to form colonies and incorporate into tube-like structures was impaired in Eisenmenger patients. Idiopathic PAH patients had reduced numbers of EPCs, and the number of circulating EPCs correlated with invasive hemodynamic parameters in this cohort. Levels of immune inflammatory markers, cGMP, stable nitric oxide oxidation products, and asymmetric dimethylarginine were abnormal in patients with PAH and related to numbers of EPCs. Within the idiopathic PAH population, treatment with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor sildenafil was associated with a dose-dependent rise in EPC numbers, resulting in levels consistently above those found with other therapies. CONCLUSIONS:Circulating EPC numbers are reduced in 2 well-characterized forms of PAH, which also exhibit raised levels of inflammatory mediators. Sildenafil treatment may represent a pharmacological means of increasing circulating EPC numbers long-term. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.769646
    T cell receptor signal strength in Treg and iNKT cell development demonstrated by a novel fluorescent reporter mouse. Moran Amy E,Holzapfel Keli L,Xing Yan,Cunningham Nicole R,Maltzman Jonathan S,Punt Jennifer,Hogquist Kristin A The Journal of experimental medicine The ability of antigen receptors to engage self-ligands with varying affinity is crucial for lymphocyte development. To further explore this concept, we generated transgenic mice expressing GFP from the immediate early gene Nr4a1 (Nur77) locus. GFP was up-regulated in lymphocytes by antigen receptor stimulation but not by inflammatory stimuli. In T cells, GFP was induced during positive selection, required major histocompatibility complex for maintenance, and directly correlated with the strength of T cell receptor (TCR) stimulus. Thus, our results define a novel tool for studying antigen receptor activation in vivo. Using this model, we show that regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) and invariant NKT cells (iNKT cells) perceived stronger TCR signals than conventional T cells during development. However, although T(reg) cells continued to perceive strong TCR signals in the periphery, iNKT cells did not. Finally, we show that T(reg) cell progenitors compete for recognition of rare stimulatory TCR self-ligands. 10.1084/jem.20110308
    NKAP is required for T cell maturation and acquisition of functional competency. Hsu Fan-Chi,Pajerowski Anthony G,Nelson-Holte Molly,Sundsbak Rhianna,Shapiro Virginia Smith The Journal of experimental medicine Newly generated T cells are unable to respond to antigen/MHC. Rather, post-selection single-positive thymocytes must undergo T cell maturation to gain functional competency and enter the long-lived naive peripheral T cell pool. This process is poorly understood, as no gene specifically required for T cell maturation has been identified. Here, we demonstrate that loss of the transcriptional repressor NKAP results in a complete block in T cell maturation. In CD4-cre NKAP conditional knockout mice, thymic development including positive selection occurs normally, but there is a cell-intrinsic defect in the peripheral T cell pool. All peripheral naive CD4-cre NKAP conditional knockout T cells were found to be functionally immature recent thymic emigrants. This defect is not simply in cell survival, as the T cell maturation defect was not rescued by a Bcl-2 transgene. Thus, NKAP is required for T cell maturation and the acquisition of functional competency. 10.1084/jem.20101874
    PLZF induces an intravascular surveillance program mediated by long-lived LFA-1-ICAM-1 interactions. Thomas Seddon Y,Scanlon Seth T,Griewank Klaus G,Constantinides Michael G,Savage Adam K,Barr Kenneth A,Meng Fanyong,Luster Andrew D,Bendelac Albert The Journal of experimental medicine Innate-like NKT cells conspicuously accumulate within the liver microvasculature of healthy mice, crawling on the luminal side of endothelial cells, but their general recirculation pattern and the mechanism of their intravascular behavior have not been elucidated. Using parabiotic mice, we demonstrated that, despite their intravascular location, most liver NKT cells failed to recirculate. Antibody blocking experiments established that they were retained locally through constitutive LFA-1-intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 1 interactions. This unprecedented lifelong intravascular residence could be induced in conventional CD4 T cells by the sole expression of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), a transcription factor specifically expressed in the NKT lineage. These findings reveal the unique genetic and biochemical pathway that underlies the innate intravascular surveillance program of NKT cells. 10.1084/jem.20102630
    Villin-1 and Gelsolin Regulate Changes in Actin Dynamics That Affect Cell Survival Signaling Pathways and Intestinal Inflammation. Roy Swati,Esmaeilniakooshkghazi Amin,Patnaik Srinivas,Wang Yaohong,George Sudeep P,Ahrorov Afzal,Hou Jason K,Herron Alan J,Sesaki Hiromi,Khurana Seema Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Cell stress signaling pathways result in phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (EIF2S1 or EIF2A), which affects regulation of protein translation. Translation reprogramming mitigates stress by activating pathways that result in autophagy and cell death, to eliminate damaged cells. Actin is modified during stress and EIF2A is dephosphorylated to restore homeostasis. It is not clear how actin affects EIF2A signaling. We studied the actin-binding proteins villin 1 (VIL1) and gelsolin (GSN) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to determine whether they respond to cell stress response and affect signaling pathways. METHODS:We performed studies with mice with disruptions in Vil1 and Gsn (double-knockout mice). Wild-type (WT) mice either were or were not (controls) exposed to cell stressors such as tumor necrosis factor and adherent-invasive Escherichia coli. Distal ileum tissues were collected from mice; IECs and enteroids were cultured and analyzed by histology, immunoblots, phalloidin staining, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. HT-29 cells were incubated with cell stressors such as DTT, IFN, and adherent-invasive E coli or control agents; cells were analyzed by immunoblots and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Green fluorescent protein and green fluorescent protein tagged mutant EIF2A were expressed from a lentiviral vector. The mouse immunity-related GTPase (IRGM1) was overexpressed in embryonic fibroblasts from dynamin1 like (DNM1L) protein-knockout mice or their WT littermates. IRGM1 was overexpressed in embryonic fibroblasts from receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 1-knockout mice or their WT littermates. Human IRGM was overexpressed in human epithelial cell lines incubated with the DNM1L-specific inhibitor Mdivi-1. Mitochondria were analyzed by semi-quantitative confocal imaging. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of distal ileum tissues from 6-8 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 6-8 individuals without CD (controls). RESULTS:In IECs exposed to cell stressors, EIF2A signaling reduced expression of VIL1 and GSN. However, VIL1 and GSN were required for dephosphorylation of EIF2A and recovery from cell stress. In mouse and human IECs, prolonged, unresolved stress was accompanied by continued down-regulation of VIL1 and GSN, resulting in constitutive phosphorylation of EIF2A and overexpression of IRGM1 (or IRGM), which regulates autophagy. Overexpression of IRGM1 (or IRGM) induced cell death by necroptosis, accompanied by release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In double-knockout mice, constitutive phosphorylation of EIF2A and over-expression of IRGM1 resulted in spontaneous ileitis that resembled human CD in symptoms and histology. Distal ileum tissues from patients with CD had lower levels of VIL1 and GSN, increased phosphorylation of EIF2A, increased levels of IRGM and necroptosis, and increased release of nuclear DAMPs compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS:In studies of intestinal epithelial tissues from patients with CD and embryonic fibroblasts from mice, along with enteroids and human IEC lines, we found that induction of cell stress alters the cytoskeleton in IECs via changes in the actin-binding proteins VIL1 and GSN. Acute changes in actin dynamics increase IEC survival, whereas long-term changes in actin dynamics lead to IEC death and intestinal inflammation. IRGM regulates necroptosis and release of DAMPs to induce gastrointestinal inflammation, linking IRGM activity with CD. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.12.016
    Carbon Dot Nanothermometry: Intracellular Photoluminescence Lifetime Thermal Sensing. Kalytchuk Sergii,Poláková Kateřina,Wang Yu,Froning Jens P,Cepe Klara,Rogach Andrey L,Zbořil Radek ACS nano Nanoscale biocompatible photoluminescence (PL) thermometers that can be used to accurately and reliably monitor intracellular temperatures have many potential applications in biology and medicine. Ideally, such nanothermometers should be functional at physiological pH across a wide range of ionic strengths, probe concentrations, and local environments. Here, we show that water-soluble N,S-co-doped carbon dots (CDs) exhibit temperature-dependent photoluminescence lifetimes and can serve as highly sensitive and reliable intracellular nanothermometers. PL intensity measurements indicate that these CDs have many advantages over alternative semiconductor- and CD-based nanoscale temperature sensors. Importantly, their PL lifetimes remain constant over wide ranges of pH values (5-12), CD concentrations (1.5 × 10 to 0.5 mg/mL), and environmental ionic strengths (up to 0.7 mol·L NaCl). Moreover, they are biocompatible and nontoxic, as demonstrated by cell viability and flow cytometry analyses using NIH/3T3 and HeLa cell lines. N,S-CD thermal sensors also exhibit good water dispersibility, superior photo- and thermostability, extraordinary environment and concentration independence, high storage stability, and reusability-their PL decay curves at temperatures between 15 and 45 °C remained unchanged over seven sequential experiments. In vitro PL lifetime-based temperature sensing performed with human cervical cancer HeLa cells demonstrated the great potential of these nanosensors in biomedicine. Overall, N,S-doped CDs exhibit excitation-independent emission with strongly temperature-dependent monoexponential decay, making them suitable for both in vitro and in vivo luminescence lifetime thermometry. 10.1021/acsnano.6b06670
    Themis controls thymocyte selection through regulation of T cell antigen receptor-mediated signaling. Fu Guo,Vallée Sébastien,Rybakin Vasily,McGuire Marielena V,Ampudia Jeanette,Brockmeyer Claudia,Salek Mogjiborahman,Fallen Paul R,Hoerter John A H,Munshi Anil,Huang Yina H,Hu Jianfang,Fox Howard S,Sauer Karsten,Acuto Oreste,Gascoigne Nicholas R J Nature immunology Themis (thymocyte-expressed molecule involved in selection), a member of a family of proteins with unknown functions, is highly conserved among vertebrates. Here we found that Themis had high expression in thymocytes between the pre-T cell antigen receptor (pre-TCR) and positive-selection checkpoints and low expression in mature T cells. Themis-deficient thymocytes showed defective positive selection, which resulted in fewer mature thymocytes. Negative selection was also impaired in Themis-deficient mice. A greater percentage of Themis-deficient T cells had CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory and CD62L(lo)CD44(hi) memory phenotypes than did wild-type T cells. In support of the idea that Themis is involved in TCR signaling, this protein was phosphorylated quickly after TCR stimulation and was needed for optimal TCR-driven calcium mobilization and activation of the kinase Erk. 10.1038/ni.1766
    Arteriolar niches maintain haematopoietic stem cell quiescence. Kunisaki Yuya,Bruns Ingmar,Scheiermann Christoph,Ahmed Jalal,Pinho Sandra,Zhang Dachuan,Mizoguchi Toshihide,Wei Qiaozhi,Lucas Daniel,Ito Keisuke,Mar Jessica C,Bergman Aviv,Frenette Paul S Nature Cell cycle quiescence is a critical feature contributing to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Although various candidate stromal cells have been identified as potential HSC niches, the spatial localization of quiescent HSCs in the bone marrow remains unclear. Here, using a novel approach that combines whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence imaging techniques and computational modelling to analyse significant three-dimensional associations in the mouse bone marrow among vascular structures, stromal cells and HSCs, we show that quiescent HSCs associate specifically with small arterioles that are preferentially found in endosteal bone marrow. These arterioles are ensheathed exclusively by rare NG2 (also known as CSPG4)(+) pericytes, distinct from sinusoid-associated leptin receptor (LEPR)(+) cells. Pharmacological or genetic activation of the HSC cell cycle alters the distribution of HSCs from NG2(+) periarteriolar niches to LEPR(+) perisinusoidal niches. Conditional depletion of NG2(+) cells induces HSC cycling and reduces functional long-term repopulating HSCs in the bone marrow. These results thus indicate that arteriolar niches are indispensable for maintaining HSC quiescence. 10.1038/nature12612
    Themis, a T cell-specific protein important for late thymocyte development. Lesourne Renaud,Uehara Shoji,Lee Jan,Song Ki-Duk,Li LiQi,Pinkhasov Julia,Zhang Yongqing,Weng Nan-Ping,Wildt Kathryn F,Wang Lie,Bosselut Remy,Love Paul E Nature immunology During positive selection, thymocytes transition through a stage during which T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling controls CD4-versus-CD8 lineage 'choice' and subsequent maturation. Here we describe a previously unknown T cell-specific protein, Themis, that serves a distinct function during this stage. In Themis(-/-) mice, thymocyte selection was impaired and the number of transitional CD4(+)CD8(int) thymocytes as well as CD4(+) or CD8(+) single-positive thymocytes was lower. Notably, although we detected no overt TCR-proximal signaling deficiencies, Themis(-/-) CD4(+)CD8(int) thymocytes showed developmental defects consistent with attenuated signaling that were reversible by TCR stimulation. Our results identify Themis as a critical component of the T cell developmental program and suggest that Themis functions to sustain and/or integrate signals required for proper lineage commitment and maturation. 10.1038/ni.1768
    A regulatory pathway involving Notch1/beta-catenin/Isl1 determines cardiac progenitor cell fate. Kwon Chulan,Qian Li,Cheng Paul,Nigam Vishal,Arnold Joshua,Srivastava Deepak Nature cell biology Regulation of multipotent cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) expansion and subsequent differentiation into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle or endothelial cells is a fundamental aspect of basic cardiovascular biology and cardiac regenerative medicine. However, the mechanisms governing these decisions remain unclear. Here, we show that Wnt/beta-catenin signalling, which promotes expansion of CPCs, is negatively regulated by Notch1-mediated control of phosphorylated beta-catenin accumulation within CPCs, and that Notch1 activity in CPCs is required for their differentiation. Notch1 positively, and beta-catenin negatively, regulated expression of the cardiac transcription factors, Isl1, Myocd and Smyd1. Surprisingly, disruption of Isl1, normally expressed transiently in CPCs before their differentiation, resulted in expansion of CPCs in vivo and in an embryonic stem (ES) cell system. Furthermore, Isl1 was required for CPC differentiation into cardiomyocyte and smooth muscle cells, but not endothelial cells. These findings reveal a regulatory network controlling CPC expansion and cell fate that involves unanticipated functions of beta-catenin, Notch1 and Isl1 that may be leveraged for regenerative approaches involving CPCs. 10.1038/ncb1906
