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    Long noncoding RNA inhibits renal fibrogenesis by negatively regulating the TGF-β/Smad3 pathway. Wang Peng,Luo Man-Li,Song Erwei,Zhou Zhanmei,Ma Tongtong,Wang Jun,Jia Nan,Wang Guobao,Nie Sheng,Liu Youhua,Hou FanFan Science translational medicine Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a well-established central mediator of renal fibrosis, a common outcome of almost all progressive chronic kidney diseases. Here, we identified a poorly conserved and kidney-enriched long noncoding RNA in TGF-β1-stimulated human tubular epithelial cells and fibrotic kidneys, which we termed TGF-β/Smad3-interacting long noncoding RNA (). was transcriptionally regulated by Smad3 and specifically inhibited TGF-β-induced Smad3 phosphorylation and downstream profibrotic gene expression. acted by binding with the MH2 domain of Smad3, blocking the interaction of Smad3 with TGF-β receptor I independent of Smad7. Delivery of human into unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice, a well-established model of renal fibrosis, inhibited phosphorylation of Smad3 in the kidney and attenuated renal fibrosis. In a cohort of 58 patients with biopsy-confirmed IgA nephropathy (IgAN), renal expression negatively correlated with the renal fibrosis index ( = -0.56, < 0.001) after adjusting for cofounders. In a longitudinal study, 32 IgAN patients with low expression of renal at initial biopsy had more pronounced increases in their renal fibrosis index and experienced stronger declines in renal function at repeat biopsy at a mean of 48 months of follow-up. These data suggest that reduced renal fibrogenesis through negative regulation of the TGF-β/Smad pathway. 10.1126/scitranslmed.aat2039
    Betanin, isolated from fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill attenuates renal fibrosis in diabetic rats through regulating oxidative stress and TGF-β pathway. Sutariya Brijesh,Saraf Madhusudan Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:The fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill are being used traditionally in different disease condition like diabetes, obesity, asthma, inflammatory disorders, and anemia. Betanin, a compound isolated from fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill has potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Recent study from our lab indicated the protective effect of betanin against high glucose induced rat renal epithelial cell fibrosis and matrix accumulation, major features of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However the molecular mechanism of betanin in DN has not yet been fully elucidated. AIM OF THE STUDY:The aim of the present study was to further investigate the anti-fibrotic mechanisms of betanin against streptozotocin (STZ) induced DN. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Betanin was isolated from fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill (Cactaceae) and structure was elucidated using spectroscopy (UV, IR, 1H-NMR and mass). STZ was injected intraperitoneally with single dose of 50mg/kg for diabetes induction. In order to develop DN the animals were left in diabetes condition without any treatment during the following 4 weeks. Betanin (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day) and lisinopril (5mg/kg/day, reference compound) were orally administered for 8 weeks after the induction of DN. Renal function, blood glucose, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and antioxidant enzyme activities in the kidney tissue were measured. Kidney tissue samples were used for glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and morphometric studies. The expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), type IV collagen, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and E-cadherin in kidney tissue were evaluated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:Betanin was successfully isolated from fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill (Cactaceae) and purified by column chromatography. The results showed that betanin attenuated diabetic kidney injury by significantly inhibiting proteinuria, blood glucose, serum creatinine and BUN levels and restored antioxidant enzyme activities in kidney tissue. Histological studies exhibited that betanin treatment reduced the glomerular surface area, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Furthermore, betanin modulated mRNA and protein expression of TGF-β, type IV collagen, α-SMA and E-cadherin in kidney. CONCLUSIONS:The results conclude that betanin can effectively suppress renal fibrosis in DN, and may slow down the progression to end-stage renal disease by regulating TGF-β signal pathway. 10.1016/j.jep.2016.12.048
