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    The Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Melanoma Progression. Cancers Cutaneous melanoma arises from a malignant transformation of the melanocytes in the skin. It is the deadliest form of skin cancer owing to its potential to metastasize. While recent advances in immuno-oncology have been successful in melanoma treatment, not all the patients respond to the treatment equally, thus individual pre-screening and personalized combination therapies are essential to stratify and monitor patients. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as promising biomarker candidates to tackle these challenges. EVs are ~50-1000-nm-sized, lipid bilayer-enclosed spheres, which are secreted by almost all cell types, including cancer cells. Their cargo, such as nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, amino acids, and metabolites, can be transferred to target cells. Thanks to these properties, EVs can both provide a multiplexed molecular fingerprint of the cell of origin and thus serve as potential biomarkers, or reveal pathways important for cancer progression that can be targeted pharmaceutically. In this review we give a general overview of EVs and focus on their impact on melanoma progression. In particular, we shed light on the role of EVs in shaping the tumor-stroma interactions that facilitate metastasis and summarize the latest findings on molecular profiling of EV-derived miRNAs and proteins that can serve as potential biomarkers for melanoma progression. 10.3390/cancers14133086
    Blood Biomarkers of Uveal Melanoma: Current Perspectives. Bande Rodríguez Manuel F,Fernandez Marta Beatriz,Lago Baameiro Nerea,Santiago-Varela Maria,Silva-Rodríguez Paula,Blanco-Teijeiro María Jose,Pardo Perez Maria,Piñeiro Ces Antonio Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.) The detection of metastases in patients with a diagnosis of uveal melanoma (UM) is a controversial issue. While only 1% of the patients have detectable metastases at the time of diagnosis, up to 30% of them will develop liver metastases within 5 years of treatment. UM spreads hematogenously, therefore, blood biomarkers may be helpful for prognosis and monitoring the disease progression. Despite the great progress achieved thanks to the genetic analysis of UM biopsies, this is an invasive technique and is limited by the heterogeneity of the tumor. The present review considers the current understanding in the field regarding biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of UM and its metastasis, primarily to the liver. General covered topics include non-conventional markers such as proteins previously identified in cutaneous melanoma and UM cell lines, circulating tumor cells, microRNAs (miRNA), and circulating DNA, and how each may be critical in the development of novel blood biomarkers for UM. 10.2147/OPTH.S199064
    Detection of Exosomal miRNAs in the Plasma of Melanoma Patients. Pfeffer Susan R,Grossmann Kenneth F,Cassidy Pamela B,Yang Chuan He,Fan Meiyun,Kopelovich Levy,Leachman Sancy A,Pfeffer Lawrence M Journal of clinical medicine MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 22-25 nucleotide RNAs that control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs have potential as cancer biomarkers. Melanoma is a highly aggressive form of skin cancer accounting for almost 4% of cancers among men and women, and ~80% of skin cancer-related deaths in the US. In the present study we analyzed plasma-derived exosomal miRNAs from clinically affected and unaffected familial melanoma patients (CDKN2A/p16 gene carriers) and compared them with affected (nonfamilial melanoma) and unaffected control subjects in order to identify novel risk biomarkers for melanoma. Intact miRNAs can be isolated from the circulation because of their presence in exosomes. A number of differentially regulated miRNAs identified by NanoString human V2 miRNA array were validated by quantitative PCR. Significantly, miR-17, miR-19a, miR-21, miR-126, and miR-149 were expressed at higher levels in patients with metastatic sporadic melanoma as compared with familial melanoma patients or unaffected control subjects. Surprisingly, no substantial differences in miRNA expression were detected between familial melanoma patients (all inclusive) and unaffected control subjects. The miRNAs differentially expressed in the different patient cohorts, especially in patients with metastatic melanoma, may play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis, and may be used as predictive biomarkers to monitor remission as well as relapse following therapeutic intervention. 10.3390/jcm4121957
    Role of miRNAs in Melanoma Metastasis. Gajos-Michniewicz Anna,Czyz Malgorzata Cancers Tumour metastasis is a multistep process. Melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer and metastasis accounts for the majority of patient deaths. microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that affect the expression of their target genes. When aberrantly expressed they contribute to the development of melanoma. While miRNAs can act locally in the cell where they are synthesized, they can also influence the phenotype of neighboring melanoma cells or execute their function in the direct tumour microenvironment by modulating ECM (extracellular matrix) and the activity of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells. miRNAs are involved in all stages of melanoma metastasis, including intravasation into the lumina of vessels, survival during circulation in cardiovascular or lymphatic systems, extravasation, and formation of the pre-metastatic niche in distant organs. miRNAs contribute to metabolic alterations that provide a selective advantage during melanoma progression. They play an important role in the development of drug resistance, including resistance to targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Distinct profiles of miRNA expression are detected at each step of melanoma development. Since miRNAs can be detected in liquid biopsies, they are considered biomarkers of early disease stages or response to treatment. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the role of miRNAs in melanoma metastasis. 10.3390/cancers11030326
    Future perspectives of uveal melanoma blood based biomarkers. British journal of cancer Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy affecting adults. Despite successful local treatment of the primary tumour, metastatic disease develops in up to 50% of patients. Metastatic UM carries a particularly poor prognosis, with no effective therapeutic option available to date. Genetic studies of UM have demonstrated that cytogenetic features, including gene expression, somatic copy number alterations and specific gene mutations can allow more accurate assessment of metastatic risk. Pre-emptive therapies to avert metastasis are being tested in clinical trials in patients with high-risk UM. However, current prognostic methods require an intraocular tumour biopsy, which is a highly invasive procedure carrying a risk of vision-threatening complications and is limited by sampling variability. Recently, a new diagnostic concept known as "liquid biopsy" has emerged, heralding a substantial potential for minimally invasive genetic characterisation of tumours. Here, we examine the current evidence supporting the potential of blood circulating tumour cells (CTCs), circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), microRNA (miRNA) and exosomes as biomarkers for UM. In particular, we discuss the potential of these biomarkers to aid clinical decision making throughout the management of UM patients. 10.1038/s41416-022-01723-8