    MicroRNA MiR-17 retards tissue growth and represses fibronectin expression. Shan Sze Wan,Lee Daniel Y,Deng Zhaoqun,Shatseva Tatiana,Jeyapalan Zina,Du William W,Zhang Yaou,Xuan Jim W,Yee Siu-Pok,Siragam Vinayakumar,Yang Burton B Nature cell biology MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded regulatory RNAs, frequently expressed as clusters. Previous studies have demonstrated that the six-miRNA cluster miR-17~92 has important roles in tissue development and cancers. However, the precise role of each miRNA in the cluster is unknown. Here we show that overexpression of miR-17 results in decreased cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Transgenic mice overexpressing miR-17 showed overall growth retardation, smaller organs and greatly reduced haematopoietic cell lineages. We found that fibronectin and the fibronectin type-III domain containing 3A (FNDC3A) are two targets that have their expression repressed by miR-17, both in vitro and in transgenic mice. Several lines of evidence support the notion that miR-17 causes cellular defects through its repression of fibronectin expression. Our single miRNA expression assay may be evolved to allow the manipulation of individual miRNA functions in vitro and in vivo. We anticipate that this could serve as a model for studying gene regulation by miRNAs in the development of gene therapy. 10.1038/ncb1917
    JTV1 co-activates FBP to induce USP29 transcription and stabilize p53 in response to oxidative stress. Liu Juhong,Chung Hye-Jung,Vogt Matthew,Jin Yetao,Malide Daniela,He Liusheng,Dundr Miroslav,Levens David The EMBO journal c-myc and p53 networks control proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and are responsive to, and cross-regulate a variety of stresses and metabolic and biosynthetic processes. At c-myc, the far upstream element binding protein (FBP) and FBP-interacting repressor (FIR) program transcription by looping to RNA polymerase II complexes engaged at the promoter. Another FBP partner, JTV1/AIMP2, a structural subunit of a multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS) complex, has also been reported to stabilize p53 via an apparently independent mechanism. Here, we show that in response to oxidative stress, JTV1 dissociates from the ARS complex, translocates to the nucleus, associates with FBP and co-activates the transcription of a new FBP target, ubiquitin-specific peptidase 29 (USP29). A previously uncharacterized deubiquitinating enzyme, USP29 binds to, cleaves poly-ubiquitin chains from, and stabilizes p53. The accumulated p53 quickly induces apoptosis. Thus, FBP and JTV1 help to coordinate the molecular and cellular response to oxidative stress. 10.1038/emboj.2011.11
    Neutrophil activation monitored by flow cytometry: stimulation by phorbol diester is an all-or-none event. Hafeman D G,McConnell H M,Gray J W,Dean P N Science (New York, N.Y.) The population dynamics of single-cell stimulation was analyzed by monitoring autofluorescence by flow cytometry. Stimulation of the respiratory burst in human neutrophils by 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) caused a decline in highly fluorescent cells (characteristic of resting neutrophils) and a corresponding increase in the number of weakly fluorescent cells (characteristic of activated neutrophils). Increasing concentrations of TPA caused increasing numbers of cells to shift from the highly fluorescent population to the weakly fluorescent population without the appearance of intermediate populations. Thus the neutrophil respiratory burst, a component of neutrophil cytotoxic response, is triggered in an all-or none fashion. 10.1126/science.6800035
    Genome-wide interrogation of germline genetic variation associated with treatment response in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Yang Jun J,Cheng Cheng,Yang Wenjian,Pei Deqing,Cao Xueyuan,Fan Yiping,Pounds Stanley B,Neale Geoffrey,Treviño Lisa R,French Deborah,Campana Dario,Downing James R,Evans William E,Pui Ching-Hon,Devidas Meenakshi,Bowman W P,Camitta Bruce M,Willman Cheryl L,Davies Stella M,Borowitz Michael J,Carroll William L,Hunger Stephen P,Relling Mary V JAMA CONTEXT:Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the prototype for a drug-responsive malignancy. Although cure rates exceed 80%, considerable unexplained interindividual variability exists in treatment response. OBJECTIVES:To assess the contribution of inherited genetic variation to therapy response and to identify germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with risk of minimal residual disease (MRD) after remission induction chemotherapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS:Genome-wide interrogation of 476,796 germline SNPs to identify genotypes that were associated with MRD in 2 independent cohorts of children with newly diagnosed ALL: 318 patients in St Jude Total Therapy protocols XIIIB and XV and 169 patients in Children's Oncology Group trial P9906. Patients were enrolled between 1994 and 2006 and last follow-up was in 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Minimal residual disease at the end of induction therapy, measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS:There were 102 SNPs associated with MRD in both cohorts (median odds ratio, 2.18; P < or = .0125), including 5 SNPs in the interleukin 15 (IL15) gene. Of these 102 SNPs, 21 were also associated with hematologic relapse (P < .05). Of 102 SNPs, 21 were also associated with antileukemic drug disposition, generally linking MRD eradication with greater drug exposure. In total, 63 of 102 SNPs were associated with early response, relapse, or drug disposition. CONCLUSION:Host genetic variations are associated with treatment response for childhood ALL, with polymorphisms related to leukemia cell biology and host drug disposition associated with lower risk of residual disease. 10.1001/jama.2009.7
    Efficacy of TG101348, a selective JAK2 inhibitor, in treatment of a murine model of JAK2V617F-induced polycythemia vera. Wernig Gerlinde,Kharas Michael G,Okabe Rachel,Moore Sandra A,Leeman Dena S,Cullen Dana E,Gozo Maricel,McDowell Elizabeth P,Levine Ross L,Doukas John,Mak Chi Ching,Noronha Glenn,Martin Michael,Ko Yon D,Lee Benjamin H,Soll Richard M,Tefferi Ayalew,Hood John D,Gilliland D Gary Cancer cell We report that TG101348, a selective small-molecule inhibitor of JAK2 with an in vitro IC50 of approximately 3 nM, shows therapeutic efficacy in a murine model of myeloproliferative disease induced by the JAK2V617F mutation. In treated animals, there was a statistically significant reduction in hematocrit and leukocyte count, a dose-dependent reduction/elimination of extramedullary hematopoiesis, and, at least in some instances, evidence for attenuation of myelofibrosis. There were no apparent toxicities and no effect on T cell number. In vivo responses were correlated with surrogate endpoints, including reduction/elimination of JAK2V617F disease burden assessed by quantitative genomic PCR, suppression of endogenous erythroid colony formation, and in vivo inhibition of JAK-STAT signal transduction as assessed by flow cytometric measurement of phosphorylated Stat5. 10.1016/j.ccr.2008.02.009
    Reversible acetylation of the chromatin remodelling complex NoRC is required for non-coding RNA-dependent silencing. Zhou Yonggang,Schmitz Kerstin-Maike,Mayer Christine,Yuan Xuejun,Akhtar Asifa,Grummt Ingrid Nature cell biology The SNF2h (sucrose non-fermenting protein 2 homologue)-containing chromatin-remodelling complex NoRC silences a fraction of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) by establishing a heterochromatic structure at the rDNA promoter. Here we show that the acetyltransferase MOF (males absent on the first) acetylates TIP5, the largest subunit of NoRC, at a single lysine residue, K633, adjacent to the TIP5 RNA-binding domain, and that the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 (sirtuin-1) removes the acetyl group from K633. Acetylation regulates the interaction of NoRC with promoter-associated RNA (pRNA), which in turn affects heterochromatin formation, nucleosome positioning and rDNA silencing. Significantly, NoRC acetylation is responsive to the intracellular energy status and fluctuates during S phase. Activation of SIRT1 on glucose deprivation leads to deacetylation of K633, enhanced pRNA binding and an increase in heterochromatic histone marks. These results suggest a mechanism that links the epigenetic state of rDNA to cell metabolism and reveal another layer of epigenetic control that involves post-translational modification of a chromatin remodelling complex. 10.1038/ncb1914
    Defective monocyte oxidative burst predicts infection in alcoholic hepatitis and is associated with reduced expression of NADPH oxidase. Vergis Nikhil,Khamri Wafa,Beale Kylie,Sadiq Fouzia,Aletrari Mina O,Moore Celia,Atkinson Stephen R,Bernsmeier Christine,Possamai Lucia A,Petts Gemma,Ryan Jennifer M,Abeles Robin D,James Sarah,Foxton Matthew,Hogan Brian,Foster Graham R,O'Brien Alastair J,Ma Yun,Shawcross Debbie L,Wendon Julia A,Antoniades Charalambos G,Thursz Mark R Gut OBJECTIVE:In order to explain the increased susceptibility to serious infection in alcoholic hepatitis, we evaluated monocyte phagocytosis, aberrations of associated signalling pathways and their reversibility, and whether phagocytic defects could predict subsequent infection. DESIGN:Monocytes were identified from blood samples of 42 patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis using monoclonal antibody to CD14. Phagocytosis and monocyte oxidative burst (MOB) were measured ex vivo using flow cytometry, luminometry and bacterial killing assays. Defects were related to the subsequent development of infection. Intracellular signalling pathways were investigated using western blotting and PCR. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was evaluated for its therapeutic potential in reversing phagocytic defects. Paired longitudinal samples were used to evaluate the effect of in vivo prednisolone therapy. RESULTS:MOB, production of superoxide and bacterial killing in response to were markedly impaired in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Pretreatment MOB predicted development of infection within two weeks with sensitivity and specificity that were superior to available clinical markers. Accordingly, defective MOB was associated with death at 28 and 90 days. Expression of the gp91 subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase was reduced in patients with alcoholic hepatitis demonstrating defective MOB. Monocytes were refractory to IFN-γ stimulation and showed high levels of a negative regulator of cytokine signalling, suppressor of cytokine signalling-1. MOB was unaffected by 7 days in vivo prednisolone therapy. CONCLUSIONS:Monocyte oxidative burst and bacterial killing is impaired in alcoholic hepatitis while bacterial uptake by phagocytosis is preserved. Defective MOB is associated with reduced expression of NADPH oxidase in these patients and predicts the development of infection and death. 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-310378
    Counter-regulation of rejection activity against human liver grafts by donor PD-L1 and recipient PD-1 interaction. Shi Xiao-Lei,Mancham Shanta,Hansen Bettina E,de Knegt Robert J,de Jonge Jeroen,van der Laan Luc J W,Rivadeneira Fernando,Metselaar Herold J,Kwekkeboom Jaap Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Co-inhibitory receptor-ligand interactions fine-tune immune responses by negatively regulating T cell functions. Our aim is to examine the involvement of co-inhibitory receptor-ligand pair PD-1/PD-L1 in regulating rejection after liver transplantation (LT) in humans. METHODS:PD-L1/PD-1 expression in liver allograft was determined by immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry, and the effect of blockade was studied using graft-infiltrating T cells ex vivo. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms within PD-1 and PD-L1 genes were genotyped in 528 LT recipients and 410 donors, and associations with both early (⩽6months) and late (>6months) acute rejection were analyzed using Cox proportional-hazards regression model. The effect of PD-L1 rs4143815 on PD-L1 expression was analyzed using donor hepatic leukocytes. RESULTS:PD-L1 was expressed by hepatocytes, cholangiocytes and along the sinusoids in post-transplant liver allografts, and PD-1 was abundantly expressed on allograft-infiltrating T cells. PD-L1 blockade enhanced allogeneic proliferative responses of graft-infiltrating T cells. In the genetic association analysis, donor PD-L1 rs4143815 (CC/CG vs. GG; HR=0.230; p=0.002) and recipient PD-1 rs11568821 (AA/AG vs. GG; HR=3.739; p=0.004) were associated with acute rejection late after LT in multivariate analysis. Recipients carrying the PD-1 rs11568821 A allele who were transplanted with liver grafts of PD-L1 rs4143815 GG homozygous donors showed the highest risk for late acute rejection. PD-L1 rs4143815 is associated with differential PD-L1 expression on donor hepatic dendritic cells upon IFN-γ stimulation. CONCLUSION:Our data suggest that interplay between donor PD-L1 and recipient PD-1 counter-regulates rejection activity against liver grafts in humans. 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.02.034
    Ceragenin CSA13 Reduces Clostridium difficile Infection in Mice by Modulating the Intestinal Microbiome and Metabolites. Wang Jiani,Ghali Sally,Xu Chunlan,Mussatto Caroline C,Ortiz Christina,Lee Elaine C,Tran Diana H,Jacobs Jonathan P,Lagishetty Venu,Faull Kym F,Moller Travis,Rossetti Maura,Chen Xinhua,Koon Hon Wai Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Clostridium difficile induces intestinal inflammation by releasing toxins A and B. The antimicrobial compound cationic steroid antimicrobial 13 (CSA13) has been developed for treating gastrointestinal infections. The CSA13-Eudragit formulation can be given orally and releases CSA13 in the terminal ileum and colon. We investigated whether this form of CSA13 reduces C difficile infection (CDI) in mice. METHODS:C57BL/6J mice were infected with C difficile on day 0, followed by subcutaneous administration of pure CSA13 or oral administration of CSA13-Eudragit (10 mg/kg/d for 10 days). Some mice were given intraperitoneal vancomycin (50 mg/kg daily) on days 0-4 and relapse was measured after antibiotic withdrawal. The mice were monitored until day 20; colon and fecal samples were collected on day 3 for analysis. Blood samples were collected for flow cytometry analyses. Fecal pellets were collected each day from mice injected with CSA13 and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography or 16S sequencing; feces were also homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline and fed to mice with CDI via gavage. RESULTS:CDI of mice caused 60% mortality, significant bodyweight loss, and colonic damage 3 days after infection; these events were prevented by subcutaneous injection of CSA13 or oral administration CSA13-Eudragit. There was reduced relapse of CDI after administration of CSA13 was stopped. Levels of CSA13 in feces from mice given CSA13-Eudragit were significantly higher than those of mice given subcutaneous CSA13. Subcutaneous and oral CSA13 each significantly increased the abundance of Peptostreptococcaceae bacteria and reduced the abundance of C difficile in fecal samples of mice. When feces from mice with CDI and given CSA13 were fed to mice with CDI that had not received CSA13, the recipient mice had significantly increased rates of survival. CSA13 reduced fecal levels of inflammatory metabolites (endocannabinoids) and increased fecal levels of 4 protective metabolites (ie, citrulline, 3-aminoisobutyric acid, retinol, and ursodeoxycholic acid) in mice with CDI. Oral administration of these CSA13-dependent protective metabolites reduced the severity of CDI. CONCLUSIONS:In studies of mice, we found the CSA13-Eudragit formulation to be effective in eradicating CDI by modulating the intestinal microbiota and metabolites. 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.01.026