    The loss of Krüppel-like factor 15 in Foxd1 stromal cells exacerbates kidney fibrosis. Gu Xiangchen,Mallipattu Sandeep K,Guo Yiqing,Revelo Monica P,Pace Jesse,Miller Timothy,Gao Xiang,Jain Mukesh K,Bialkowska Agnieszka B,Yang Vincent W,He John C,Mei Changlin Kidney international Large epidemiological studies clearly demonstrate that multiple episodes of acute kidney injury contribute to the development and progression of kidney fibrosis. Although our understanding of kidney fibrosis has improved in the past two decades, we have limited therapeutic strategies to halt its progression. Myofibroblast differentiation and proliferation remain critical to the progression of kidney fibrosis. Although canonical Wnt signaling can trigger the activation of myofibroblasts in the kidney, mediators of Wnt inhibition in the resident progenitor cells are unclear. Recent studies demonstrate that the loss of a Krüppel-like factor 15 (KLF15), a kidney-enriched zinc-finger transcription factor, exacerbates kidney fibrosis in murine models. Here, we tested whether Klf15 mRNA and protein expression are reduced in late stages of fibrosis in mice that underwent unilateral ureteric obstruction, a model of progressive renal fibrosis. Knockdown of Klf15 in Foxd1-expressing cells (Foxd1-Cre Klf15fl/fl) increased extracellular matrix deposition and myofibroblast proliferation as compared to wildtype (Foxd1-Cre Klf15+/+) mice after three and seven days of ureteral obstruction. This was validated in mice receiving angiotensin II treatment for six weeks. In both these murine models, the increase in renal fibrosis was found in Foxd1-Cre Klf15 mice and accompanied by the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Furthermore, knockdown of Klf15 in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, increased profibrotic transcripts, and increased proliferation after treatment with a Wnt1 ligand. Conversely, the overexpression of KLF15 inhibited phospho-β-catenin (Ser552) expression in Wnt1-treated cells. Thus, KLF15 has a critical role in attenuating kidney fibrosis by inhibiting the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. 10.1016/j.kint.2017.03.037
    Identification of serum metabolites associating with chronic kidney disease progression and anti-fibrotic effect of 5-methoxytryptophan. Chen Dan-Qian,Cao Gang,Chen Hua,Argyopoulos Christos P,Yu Hui,Su Wei,Chen Lin,Samuels David C,Zhuang Shougang,Bayliss George P,Zhao Shilin,Yu Xiao-Yong,Vaziri Nosratola D,Wang Ming,Liu Dan,Mao Jia-Rong,Ma Shi-Xing,Zhao Jin,Zhang Yuan,Shang You-Quan,Kang Huining,Ye Fei,Cheng Xiao-Hong,Li Xiang-Ri,Zhang Li,Meng Mei-Xia,Guo Yan,Zhao Ying-Yong Nature communications Early detection and accurate monitoring of chronic kidney disease (CKD) could improve care and retard progression to end-stage renal disease. Here, using untargeted metabolomics in 2155 participants including patients with stage 1-5 CKD and healthy controls, we identify five metabolites, including 5-methoxytryptophan (5-MTP), whose levels strongly correlate with clinical markers of kidney disease. 5-MTP levels decrease with progression of CKD, and in mouse kidneys after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Treatment with 5-MTP ameliorates renal interstitial fibrosis, inhibits IκB/NF-κB signaling, and enhances Keap1/Nrf2 signaling in mice with UUO or ischemia/reperfusion injury, as well as in cultured human kidney cells. Overexpression of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1), an enzyme involved in 5-MTP synthesis, reduces renal injury by attenuating renal inflammation and fibrosis, whereas TPH-1 deficiency exacerbates renal injury and fibrosis by activating NF-κB and inhibiting Nrf2 pathways. Together, our results suggest that TPH-1 may serve as a target in the treatment of CKD. 10.1038/s41467-019-09329-0
    Tripterygium Glycosides Tablet Ameliorates Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis via the Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor Kappa B Signaling Pathway in High-Fat Diet Fed and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Ma Ze-Jun,Zhang Xiao-Na,Li Li,Yang Wei,Wang Shan-Shan,Guo Xin,Sun Pei,Chen Li-Ming Journal of diabetes research Tripterygium glycosides tablet (TGT) is a Chinese traditional medicine that has been shown to protect podocytes from injury and reduce the proteinuria. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TGT on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and its potential mechanism in high-fat diet fed and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Rats were randomly divided into normal control rats (NC group), diabetic rats without drug treatment (DM group), and diabetic rats treated with TGT (1, 3, or 6 mg/kg/day, respectively) for 8 weeks. The results showed that 24 h proteinuria and urinary N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) in diabetic rats were decreased by TGT treatment without affecting blood glucose. Masson's trichrome stains showed that apparent renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis was found in DM group, which was ameliorated by TGT treatment. The expression of α-SMA was significantly decreased, accompanied by increased expression of E-cadherin in TGT-treated rats, but not in untreated DM rats. Further studies showed that TGT administration markedly reduced expression of TLR4, NF-κB, IL-1β, and MCP-1 in TGT-treated diabetic rats. These results showed that TGT could ameliorate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the mechanism which may be at least partly associated with the amelioration of EMT through suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. 10.1155/2015/390428