    Small extracellular vesicles convey the stress-induced adaptive responses of melanoma cells. Harmati Maria,Gyukity-Sebestyen Edina,Dobra Gabriella,Janovak Laszlo,Dekany Imre,Saydam Okay,Hunyadi-Gulyas Eva,Nagy Istvan,Farkas Attila,Pankotai Tibor,Ujfaludi Zsuzsanna,Horvath Peter,Piccinini Filippo,Kovacs Maria,Biro Tamas,Buzas Krisztina Scientific reports Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), playing a crucial role in the intercellular communication in physiological as well as pathological processes. Here, we aimed to study whether the melanoma-derived sEV-mediated communication could adapt to microenvironmental stresses. We compared B16F1 cell-derived sEVs released under normal and stress conditions, including cytostatic, heat and oxidative stress. The miRNome and proteome showed substantial differences across the sEV groups and bioinformatics analysis of the obtained data by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis also revealed significant functional differences. The in silico predicted functional alterations of sEVs were validated by in vitro assays. For instance, melanoma-derived sEVs elicited by oxidative stress increased Ki-67 expression of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); cytostatic stress-resulted sEVs facilitated melanoma cell migration; all sEV groups supported microtissue generation of MSC-B16F1 co-cultures in a 3D tumour matrix model. Based on this study, we concluded that (i) molecular patterns of tumour-derived sEVs, dictated by the microenvironmental conditions, resulted in specific response patterns in the recipient cells; (ii) in silico analyses could be useful tools to predict different stress responses; (iii) alteration of the sEV-mediated communication of tumour cells might be a therapy-induced host response, with a potential influence on treatment efficacy. 10.1038/s41598-019-51778-6
    Comparing exosome-like vesicles with liposomes for the functional cellular delivery of small RNAs. Stremersch Stephan,Vandenbroucke Roosmarijn E,Van Wonterghem Elien,Hendrix An,De Smedt Stefaan C,Raemdonck Koen Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society Exosome-like vesicles (ELVs) play an important role in intercellular communication by acting as natural carriers for biomolecule transfer between cells. This unique feature rationalizes their exploitation as bio-inspired drug delivery systems. However, the therapeutic application of ELVs is hampered by the lack of efficient and reproducible drug loading methods, in particular for therapeutic macromolecules. To overcome this limitation, we present a generic method to attach siRNA to the surface of isolated ELVs by means of a cholesterol anchor. Despite a feasible uptake in both a dendritic and lung epithelial cell line, B16F10- and JAWSII-derived ELVs were unable to functionally deliver the associated small RNAs, neither exogenous cholesterol-conjugated siRNA nor endogenous miRNA derived from the melanoma producer cell. The latter results were confirmed both for purified ELVs and ELVs delivered via a transwell co-culture set-up. In contrast, simple anionic fusogenic liposomes were able to induce a marked siRNA-mediated gene knockdown under equal experimental conditions, both indicating successful cytosolic delivery of surface-bound cholesterol-conjugated siRNA and further underscoring the incapacity of the here evaluated ELVs to guide cytosolic delivery of small RNAs. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a more in-depth understanding of the biomolecular delivery mechanism and specificity is required before ELVs can be envisioned as a generic siRNA carrier. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.04.005
    BRAF inhibition alters the microRNA cargo in the vesicular secretome of malignant melanoma cells. Lunavat Taral R,Cheng Lesley,Einarsdottir Berglind O,Olofsson Bagge Roger,Veppil Muralidharan Somsundar,Sharples Robyn A,Lässer Cecilia,Gho Yong Song,Hill Andrew F,Nilsson Jonas A,Lötvall Jan Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America The BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib can be used to treat patients with metastatic melanomas harboring mutations. Initial antitumoral responses are often seen, but drug-resistant clones with reactivation of the MEK-ERK pathway soon appear. Recently, the secretome of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been ascribed important functions in cancers. To elucidate the possible functions of EVs in -mutant melanoma, we determined the RNA content of the EVs, including apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes, released from such cancer cells after vemurafenib treatment. We found that vemurafenib significantly increased the total RNA and protein content of the released EVs and caused significant changes in the RNA profiles. RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR show that cells and EVs from vemurafenib-treated cell cultures and tumor tissues harvested from cell-derived and patient-derived xenografts harbor unique miRNAs, especially increased expression of miR-211-5p. Mechanistically, the expression of miR-211-5p as a result of BRAF inhibition was induced by increased expression of MITF that regulates the TRPM1 gene resulting in activation of the survival pathway. In addition, transfection of miR-211 in melanoma cells reduced the sensitivity to vemurafenib treatment, whereas miR-211-5p inhibition in a vemurafenib resistant cell line affected the proliferation negatively. Taken together, our results show that vemurafenib treatment induces miR-211-5p up-regulation in melanoma cells both in vitro and in vivo, as well as in subsets of EVs, suggesting that EVs may provide a tool to understand malignant melanoma progression. 10.1073/pnas.1705206114
    The plasma exosomal miR-1180-3p serves as a novel potential diagnostic marker for cutaneous melanoma. Guo Yeye,Zhang Xu,Wang Linconghua,Li Min,Shen Minxue,Zhou Zhe,Zhu Susi,Li Keke,Fang Zhiqin,Yan Bei,Zhao Shuang,Su Juan,Chen Xiang,Peng Cong Cancer cell international BACKGROUND:Exosomes are a promising tool in disease detection because they are noninvasive, cost-effective, sensitive and stable in body fluids. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the main exosomal component and participate in tumor development. However, the exosomal miRNA profile among Asian melanoma patients remains unclear. METHODS:Exosomal miRNAs from the plasma of melanoma patients (n = 20) and healthy individuals (n = 20) were isolated and subjected to small RNA sequencing. Real-time PCR was performed to identify the differential miRNAs and to determine the diagnostic efficiency. Proliferation, scratch and Transwell assays were performed to detect the biological behavior of melanoma cells. RESULTS:Exosomal miRNA profiling revealed decreased miR-1180-3p expression as a potential diagnostic marker of melanoma. The validation group of melanoma patients (n = 28) and controls (n = 28) confirmed the diagnostic efficiency of miR-1180-3p. The level of miR-1180-3p in melanoma cells was lower than that in melanocytes. Accordingly, the level of miR-1180-3p was negatively associated with the proliferation, migration and invasion of melanoma cells. Functional analysis and target gene prediction found that ST3GAL4 was a potential target and highly expressed in melanoma tissues and was negatively regulated by miR-1180-3p. Knockdown of ST3GAL4 hindered the malignant phenotype of melanoma cells. CONCLUSIONS:This study indicates that reduced exosomal miR-1180-3p in melanoma patient plasma is a promising diagnostic marker and provides novel insight into melanoma development. 10.1186/s12935-021-02164-8
    Targeting CDC7 sensitizes resistance melanoma cells to BRAF-specific inhibitor by blocking the CDC7/MCM2-7 pathway. Gad Shaimaa A,Ali Hamdy E A,Gaballa Rofaida,Abdelsalam Rania M,Zerfaoui Mourad,Ali Hamed I,Salama Salwa H,Kenawy Sanaa A,Kandil Emad,Abd Elmageed Zakaria Y Scientific reports Although the utilization of selective BRAF inhibitors is associated with improved overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma, a growing challenge of drug resistance has  emerged. CDC7 has been shown to be overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in various cancers including melanoma. Thus, we aimed to elucidate the biological role of CDC7 in promoting Vemurafenib resistance and the anticipated benefits of dual targeting of BRAF and CDC7 in melanoma cells. We performed exosomes-associated microRNA profiling and functional assays to determine the role of CDC7 in drug resistance using Vemurafenib-sensitive and resistant melanoma cells. Our results demonstrated that Vemurafenib-resistant cells exhibited a persistent expression of CDC7 in addition to prolonged activity of MCM2 compared to drug-sensitive cells. Reconstitution of miR-3613-3p in resistant cells downregulated CDC7 expression and reduced the number of colonies. Treatment of cells with low concentrations of CDC7 inhibitor TAK-931 sensitized resistant cells to Vemurafenib and reduced the number of cell colonies. Taken together, CDC7 overexpression and downregulation of miR-3613-3p were associated with Vemurafenib resistance in BRAF- bearing melanoma cells. Dual targeting of CDC7 and BRAF reduced the development of resistance against Vemurafenib. Further studies are warranted to investigate the clinical effect of targeting CDC7 in metastatic melanoma. 10.1038/s41598-019-50732-w