    TLR7 Agonist Increases Responses of Hepatitis B Virus-Specific T Cells and Natural Killer Cells in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Treated With Nucleos(T)Ide Analogues. Boni Carolina,Vecchi Andrea,Rossi Marzia,Laccabue Diletta,Giuberti Tiziana,Alfieri Arianna,Lampertico Pietro,Grossi Glenda,Facchetti Floriana,Brunetto Maurizia R,Coco Barbara,Cavallone Daniela,Mangia Alessandra,Santoro Rosanna,Piazzolla Valeria,Lau Audrey,Gaggar Anuj,Subramanian G Mani,Ferrari Carlo Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:The oral Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 agonist GS-9620 has antiviral effects in woodchuck and chimpanzee models of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We investigated, in a clinical trial, the capacity of this agent to reconstitute protective immunity in patients with chronic HBV infection. METHODS:We performed a prospective study of 28 patients with suppression of HBV infection by nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy and who tested negative for hepatitis B e antigen at 4 medical centers in Italy. Patients were randomly assigned (1:3:3:3) to groups given placebo or different doses of GS-9620 (1, 2, and 4 mg, weekly for 12 weeks). We added data from 8 patients receiving nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy to the placebo group (controls); 13 treatment-naïve patients with chronic HBV infection and 15 subjects who spontaneously recovered from an acute HBV infection served as additional controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected at baseline, during administration of GS-9620 or placebo, and 12 weeks afterward. Phenotype and function of natural killer (NK) and HBV-specific T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. T cells were expanded by incubation with peptides from the entire HBV proteome and studied after overnight or 10 days culture. NK-cell inhibition of T-cell responses was measured by assessing cytokine production by T cells stimulated with peptides in the presence or absence of NK cells. RESULTS:T cells collected at baseline before addition of GS-9620, when patients were receiving only nucleos(t)ide therapy, had greater responses to HBV than T cells from treatment-naïve patients, based on cytokine production in response to HBV peptides. However, during or after administration of GS-9620, T cells produced higher levels of cytokines compared to baseline. NK-cell activation and function increased after patients were given GS-9620, but the ability of NK cells to suppress T-cell responses was lower during GS-9620 therapy than before. Changes in T-cell or NK-cell function did not correlate with levels of hepatitis B surface antigen. Serum levels of hepatitis B surface antigen did not decrease significantly compared to baseline in patients given any dose of GS-9620. CONCLUSIONS:Twelve weeks administration of GS-9620 had no significant effect on serum hepatitis B surface antigen levels, but did appear to increase T-cell and NK-cell responses and reduce the ability of NK to suppress T cells. GS-9620 might therefore be included in therapies to increase the immune response to HBV. 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.01.030
    HBV Bypasses the Innate Immune Response and Does Not Protect HCV From Antiviral Activity of Interferon. Mutz Pascal,Metz Philippe,Lempp Florian A,Bender Silke,Qu Bingqian,Schöneweis Katrin,Seitz Stefan,Tu Thomas,Restuccia Agnese,Frankish Jamie,Dächert Christopher,Schusser Benjamin,Koschny Ronald,Polychronidis Georgios,Schemmer Peter,Hoffmann Katrin,Baumert Thomas F,Binder Marco,Urban Stephan,Bartenschlager Ralf Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is sensitive to interferon (IFN)-based therapy, whereas hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not. It is unclear whether HBV escapes detection by the IFN-mediated immune response or actively suppresses it. Moreover, little is known on how HBV and HCV influence each other in coinfected cells. We investigated interactions between HBV and the IFN-mediated immune response using HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes (PHHs). We analyzed the effects of HBV on HCV replication, and vice versa, at the single-cell level. METHODS:PHHs were isolated from liver resection tissues from HBV-, HCV-, and human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients. Differentiated HepaRG cells overexpressing the HBV receptor sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (dHepaRGNTCP) and PHHs were infected with HBV. Huh7.5 cells were transfected with circular HBV DNA genomes resembling viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), and subsequently infected with HCV; this served as a model of HBV and HCV coinfection. Cells were incubated with IFN inducers, or IFNs, and antiviral response and viral replication were analyzed by immune fluorescence, reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and flow cytometry. RESULTS:HBV infection of dHepaRGNTCP cells and PHHs neither activated nor inhibited signaling via pattern recognition receptors. Incubation of dHepaRGNTCP cells and PHHs with IFN had little effect on HBV replication or levels of cccDNA. HBV infection of these cells did not inhibit JAK-STAT signaling or up-regulation of IFN-stimulated genes. In coinfected cells, HBV did not prevent IFN-induced suppression of HCV replication. CONCLUSIONS:In dHepaRGNTCP cells and PHHs, HBV evades the induction of IFN and IFN-induced antiviral effects. HBV infection does not rescue HCV from the IFN-mediated response. 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.01.044
    STING Signaling Promotes Inflammation in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis. Zhao Qinglan,Wei Yi,Pandol Stephen J,Li Lingyin,Habtezion Aida Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Acute pancreatitis (AP) is characterized by severe inflammation and acinar cell death. Transmembrane protein 173 (TMEM173 or STING) is a DNA sensor adaptor protein on immune cells that recognizes cytosolic nucleic acids and transmits signals that activate production of interferons and the innate immune response. We investigated whether leukocyte STING signaling mediates inflammation in mice with AP. METHODS:We induced AP in C57BL/6J mice (control) and C57BL/6J-Tmem173gt/J mice (STING-knockout mice) by injection of cerulein or placement on choline-deficient DL-ethionine supplemented diet. In some mice, STING signaling was induced by administration of a pharmacologic agonist. AP was also induced in C57BL/6J mice with bone marrow transplants from control or STING-knockout mice and in mice with disruption of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (Cgas) gene. Pancreata were collected, analyzed by histology, and acini were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblots, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bone-marrow-derived macrophages were collected from mice and tested for their ability to detect DNA from dying acinar cells in the presence and absence of deoxyribonuclease (DNaseI). RESULTS:STING signaling was activated in pancreata from mice with AP but not mice without AP. STING-knockout mice developed less severe AP (less edema, inflammation, and markers of pancreatic injury) than control mice, whereas mice given a STING agonist developed more severe AP than controls. In immune cells collected from pancreata, STING was expressed predominantly in macrophages. Levels of cGAS were increased in mice with vs without AP, and cGAS-knockout mice had decreased edema, inflammation, and other markers of pancreatic injury upon induction of AP than control mice. Wild-type mice given bone marrow transplants from STING-knockout mice had less pancreatic injury and lower serum levels of lipase and pancreatic trypsin activity following induction of AP than mice given wild-type bone marrow. DNA from dying acinar cells activated STING signaling in macrophages, which was inhibited by addition of DNaseI. CONCLUSIONS:In mice with AP, STING senses acinar cell death (by detecting DNA from dying acinar cells) and activates a signaling pathway that promotes inflammation. Macrophages express STING and activate pancreatic inflammation in AP. 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.01.065
    Cancer metastasis is accelerated through immunosuppression during Snail-induced EMT of cancer cells. Kudo-Saito Chie,Shirako Hiromi,Takeuchi Tadashi,Kawakami Yutaka Cancer cell Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key step toward cancer metastasis, and Snail is a major transcription factor governing EMT. Here, we demonstrate that Snail-induced EMT accelerates cancer metastasis through not only enhanced invasion but also induction of immunosuppression. Murine and human melanoma cells with typical EMT features after snail transduction induced regulatory T cells and impaired dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo partly through TSP1 production. Although Snail(+) melanoma did not respond to immunotherapy, intratumoral injection with snail-specific siRNA or anti-TSP1 monoclonal antibody significantly inhibited tumor growth and metastasis following increase of tumor-specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and systemic immune responses. These results suggest that inhibition of Snail-induced EMT could simultaneously suppress both tumor metastasis and immunosuppression in cancer patients. 10.1016/j.ccr.2009.01.023
    Proapoptotic function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. Ianari Alessandra,Natale Tiziana,Calo Eliezer,Ferretti Elisabetta,Alesse Edoardo,Screpanti Isabella,Haigis Kevin,Gulino Alberto,Lees Jacqueline A Cancer cell The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) tumor suppressor blocks cell proliferation by repressing the E2F transcription factors. This inhibition is relieved through mitogen-induced phosphorylation of pRB, triggering E2F release and activation of cell-cycle genes. E2F1 can also activate proapoptotic genes in response to genotoxic or oncogenic stress. However, pRB's role in this context has not been established. Here we show that DNA damage and E1A-induced oncogenic stress promote formation of a pRB-E2F1 complex even in proliferating cells. Moreover, pRB is bound to proapoptotic promoters that are transcriptionally active, and pRB is required for maximal apoptotic response in vitro and in vivo. Together, these data reveal a direct role for pRB in the induction of apoptosis in response to genotoxic or oncogenic stress. 10.1016/j.ccr.2009.01.026
    Regulatory T cells depress immune responses to protective antigens in active tuberculosis. Hougardy Jean-Michel,Place Sammy,Hildebrand Marc,Drowart Annie,Debrie Anne-Sophie,Locht Camille,Mascart Francoise American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine RATIONALE:Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death, and the role of T-cell responses to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections is well recognized. Patients with latent TB infection develop strong IFN-gamma responses to the protective antigen heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA), whereas patients with active TB do not. OBJECTIVES:We investigated the mechanism of this difference and evaluated the possible involvement of regulatory T (Treg) cells and/or cytokines in the low HBHA T-cell responses of patients with active TB. METHODS:The impact of anti-transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and anti-IL-10 antibodies and of Treg cell depletion on the HBHA-induced IFN-gamma secretion was analyzed, and the Treg cell phenotype was characterized by flow cytometry. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Although the addition of anti-TGF-beta or anti-IL-10 antibodies had no effect on the HBHA-induced IFN-gamma secretion in patients with active TB, depletion of CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) T lymphocytes resulted in the induction by HBHA of IFN-gamma concentrations that reached levels similar to those obtained for latent TB infection. No effect was noted on the early-secreted antigen target-6 or candidin T-cell responses. CONCLUSIONS:Specific CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) T cells depress the T-cell-mediated immune responses to the protective mycobacterial antigen HBHA during active TB in humans. 10.1164/rccm.200701-084OC
    Mutations and deletions of the TP53 gene predict nonresponse to treatment and poor outcome in first relapse of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hof Jana,Krentz Stefanie,van Schewick Claudia,Körner Gabriele,Shalapour Shabnam,Rhein Peter,Karawajew Leonid,Ludwig Wolf-Dieter,Seeger Karl,Henze Günter,von Stackelberg Arend,Hagemeier Christian,Eckert Cornelia,Kirschner-Schwabe Renate Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE:In the clinical management of children with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), treatment resistance remains a major challenge. Alterations of the TP53 gene are frequently associated with resistance to chemotherapy, but their significance in relapsed childhood ALL has remained controversial because of small studies. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Therefore, we systematically studied 265 first-relapse patients enrolled in the German Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Relapse Berlin-Frankfurt-Mü nster 2002 (ALL-REZ BFM 2002) trial for sequence and copy number alterations of the TP53 gene by using direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. RESULTS:We observed copy number and sequence alterations of TP53 in 12.4% (27 of 218) of patients with B-cell precursor ALL and 6.4% (three of 47) of patients with T-cell ALL relapse. Backtracking to initial ALL in 23 matched samples revealed that 54% of all TP53 alterations were gained at relapse. Within B-cell precursor ALL, TP53 alterations were consistently associated with nonresponse to chemotherapy (P < .001) and poor event-free survival (P < .001) and overall survival rates (P = .002). TP53 alterations also had a significant impact on survival within intermediate-risk (S2) and high-risk (S3/S4) relapse patients (P = .007 and P = .019, respectively). This prognostic significance of TP53 alterations was confirmed in multivariate analysis. Besides their clinical impact, TP53 alterations were associated with a higher fraction of leukemic cells in S/G(2)-M phase of the cell cycle at relapse diagnosis. CONCLUSION:Alterations of the TP53 gene are of particular importance in the relapse stage of childhood ALL, in which they independently predict high risk of treatment failure in a significant number of patients. Therefore, they will aid in future risk assessment of children with ALL relapse. 10.1200/JCO.2011.34.8144
    Bimodal gold nanoparticle therapeutics for manipulating exogenous and endogenous protein levels in mammalian cells. Muroski Megan E,Kogot Joshua M,Strouse Geoffrey F Journal of the American Chemical Society A new advance in cell transfection protocol using a bimodal nanoparticle agent to selectively manipulate protein expression levels within mammalian cells is demonstrated. The nanoparticle based transfection approach functions by controlled release of gene regulatory elements from a 6 nm AuNP (gold nanoparticle) surface. The endosomal release of the regulatory elements from the nanoparticle surface results in endogenous protein knockdown simultaneously with exogenous protein expression for the first 48 h. The use of fluorescent proteins as the endogenous and exogenous signals for protein expression enables the efficiency of codelivery of siRNA (small interfering RNA) for GFP (green fluorescent protein) knockdown and a dsRed-express linearized plasmid for induction to be optically analyzed in CRL-2794, a human kidney cell line expressing an unstable green fluorescent protein. Delivery of the bimodal nanoparticle in cationic liposomes results in 20% GFP knockdown within 24 h of delivery and continues exhibiting knockdown for up to 48 h for the bimodal agent. Simultaneous dsRed expression is observed to initiate within the same time frame with expression levels reaching 34% after 25 days although cells have divided approximately 20 times, implying daughter cell transfection has occurred. Fluorescence cell sorting results in a stable colony, as demonstrated by Western blot analysis. The simultaneous delivery of siRNA and linearized plasmid DNA on the surface of a single nanocrystal provides a unique method for definitive genetic control within a single cell and leads to a very efficient cell transfection protocol. 10.1021/ja307502x