    Recent Advances in Traditional Chinese Medicine for Kidney Disease. Zhong Yifei,Menon Madhav C,Deng Yueyi,Chen Yiping,He John Cijiang American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation Because current treatment options for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited, many patients seek out alternative therapies such as traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is a lack of evidence from large clinical trials to support the use of traditional medicines in patients with CKD. Many active components of traditional medicine formulas are undetermined and their toxicities are unknown. Therefore, there is a need for research to identify active compounds from traditional medicines and understand the mechanisms of action of these compounds, as well as their potential toxicity, and subsequently perform well-designed, randomized, controlled, clinical trials to study the efficacy and safety of their use in patients with CKD. Significant progress has been made in this field within the last several years. Many active compounds have been identified by applying sophisticated techniques such as mass spectrometry, and more mechanistic studies of these compounds have been performed using both in vitro and in vivo models. In addition, several well-designed, large, randomized, clinical trials have recently been published. We summarize these recent advances in the field of traditional medicines as they apply to CKD. In addition, current barriers for further research are also discussed. Due to the ongoing research in this field, we believe that stronger evidence to support the use of traditional medicines for CKD will emerge in the near future. 10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.04.013
    Resveratrol as a therapeutic agent for renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction. Liang Jin,Tian Shoufu,Han Junxia,Xiong Peihua Renal failure AIMS:Renal fibrosis is a common outcome of chronic kidney disease. This study was designed to examine the protective effects of resveratrol (RSV) against renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). We also attempted to elucidate the potential mechanism involved. METHODS:Mice were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated, UUO, and UUO/RSV (20 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)). Histological changes were examined using periodic acid-Schiff and Masson's trichrome staining after 14 days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-OHdG levels were determined using a commercially available kit. ICAM-1, TNF-α, and TGF-β levels were measured using real-time PCR. Fibronectin levels were measured by western blot, and the Smad3 acetylation and Sirt1 were examined by immunoprecipitation and western blot. RESULTS:Our study showed that RSV treatment significantly attenuated renal injury including extracellular matrix deposition and tubulointerstitium damage. Renal cortical mRNA levels of ICAM-1, TNF-α, and TGF-β, protein expression of fibronectin and Smad3 acetylation were significantly upregulated in the UUO group. However, treatment with RSV significantly decreased the expression of these proteins. Furthermore, RSV also decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including MDA and 8-OHdG, and increased the level of SOD, which protects cells against ROS damage. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that RSV treatment inhibits oxidative stress, Smad3 acetylation, and renal interstitial fibrosis. Therefore, RSV may have potential as a therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic kidney disease. 10.3109/0886022X.2013.844644
    Saikosaponin B2 attenuates kidney fibrosis via inhibiting the Hedgehog Pathway. Ren Dadui,Luo Jia,Li Yingxue,Zhang Jing,Yang Jiahong,Liu Junqiu,Zhang Xuemei,Cheng Nengneng,Xin Hong Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Renal interstitial fibrosis is a common pathway through which chronic kidney disease progresses to end-stage renal disease. There are currently no effective drugs available to treat kidney fibrosis, so traditional medicine is likely to be a candidate. The therapeutic potential of saikosaponin B2 (SSB2), a biologically active ingredient of Radix Bupleuri, on renal fibrosis has not been reported. METHODS:A unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model was conducted to induce renal interstitial fibrosis in mice. SSB2's effect was valuated by histological staining and exploring the changes in expression of relative proteins and mRNAs. A conditional medium containing sonic hedgehog variant protein stimulating normal rat kidney interstitial fibroblast cells (NRK-49F) was used in an in vitro model to determine the possible mechanism. The molecular target of SSB2 was verified using several mutation plasmids. RESULTS:SSB2 administration reduced kidney injury and alleviated interstitial fibrosis by decreasing excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix components in UUO mice. It could also reduce the expression of α-SMA, fibronectin and Gli1, a crucial molecule of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway both in vivo and in vitro. In NIH-3T3 cells simulated by conditional medium containing sonic hedgehog variant protein, SSB2 showed the ability to decrease the expression of Gli1 and Ptch1 mRNA. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, SSB2 suppressed the Gli-luciferase reporter activity in NIH-3T3 cells, and the IC was 0.49 μM, but had no effect on the TNF-α/NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways, indicating the inhibition selectivity on the Hh signaling pathway. Furthermore, SSB2 failed to inhibit the Hh pathway activity evoked by ectopic expression of Gli2ΔN and Smo D473H, suggesting that SSB2 might potentially act on smoothened receptors. CONCLUSION:SSB2 could attenuate renal fibrosis and decrease fibroblast activation by inhibiting the Hh signaling pathway. 10.1016/j.phymed.2019.153163