    miRNAs in melanoma: a defined role in tumor progression and metastasis. Mannavola Francesco,Tucci Marco,Felici Claudia,Stucci Stefania,Silvestris Franco Expert review of clinical immunology The crosstalk of melanoma cells with components of the microenvironment promotes malignant cell proliferation and spread to distant tissues. Although the major pathogenetic events have already been elucidated, the mechanisms that drive the metastatic behavior of tumor cells are still undefined. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that control post-transcriptional gene expression through interconnected kinases upstream of functional genes involved in tumor progression. Here, we review the biological relevance of melanoma-related miRNAs and focus on their potential role in propagating signals that may cause tumor microenvironment rearrangements, as well as disablement of the immune system and melanoma cell proliferation. 10.1586/1744666X.2016.1100965
    Extracellular Vesicles and Epigenetic Modifications Are Hallmarks of Melanoma Progression. Mannavola Francesco,D'Oronzo Stella,Cives Mauro,Stucci Luigia Stefania,Ranieri Girolamo,Silvestris Franco,Tucci Marco International journal of molecular sciences Cutaneous melanoma shows a high metastatic potential based on its ability to overcome the immune system's control. The mechanisms activated for these functions vary extremely and are also represented by the production of a number of extracellular vesicles including exosomes. Other vesicles showing a potential role in the melanoma progression include oncosomes and melanosomes and the majority of them mediate tumor processes including angiogenesis, immune regulation, and modifications of the micro-environment. Moreover, a number of epigenetic modifications have been described in melanoma and abundant production of altered microRNAs (mi-RNAs), non-coding RNAs, histones, and abnormal DNA methylation have been associated with different phases of melanoma progression. In addition, exosomes, miRNAs, and other molecular factors have been used as potential biomarkers reflecting disease evolution while others have been suggested to be potential druggable molecules for therapeutic application. 10.3390/ijms21010052
    miRNAs, Melanoma and Microenvironment: An Intricate Network. Romano Gabriele,Kwong Lawrence N International journal of molecular sciences miRNAs are central players in cancer biology and they play a pivotal role in mediating the network communication between tumor cells and their microenvironment. In melanoma, miRNAs can impair or facilitate a wide array of processes, and here we will focus on: the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), the immune milieu, and metabolism. Multiple miRNAs can affect the EMT process, even at a distance, for example through exosome-mediated mechanisms. miRNAs also strongly act on some components of the immune system, regulating the activity of key elements such as antigen presenting cells, and can facilitate an immune evasive/suppressive phenotype. miRNAs are also involved in the regulation of metabolic processes, specifically in response to hypoxic stimuli where they can mediate the metabolic switch from an oxidative to a glycolytic metabolism. Overall, this review discusses and summarizes recent findings on miRNA regulation in the melanoma tumor microenvironment, analyzing their potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. 10.3390/ijms18112354
    Small RNA deep sequencing discriminates subsets of extracellular vesicles released by melanoma cells--Evidence of unique microRNA cargos. Lunavat Taral R,Cheng Lesley,Kim Dae-Kyum,Bhadury Joydeep,Jang Su Chul,Lässer Cecilia,Sharples Robyn A,López Marcela Dávila,Nilsson Jonas,Gho Yong Song,Hill Andrew F,Lötvall Jan RNA biology Melanoma cells release different types of extracellular vesicles (EVs) into the extracellular milieu that are involved with communication and signaling in the tumor microenvironment. Subsets of EVs include exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies that carry protein and genetic (RNA) cargos. To define the contribution of the RNA cargo of melanoma cell derived EVs we performed small RNA sequencing to identify different small RNAs in the EV subsets. Using validated centrifugation protocols, we separated these EV subsets released by the melanoma cell line MML-1, and performed RNA sequencing with the Ion Torrent platform. Various, but different, non-coding RNAs were detected in the EV subsets, including microRNA, mitochondrial associated tRNA, small nucleolar RNA, small nuclear RNA, Ro associated Y-RNA, vault RNA and Y-RNA. We identified in total 1041 miRNAs in cells and EV subsets. Hierarchical clustering showed enrichment of specific miRNAs in exosomes, including hsa-miR-214-3p, hsa-miR-199a-3p and hsa-miR-155-5p, all being associated with melanoma progression. Comparison of exosomal miRNAs with miRNAs in clinical melanoma samples indicate that multiple miRNAs in exosomes also are expressed specifically in melanoma tissues, but not in benign naevi. This study shows for the first time the presence of distinct small RNAs in subsets of EVs released by melanoma cells, with significant similarities to clinical melanoma tissue, and provides unique insights into the contribution of EV associated extracellular RNA in cancer. 10.1080/15476286.2015.1056975
    Melanoma cell-secreted exosomal miR-155-5p induce proangiogenic switch of cancer-associated fibroblasts via SOCS1/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Zhou Xiaocheng,Yan Tinglin,Huang Chunming,Xu Zhi,Wang Lin,Jiang Erhui,Wang Hui,Chen Yang,Liu Ke,Shao Zhe,Shang Zhengjun Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR BACKGROUND:Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been widely reported to promote tumor angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms of the proangiogenic switch of CAFs remain poorly understood. This study aims to clarify the mechanisms underlying the proangiogenic switch of CAFs. METHODS:NIH/3T3 cells were treated with B16 and B16F10-derived exosomes. Then the CAFs markers and proangiogenic factors were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. CCK-8 assay, transwell migration assay, tube formation assay, and in vivo Matrigel plug assay were conducted to determine the proangiogenic capability of CAFs. Western blot and AG490 were used to investigate the role of Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) signaling pathway in the proangiogenic switch of CAFs. Bioinformatics analysis, luciferase reporter assay, microRNA mimic and inhibitor, and xenograft models were used to investigate the role of mmu-miR-155-5p (miR-155) in the proangiogenic switch of CAFs. RESULTS:In this study, we show that melanoma cell-secreted exosomes can induce reprogramming of fibroblasts into CAFs and that exosomal miR-155 can trigger the proangiogenic switch of CAFs. Mechanistically exosomal miR-155 can be delivered into fibroblasts and promote the expression of proangiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFa), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), by directly targeting suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1). Downregulation of SOCS1 activates JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and elevates the expression levels of VEGFa, FGF2, and MMP9 in fibroblasts. Treatment with exosomes containing overexpressed miR-155 can promote angiogenesis, and the reduction of miR-155 in melanoma cell-secreted exosomes alleviates angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrate that by promoting the expression of proangiogenic factors in recipient fibroblasts via SOCS1/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway, melanoma cell-secreted exosomal miR-155 can induce the proangiogenic switch of CAFs. Although tumor angiogenesis is modulated by various factors, exosomal miR-155 may be a potential target for controlling melanoma angiogenesis and used to set up novel strategies to treat melanoma. 10.1186/s13046-018-0911-3