    Regulation of oxidized platelet lipidome: implications for coronary artery disease. Chatterjee Madhumita,Rath Dominik,Schlotterbeck Jörg,Rheinlaender Johannes,Walker-Allgaier Britta,Alnaggar Nada,Zdanyte Monika,Müller Iris,Borst Oliver,Geisler Tobias,Schäffer Tilman E,Lämmerhofer Michael,Gawaz Meinrad European heart journal AIMS:Hyperlipidaemia enhances susceptibility to thrombosis, while platelet oxidixed LDL (oxLDL) binding in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) correlates with activation status. This study explores the platelet lipidome in symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and the functional consequences of the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptors CXCR-4/-7 on lipid uptake in platelets. METHODS AND RESULTS:Platelet-oxLDL detected by flow cytometry was enhanced (P = 0.04) in CAD patients, moderately correlated with platelet CXCR7 surface expression (ρ = 0.39; P < 0.001), while inversely with CXCR4 (ρ = 0.35; P < 0.001). Platelet-oxLDL was elevated (P = 0.01) in ACS patients with angiographic evidence of intracoronary thrombi. Ex vivo analysis of intracoronary thrombi sections revealed oxLDL deposition in platelet-enriched areas verified by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. LDL-oxLDL uptake enhanced reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial superoxide generation, intraplatelet LDL to oxLDL conversion, and lipid peroxidation, counteracted by SOD2-mimetic MnTMPyP. Lipidomic analysis revealed enhanced intraplatelet-oxidized phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, sphingomyelin, ceramides, di- and triacylglycerols, acylcarnitines in CAD patients compared with age-matched controls as ascertained by liquid chromatography hyphenated to high-resolution mass spectrometry. LDL-oxLDL induced degranulation, αIIbβ3-integrin activation, apoptosis, thrombin generation estimated by calibrated automated thrombinoscopy, and shape change verified by live imaging using scanning ion conductance microscopy. Further, LDL-oxLDL enhanced thrombus formation ex vivo and in vivo in mice (ferric chloride-induced carotid artery injury). LDL-oxLDL enhanced platelet CXCL12 release, differentially regulated CXCR4-CXCR7 surface exposure, while CXCL12 prompted LDL-oxLDL uptake and synergistically augmented the LDL-oxLDL-induced pro-oxidative, thrombogenic impact on platelet function. CONCLUSION:An altered platelet lipidome might be associated with thrombotic disposition in CAD, a mechanism potentially regulated by CXCL12-CXCR4-CXCR7 axis. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehx146
    Short-Chain Fatty Acid Propionate Protects From Hypertensive Cardiovascular Damage. Bartolomaeus Hendrik,Balogh András,Yakoub Mina,Homann Susanne,Markó Lajos,Höges Sascha,Tsvetkov Dmitry,Krannich Alexander,Wundersitz Sebastian,Avery Ellen G,Haase Nadine,Kräker Kristin,Hering Lydia,Maase Martina,Kusche-Vihrog Kristina,Grandoch Maria,Fielitz Jens,Kempa Stefan,Gollasch Maik,Zhumadilov Zhaxybay,Kozhakhmetov Samat,Kushugulova Almagul,Eckardt Kai-Uwe,Dechend Ralf,Rump Lars Christian,Forslund Sofia K,Müller Dominik N,Stegbauer Johannes,Wilck Nicola Circulation BACKGROUND:Arterial hypertension and its organ sequelae show characteristics of T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. Experimental anti-inflammatory therapies have been shown to ameliorate hypertensive end-organ damage. Recently, the CANTOS study (Canakinumab Antiinflammatory Thrombosis Outcome Study) targeting interleukin-1β demonstrated that anti-inflammatory therapy reduces cardiovascular risk. The gut microbiome plays a pivotal role in immune homeostasis and cardiovascular health. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced from dietary fiber by gut bacteria and affect host immune homeostasis. Here, we investigated effects of the SCFA propionate in 2 different mouse models of hypertensive cardiovascular damage. METHODS:To investigate the effect of SCFAs on hypertensive cardiac damage and atherosclerosis, wild-type NMRI or apolipoprotein E knockout-deficient mice received propionate (200 mmol/L) or control in the drinking water. To induce hypertension, wild-type NMRI mice were infused with angiotensin II (1.44 mg·kg·d subcutaneous) for 14 days. To accelerate the development of atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E knockout mice were infused with angiotensin II (0.72 mg·kg·d subcutaneous) for 28 days. Cardiac damage and atherosclerosis were assessed using histology, echocardiography, in vivo electrophysiology, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry. Blood pressure was measured by radiotelemetry. Regulatory T cell depletion using PC61 antibody was used to examine the mode of action of propionate. RESULTS:Propionate significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, vascular dysfunction, and hypertension in both models. Susceptibility to cardiac ventricular arrhythmias was significantly reduced in propionate-treated angiotensin II-infused wild-type NMRI mice. Aortic atherosclerotic lesion area was significantly decreased in propionate-treated apolipoprotein E knockout-deficient mice. Systemic inflammation was mitigated by propionate treatment, quantified as a reduction in splenic effector memory T cell frequencies and splenic T helper 17 cells in both models, and a decrease in local cardiac immune cell infiltration in wild-type NMRI mice. Cardioprotective effects of propionate were abrogated in regulatory T cell-depleted angiotensin II-infused mice, suggesting the effect is regulatory T cell-dependent. CONCLUSIONS:Our data emphasize an immune-modulatory role of SCFAs and their importance for cardiovascular health. The data suggest that lifestyle modifications leading to augmented SCFA production could be a beneficial nonpharmacological preventive strategy for patients with hypertensive cardiovascular disease. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.036652
    Platelet Protein Disulfide Isomerase Promotes Glycoprotein Ibα-Mediated Platelet-Neutrophil Interactions Under Thromboinflammatory Conditions. Li Jing,Kim Kyungho,Jeong Si-Yeon,Chiu Joyce,Xiong Bei,Petukhov Pavel A,Dai Xiangrong,Li Xiaoyi,Andrews Robert K,Du Xiaoping,Hogg Philip J,Cho Jaehyung Circulation BACKGROUND:Platelet-neutrophil interactions contribute to vascular occlusion and tissue damage in thromboinflammatory disease. Platelet glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα), a key receptor for the cell-cell interaction, is believed to be constitutively active for ligand binding. Here, we established the role of platelet-derived protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) in reducing the allosteric disulfide bonds in GPIbα and enhancing the ligand-binding activity under thromboinflammatory conditions. METHODS:Bioinformatic analysis identified 2 potential allosteric disulfide bonds in GPIbα. Agglutination assays, flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance analysis, a protein-protein docking model, proximity ligation assays, and mass spectrometry were used to demonstrate a direct interaction between PDI and GPIbα and to determine a role for PDI in regulating GPIbα function and platelet-neutrophil interactions. Also, real-time microscopy and animal disease models were used to study the pathophysiological role of PDI-GPIbα signaling under thromboinflammatory conditions. RESULTS:Deletion or inhibition of platelet PDI significantly reduced GPIbα-mediated platelet agglutination. Studies using PDI-null platelets and recombinant PDI or Anfibatide, a clinical-stage GPIbα inhibitor, revealed that the oxidoreductase activity of platelet surface-bound PDI was required for the ligand-binding function of GPIbα. PDI directly bound to the extracellular domain of GPIbα on the platelet surface and reduced the Cys4-Cys17 and Cys209-Cys248 disulfide bonds. Real-time microscopy with platelet-specific PDI conditional knockout and sickle cell disease mice demonstrated that PDI-regulated GPIbα function was essential for platelet-neutrophil interactions and vascular occlusion under thromboinflammatory conditions. Studies using a mouse model of ischemia/reperfusion-induced stroke indicated that PDI-GPIbα signaling played a crucial role in tissue damage. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate that PDI-facilitated cleavage of the allosteric disulfide bonds tightly regulates GPIbα function, promoting platelet-neutrophil interactions, vascular occlusion, and tissue damage under thromboinflammatory conditions. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.036323
    Antibodies against tumor necrosis factor (TNF) induce T-cell apoptosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases via TNF receptor 2 and intestinal CD14⁺ macrophages. Atreya Raja,Zimmer Michael,Bartsch Brigitte,Waldner Maximilian J,Atreya Imke,Neumann Helmut,Hildner Kai,Hoffman Arthur,Kiesslich Ralf,Rink Andreas D,Rau Tilman T,Rose-John Stefan,Kessler Hermann,Schmidt Jan,Neurath Markus F Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:The anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol have proven clinical efficacy in Crohn's disease. Here, we assessed the effects of anti-TNF antibodies on apoptosis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS:CD14(+) macrophages and CD4(+) T cells were isolated from peripheral blood and lamina propria mononuclear cells from patients with IBD and control patients. Cell surface markers and apoptosis were assessed by immunohistology and fluorescence-activated cell sorting techniques. RESULTS:Lamina propria CD14(+) macrophages showed significantly more frequent and higher membrane-bound TNF (mTNF) expression than CD4(+) T cells in IBD, whereas mTNF-dependent signaling proteins such as TNF receptor (TNFR) 2, TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) 2, and nuclear factor κB were induced in IBD mucosal CD4(+) T cells. Most anti-TNF antibodies did not induce T-cell apoptosis in purified peripheral or mucosal CD4(+) T cells. However, in contrast to etanercept, administration of all clinically effective anti-TNF antibodies resulted in a significant induction of T-cell apoptosis in IBD when lamina propria CD4(+) T cells expressing TNFR2(+) were cocultured with mTNF(+) CD14(+) intestinal macrophages. In contrast, no effects in control patients were noted. T-cell apoptosis in IBD occurred in vivo after treatment with adalimumab and infliximab, was critically dependent on TNFR2 signaling, and could be prevented via interleukin-6 signal transduction. Blockade of interleukin-6R signaling augmented anti-TNF-induced T-cell apoptosis in IBD. CONCLUSIONS:Clinically effective anti-TNF antibodies are able to induce T-cell apoptosis in IBD only when mucosal TNFR2(+) T cells are cocultured with mTNF-expressing CD14(+) macrophages. The finding that anti-TNF antibodies induce apoptosis indirectly by targeting the mTNF/TNFR2 pathway may have important implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies in IBD. 10.1053/j.gastro.2011.08.032
    c-Met is a marker of pancreatic cancer stem cells and therapeutic target. Li Chenwei,Wu Jing-Jiang,Hynes Mark,Dosch Joseph,Sarkar Bedabrata,Welling Theodore H,Pasca di Magliano Marina,Simeone Diane M Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Growth of many different tumor types requires a population of self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs). c-Met is a marker of normal mouse pancreatic stem and progenitor cells; we investigated whether it is also a marker of human pancreatic CSCs that might be developed as a therapeutic target. METHODS:We studied growth of primary human pancreatic adenocarcinoma in NOD SCID mice. The self-renewal capability of pancreatic cancer cells that expressed high levels of c-Met (c-Met(high)) was assessed using in vitro sphere assays and compared with those that were c-Met negative or expressed low levels of c-Met. The tumorigenicity of c-Met(high) pancreatic cancer cells was evaluated in NOD SCID mice. RESULTS:c-Met(high) cells readily formed spheres, whereas c-Met-negative cells did not. Use of the c-Met inhibitor XL184 or c-Met knockdown with small hairpin RNAs significantly inhibited tumor sphere formation. c-Met(high) cells had increased tumorigenic potential in mice; those that expressed c-Met and CD44 (0.5%-5% of the pancreatic cancer cells) had the capability for self-renewal and the highest tumorigenic potential of all cell populations studied. In pancreatic tumors established in NOD SCID mice, c-Met inhibitors slowed tumor growth and reduced the population of CSCs when given alone or in combination with gemcitabine. Administration of XL184 for 2 weeks after cardiac injection of cancer cells prevented the development of metastases. CONCLUSIONS:c-Met is a new marker for pancreatic CSCs. It is required for growth and metastasis of pancreatic tumors in mice and is a therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. 10.1053/j.gastro.2011.08.009
    Dysregulated Response of Follicular Helper T Cells to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Promotes HBV Persistence in Mice and Associates With Outcomes of Patients. Wang Xiaowen,Dong Qingyang,Li Qian,Li Yuanyuan,Zhao Dianyuan,Sun Jinjie,Fu Junliang,Meng Fanping,Lin Hu,Luan Junjie,Liu Biao,Wang Min,Wang Fu-Sheng,He Fuchu,Tang Li Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Production of neutralizing antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is dysregulated in patients with persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We investigated mechanisms by which this immune response to the virus is disrupted and whether it can be restored to promote clearance of HBV. METHODS:Immune-competent C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J, as well as mice deficient in follicular helper T cells (Tfh-cell-deficient), B cells, or Foxp3 T-regulatory cells (Treg cell deficient), were given hydrodynamic injections of pAAV/HBV1.2 plasmids. Some mice were given injections of sorted Tfh cells, pan-B cells, Treg cells, or a blocking antibody against CTLA4. Production of antibodies against HBsAg and clearance of HBV were assessed by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemical analyses. We obtained blood samples from patients with HBV infection and isolated Treg cells. We measured the ability of Treg cells to suppress production of interleukin 21 (IL21) in CD4 T cells. RESULTS:Immune-competent C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J mice transfected with the plasmid encoding HBV had features of viral clearance and viral persistence observed in humans. A Tfh-cell response to HBsAg was required for clearance of HBV and was suppressed by Treg cells in mice with persistent HBV infection. Depletion of Treg cells or inhibition of Treg-cell function (with blocking antibody against CTLA4) restored the Tfh-cell response against HBsAg and clearance of HBV in mice. Impaired Tfh-cell response to HBsAg was observed in blood from patients with chronic HBV infection, responsiveness was restored by depletion of Treg cells or blocking antibody against CTLA4. CONCLUSIONS:In studies of HBV-infected mice and blood from patients with chronic HBV infection, we found a Tfh-cell response to HBsAg of to be required for HBV clearance, and that this response was blocked by Treg cells. Inhibiting Treg-cell activity using neutralizing antibody against CTLA4 restored the ability of Tfh cells to clear HBV infection; this approach might be developed for treatment of patients with chronic HBV infection. 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.03.021
    Dual role of tumour-infiltrating T helper 17 cells in human colorectal cancer. Amicarella F,Muraro M G,Hirt C,Cremonesi E,Padovan E,Mele V,Governa V,Han J,Huber X,Droeser R A,Zuber M,Adamina M,Bolli M,Rosso R,Lugli A,Zlobec I,Terracciano L,Tornillo L,Zajac P,Eppenberger-Castori S,Trapani F,Oertli D,Iezzi G Gut BACKGROUND:The immune contexture predicts prognosis in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Whereas tumour-infiltrating CD8+ T cells and myeloid CD16+ myeloperoxidase (MPO)+ cells are associated with favourable clinical outcome, interleukin (IL)-17-producing cells have been reported to correlate with severe prognosis. However, their phenotypes and functions continue to be debated. OBJECTIVE:To investigate clinical relevance, phenotypes and functional features of CRC-infiltrating, IL-17-producing cells. METHODS:IL-17 staining was performed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray including 1148 CRCs. Phenotypes of IL-17-producing cells were evaluated by flow cytometry on cell suspensions obtained by enzymatic digestion of clinical specimens. Functions of CRC-isolated, IL-17-producing cells were assessed by in vitro and in vivo experiments. RESULTS:IL-17+ infiltrates were not themselves predictive of an unfavourable clinical outcome, but correlated with infiltration by CD8+ T cells and CD16+ MPO+ neutrophils. Ex vivo analysis showed that tumour-infiltrating IL-17+ cells mostly consist of CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells with multifaceted properties. Indeed, owing to IL-17 secretion, CRC-derived Th17 triggered the release of protumorigenic factors by tumour and tumour-associated stroma. However, on the other hand, they favoured recruitment of beneficial neutrophils through IL-8 secretion and, most importantly, they drove highly cytotoxic CCR5+CCR6+CD8+ T cells into tumour tissue, through CCL5 and CCL20 release. Consistent with these findings, the presence of intraepithelial, but not of stromal Th17 cells, positively correlated with improved survival. CONCLUSIONS:Our study shows the dual role played by tumour-infiltrating Th17 in CRC, thus advising caution when developing new IL-17/Th17 targeted treatments. 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-310016
    Sense transcription through the S region is essential for immunoglobulin class switch recombination. Haddad Dania,Oruc Zéliha,Puget Nadine,Laviolette-Malirat Nathalie,Philippe Magali,Carrion Claire,Le Bert Marc,Khamlichi Ahmed Amine The EMBO journal Class switch recombination (CSR) occurs between highly repetitive sequences called switch (S) regions and is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). CSR is preceded by a bidirectional transcription of S regions but the relative importance of sense and antisense transcription for CSR in vivo is unknown. We generated three mouse lines in which we attempted a premature termination of transcriptional elongation by inserting bidirectional transcription terminators upstream of Sμ, upstream of Sγ3 or downstream of Sγ3 sequences. The data show, at least for Sγ3, that sense transcriptional elongation across S region is absolutely required for CSR whereas its antisense counterpart is largely dispensable, strongly suggesting that sense transcription is sufficient for AID targeting to both DNA strands. 10.1038/emboj.2011.56
    Grb2 regulates B-cell maturation, B-cell memory responses and inhibits B-cell Ca2+ signalling. Ackermann Jochen A,Radtke Daniel,Maurberger Anna,Winkler Thomas H,Nitschke Lars The EMBO journal Grb2 is a ubiquitously expressed adaptor protein, which activates Ras and MAP kinases in growth factor receptor signalling, while in B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling this role is controversial. In B cell lines it was shown that Grb2 can inhibit BCR-induced Ca(2+) signalling. Nonetheless, the physiological role of Grb2 in primary B cells is still unknown. We generated a B-cell-specific Grb2-deficient mouse line, which had a severe reduction of mature follicular B cells in the periphery due to a differentiation block and decreased B-cell survival. Moreover, we found several changes in important signalling pathways: enhanced BCR-induced Ca(2+) signalling, alterations in mitogen-activated protein kinase activation patterns and strongly impaired Akt activation, the latter pointing towards a defect in PI3K signalling. Interestingly, B-cell-specific Grb2-deficient mice showed impaired IgG and B-cell memory responses, and impaired germinal centre formation. Thus, Grb2-dependent signalling pathways are crucial for lymphocyte differentiation processes, as well as for control of secondary humoral immune responses. 10.1038/emboj.2011.74
    Alterations in Intestinal Microbiota Lead to Production of Interleukin 17 by Intrahepatic γδ T-Cell Receptor-Positive Cells and Pathogenesis of Cholestatic Liver Disease. Tedesco Dana,Thapa Manoj,Chin Chui Yoke,Ge Yong,Gong Minghao,Li Jing,Gumber Sanjeev,Speck Patrick,Elrod Elizabeth J,Burd Eileen M,Kitchens William H,Magliocca Joseph F,Adams Andrew B,Weiss David S,Mohamadzadeh Mansour,Grakoui Arash Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Variants at the ABCB4 or MDR2 locus, which encodes a biliary transport protein, are associated with a spectrum of cholestatic liver diseases. Exacerbation of liver disease has been linked to increased hepatic levels of interleukin (IL) 17, yet the mechanisms of this increase are not understood. We studied mice with disruption of Mdr2 to determine how defects in liver and alteration in the microbiota contribute to production of IL17 by intrahepatic γδ T cells. METHODS:We performed studies with Mdr2 and littermate FVB/NJ (control) mice. IL17 was measured in serum samples by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mice were injected with neutralizing antibodies against the γδ T-cell receptor (TCR; anti-γδ TCR) or mouse IL17A (anti-IL17A). Livers were collected and bacteria were identified in homogenates by culture procedures; TCRγδ cells were isolated by flow cytometry. Fecal samples were collected from mice and analyzed by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Cells were stimulated with antibodies or bacteria, and cytokine production was measured. We obtained tissues from 10 patients undergoing liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis or chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Tissues were analyzed for cytokine production by γδ TCR cells. RESULTS:Mdr2 mice had collagen deposition around hepatic bile ducts and periportal-bridging fibrosis with influx of inflammatory cells and increased serum levels of IL17 compared with control mice. Administration of anti-IL17A reduced hepatic fibrosis. Livers from Mdr2 mice had increased numbers of IL17A γδTCR cells-particularly of IL17A Vγ6Jγ1 γδ TCR cells. Fecal samples from Mdr2 mice were enriched in Lactobacillus, and liver tissues were enriched in Lactobacillus gasseri compared with control mice. Mdr2 mice also had increased intestinal permeability. The γδ TCR cells isolated from Mdr2 livers produced IL17 in response to heat-killed L gasseri. Intraperitoneal injection of control mice with L gasseri led to increased serum levels of IL17 and liver infiltration by inflammatory cells; injection of these mice with anti-γδ TCR reduced serum level of IL17. Intravenous injections of Mdr2 mice with anti-γδ TCR reduced fibrosis; liver levels of IL17, and inflammatory cells; and serum levels of IL17. γδTCR cells isolated from livers of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, but not hepatitis C virus infection, produced IL17. CONCLUSIONS:In Mdr2 mice, we found development of liver fibrosis and inflammation to require hepatic activation of γδ TCR cells and production of IL17 mediated by exposure to L gasseri. This pathway appears to contribute to development of cholestatic liver disease in patients. 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.02.019
    Change in Populations of Macrophages Promotes Development of Delayed Gastric Emptying in Mice. Cipriani Gianluca,Gibbons Simon J,Miller Katie E,Yang Daniel S,Terhaar Matthew L,Eisenman Seth T,Ördög Tamas,Linden David R,Gajdos Gabriela B,Szurszewski Joseph H,Farrugia Gianrico Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Muscularis propria macrophages lie close to cells that regulate gastrointestinal motor function, including interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and myenteric neurons. In animal models of diabetic gastroparesis, development of delayed gastric emptying has been associated with loss of macrophages that express cytoprotective markers and reduced networks of ICC. Mice with long-term diabetes and normal gastric emptying have macrophages that express anti-inflammatory markers and have normal gastric ICC. Mice homozygous for the osteopetrosis spontaneous mutation in the colony-stimulating factor 1 gene (Csf1op/op) do not have macrophages; when they are given streptozotocin to induce diabetes, they do not develop delayed gastric emptying. We investigated whether population of the gastric muscularis propria of diabetic Csf1op/op mice with macrophages is necessary to change gastric emptying, ICC, and myenteric neurons and investigated the macrophage-derived factors that determine whether diabetic mice do or do not develop delayed gastric emptying. METHODS:Wild-type and Csf1op/op mice were given streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Some Csf1op/op mice were given daily intraperitoneal injections of CSF1 for 7 weeks; gastric tissues were collected and cellular distributions were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. CD45, CD11b, F4/80 macrophages were dissociated from gastric muscularis propria, isolated by flow cytometry and analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cultured gastric muscularis propria from Csf1op/op mice was exposed to medium that was conditioned by culture with bone marrow-derived macrophages from wild-type mice. RESULTS:Gastric muscularis propria from Csf1op/op mice given CSF1 contained macrophages; 11 of 15 diabetic mice given CSF1 developed delayed gastric emptying and had damaged ICC. In non-diabetic Csf1op/op mice, administration of CSF1 reduced numbers of gastric myenteric neurons but did not affect the proportion of nitrergic neurons or ICC. In diabetic Csf1op/op mice given CSF1 that developed delayed gastric emptying, the proportion of nitrergic neurons was the same as in non-diabetic wild-type controls. Medium conditioned by macrophages previously exposed to oxidative injury caused damage to ICC in cultured gastric muscularis propria from Csf1op/op mice; neutralizing antibodies against IL6R or TNF prevented this damage to ICC. CD45, CD11b, and F4/80 macrophages isolated from diabetic wild-type mice with delayed gastric emptying expressed higher levels of messenger RNAs encoding inflammatory markers (IL6 and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and lower levels of messenger RNAs encoding markers of anti-inflammatory cells (heme oxygenase 1, arginase 1, and FIZZ1) than macrophages isolated from diabetic mice with normal gastric emptying. CONCLUSIONS:In studies of Csf1op/op and wild-type mice with diabetes, we found delayed gastric emptying to be associated with increased production of inflammatory factors, and reduced production of anti-inflammatory factors, by macrophages, leading to loss of ICC. 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.02.027
    Analysis of lymphocyte subsets of bone marrow in patients with rheumatoid arthritis by two colour immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Doita M,Maeda S,Kawai K,Hirohata K,Sugiyama T Annals of the rheumatic diseases Lymphocyte subsets defined by monoclonal antibodies were investigated in bone marrow and peripheral blood of 17 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); 13 patients with osteoarthritis or aseptic necrosis served as controls. Patients with RA were found to have a raised OKT 4/8 ratio both in bone marrow and peripheral blood in comparison with the controls. Furthermore, bone marrow of RA showed a lower percentage of OKT 8+ T cells than that of controls. The percentage of HLA-DR+ T cells was higher in bone marrow than in peripheral blood of RA, though a slightly lower percentage was detected in bone marrow than in peripheral blood of controls. Thus T cell subsets in bone marrow of RA differ significantly from those of controls. Patients with RA had a higher OKT 4/8 ratio and a higher percentage of HLA-DR+ T cells in bone marrow than controls, suggesting that T cell subsets in bone marrow of RA are in an immunologically activated state and that T cell subsets are affected by rheumatoid inflammation in bone marrow of RA. 10.1136/ard.49.3.168
    Analysis of C. elegans intestinal gene expression and polyadenylation by fluorescence-activated nuclei sorting and 3'-end-seq. Haenni Simon,Ji Zhe,Hoque Mainul,Rust Nigel,Sharpe Helen,Eberhard Ralf,Browne Cathy,Hengartner Michael O,Mellor Jane,Tian Bin,Furger André Nucleic acids research Despite the many advantages of Caenorhabditis elegans, biochemical approaches to study tissue-specific gene expression in post-embryonic stages are challenging. Here, we report a novel experimental approach for efficient determination of tissue-specific transcriptomes involving the rapid release and purification of nuclei from major tissues of post-embryonic animals by fluorescence-activated nuclei sorting (FANS), followed by deep sequencing of linearly amplified 3'-end regions of transcripts (3'-end-seq). We employed these approaches to compile the transcriptome of the developed C. elegans intestine and used this to analyse tissue-specific cleavage and polyadenylation. In agreement with intestinal-specific gene expression, highly expressed genes have enriched GATA-elements in their promoter regions and their functional properties are associated with processes that are characteristic for the intestine. We systematically mapped pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation sites, or polyA sites, including more than 3000 sites that have previously not been identified. The detailed analysis of the 3'-ends of the nuclear mRNA revealed widespread alternative polyA site use (APA) in intestinally expressed genes. Importantly, we found that intestinal polyA sites that undergo APA tend to have U-rich and/or A-rich upstream auxiliary elements that may contribute to the regulation of 3'-end formation in the intestine. 10.1093/nar/gks282
    Gain-of-function human STAT1 mutations impair IL-17 immunity and underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Liu Luyan,Okada Satoshi,Kong Xiao-Fei,Kreins Alexandra Y,Cypowyj Sophie,Abhyankar Avinash,Toubiana Julie,Itan Yuval,Audry Magali,Nitschke Patrick,Masson Cécile,Toth Beata,Flatot Jérome,Migaud Mélanie,Chrabieh Maya,Kochetkov Tatiana,Bolze Alexandre,Borghesi Alessandro,Toulon Antoine,Hiller Julia,Eyerich Stefanie,Eyerich Kilian,Gulácsy Vera,Chernyshova Ludmyla,Chernyshov Viktor,Bondarenko Anastasia,Grimaldo Rosa María Cortés,Blancas-Galicia Lizbeth,Beas Ileana Maria Madrigal,Roesler Joachim,Magdorf Klaus,Engelhard Dan,Thumerelle Caroline,Burgel Pierre-Régis,Hoernes Miriam,Drexel Barbara,Seger Reinhard,Kusuma Theresia,Jansson Annette F,Sawalle-Belohradsky Julie,Belohradsky Bernd,Jouanguy Emmanuelle,Bustamante Jacinta,Bué Mélanie,Karin Nathan,Wildbaum Gizi,Bodemer Christine,Lortholary Olivier,Fischer Alain,Blanche Stéphane,Al-Muhsen Saleh,Reichenbach Janine,Kobayashi Masao,Rosales Francisco Espinosa,Lozano Carlos Torres,Kilic Sara Sebnem,Oleastro Matias,Etzioni Amos,Traidl-Hoffmann Claudia,Renner Ellen D,Abel Laurent,Picard Capucine,Maródi László,Boisson-Dupuis Stéphanie,Puel Anne,Casanova Jean-Laurent The Journal of experimental medicine Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease (CMCD) may be caused by autosomal dominant (AD) IL-17F deficiency or autosomal recessive (AR) IL-17RA deficiency. Here, using whole-exome sequencing, we identified heterozygous germline mutations in STAT1 in 47 patients from 20 kindreds with AD CMCD. Previously described heterozygous STAT1 mutant alleles are loss-of-function and cause AD predisposition to mycobacterial disease caused by impaired STAT1-dependent cellular responses to IFN-γ. Other loss-of-function STAT1 alleles cause AR predisposition to intracellular bacterial and viral diseases, caused by impaired STAT1-dependent responses to IFN-α/β, IFN-γ, IFN-λ, and IL-27. In contrast, the 12 AD CMCD-inducing STAT1 mutant alleles described here are gain-of-function and increase STAT1-dependent cellular responses to these cytokines, and to cytokines that predominantly activate STAT3, such as IL-6 and IL-21. All of these mutations affect the coiled-coil domain and impair the nuclear dephosphorylation of activated STAT1, accounting for their gain-of-function and dominance. Stronger cellular responses to the STAT1-dependent IL-17 inhibitors IFN-α/β, IFN-γ, and IL-27, and stronger STAT1 activation in response to the STAT3-dependent IL-17 inducers IL-6 and IL-21, hinder the development of T cells producing IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22. Gain-of-function STAT1 alleles therefore cause AD CMCD by impairing IL-17 immunity. 10.1084/jem.20110958
    Tissue-specific expression of B7x protects from CD4 T cell-mediated autoimmunity. Wei Joyce,Loke P'ng,Zang Xingxing,Allison James P The Journal of experimental medicine B7x, an inhibitory member of the B7/CD28 superfamily, is highly expressed in a broad range of nonhematopoietic organs, suggesting a role in maintaining peripheral tolerance. As endogenous B7x protein is expressed in pancreatic islets, we investigated whether the molecule inhibits diabetogenic responses. Transfer of disease-inducing BDC2.5 T cells into B7x-deficient mice resulted in a more aggressive form of diabetes than in wild-type animals. This exacerbation of disease correlated with higher frequencies of islet-infiltrating Th1 and Th17 cells. Conversely, local B7x overexpression inhibited the development of autoimmunity, as crossing diabetes-susceptible BDC2.5/B6(g7) mice to animals overexpressing B7x in pancreatic islets abrogated disease induction. This protection was caused by the inhibition of IFN-γ production by CD4 T cells and not to a skewing or expansion of Th2 or regulatory T cells. The suppressive function of B7x was also supported by observations from another autoimmune model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, in which B7x-deficient mice developed exacerbated disease in comparison with wild-type animals. Analysis of central nervous system-infiltrating immune cells revealed that the loss of endogenous B7x resulted in expanded Th1 and Th17 responses. Data from these two autoimmune models provide evidence that B7x expression in the periphery acts as an immune checkpoint to prevent tissue-specific autoimmunity. 10.1084/jem.20100639