    Blockage of transferred exosome-shuttled miR-494 inhibits melanoma growth and metastasis. Li Jingjing,Chen Jia,Wang Shaohua,Li Ping,Zheng Changli,Zhou Xiao,Tao Yongguang,Chen Xiang,Sun Lichun,Wang Aijun,Cao Ke,Tang Shijie,Zhou Jianda Journal of cellular physiology There is emerging evidence of bioactive material transport by exosomes in melanoma. However, the functions of exosome content underlying such cancer progression remain largely unknown. We aimed at determining whether exosome secretion contributes to cellular microRNA-494 (miR-494) loss and investigated the roles of miR-494 in melanoma progression. The exosomes from blood serum and cell culture conditioned media were separated by ultracentrifugation. A short hairpin RNA was used to silence rab27a for inhibiting exosome release. To address the functional role of exosomal miR-494, we assessed cell proliferation, migration, invasion capabilities, and cell apoptosis. Finally, subcutaneous xenograft and lung-metastasis models were constructed to determine the effect of exosomal miR-494 in vivo. Based on long noncoding RNA microarray analysis of melanocyte and melanoma-derived exosomes from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we discovered that miR-494 was enriched in melanoma-derived exosomes. And miR-494 was increased in exosomes secreted from melanoma patients' serum and A375 cells. Rab27a depletion reduced exosome secretion and rescued the abundance of cellular miR-494. Functional studies revealed that knockdown of rab27a and subsequent accumulation of miR-494 significantly suppressed the malignant phenotypes of melanoma cells via inducing cell apoptosis. Nude mice experiments confirmed that tumor growth and metastasis were suppressed by increasing miR-494 accumulation after rab27a depletion. In conclusion, blocking transferred exosome-shuttled miR-494 is a potential therapeutic option for melanoma. 10.1002/jcp.28234
    MicroRNAs as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in melanoma. Mirzaei Hamed,Gholamin Sharareh,Shahidsales Soodabeh,Sahebkar Amirhossein,Jaafari Mahmoud Reza,Mirzaei Hamid Reza,Hassanian Seyed Mahdi,Avan Amir European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) Melanoma is a life-threatening malignancy with poor prognosis and a relatively high burden of mortality in advanced stages. The efficacy of current available therapeutic strategies is limited, with a survival rate of less than 10%. Despite rapid advances in biomarker-guided drug development in different tumour types, including melanoma, only a very small number of biomarkers have been identified. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a molecular regulator in the development and progression of melanoma. Aberrant activation of some known miRNAs, e.g. let-7a and b, miR-148, miR-155, miR-182, miR-200c, miR-211, miR-214, miR-221 and 222, has been recognised to be linked with melanoma-associated genes such as NRAS, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, receptor tyrosine kinase c-KIT, AP-2 transcription factor, etc. There is accumulating evidence suggesting the potential impact of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic and therapeutic markers in diseases. In addition, miRNAs have turned out to play important roles in drug-resistance mechanisms; suggesting their modulation as a potential approach to overcome chemoresistance. This review highlights recent preclinical and clinical studies on circulating miRNAs and their potential role as diagnosis, and therapeutic targets in melanoma. 10.1016/j.ejca.2015.10.009
    MicroRNAs and Uveal Melanoma: Understanding the Diverse Role of These Small Molecular Regulators. Aughton Karen,Kalirai Helen,Coupland Sarah E International journal of molecular sciences Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare tumour of the eye, characterised by a high propensity to metastasise in half of all patients, most frequently to the liver. Although there are effective treatment options for the primary tumour, once metastasis has occurred prognosis is poor, with overall survival limited to months. Currently, there are no effective treatments for metastatic UM, despite the tumour having a well-defined signalling pathway to which many therapies have been directed. In an effort to develop novel treatment approaches, understanding the role of other signalling molecules, such as microRNAs, is fundamental. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules involved in posttranscriptional gene regulation, resulting in reduced target gene expression and subsequent protein translation. In UM, several dysregulated miRNAs have been proposed to play a functional role in disease progression, whereas others have been put forward as clinical biomarkers of high-risk disease following isolation from blood, plasma and exosomes. Most recently, analyses of large datasets have identified promising prognostic miRNA signatures and panels. This review navigates the plethora of aberrant miRNAs disclosed so far in UM, and maps these to signalling pathways, which could be targeted in future therapies for the disseminated disease. 10.3390/ijms21165648
    Circulating microRNAs as biomarkers for early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma. Carpi Sara,Polini Beatrice,Fogli Stefano,Podestà Adriano,Ylösmäki Erkko,Cerullo Vincenzo,Romanini Antonella,Nieri Paola Expert review of molecular diagnostics : Cutaneous melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, with a dramatic increase in the incidence rate worldwide over the past decade. Early detection has been shown to improve the outcome of melanoma patients. The identification of noninvasive biomarkers able to identify melanoma at an early stage remains an unmet clinical need. Circulating miRNAs (c-miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, appear as potential ideal candidate biomarkers due to their stability in biological fluids and easy detectability. Moreover, c-miRNAs are reported to be heavily deregulated in cancer patients.: This review examines evidence of the specific c-miRNAs or panels of c-miRNAs reported to be useful in discriminating melanoma from benign cutaneous lesions.: Although the interesting reported by published studies, the non-homogeneity of detection and normalization methods prevents the individuation of single c-miRNA or panel of c-miRNAs that are specific for early detection of cutaneous melanoma. In the future, prospective wide and well-designed clinical trials will be needed to validate the diagnostic potential of some of the c-miRNA candidates in clinical practice. 10.1080/14737159.2020.1696194
    Identification of melanoma-specific exosomal miRNAs as the potential biomarker for canine oral melanoma. Husna Al Asmaul,Rahman Md Mahfuzur,Lai Yu-Chang,Chen Hui-Wen,Hasan Md Nazmul,Nakagawa Takayuki,Miura Naoki Pigment cell & melanoma research Considering the importance of the canine cancer model of human disease, as well as the need for strategies for canine cancer management, the properties of exosomes are an emerging topic in canine oncology. In our study, exosomal RNA was isolated and investigated by next-generation sequencing. We identified several differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) in the exosomes of two melanoma cell lines compared with non-tumor reference exosomes. We explored these potential melanoma-specific exosomal miRNAs further and found that miR-143 and let-7b increased in primary, whereas miR-210, 708, 221, and 222 increased in metastatic site originated melanoma cells. Further analysis showed miR-143 and 221 significantly increased in plasma exosomes of metastatic melanoma patients. Moreover, the sensitivity and specificity are >85% for differentiating the non-metastatic and metastatic patients. Therefore, these miRNAs can be an incredible biomarker candidate to identify metastatic melanoma and facilitate a better prognosis. 10.1111/pcmr.13000
    Melanoma-released exosomes directly activate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway of CD4 T cells through their microRNA cargo. Zhou Ji,Yang Yi,Wang WenWen,Zhang Yuan,Chen ZhengRong,Hao ChuangLi,Zhang JinPing Experimental cell research Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) play an important role in the escape of tumor cells from immune surveillance. However, the details of the mechanism are not fully understood. In this study, the apoptosis of CD4 T cells increased during treatment with B16-derived exosomes in vitro and in vivo, resulting in accelerated growth of melanoma cells in mice. While the release of exosomes was blocked by disrupting the expression of Rab27a, tumor growth was clearly inhibited, and the percentage of T cells in the tumor environment increased. At the same time, Western blot showed that TEX could increase the activation of caspase-3, caspase-7 and caspase-9 but not caspase-8, down-regulating the anti-apoptotic proteins, including BCL-2, MCL-1 and BCL-xL in CD4 T cells, and indicating that the TEX activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway of CD4 T cells. These reductions were probably associated with the release of microRNAs, such as miR-690, from TEX to T cells. Our present study reveals for the first time that melanoma-released exosomes may directly activate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway of CD4 T cells through their microRNA cargo. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2018.08.030