    Epigenetic tethering of AID to the donor switch region during immunoglobulin class switch recombination. Jeevan-Raj Beena Patricia,Robert Isabelle,Heyer Vincent,Page Adeline,Wang Jing H,Cammas Florence,Alt Frederick W,Losson Régine,Reina-San-Martin Bernardo The Journal of experimental medicine Immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) is initiated by double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) in switch regions triggered by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Although CSR correlates with epigenetic modifications at the IgH locus, the relationship between these modifications and AID remains unknown. In this study, we show that during CSR, AID forms a complex with KAP1 (KRAB domain-associated protein 1) and HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1) that is tethered to the donor switch region (Sμ) bearing H3K9me3 (trimethylated histone H3 at lysine 9) in vivo. Furthermore, in vivo disruption of this complex results in impaired AID recruitment to Sμ, inefficient DSB formation, and a concomitant defect in CSR but not in somatic hypermutation. We propose that KAP1 and HP1 tether AID to H3K9me3 residues at the donor switch region, thus providing a mechanism linking AID to epigenetic modifications during CSR. 10.1084/jem.20110118
    B cells enhance early innate immune responses during bacterial sepsis. Kelly-Scumpia Kindra M,Scumpia Philip O,Weinstein Jason S,Delano Matthew J,Cuenca Alex G,Nacionales Dina C,Wynn James L,Lee Pui Y,Kumagai Yutaro,Efron Philip A,Akira Shizuo,Wasserfall Clive,Atkinson Mark A,Moldawer Lyle L The Journal of experimental medicine Microbes activate pattern recognition receptors to initiate adaptive immunity. T cells affect early innate inflammatory responses to viral infection, but both activation and suppression have been demonstrated. We identify a novel role for B cells in the early innate immune response during bacterial sepsis. We demonstrate that Rag1(-/-) mice display deficient early inflammatory responses and reduced survival during sepsis. Interestingly, B cell-deficient or anti-CD20 B cell-depleted mice, but not α/β T cell-deficient mice, display decreased inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production and reduced survival after sepsis. Both treatment of B cell-deficient mice with serum from wild-type (WT) mice and repletion of Rag1(-/-) mice with B cells improves sepsis survival, suggesting antibody-independent and antibody-dependent roles for B cells in the outcome to sepsis. During sepsis, marginal zone and follicular B cells are activated through type I interferon (IFN-I) receptor (IFN-α/β receptor [IFNAR]), and repleting Rag1(-/-) mice with WT, but not IFNAR(-/-), B cells improves IFN-I-dependent and -independent early cytokine responses. Repleting B cell-deficient mice with the IFN-I-dependent chemokine, CXCL10 was also sufficient to improve sepsis survival. This study identifies a novel role for IFN-I-activated B cells in protective early innate immune responses during bacterial sepsis. 10.1084/jem.20101715
    Chemokine receptor CXCR3 facilitates CD8(+) T cell differentiation into short-lived effector cells leading to memory degeneration. Kurachi Makoto,Kurachi Junko,Suenaga Fumiko,Tsukui Tatsuya,Abe Jun,Ueha Satoshi,Tomura Michio,Sugihara Kei,Takamura Shiki,Kakimi Kazuhiro,Matsushima Kouji The Journal of experimental medicine Strength of inflammatory stimuli during the early expansion phase plays a crucial role in the effector versus memory cell fate decision of CD8(+) T cells. But it is not known how early lymphocyte distribution after infection has an impact on this process. We demonstrate that the chemokine receptor CXCR3 is involved in promoting CD8(+) T cell commitment to an effector fate rather than a memory fate by regulating T cell recruitment to an antigen/inflammation site. After systemic viral or bacterial infection, the contraction of CXCR3(-/-) antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells is significantly attenuated, resulting in massive accumulation of fully functional memory CD8(+) T cells. Early after infection, CXCR3(-/-) antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells fail to cluster at the marginal zone in the spleen where inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 and IFN-α are abundant, thus receiving relatively weak inflammatory stimuli. Consequently, CXCR3(-/-) CD8(+) T cells exhibit transient expression of CD25 and preferentially differentiate into memory precursor effector cells as compared with wild-type CD8(+) T cells. This series of events has important implications for development of vaccination strategies to generate increased numbers of antigen-specific memory CD8(+) T cells via inhibition of CXCR3-mediated T cell migration to inflamed microenvironments. 10.1084/jem.20102101
    Abrogation of CD30 and OX40 signals prevents autoimmune disease in FoxP3-deficient mice. Gaspal Fabrina,Withers David,Saini Manoj,Bekiaris Vasileios,McConnell Fiona M,White Andrea,Khan Mahmood,Yagita Hideo,Walker Lucy S K,Anderson Graham,Lane Peter J L The Journal of experimental medicine Our previous studies have implicated signaling through the tumor necrosis family receptors OX40 and CD30 as critical for maintaining CD4 memory responses. We show that signals through both molecules are also required for CD4 effector-mediated autoimmune tissue damage. Under normal circumstances, male mice deficient in the forkhead transcription factor FoxP3, which lack regulatory CD4 T cells, develop lethal autoimmune disease in the first few weeks of life. However, in the combined absence of OX40 and CD30, FoxP3-deficient mice develop normally and breed successfully. The extensive tissue infiltration and organ destruction characteristic of FoxP3 disease does not appear in these mice, and their mortality is not associated with autoimmunity. Although the absence of OX40 plays the dominant role, FoxP3-deficient mice sufficient in CD30 but deficient in OX40 signals still eventually develop lethal disease. This result was supported by the observation that blocking antibodies to OX40 and CD30 ligands also abrogated disease mediated by FoxP3-deficient T cells. These observations identify OX40 and CD30 signals as essential for the development of clinically relevant CD4-dependent autoimmunity and suggest that combination therapies that abrogate these signals might be used to treat established human autoimmune diseases. 10.1084/jem.20101484
    Genomic loss of the putative tumor suppressor gene E2A in human lymphoma. Steininger Anne,Möbs Markus,Ullmann Reinhard,Köchert Karl,Kreher Stephan,Lamprecht Björn,Anagnostopoulos Ioannis,Hummel Michael,Richter Julia,Beyer Marc,Janz Martin,Klemke Claus-Detlev,Stein Harald,Dörken Bernd,Sterry Wolfram,Schrock Evelin,Mathas Stephan,Assaf Chalid The Journal of experimental medicine The transcription factor E2A is essential for lymphocyte development. In this study, we describe a recurrent E2A gene deletion in at least 70% of patients with Sézary syndrome (SS), a subtype of T cell lymphoma. Loss of E2A results in enhanced proliferation and cell cycle progression via derepression of the protooncogene MYC and the cell cycle regulator CDK6. Furthermore, by examining the gene expression profile of SS cells after restoration of E2A expression, we identify several E2A-regulated genes that interfere with oncogenic signaling pathways, including the Ras pathway. Several of these genes are down-regulated or lost in primary SS tumor cells. These data demonstrate a tumor suppressor function of E2A in human lymphoid cells and could help to develop new treatment strategies for human lymphomas with altered E2A activity. 10.1084/jem.20101785
    The immunoreceptor adapter protein DAP12 suppresses B lymphocyte-driven adaptive immune responses. Nakano-Yokomizo Takako,Tahara-Hanaoka Satoko,Nakahashi-Oda Chigusa,Nabekura Tsukasa,Tchao Nadia K,Kadosaki Momoko,Totsuka Naoya,Kurita Naoki,Nakamagoe Kiyotaka,Tamaoka Akira,Takai Toshiyuki,Yasui Teruhito,Kikutani Hitoshi,Honda Shin-ichiro,Shibuya Kazuko,Lanier Lewis L,Shibuya Akira The Journal of experimental medicine DAP12, an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-bearing adapter protein, is involved in innate immunity mediated by natural killer cells and myeloid cells. We show that DAP12-deficient mouse B cells and B cells from a patient with Nasu-Hakola disease, a recessive genetic disorder resulting from loss of DAP12, showed enhanced proliferation after stimulation with anti-IgM or CpG. Myeloid-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor (MAIR) II (Cd300d) is a DAP12-associated immune receptor. Like DAP12-deficient B cells, MAIR-II-deficient B cells were hyperresponsive. Expression of a chimeric receptor composed of the MAIR-II extracellular domain directly coupled to DAP12 into the DAP12-deficient or MAIR-II-deficient B cells suppressed B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated proliferation. The chimeric MAIR-II-DAP12 receptor recruited the SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) after BCR stimulation. DAP12-deficient mice showed elevated serum antibodies against self-antigens and enhanced humoral immune responses against T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antigens. Thus, DAP12-coupled MAIR-II negatively regulates B cell-mediated adaptive immune responses. 10.1084/jem.20101623
    Epithelial transglutaminase 2 is needed for T cell interleukin-17 production and subsequent pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in bleomycin-treated mice. Oh Keunhee,Park Hyung-Bae,Byoun Ok-Jin,Shin Dong-Myung,Jeong Eui Man,Kim Young Whan,Kim Yon Su,Melino Gerry,Kim In-Gyu,Lee Dong-Sup The Journal of experimental medicine Pulmonary fibrosis is a potentially life-threatening disease that may be caused by overt or asymptomatic inflammatory responses. However, the precise mechanisms by which tissue injury is translated into inflammation and consequent fibrosis remain to be established. Here, we show that in a lung injury model, bleomycin induced the secretion of IL-6 by epithelial cells in a transglutaminase 2 (TG2)-dependent manner. This response represents a key step in the differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells and subsequent inflammatory amplification in the lung. The essential role of epithelial cells, but not inflammatory cells, TG2 was confirmed in bone marrow chimeras; chimeras made in TG2-deficient recipients showed reduced inflammation and fibrosis, compared with those in wild-type mice, regardless of the bone marrow cell phenotype. Epithelial TG2 thus appears to be a critical inducer of inflammation after noninfectious pulmonary injury. We further demonstrated that fibroblast-derived TG2, acting downstream of transforming growth factor-β, is also important in the effector phase of fibrogenesis. Therefore, TG2 represents an interesting potential target for therapeutic intervention. 10.1084/jem.20101457
    Tumor necrosis factor restricts hematopoietic stem cell activity in mice: involvement of two distinct receptors. Pronk Cornelis J H,Veiby Ole Petter,Bryder David,Jacobsen Sten Eirik W The Journal of experimental medicine Whereas maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is a requisite for life, uncontrolled expansion of HSCs might enhance the propensity for leukemic transformation. Accordingly, HSC numbers are tightly regulated. The identification of physical cellular HSC niches has underscored the importance of extrinsic regulators of HSC homeostasis. However, whereas extrinsic positive regulators of HSCs have been identified, opposing extrinsic repressors of HSC expansion in vivo have yet to be described. Like many other acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes are associated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) overexpression. However, the in vivo relevance of TNF in the regulation of HSCs has remained unclear. Of considerable relevance for normal hematopoiesis and in particular BM failure syndromes, we herein demonstrate that TNF is a cell-extrinsic and potent endogenous suppressor of normal HSC activity in vivo in mice. These effects of TNF involve two distinct TNF receptors. 10.1084/jem.20110752
    Flt3L controls the development of radiosensitive dendritic cells in the meninges and choroid plexus of the steady-state mouse brain. Anandasabapathy Niroshana,Victora Gabriel D,Meredith Matthew,Feder Rachel,Dong Baojun,Kluger Courtney,Yao Kaihui,Dustin Michael L,Nussenzweig Michel C,Steinman Ralph M,Liu Kang The Journal of experimental medicine Antigen-presenting cells in the disease-free brain have been identified primarily by expression of antigens such as CD11b, CD11c, and MHC II, which can be shared by dendritic cells (DCs), microglia, and monocytes. In this study, starting with the criterion of Flt3 (FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase 3)-dependent development, we characterize the features of authentic DCs within the meninges and choroid plexus in healthy mouse brains. Analyses of morphology, gene expression, and antigen-presenting function established a close relationship between meningeal and choroid plexus DCs (m/chDCs) and spleen DCs. DCs in both sites shared an intrinsic requirement for Flt3 ligand. Microarrays revealed differences in expression of transcripts encoding surface molecules, transcription factors, pattern recognition receptors, and other genes in m/chDCs compared with monocytes and microglia. Migrating pre-DC progenitors from bone marrow gave rise to m/chDCs that had a 5-7-d half-life. In contrast to microglia, DCs actively present self-antigens and stimulate T cells. Therefore, the meninges and choroid plexus of a steady-state brain contain DCs that derive from local precursors and exhibit a differentiation and antigen-presenting program similar to spleen DCs and distinct from microglia. 10.1084/jem.20102657
    Inflammatory chemokine receptors regulate CD8(+) T cell contraction and memory generation following infection. Kohlmeier Jacob E,Reiley William W,Perona-Wright Georgia,Freeman Michael L,Yager Eric J,Connor Lisa M,Brincks Erik L,Cookenham Tres,Roberts Alan D,Burkum Claire E,Sell Stewart,Winslow Gary M,Blackman Marcia A,Mohrs Markus,Woodland David L The Journal of experimental medicine The development of T cell memory from naive precursors is influenced by molecular cues received during T cell activation and differentiation. In this study, we describe a novel role for the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3 in regulating effector CD8(+) T cell contraction and memory generation after influenza virus infection. We find that Ccr5(-/-) Cxcr3(-/-) cells show markedly decreased contraction after viral clearance, leading to the establishment of massive numbers of memory CD8(+) T cells. Ccr5(-/-) Cxcr3(-/-) cells show reduced expression of CD69 in the lung during the peak of infection, which coincides with differential localization and the rapid appearance of memory precursor cells. Analysis of single chemokine receptor-deficient cells revealed that CXCR3 is primarily responsible for this phenotype, although there is also a role for CCR5 in the enhancement of T cell memory. The phenotype could be reversed by adding exogenous antigen, resulting in the activation and contraction of Ccr5(-/-) Cxcr3(-/-) cells. Similar results were observed during chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Together, the data support a model of memory CD8(+) T cell generation in which the chemokine-directed localization of T cells within infected tissues regulates antigen encounter and controls the extent of CD8(+) T cell activation and differentiation, which ultimately regulates effector versus memory cell fate decisions. 10.1084/jem.20102110
    Altered immune cell follicular dynamics in HIV infection following influenza vaccination. Moysi Eirini,Pallikkuth Suresh,De Armas Lesley R,Gonzalez Louis E,Ambrozak David,George Varghese,Huddleston David,Pahwa Rajendra,Koup Richard A,Petrovas Constantinos,Pahwa Savita The Journal of clinical investigation HIV infection changes the lymph node (LN) tissue architecture, potentially impairing the immunologic response to antigenic challenge. The tissue-resident immune cell dynamics in virologically suppressed HIV+ patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are not clear. We obtained LN biopsies before and 10 to 14 days after trivalent seasonal influenza immunization from healthy controls (HCs) and HIV+ volunteers on cART to investigate CD4+ T follicular helper (Tfh) and B cell dynamics by flow cytometry and quantitative imaging analysis. Prior to vaccination, compared with those in HCs, HIV+ LNs exhibited an altered follicular architecture, but harbored higher numbers of Tfh cells and increased IgG+ follicular memory B cells. Moreover, Tfh cell numbers were dependent upon preservation of the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network and were predictive of the magnitude of the vaccine-induced IgG responses. Interestingly, postvaccination LN samples in HIV+ participants had significantly (P = 0.0179) reduced Tfh cell numbers compared with prevaccination samples, without evidence for peripheral Tfh (pTfh) cell reduction. We conclude that influenza vaccination alters the cellularity of draining LNs of HIV+ persons in conjunction with development of antigen-specific humoral responses. The underlying mechanism of Tfh cell decline warrants further investigation, as it could bear implications for the rational design of HIV vaccines. 10.1172/JCI99884
    Increased cardiac myocyte progenitors in failing human hearts. Kubo Hajime,Jaleel Naser,Kumarapeli Asangi,Berretta Remus M,Bratinov George,Shan Xiaoyin,Wang Hongmei,Houser Steven R,Margulies Kenneth B Circulation BACKGROUND:Increasing evidence, derived mainly from animal models, supports the existence of endogenous cardiac renewal and repair mechanisms in adult mammalian hearts that could contribute to normal homeostasis and the responses to pathological insults. METHODS AND RESULTS:Translating these results, we isolated small c-kit+ cells from 36 of 37 human hearts using primary cell isolation techniques and magnetic cell sorting techniques. The abundance of these cardiac progenitor cells was increased nearly 4-fold in patients with heart failure requiring transplantation compared with nonfailing controls. Polychromatic flow cytometry of primary cell isolates (<30 microm) without antecedent c-kit enrichment confirmed the increased abundance of c-kit+ cells in failing hearts and demonstrated frequent coexpression of CD45 in these cells. Immunocytochemical characterization of freshly isolated, c-kit-enriched human cardiac progenitor cells confirmed frequent coexpression of c-kit and CD45. Primary cardiac progenitor cells formed new human cardiac myocytes at a relatively high frequency after coculture with neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. These contracting new cardiac myocytes exhibited an immature phenotype and frequent electric coupling with the rat myocytes that induced their myogenic differentiation. CONCLUSIONS:Despite the increased abundance and cardiac myogenic capacity of cardiac progenitor cells in failing human hearts, the need to replace these organs via transplantation implies that adverse features of the local myocardial environment overwhelm endogenous cardiac repair capacity. Developing strategies to improve the success of endogenous cardiac regenerative processes may permit therapeutic myocardial repair without cell delivery per se. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.761031
    Imagestream detection and characterisation of circulating tumour cells - A liquid biopsy for hepatocellular carcinoma? Ogle Laura F,Orr James G,Willoughby Catherine E,Hutton Claire,McPherson Stuart,Plummer Ruth,Boddy Alan V,Curtin Nicola J,Jamieson David,Reeves Helen L Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:The lack of progress in developing and delivering new therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is in part attributed to the risk related avoidance of tumour biopsy at diagnosis. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are a potential source of tumour tissue that could aid biological or biomarker research, treatment stratification and monitoring. METHODS:An imaging flow cytometry method, using immunofluorescence of cytokeratin, EpCAM, AFP, glypican-3 and DNA-PK together with analysis of size, morphology and DNA content, for detection of HCC CTCs was developed and applied to 69 patient and 31 control samples. The presence of CTCs as a prognostic indicator was assessed in multivariate analyses encompassing recognised prognostic parameters. RESULTS:Between 1 and 1642 CTCs were detected in blood samples from 45/69 HCC patients compared to 0/31 controls. CTCs positive for the epithelial markers cytokeratin and EpCAM were detected in 29% and 18% of patients respectively, while an additional 28% of patients had CTCs negative for all markers other than size and evidence of hyperploidy. CTC number correlated significantly with tumour size and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). The median survival of patients with >1 CTC was 7.5months versus >34months for patients with <1 CTC (p<0.001, log-rank), with significance retained in a multivariate analysis (HR 2.34, 95% CI 1.005-5.425, p=0.049) including tumour size and PVT. CONCLUSIONS:The use of multiple parameters enhanced HCC CTC detection sensitivity, revealing biological associations and predictive biomarker potential that may be able to guide stratified medicine decisions and future research. LAY SUMMARY:Characteristics of tumour tissues can be used to predict outcomes for individual patients with cancer, as well as help to choose their best treatment. Biopsy of liver cancers carries risks, however, and is usually avoided. Some cancer cells enter the blood, and although they are very rare, we have developed a method of finding and characterising them in patients with liver cancer, which we hope will provide a low risk means of guiding treatment. 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.04.014
    Gut Microbiota Promotes Tumor Growth in Mice by Modulating Immune Response. Sethi Vrishketan,Kurtom Saba,Tarique Mohammad,Lavania Shweta,Malchiodi Zoe,Hellmund Leonor,Zhang Li,Sharma Umakant,Giri Bhuwan,Garg Bharti,Ferrantella Anthony,Vickers Selwyn M,Banerjee Sulagna,Dawra Rajinder,Roy Sabita,Ramakrishnan Sundaram,Saluja Ashok,Dudeja Vikas Gastroenterology We studied the effects of gut microbiome depletion by oral antibiotics on tumor growth in subcutaneous and liver metastases models of pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, and melanoma. Gut microbiome depletion significantly reduced tumor burden in all the models tested. However, depletion of gut microbiome did not reduce tumor growth in Rag1-knockout mice, which lack mature T and B cells. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated that gut microbiome depletion led to significant increase in interferon gamma-producing T cells with corresponding decrease in interleukin 17A and interleukin 10-producing T cells. Our results suggest that gut microbiome modulation could emerge as a novel immunotherapeutic strategy. 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.04.001
    Humanized mice efficiently engrafted with fetal hepatoblasts and syngeneic immune cells develop human monocytes and NK cells. Billerbeck Eva,Mommersteeg Michiel C,Shlomai Amir,Xiao Jing W,Andrus Linda,Bhatta Ankit,Vercauteren Koen,Michailidis Eleftherios,Dorner Marcus,Krishnan Anuradha,Charlton Michael R,Chiriboga Luis,Rice Charles M,de Jong Ype P Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Human liver chimeric mice are useful models of human hepatitis virus infection, including hepatitis B and C virus infections. Independently, immunodeficient mice reconstituted with CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) derived from fetal liver reliably develop human T and B lymphocytes. Combining these systems has long been hampered by inefficient liver reconstitution of human fetal hepatoblasts. Our study aimed to enhance hepatoblast engraftment in order to create a mouse model with syngeneic human liver and immune cells. METHODS:The effects of human oncostatin-M administration on fetal hepatoblast engraftment into immunodeficient fah(-/-) mice was tested. Mice were then transplanted with syngeneic human hepatoblasts and HSC after which human leukocyte chimerism and functionality were analyzed by flow cytometry, and mice were challenged with HBV. RESULTS:Addition of human oncostatin-M enhanced human hepatoblast engraftment in immunodeficient fah(-/-) mice by 5-100 fold. In contrast to mice singly engrafted with HSC, which predominantly developed human T and B lymphocytes, mice co-transplanted with syngeneic hepatoblasts also contained physiological levels of human monocytes and natural killer cells. Upon infection with HBV, these mice displayed rapid and sustained viremia. CONCLUSIONS:Our study provides a new mouse model with improved human fetal hepatoblast engraftment and an expanded human immune cell repertoire. With further improvements, this model may become useful for studying human immunity against viral hepatitis. LAY SUMMARY:Important human pathogens such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus only infect human cells which complicates the development of mouse models for the study of these pathogens. One way to make mice permissive for human pathogens is the transplantation of human cells into immune-compromised mice. For instance, the transplantation of human liver cells will allow the infection of these so-called "liver chimeric mice" with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. The co-transplantation of human immune cells into liver chimeric mice will further allow the study of human immune responses to hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus. However, for immunological studies it will be crucial that the transplanted human liver and immune cells are derived from the same human donor. In our study we describe the efficient engraftment of human fetal liver cells and immune cells derived from the same donor into mice. We show that liver co-engraftment resulted in an expanded human immune cell repertoire, including monocytes and natural killer cells in the liver. We further demonstrate that these mice could be infected with hepatitis B virus, which lead to an expansion of natural killer cells. In conclusion we have developed a new mouse model that could be useful to study human immune responses to human liver pathogens. 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.04.022
    Intestinal Failure and Aberrant Lipid Metabolism in Patients With DGAT1 Deficiency. van Rijn Jorik M,Ardy Rico Chandra,Kuloğlu Zarife,Härter Bettina,van Haaften-Visser Désirée Y,van der Doef Hubert P J,van Hoesel Marliek,Kansu Aydan,van Vugt Anke H M,Thian Marini,Kokke Freddy T M,Krolo Ana,Başaran Meryem Keçeli,Kaya Neslihan Gurcan,Aksu Aysel Ünlüsoy,Dalgıç Buket,Ozcay Figen,Baris Zeren,Kain Renate,Stigter Edwin C A,Lichtenbelt Klaske D,Massink Maarten P G,Duran Karen J,Verheij Joke B G M,Lugtenberg Dorien,Nikkels Peter G J,Brouwer Henricus G F,Verkade Henkjan J,Scheenstra René,Spee Bart,Nieuwenhuis Edward E S,Coffer Paul J,Janecke Andreas R,van Haaften Gijs,Houwen Roderick H J,Müller Thomas,Middendorp Sabine,Boztug Kaan Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Congenital diarrheal disorders are rare inherited intestinal disorders characterized by intractable, sometimes life-threatening, diarrhea and nutrient malabsorption; some have been associated with mutations in diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), which catalyzes formation of triacylglycerol from diacylglycerol and acyl-CoA. We investigated the mechanisms by which DGAT1 deficiency contributes to intestinal failure using patient-derived organoids. METHODS:We collected blood samples from 10 patients, from 6 unrelated pedigrees, who presented with early-onset severe diarrhea and/or vomiting, hypoalbuminemia, and/or (fatal) protein-losing enteropathy with intestinal failure; we performed next-generation sequencing analysis of DNA from 8 patients. Organoids were generated from duodenal biopsies from 3 patients and 3 healthy individuals (controls). Caco-2 cells and patient-derived dermal fibroblasts were transfected or transduced with vectors that express full-length or mutant forms of DGAT1 or full-length DGAT2. We performed CRISPR/Cas9-guided disruption of DGAT1 in control intestinal organoids. Cells and organoids were analyzed by immunoblot, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, chromatography, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and for the activity of caspases 3 and 7. RESULTS:In the 10 patients, we identified 5 bi-allelic loss-of-function mutations in DGAT1. In patient-derived fibroblasts and organoids, the mutations reduced expression of DGAT1 protein and altered triacylglycerol metabolism, resulting in decreased lipid droplet formation after oleic acid addition. Expression of full-length DGAT2 in patient-derived fibroblasts restored formation of lipid droplets. Organoids derived from patients with DGAT1 mutations were more susceptible to lipid-induced cell death than control organoids. CONCLUSIONS:We identified a large cohort of patients with congenital diarrheal disorders with mutations in DGAT1 that reduced expression of its product; dermal fibroblasts and intestinal organoids derived from these patients had altered lipid metabolism and were susceptible to lipid-induced cell death. Expression of full-length wildtype DGAT1 or DGAT2 restored normal lipid metabolism in these cells. These findings indicate the importance of DGAT1 in fat metabolism and lipotoxicity in the intestinal epithelium. A fat-free diet might serve as the first line of therapy for patients with reduced DGAT1 expression. It is important to identify genetic variants associated with congenital diarrheal disorders for proper diagnosis and selection of treatment strategies. 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.03.040
    Lupus high-density lipoprotein induces proinflammatory responses in macrophages by binding lectin-like oxidised low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 and failing to promote activating transcription factor 3 activity. Smith Carolyne K,Seto Nickie L,Vivekanandan-Giri Anuradha,Yuan Wenmin,Playford Martin P,Manna Zerai,Hasni Sarfaraz A,Kuai Rui,Mehta Nehal N,Schwendeman Anna,Pennathur Subramaniam,Kaplan Mariana J Annals of the rheumatic diseases OBJECTIVES:Recent evidence indicates that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) exerts vasculoprotective activities by promoting activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), leading to downregulation of toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced inflammatory responses. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk not explained by the Framingham risk score. Recent studies have indicated oxidised HDL as a possible contributor. We investigated the potential mechanisms by which lupus HDL may lose its anti-inflammatory effects and promote immune dysregulation. METHODS:Control macrophages were challenged with control and SLE HDL in vitro and examined for inflammatory markers by real-time qRT-PCR, confocal microscopy, ELISA and flow cytometry. Lupus-prone mice were treated with an HDL mimetic (ETC-642) in vivo and inflammatory cytokine levels measured by real-time qRT-PCR and ELISA. RESULTS:Compared with control HDL, SLE HDL activates NFκB, promotes inflammatory cytokine production and fails to block TLR-induced inflammation in control macrophages. This failure of lupus HDL to block inflammatory responses is due to an impaired ability to promote ATF3 synthesis and nuclear translocation. This inflammation is dependent on lectin-like oxidised low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1R) binding and rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 and 2 (ROCK1/2) kinase activity. HDL mimetic-treated lupus mice showed significant ATF3 induction and proinflammatory cytokine abrogation. CONCLUSIONS:Lupus HDL promotes proinflammatory responses through NFκB activation and decreased ATF3 synthesis and activity in an LOX1R-dependent and ROCK1/2-dependent manner. HDL mimetics should be explored as potential therapies for inflammation and SLE cardiovascular risk. 10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-209683
    Differences in the risk of celiac disease associated with HLA-DQ2.5 or HLA-DQ2.2 are related to sustained gluten antigen presentation. Fallang Lars-Egil,Bergseng Elin,Hotta Kinya,Berg-Larsen Axel,Kim Chu-Young,Sollid Ludvig M Nature immunology Celiac disease driven by an antigluten T cell response is strongly associated with the histocompatibility antigen HLA-DQ2.5 but is barely associated with HLA-DQ2.2. Yet these molecules have very similar peptide-binding motifs and both present gluten T cell epitopes. We found that DQ2.5(+) antigen-presenting cells (APCs) had greater stability of bound peptides and protracted gluten presentation relative to that of DQ2.2(+) cells. The improved ability of DQ2.5 to retain its peptide cargo can be ascribed to a polymorphism of DQalpha22 whereby DQ2.5 (tyrosine) can establish a hydrogen bond to the peptide main chain but DQ2.2 (phenylalanine) cannot. Our findings suggest that the kinetic stability of complexes of peptide and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is of importance for the association of HLA with disease. 10.1038/ni.1780