    Exosome-mediated transfer of miR-222 is sufficient to increase tumor malignancy in melanoma. Felicetti Federica,De Feo Alessandra,Coscia Carolina,Puglisi Rossella,Pedini Francesca,Pasquini Luca,Bellenghi Maria,Errico Maria Cristina,Pagani Elena,Carè Alessandra Journal of translational medicine BACKGROUND:Growing evidence is showing that metastatic cell populations are able to transfer their characteristics to less malignant cells. Exosomes (EXOs) are membrane vesicles of endocytic origin able to convey their cargo of mRNAs, microRNAs (miRs), proteins and lipids from donors to proximal as well as distant acceptor cells. Our previous results indicated that miR-221&222 are key factors for melanoma development and dissemination. The aim of this study was to verify whether the tumorigenic properties associated with miR-222 overexpression can be also propagated by miR-222-containing EXOs. METHODS:EXOs were isolated by UltraCentrifugation or Exoquick-TC(®) methods. Preparations of melanoma-derived vesicles were characterized by using the Nanosight™ technology and the expression of exosome markers analyzed by western blot. The expression levels of endogenous and exosomal miRNAs were examined by real time PCR. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate transfer and uptake of microvesicles from donor to recipient cells. The functional significance of exosomal miR-222 was estimated by analyzing the vessel-like process formation, as well as cell cycle rates, invasive and chemotactic capabilities. RESULTS:Besides microvesicle marker characterization, we evidenced that miR-222 exosomal expression mostly reflected its abundance in the cells of origin, correctly paralleled by repression of its target genes, such as p27Kip1, and induction of the PI3K/AKT pathway, thus confirming its functional implication in cancer. The possible differential significance of PI3K/AKT blockade was assessed by using the BKM120 inhibitor in miR-222-transduced cell lines. In addition, in vitro cultures showed that vesicles released by miR-222-overexpressing cells were able to transfer miR-222-dependent malignancy when taken-up by recipient primary melanomas. Results were confirmed by antagomiR-221&222 treatments and by functional observations after internalization of EXOs devoid of these miRs. CONCLUSION:All together these data, besides generally confirming the role of miR-222 in melanoma tumorigenesis, supported its responsibility in the exosome-associated melanoma properties, thus further indicating this miR as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker and its abrogation as a future therapeutic option. 10.1186/s12967-016-0811-2
    Serum exosomal microRNAs as potent circulating biomarkers for melanoma. Tengda Li,Shuping Long,Mingli Gu,Jie Guo,Yun Liu,Weiwei Zhang,Anmei Deng Melanoma research Exosomes are small homogenous membrane vesicles that derive from the exocytosis process of cells and can contain DNA, microRNAs (miRNAs), and/or proteins. Characterization of the content profile of exosomes may reflect the state of the cells that release them, and this could be predictive of disease. In this study, to explore the potential biomarkers for melanoma, we isolated serous exosomes from 30 patients with melanoma and 30 healthy individuals using the ultracentrifugation method. Five miRNAs were subsequently detected in each sample by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR: miRNA-532-5p, miRNA-106b, miRNA-200c, miRNA-199a-5p, and miRNA-210. Only the levels of exo-miRNA-532-5p and exo-miRNA-106b differed between the two groups (Z=-4.17 and -4.57, respectively, P<0.0001). When these two miRNAs were evaluated individually and in combination in 95 melanoma patients and 95 healthy individuals serum samples, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were 0.867, 0.820, and 0.936, respectively. Furthermore, in blinded tests of samples from 25 melanoma patients and 25 healthy individuals, this panel of miRNAs identified 23/25 patients with melanoma (92.0% sensitivity) and 22/25 healthy individuals (88.0% sensitivity). Our exo-miRNA panel also distinguished patients with metastasis from those without metastasis, patients with stage I-II disease from those with stage III-IV disease, and patients who had received pembrolizumab treatment from those who were untreated. Overall, these results indicate that serum exosomal miRNAs, especially exo-miRNA-532-5p and exo-miRNA-106b, have the potential to be used for monitoring and/or a diagnosis of melanoma in a clinical setting. 10.1097/CMR.0000000000000450
    Milk Exosome-Derived MicroRNA-2478 Suppresses Melanogenesis through the Akt-GSK3β Pathway. Bae In-Seon,Kim Sang Hoon Cells Exosomes participate in intercellular communication by transferring molecules from donor to recipient cells. Exosomes are found in various body fluids, including blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and milk. Milk exosomes contain many endogenous microRNA molecules. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs and have important roles in biological processes. The specific biological functions of milk exosomes are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of milk exosomes on melanin production in melanoma cells and melanocytes. We found that milk exosomes decreased melanin contents, tyrosinase activity and the expression of melanogenesis-related genes in melanoma cells and melanocytes. Bovine-specific miR-2478 in exosomes inhibited melanin production. We found that Rap1a is a direct target gene of miR-2478 in melanoma cells and melanocytes. MiR-2478 overexpression decreased Rap1a expression, which led to downregulated melanin production and expression of melanogenesis-related genes. Inhibition of Rap1a expression decreased melanogenesis through the Akt-GSK3β signal pathway. These results support the role of miR-2478 derived from milk exosomes as a regulator of melanogenesis through direct targeting of Rap1a. These results show that milk exosomes could be useful cosmeceutical ingredients to improve whitening. 10.3390/cells10112848
    Exosomal miR-106b-5p derived from melanoma cell promotes primary melanocytes epithelial-mesenchymal transition through targeting EphA4. Luan Wenkang,Ding Yuting,Xi Haolan,Ruan Hongru,Lu Feng,Ma Shaojun,Wang Jinlong Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR BACKGROUND:Cancer-secreted exosomal miRNAs regulates the biological processes of many tumours. The serum level of exosomal miR-106b-5p is significantly increased in melanoma patients. However, the role and molecular mechanisms of exosomal miR-106b-5p in melanoma remains unclear. METHODS:Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of miR-106b-5p and EphA4 in melanoma tissues. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and western blotting were used to identify exosome. QRT-qPCR and Cy3-labelled miR-106b-5p were used to demonstrated the transmission of melanoma cell-secreted exosomal miR-106b-5p. Western blotting, Immunofluorescence, adhesion, transwell and scratch wound assay were used to explore the role of exosomal miR-106b-5p in melanocytes. Luciferase reporter assays and RNA-Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were used to confirm whether erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma receptor A4 (EphA4) was a direct target of miR-106b-5p. RESULTS:We found that miR-106b-5p levels were increased in melanoma tissue, and high miR-106b-5p expression is an independent risk factor for the overall survival of patients with melanoma. miR-106b-5p is enriched in melanoma cell-secreted exosomes and transferred to melanocytes. Exosomal miR-106b-5p promotes the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, invasion and adhesion of melanocytes. Exosomal miR-106b-5p exerted its role by targeting EphA4 to activate the ERK pathway. We demonstrated that exosomal miR-106b-5p promoted melanoma metastasis in vivo through pulmonary metastasis assay. CONCLUSIONS:Thus, melanoma cell-secreted exosomal miR-106b-5p may serve as a diagnostic indicator and potential therapeutic target in melanoma patients. 10.1186/s13046-021-01906-w
    The role of CAF derived exosomal microRNAs in the tumour microenvironment of melanoma. Shelton M,Anene C A,Nsengimana J,Roberts W,Newton-Bishop J,Boyne J R Biochimica et biophysica acta. Reviews on cancer Exosomes play a crucial role in the crosstalk between cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and cancer cells, contributing to carcinogenesis and the tumour microenvironment. Recent studies have revealed that CAFs, normal fibroblasts and cancer cells all secrete exosomes that contain miRNA, establishing a cell-cell communication network within the tumour microenvironment. For example, miRNA dysregulation in melanoma has been shown to promote CAF activation via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which in turn alters the secretory phenotype of CAFs in the stroma. This review assesses the roles of melanoma exosomal miRNAs in CAF formation and how CAF exosome-mediated feedback signalling to melanoma lead to tumour progression and metastasis. Moreover, efforts to exploit exosomal miRNA-mediated network communication between tumour cells and their microenvironment, and their potential as prognostic biomarkers or novel therapeutic targets in melanoma will also be considered. 10.1016/j.bbcan.2020.188456
    P2X7 promotes metastatic spreading and triggers release of miRNA-containing exosomes and microvesicles from melanoma cells. Pegoraro Anna,De Marchi Elena,Ferracin Manuela,Orioli Elisa,Zanoni Michele,Bassi Cristian,Tesei Anna,Capece Marina,Dika Emi,Negrini Massimo,Di Virgilio Francesco,Adinolfi Elena Cell death & disease Tumor growth and metastatic spreading are heavily affected by the P2X7 receptor as well as microvesicles and exosomes release into the tumor microenvironment. P2X7 receptor stimulation is known to trigger vesicular release from immune and central nervous system cells. However, P2X7 role in microvesicles and exosomes delivery from tumor cells was never analyzed in depth. Here we show that P2X7 is overexpressed in patients affected by metastatic malignant melanoma and that its expression closely correlates with reduced overall survival. Antagonism of melanoma cell-expressed P2X7 receptor inhibited in vitro anchorage-independent growth and migration and in vivo dissemination and lung metastasis formation. P2X7 stimulation triggered the release of miRNA-containing microvesicles and exosomes from melanoma cells, profoundly altering the nature of their miRNA content, as well as their dimensions and quantity. Among the more than 200 miRNAs that we found up-or-down-modulated for each vesicular fraction tested, we identified three miRNAs, miR-495-3p, miR-376c-3p, and miR-6730-3p, that were enriched in both the exosome and microvesicle fraction in a P2X7-dependent fashion. Interestingly, upon transfection, these miRNAs promoted melanoma cell growth or migration, and their vesicular release was minimized by P2X7 antagonism. Our data unveil an exosome/microvesicle and miRNA-dependent mechanism for the pro-metastatic activity of the P2X7 receptor and highlight this receptor as a suitable prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in malignant melanoma. 10.1038/s41419-021-04378-0
    MicroRNAs in Tumor Exosomes Drive Immune Escape in Melanoma. Vignard Virginie,Labbé Maureen,Marec Nadège,André-Grégoire Gwennan,Jouand Nicolas,Fonteneau Jean-François,Labarrière Nathalie,Fradin Delphine Cancer immunology research MicroRNAs (miRNA), small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression, exist not only in cells but also in a variety of body fluids. These circulating miRNAs could enable intercellular communication. miRNAs are packaged in membrane-encapsulated vesicles, such as exosomes, or protected by RNA-binding proteins. Here, we report that miRNAs included in human melanoma exosomes regulate the tumor immune response. Using microscopy and flow cytometry, we demonstrate that CD8 T cells internalize exosomes from different tumor types even if these cells do not internalize vesicles as readily as other immune cells. We explored the function of melanoma-derived exosomes in CD8 T cells and showed that these exosomes downregulate T-cell responses through decreased T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling and diminished cytokine and granzyme B secretions. The result reduces the cells' cytotoxic activity. Using mimics, we found that miRNAs enriched in exosomes-such as (hsa)-miR-3187-3p, hsa-miR-498, hsa-miR-122, hsa-miR149, and hsa-miR-181a/b-regulate TCR signaling and TNFα secretion. Our observations suggest that miRNAs in melanoma-derived exosomes aid tumor immune evasion and could be a therapeutic target. 10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-19-0522
    DC-HIL/glycoprotein Nmb promotes growth of melanoma in mice by inhibiting the activation of tumor-reactive T cells. Tomihari Mizuki,Chung Jin-Sung,Akiyoshi Hideo,Cruz Ponciano D,Ariizumi Kiyoshi Cancer research DC-HIL/glycoprotein nmb (Gpnmb) expressed on antigen-presenting cells attenuates T-cell activation by binding to syndecan-4 (SD-4) on activated T cells. Because DC-HIL/Gpnmb is expressed abundantly by mouse and human melanoma lines, we posited that melanoma-associated DC-HIL/Gpnmb exerts similar inhibitory function on melanoma-reactive T cells. We generated small interfering RNA-transfected B16F10 melanoma cells to completely knock down DC-HIL/Gpnmb expression, with no alteration in cell morphology, melanin synthesis, or MHC class I expression. This knockdown had no effect on B16F10 proliferation in vitro or entry into the cell cycle following growth stimulation, but it markedly reduced the growth of these cells in vivo following their s.c. injection into syngeneic immunocompetent (but not immunodeficient) mice. This reduction in tumor growth was due most likely to an augmented capacity of DC-HIL-knocked down B16F10 cells (compared with controls) to activate melanoma-reactive T cells as documented in vitro and in mice. Whereas DC-HIL knockdown had no effect on susceptibility of melanoma to killing by cytotoxic T cells, blocking SD-4 function enhanced the reactivity of CD8(+) T cells to melanoma-associated antigens on parental B16F10 cells. Using an assay examining the spread to the lung following i.v. injection, DC-HIL-knocked down cells produced lung foci at similar numbers compared with that produced by control cells, but the size of the former foci was significantly smaller than the latter. We conclude that DC-HIL/Gpnmb confers upon melanoma the ability to downregulate the activation of melanoma-reactive T cells, thereby allowing melanoma to evade immunologic recognition and destruction. As such, the DC-HIL/SD-4 pathway is a potentially useful target for antimelanoma immunotherapy. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-2538
    Tumor-derived exosomes modulate T cell function through transfer of RNA. House Imran G,Petley Emma V,Beavis Paul A The FEBS journal Tumor cells can develop a variety of mechanisms to evade and subvert the immune system for their survival. Bland et al., in this edition of The FEBS Journal, make the novel finding that the tumor line B16F0 can deliver mRNA/miRNA loaded exosomes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes and alter their metabolic function and interferon gamma production. 10.1111/febs.14413
    Tumor Suppressor Role of hsa-miR-193a-3p and -5p in Cutaneous Melanoma. Polini Beatrice,Carpi Sara,Doccini Stefano,Citi Valentina,Martelli Alma,Feola Sara,Santorelli Filippo Maria,Cerullo Vincenzo,Romanini Antonella,Nieri Paola International journal of molecular sciences BACKGROUND:Remarkable deregulation of several microRNAs (miRNAs) is demonstrated in cutaneous melanoma. hsa-miR-193a-3p is reported to be under-expressed in tissues and in plasma of melanoma patients, but the role of both miR-193a arms in melanoma is not known yet. METHODS:After observing the reduced levels of miR-193a arms in plasma exosomes of melanoma patients, the effects of hsa-miR-193a-3p and -5p transfection in cutaneous melanoma cell lines are investigated. RESULTS:In melanoma cell lines A375, 501Mel, and MeWo, the ectopic over-expression of miR-193a arms significantly reduced cell viability as well as the expression of genes involved in proliferation (ERBB2, KRAS, PIK3R3, and MTOR) and apoptosis (MCL1 and NUSAP1). These functional features were accompanied by a significant downregulation of Akt and Erk pathways and a strong increase in the apoptotic process. Since in silico databases revealed TROY, an orphan member of the tumor necrosis receptor family, as a potential direct target of miR-193a-5p, this possibility was investigated using the luciferase assay and excluded by our results. CONCLUSIONS:Our results underline a relevant role of miR-193a, both -3p and -5p, as tumor suppressors clarifying the intracellular mechanisms involved and suggesting that their ectopic over-expression could represent a novel treatment for cutaneous melanoma patients. 10.3390/ijms21176183