    Ras orchestrates exit from the cell cycle and light-chain recombination during early B cell development. Mandal Malay,Powers Sarah E,Ochiai Kyoko,Georgopoulos Katia,Kee Barbara L,Singh Harinder,Clark Marcus R Nature immunology Signals through the pre-B cell antigen receptor (pre-BCR) and interleukin 7 receptor (IL-7R) coordinate pre-B cell population expansion with subsequent recombination of the locus encoding immunoglobulin kappa-chain (Igk). Although many 'downstream' effectors of each receptor are known, how they integrate to mediate development has remained unclear. Here we report that pre-BCR-mediated activation of the Ras-MEK-Erk signaling pathway silenced transcription of Ccnd3 (encoding cyclin D3) and coordinated exit from the cell cycle with induction of the transcription factor E2A and the initiation of Igk recombination. IL-7R-mediated activation of the transcription factor STAT5 opposed this pathway by promoting Ccnd3 expression and concomitantly inhibiting Igk transcription by binding to the Igk intronic enhancer and preventing E2A recruitment. Our data show how pre-BCR signaling poises pre-B cells to undergo differentiation after escape from IL-7R signaling. 10.1038/ni.1785
    Peli1 facilitates TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling and proinflammatory cytokine production. Chang Mikyoung,Jin Wei,Sun Shao-Cong Nature immunology Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pivotal in innate immunity and inflammation. Here we show that genetic deficiency in Peli1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, attenuated the induction of proinflammatory cytokines by ligands of TLR3 and TLR4 and rendered mice resistant to septic shock. Peli1 was required for TLR3-induced activation of IkappaB kinase (IKK) and its 'downstream' target, transcription factor NF-kappaB, but was dispensable for IKK-NF-kappaB activation induced by several other TLRs and the interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor. Notably, Peli1 bound to and ubiquitinated RIP1, a signaling molecule that mediates IKK activation induced by the TLR3 and TLR4 adaptor TRIF. Our findings suggest that Peli1 is a ubiquitin ligase needed for the transmission of TRIF-dependent TLR signals. 10.1038/ni.1777
    Progenitors of interstitial cells of cajal in the postnatal murine stomach. Lorincz Andrea,Redelman Doug,Horváth Viktor J,Bardsley Michael R,Chen Hui,Ordög Tamás Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Maintaining the integrity of networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) is essential to preserve orderly contractile activity and neuroregulation in the gastrointestinal tract and to restore these functions after tissue damage or surgeries. Maintenance of ICC requires insulin-dependent or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-dependent production of membrane-bound stem cell factor (SCF) and may involve regeneration from local progenitors. Our goal was to identify ICC precursors in postnatal murine gastric muscles. METHODS:We used flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to examine freshly dissected and cultured muscles for cells expressing CD34, an adhesion molecule expressed by stromal tumors; CD44, which occurs on mesenchymal stem cells; and receptors for SCF (Kit), insulin (Insr), and IGF-I (Igf1r). Slow waves were studied by intracellular recording. RESULTS:In gastric muscles, we identified rare, Kit(low)CD44(+)CD34(+)Insr(+)Igf1r(+) cells resembling common embryonic precursors of ICC and smooth muscle. These putative progenitors were absent from organotypic cultures lacking mature ICC (Kit(+)CD44(+)CD34(-)Insr(-)Igf1r(-)) due to prolonged insulin/IGF-I deprivation but were rescued by IGF-I that also prevented ICC loss. Soluble SCF failed to prevent the loss of mature ICC but dramatically expanded the putative progenitors, which supported robust slow wave activity despite retaining an immature, Kit(+)CD44(+)CD34(+)Insr(+)Igf1r(+) phenotype. Differentiation of these cells into mature, network-forming ICC required IGF-I. Conversely, restoration of ICC networks by IGF-I after prolonged insulin and IGF-I deprivation required the survival of the presumed progenitors. CONCLUSIONS:Kit(low)CD44(+)CD34(+)Insr(+)Igf1r(+) cells may be local progenitors for gastric ICC and stromal tumors. Loss of these cells may contribute to gastrointestinal dysmotilities. 10.1053/j.gastro.2008.01.036
    CRISPR-mediated control of the bacterial initiation of replication. Wiktor Jakub,Lesterlin Christian,Sherratt David J,Dekker Cees Nucleic acids research Programmable control of the cell cycle has been shown to be a powerful tool in cell-biology studies. Here, we develop a novel system for controlling the bacterial cell cycle, based on binding of CRISPR/dCas9 to the origin-of-replication locus. Initiation of replication of bacterial chromosomes is accurately regulated by the DnaA protein, which promotes the unwinding of DNA at oriC We demonstrate that the binding of CRISPR/dCas9 to any position within origin or replication blocks the initiation of replication. Serial-dilution plating, single-cell fluorescence microscopy, and flow-cytometry experiments show that ongoing rounds of chromosome replication are finished upon CRISPR/dCas9 binding, but no new rounds are initiated. Upon arrest, cells stay metabolically active and accumulate cell mass. We find that elevating the temperature from 37 to 42°C releases the CRISR/dCas9 replication inhibition, and we use this feature to recover cells from the arrest. Our simple and robust method of controlling the bacterial cell cycle is a useful asset for synthetic biology and DNA-replication studies in particular. The inactivation of CRISPR/dCas9 binding at elevated temperatures may furthermore be of wide interest for CRISPR/Cas9 applications in genomic engineering. 10.1093/nar/gkw214
    β1 integrins regulate fibroblast chemotaxis through control of N-WASP stability. King Samantha J,Worth Daniel C,Scales Timothy M E,Monypenny James,Jones Gareth E,Parsons Maddy The EMBO journal Chemotactic migration of fibroblasts towards growth factors, such as during development and wound healing, requires precise spatial coordination of receptor signalling. However, the mechanisms regulating this remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that β1 integrins are required both for fibroblast chemotaxis towards platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and growth factor-induced dorsal ruffling. Mechanistically, we show that β1 integrin stabilises and spatially regulates the actin nucleating endocytic protein neuronal Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) to facilitate PDGF receptor traffic and directed motility. Furthermore, we show that in intact cells, PDGF binding leads to rapid activation of β1 integrin within newly assembled actin-rich membrane ruffles. Active β1 in turn controls assembly of N-WASP complexes with both Cdc42 and WASP-interacting protein (WIP), the latter of which acts to stabilise the N-WASP. Both of these protein complexes are required for PDGF internalisation and fibroblast chemotaxis downstream of β1 integrins. This represents a novel mechanism by which integrins cooperate with growth factor receptors to promote localised signalling and directed cell motility. 10.1038/emboj.2011.82
    Constitutive heterochromatin reorganization during somatic cell reprogramming. Fussner Eden,Djuric Ugljesa,Strauss Mike,Hotta Akitsu,Perez-Iratxeta Carolina,Lanner Fredrik,Dilworth F Jeffrey,Ellis James,Bazett-Jones David P The EMBO journal Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell reprogramming is a gradual epigenetic process that reactivates the pluripotent transcriptional network by erasing and establishing repressive epigenetic marks. In contrast to loci-specific epigenetic changes, heterochromatin domains undergo epigenetic resetting during the reprogramming process, but the effect on the heterochromatin ultrastructure is not known. Here, we characterize the physical structure of heterochromatin domains in full and partial mouse iPS cells by correlative electron spectroscopic imaging. In somatic and partial iPS cells, constitutive heterochromatin marked by H3K9me3 is highly compartmentalized into chromocentre structures of densely packed chromatin fibres. In contrast, chromocentre boundaries are poorly defined in pluripotent embryonic stem and full iPS cells, and are characterized by unusually dispersed 10 nm heterochromatin fibres in high Nanog-expressing cells, including pluripotent cells of the mouse blastocyst before differentiation. This heterochromatin reorganization accompanies retroviral silencing during conversion of partial iPS cells by MEK/GSK3 2i inhibitor treatment. Thus, constitutive heterochromatin is compacted in partial iPS cells but reorganizes into dispersed 10 nm chromatin fibres as the fully reprogrammed iPS cell state is acquired. 10.1038/emboj.2011.96
    Direct Cytosolic Delivery of Proteins through Coengineering of Proteins and Polymeric Delivery Vehicles. Lee Yi-Wei,Luther David C,Goswami Ritabrita,Jeon Taewon,Clark Vincent,Elia James,Gopalakrishnan Sanjana,Rotello Vincent M Journal of the American Chemical Society Nanocarrier-mediated protein delivery is a promising strategy for fundamental research and therapeutic applications. However, the efficacy of the current platforms for delivery into cells is limited by endosomal entrapment of delivered protein cargo with concomitantly inefficient access to the cytosol and other organelles, including the nucleus. We report here a robust, versatile polymeric-protein nanocomposite (PPNC) platform capable of efficient (≥90%) delivery of proteins to the cytosol. We synthesized a library of guanidinium-functionalized poly(oxanorborneneimide) (PONI) homopolymers with varying molecular weights to stabilize and deliver engineered proteins featuring terminal oligoglutamate "E-tags". The polymers were screened for cytosolic delivery efficiency using imaging flow cytometry with cytosolic delivery validated using confocal microscopy and activity of the delivered proteins demonstrated through functional assays. These studies indicate that the PPNC platform provides highly effective and tunable cytosolic delivery over a wide range of formulations, making them robust agents for therapeutic protein delivery. 10.1021/jacs.9b12759
    Protein cage nanoparticles bearing the LyP-1 peptide for enhanced imaging of macrophage-rich vascular lesions. Uchida Masaki,Kosuge Hisanori,Terashima Masahiro,Willits Deborah A,Liepold Lars O,Young Mark J,McConnell Michael V,Douglas Trevor ACS nano Cage-like protein nanoparticles are promising platforms for cell- and tissue-specific targeted delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents. Here, we have successfully modified the 12 nm small heat shock protein from Methanococcus jannaschii (MjHsp) to detect atherosclerotic plaque lesions in a mouse model system. As macrophages are centrally involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, targeted imaging of macrophages is valuable to assess the biologic status of the blood vessel wall. LyP-1, a nine residue peptide, has been shown to target tumor-associated macrophages. Thus, LyP-1 was genetically incorporated onto the exterior surface of MjHsp, while a fluorescent molecule (Cy5.5) was conjugated on the interior cavity. This bioengineered protein cage, LyP-Hsp, exhibited enhanced affinity to macrophage in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo injection of LyP-Hsp allowed visualization of macrophage-rich murine carotid lesions by in situ and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the potential of LyP-1-conjugated protein cages as nanoscale platforms for delivery of imaging agents for the diagnosis of atherosclerosis. 10.1021/nn102863y
    An optimized method for detecting gamma-H2AX in blood cells reveals a significant interindividual variation in the gamma-H2AX response among humans. Ismail Ismail Hassan,Wadhra Tabasum Imran,Hammarsten Ola Nucleic acids research Phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine 139 (gamma-H2AX, gammaH2AX) occurs at sites flanking DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and can provide a measure of the number of DSBs within a cell. Here we describe a rapid and simple flow-cytometry-based method, optimized to measure gamma-H2AX in non-fixed peripheral blood cells. No DSB induced signal was observed in H2AX-/- cells indicating that our FACS method specifically recognized gamma-H2AX accumulation. The gamma-H2AX assay was capable of detecting DNA damage at levels 100-fold below the detection limit of the alkaline comet assay. The gamma-H2AX signal was quantitative with a linear increase of the gamma-H2AX signal over two orders of magnitude. We found that all nucleated blood cell types examined, including the short-lived neutrophils induce gamma-H2AX in response to DSBs. Interindividual difference in the gamma-H2AX signal in response to ionizing radiation and the DSB-inducing drug calicheamicin was almost 2-fold in blood cells from patients, indicating that the amount of gamma-H2AX produced in response to a given dose of radiation varies significantly in the human population. This simple method could be used to monitor response to radiation or DNA-damaging drugs. 10.1093/nar/gkl1169
    Cell-Penetrating Streptavidin: A General Tool for Bifunctional Delivery with Spatiotemporal Control, Mediated by Transport Systems Such as Adaptive Benzopolysulfane Networks. López-Andarias Javier,Saarbach Jacques,Moreau Dimitri,Cheng Yangyang,Derivery Emmanuel,Laurent Quentin,González-Gaitán Marcos,Winssinger Nicolas,Sakai Naomi,Matile Stefan Journal of the American Chemical Society In this report, cell-penetrating streptavidin (CPS) is introduced to exploit the full power of streptavidin-biotin biotechnology in cellular uptake. For this purpose, transporters, here cyclic oligochalcogenides (COCs), are covalently attached to lysines of wild-type streptavidin. This leaves all four biotin binding sites free for at least bifunctional delivery. To maximize the standards of the quantitative evaluation of cytosolic delivery, the recent chloroalkane penetration assay (CAPA) is coupled with automated high content (HC) imaging, a technique that combines the advantages of fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. According to the resulting HC-CAPA, cytosolic delivery of CPS equipped with four benzopolysulfanes was the best among all tested CPSs, also better than the much smaller TAT peptide, the original cell-penetrating peptide from HIV. HaloTag-GFP fusion proteins expressed on mitochondria were successfully targeted using CPS carrying two different biotinylated ligands, HaloTag substrates or anti-GFP nanobodies, interfaced with peptide nucleic acids, flipper force probes, or fluorescent substrates. The delivered substrates could be released from CPS into the cytosol through desthiobiotin-biotin exchange. These results validate CPS as a general tool which enables unrestricted use of streptavidin-biotin biotechnology in cellular uptake. 10.1021/jacs.9b13621
    RIG-I-dependent sensing of poly(dA:dT) through the induction of an RNA polymerase III-transcribed RNA intermediate. Ablasser Andrea,Bauernfeind Franz,Hartmann Gunther,Latz Eicke,Fitzgerald Katherine A,Hornung Veit Nature immunology RNA is sensed by Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and TLR8 or by the RNA helicases LGP2, Mda5 and RIG-I to trigger antiviral responses. Much less is known about sensors for DNA. Here we identify a novel DNA-sensing pathway involving RNA polymerase III and RIG-I. In this pathway, AT-rich double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) served as a template for RNA polymerase III and was transcribed into double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) containing a 5'-triphosphate moiety. Activation of RIG-I by this dsRNA induced production of type I interferon and activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. This pathway was important in the sensing of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs, which were transcribed by RNA polymerase III and then triggered RIG-I activation. Thus, RNA polymerase III and RIG-I are pivotal in sensing viral DNA. 10.1038/ni.1779