    Liquid Biopsy in Melanoma: Significance in Diagnostics, Prediction and Treatment Monitoring. Kamińska Paula,Buszka Karolina,Zabel Maciej,Nowicki Michał,Alix-Panabières Catherine,Budna-Tukan Joanna International journal of molecular sciences Liquid biopsy is a common term referring to circulating tumor cells and other biomarkers, such as circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) or extracellular vesicles. Liquid biopsy presents a range of clinical advantages, such as the low invasiveness of the blood sample collection and continuous control of the tumor progression. In addition, this approach enables the mechanisms of drug resistance to be determined in various methods of cancer treatment, including immunotherapy. However, in the case of melanoma, the application of liquid biopsy in patient stratification and therapy needs further investigation. This review attempts to collect all of the relevant and recent information about circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) related to the context of malignant melanoma and immunotherapy. Furthermore, the biology of liquid biopsy analytes, including CMCs, ctDNA, mRNA and exosomes, as well as techniques for their detection and isolation, are also described. The available data support the notion that thoughtful selection of biomarkers and technologies for their detection can contribute to the development of precision medicine by increasing the efficacy of cancer diagnostics and treatment. 10.3390/ijms22189714
    MicroRNA-300: A Transcellular Mediator in Exosome Regulates Melanoma Progression. Chen Long,Karisma Vega Windy,Liu Huawen,Zhong Li Frontiers in oncology Melanoma is a common and high-mortality skin cancer. Oxidative stress and DNA damage caused by ultraviolet light (UV) are major causative factors of melanoma formation. However, the specific molecular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, 218 dysregulated genes and 104 dysregulated miRNAs in response to UV were screened by analyzing sequencing datasets. Among them, 29 up-regulated miRNAs and 28 down-regulated miRNAs were involved in the melanoma pathway. As the only differential gene in the melanoma pathway, GADD45B severely affects the prognosis of melanoma patients. MiR-300 is the only differentially expressed miRNA that regulates GADD45B. In addition, compared to normal melanocytes, miR-300 was significantly down-regulated in melanoma cells (log FC = -1.63) and exosomes (log FC = -1.34). Among the transcription factors predicted to regulate miR-300, MYC, PPARG, and ZIC2 were significantly up-regulated in melanoma cells, and TP53, JUN, JUNB, FOS, and FOSB interacted with GADD45B. We attempted to reveal the pathogenesis of melanoma and screen new biomarkers by constructing a TF-mRNA-miRNA axis in turn to provide a view for further research. 10.3389/fonc.2019.01005
    Human mesenchymal stem cell derived exosomes inhibit the survival of human melanoma cells through modulating miR-138-5p/SOX4 pathway. Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers Melanoma, a skin cancer derived from malignant melanocytes, is characterized by high aggressiveness and mortality. However, its exact etiology is unknown. Recently, the roles of exosomes and exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) in the progression and therapy of various disorders, including melanoma, have gained attention. We investigated the impact of miR-138-5p from exosomes released by human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) on the pathogenesis of melanoma. We isolated exosomes from HMSCs (HMSC-exos) by ultracentrifugation and verified them by specific biomarkers and transmission electron microscopy. We used CCK8, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blots to investigate cell proliferation, apoptosis, and mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Additionally, we used luciferase assays to examine the relationship between miR-138-5p and SOX4. Administration of HMSC-exos dramatically repressed the growth of melanoma cells. Elevated miR-138-5p levels in HMSC-exos were linked to increased cell apoptosis, and miR-138-5p downregulation had the opposite effects on cells. SOX4 was targeted by miR-138-5p through direct binding to the SOX4 3'UTR. In melanoma tissues, miR-138-5p was downregulated, and SOX4 was upregulated and was negatively correlated. MiR-138-5p plays a crucial role in melanoma progression. The negative regulation of SOX4 transcription mediates the function of miR-138-5p. These findings provide a novel concept of melanoma pathogenesis and identify a valuable target (miR-138-5p/SOX4 axis) in treating this disease. 10.3233/CBM-210409
    Detection of Inflammation-Related Melanoma Small Extracellular Vesicle (sEV) mRNA Content Using Primary Melanocyte sEVs as a Reference. Bardi Gina T,Al-Rayan Numan,Richie Jamaal L,Yaddanapudi Kavitha,Hood Joshua L International journal of molecular sciences Melanoma-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) participate in tumor pathogenesis. Tumor pathogenesis is highly dependent on inflammatory processes. Given the potential for melanoma sEVs to carry tumor biomarkers, we explored the hypothesis that they may contain inflammation-related mRNA content. Biophysical characterization showed that human primary melanocyte-derived sEVs trended toward being smaller and having less negative (more neutral) zeta potential than human melanoma sEVs (A-375, SKMEL-28, and C-32). Using primary melanocyte sEVs as the control population, RT-qPCR array results demonstrated similarities and differences in gene expression between melanoma sEV types. Upregulation of pro-angiogenic chemokine ligand CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL8 mRNAs in A-375 and SKMEL-28 melanoma sEVs was the most consistent finding. This paralleled increased production of CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL8 proteins by A-375 and SKMEL-28 sEV source cells. Overall, the use of primary melanocyte sEVs as a control sEV reference population facilitated the detection of inflammation-related melanoma sEV mRNA content. 10.3390/ijms20051235
    WNT5A induces release of exosomes containing pro-angiogenic and immunosuppressive factors from malignant melanoma cells. Ekström Elin J,Bergenfelz Caroline,von Bülow Verena,Serifler Filiz,Carlemalm Eric,Jönsson Göran,Andersson Tommy,Leandersson Karin Molecular cancer BACKGROUND:Wnt proteins are important for developmental processes and certain diseases. WNT5A is a non-canonical Wnt protein that previously has been shown to play a role in the progression of malignant melanoma. High expression of WNT5A in melanoma tumors correlates to formation of distant metastasis and poor prognosis. This has partly been described by the findings that WNT5A expression in melanoma cell lines increases migration and invasion. METHODS:Malignant melanoma cell lines were treated with rWNT5A or WNT5A siRNA, and mRNA versus protein levels of soluble mediators were measured using RT-PCR, cytokine bead array and ELISA. The induced signaling pathways were analyzed using inhibitors, Rho-GTPase pull down assays and western blot. Ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy was used to analyze microvesicles. Gene expression microarray data obtained from primary malignant melanomas was used to verify our data. RESULTS:We show that WNT5A signaling induces a Ca2+-dependent release of exosomes containing the immunomodulatory and pro-angiogenic proteins IL-6, VEGF and MMP2 in melanoma cells. The process was independent of the transcriptional machinery and depletion of WNT5A reduced the levels of the exosome-derived proteins. The WNT5A induced exosomal secretion was neither affected by Tetanus toxin nor Brefeldin A, but was blocked by the calcium chelator Bapta, inhibited by a dominant negative version of the small Rho-GTPase Cdc42 and was accompanied by cytoskeletal reorganization. Co-cultures of melanoma/endothelial cells showed that depletion of WNT5A in melanoma cells decreased endothelial cell branching, while stimulation of endothelial cells with isolated rWNT5A-induced melanoma exosomes increased endothelial cell branching in vitro. Finally, gene expression data analysis of primary malignant melanomas revealed a correlation between WNT5A expression and the angiogenesis marker ESAM. CONCLUSIONS:These data indicate that WNT5A has a broader function on tumor progression and metastatic spread than previously known; by inducing exosome-release of immunomodulatory and pro-angiogenic factors that enhance the immunosuppressive and angiogenic capacity of the tumors thus rendering them more aggressive and more prone to metastasize. 10.1186/1476-4598-13-88
    Premature senescence in human melanocytes after exposure to solar UVR: An exosome and UV-miRNA connection. Sha Jingfeng,Arbesman Joshua,Harter Marian L Pigment cell & melanoma research Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can play two roles: induce cellular senescence and convert skin melanocytes into melanoma. To assess whether this conversion might rely on melanocytes having to first acquire a senescent phenotype, we studied the effects of physiological doses of UVR (UVA + UVB) on quiescent melanocytes in vitro. Repeated doses of UVR induced these melanocytes into a senescent-like state. Additionally, these cells secrete exosomes with specific miRNAs that differ in quantity from those of the un-irradiated melanocytes. Many of the exosomal miRNAs that were differentially enriched regulated genes comprising a "senescence core signature" and encoding factors of the senescence-messaging secretome (SASP), while a subset of the differentially reduced miRNAs targeted DNA repair genes that have been experimentally shown to be repressed in senescent melanocytes. Thus, the selection of specific miRNAs by exosomes and their release from melanocytes after exposure to UVR have activities in inducing these cells into premature senescence. 10.1111/pcmr.12888
    Melanoma exosomes deliver a complex biological payload that upregulates PTPN11 to suppress T lymphocyte function. Wu Yueting,Deng Wentao,McGinley Emily Chambers,Klinke David J Pigment cell & melanoma research As exosomes are emerging as a new mode of intercellular communication, we hypothesized that the payload contained within exosomes is shaped by somatic evolution. To test this, we assayed the impact on primary CD8+ T-cell function, a key mechanism for antitumor immunity, of exosomes derived from three melanoma-related cell lines. While morphologically similar, exosomes from each cell line were functionally different, as B16F0 exosomes dose-dependently suppressed T-cell proliferation. In contrast, Cloudman S91 exosomes promoted T-cell proliferation and Melan-A exosomes had a negligible effect on primary CD8+ T cells. Mechanistically, transcript profiling suggested that exosomal mRNA is enriched for full-length mRNAs that target immune-related pathways. Interestingly, B16F0 exosomes were unique in that they contained both protein and mRNA for PTPN11, which inhibited T-cell proliferation. Collectively, the results suggest that upregulation of PTPN11 by B16F0 exosomes to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes would bypass the extracellular control of the immune checkpoints. 10.1111/pcmr.12564
    Exosome-mediated uptake of mast cell tryptase into the nucleus of melanoma cells: a novel axis for regulating tumor cell proliferation and gene expression. Rabelo Melo Fabio,Santosh Martin Sebastin,Sommerhoff Christian P,Pejler Gunnar Cell death & disease It is well established that mast cell accumulation accompanies most malignancies. However, the knowledge of how mast cells functionally impact on tumors is still rudimentary. Here we addressed this issue and show that mast cells have anti-proliferative activity on melanoma cells and that this effect is dependent on tryptase, a tetrameric protease stored in mast cell granules. Mechanistically, tryptase was found to be endocytosed by melanoma cells as cargo of DNA-coated exosomes released from melanoma cells, followed by transport to the nucleus. In the nucleus, tryptase executed clipping of histone 3 and degradation of Lamin B1, accompanied by extensive nuclear remodeling. Moreover, tryptase degraded hnRNP A2/B1, a protein involved in mRNA stabilization and interaction with non-coding RNAs. This was followed by downregulated expression of the oncogene EGR1 and of multiple non-coding RNAs, including oncogenic species. Altogether, these findings establish a new principle for regulation of tumor cell proliferation. 10.1038/s41419-019-1879-4
    Identifying mRNA, microRNA and protein profiles of melanoma exosomes. Xiao Deyi,Ohlendorf Joanna,Chen Yinlu,Taylor Douglas D,Rai Shesh N,Waigel Sabine,Zacharias Wolfgang,Hao Hongying,McMasters Kelly M PloS one BACKGROUND:Exosomes are small membranous vesicles secreted into body fluids by multiple cell types, including tumor cells, and in various disease conditions. Tumor exosomes contain intact and functional mRNAs, small RNAs (including miRNAs), and proteins that can alter the cellular environment to favor tumor growth. Molecular profiling may increase our understanding of the role of exosomes in melanoma progression and may lead to discovery of useful biomarkers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:In the present study, we used mRNA array profiling to identify thousands of exosomal mRNAs associated with melanoma progression and metastasis. Similarly, miRNA array profiling identified specific miRNAs, such as hsa-miR-31, -185, and -34b, involved in melanoma invasion. We also used proteomic analysis and discovered differentially expressed melanoma exosomal proteins, including HAPLN1, GRP78, syntenin-1, annexin A1, and annexin A2. Importantly, normal melanocytes acquired invasion ability through molecules transported in melanoma cell-derived exosomes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Our results indicate that melanoma-derived exosomes have unique gene expression signatures, miRNA and proteomics profiles compared to exosomes from normal melanocytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in-depth screening of the whole transcriptome/miRNome/proteome expression in melanoma exosomes. These results provide a starting point for future more in-depth studies of tumor-derived melanoma exosomes, which will aid our understanding of melanoma biogenesis and new drug-targets that may be translated into clinical applications, or as non-invasive biomarkers for melanoma. 10.1371/journal.pone.0046874
    Exosomes derived from B16F0 melanoma cells alter the transcriptome of cytotoxic T cells that impacts mitochondrial respiration. Bland Cassidy L,Byrne-Hoffman Christina N,Fernandez Audry,Rellick Stephanie L,Deng Wentao,Klinke David J The FEBS journal While recent clinical studies demonstrate the promise of cancer immunotherapy, a barrier for broadening the clinical benefit is identifying how tumors locally suppress cytotoxic immunity. As an emerging mode of intercellular communication, exosomes secreted by malignant cells can deliver a complex payload of coding and noncoding RNA to cells within the tumor microenvironment. Here, we quantified the RNA payload within tumor-derived exosomes and the resulting dynamic transcriptomic response to cytotoxic T cells upon exosome delivery to better understand how tumor-derived exosomes can alter immune cell function. Exosomes derived from B16F0 melanoma cells were enriched for a subset of coding and noncoding RNAs that did not reflect the abundance in the parental cell. Upon exosome delivery, RNAseq revealed the dynamic changes in the transcriptome of CTLL2 cytotoxic T cells. In analyzing transiently coexpressed gene clusters, pathway enrichment suggested that the B16F0 exosomal payload altered mitochondrial respiration, which was confirmed independently, and upregulated genes associated with the Notch signaling pathway. Interestingly, exosomal miRNA appeared to have no systematic effect on downregulating target mRNA levels. DATABASES:Gene expression data are available in the GEO database under the accession SuperSeries number GSE102951. 10.1111/febs.14396