    Protective effect of Huang Gan formula in 5/6 nephrectomized rats by depressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Mo Liqian,Xiao Xiaoyan,Song Shaolian,Miao Hui,Liu Shiting,Guo Dan,Li Xiao,Bu Can,Hou Lianbing,Yang Xixiao Drug design, development and therapy Huang Gan formula (HGF) is a new traditional Chinese herbal medicine created according to the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of HGF on chronic kidney disease and determine the mechanisms of action. The extract of HGF was prepared, and qualitative and quantitative determination of phytochemical was performed with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and high-performance liquid chromatography. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=72) were submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx), and then respectively treated with uremic clearance granule, losartan, HGF low dose, HGF middle dose, and HGF high dose once per day for 12 weeks. The sham group of operated rats (n=22) was treated with normal saline or HGF middle dose as a background control group. Blood and urine biochemical parameters, renal tissue morphology, and mRNA and proteins of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways were investigated. The results showed that the quality of the extraction process could be controlled, and a total of eight major compounds were identified and quantified. HGF could decrease the level of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and urine protein and increase the renal index and creatinine clearance rate in a dose-dependent manner. HGF also remarkably reduced the glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis by blocking the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway through inhibiting the Wnt1, β-catenin, transcription factor 4, and fibronectin 1 expressions, simultaneously measured through mRNA and protein levels in the remnant kidney. These results suggest that extraction of HGF could improve remnant renal function and possibly ameliorate glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis by depressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. 10.2147/DDDT.S81157
    Astragaloside IV inhibits renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis by blocking TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. Wang Li,Chi Yang-Feng,Yuan Ze-Ting,Zhou Wen-Chao,Yin Pei-Hao,Zhang Xue-Mei,Peng Wen,Cai Hui Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.) Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is a major active ingredient from Radix astragali, which has been considered as a renoprotective agent; however, its molecular mechanisms are unclear. Thus, we designed to investigate the renoprotective effects and mechanisms of AS-IV in rat model of renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in vivo and TGF-β1-stimulated rat renal fibroblasts (NRK-49F) in vitro. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham operation, UUO, UUO/AS-IV (3.3, 10, 33 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), and UUO/enalapril (4 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)). Renal function, tubulointerstitial damage index score, extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, and the expressions of TGF-β1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen I, III, Smad2/3, phosphorylated-Smad2/3, and Smad7 were measured. In addition, the expressions of CTGF, α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen I, III, Smad2/3, phosphorylated-Smad2/3, and Smad7 were measured in TGF-β1-stiumlated NRK-49F cell line. AS-IV significantly decreased UUO-induced renal fibrosis and functional impairment, which are associated with inhibition of TGF-β1, CTGF, α-SMA, and collagen matrix expression, and a decrease in serum creatinine and urea nitrogen. The renoprotective effects of AS-IV on fibrosis were associated with up-regulation of Smad7, thereby blocking up-regulations of TGF-β1, CTGF, and α-SMA, and activation of phosphorylated-Smad2/3. These effects were further conformed in NRK-49F cell line stimulated by TGF-β1. Moreover, knockdown of Smad7 gene in NRK-49F cells was able to prevent AS-IV-induced inhibition to Smad2/3 signaling activation, expression of CTGF, α-SMA, and ECM proteins in response to TGF-β1. Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis was attenuated by treatment with AS-IV, which was closely related to induction of Smad7, thereby inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling. 10.1177/1535370214532597
    Bupleurum polysaccharides ameliorated renal injury in diabetic mice associated with suppression of HMGB1-TLR4 signaling. Liu Zhen-Zhen,Weng Hong-Bo,Zhang Li-Jie,Pan Ling-Yu,Sun Wei,Chen Hai-Xia,Chen Mei-Yu,Zeng Tao,Zhang Yun-Yi,Chen Dao-Feng,Li Hong Chinese journal of natural medicines Bupleurum polysaccharides (BPs) is isolated from Bupleurum smithii var. parvifolium, a key traditional Chinese medicine. The study was to investigate the effects of BPs on diabetic kidney injury. After two intraperitoneal injections of streptozotozin (STZ) 100 mg·kg, renal injury in diabetic mice was induced and BPs was orally administrated at dosages of 30 and 60 mg·kg·d. The STZ injected mice developed renal function damage, renal inflammation and fibrosis known as diabetic kidney disease (DKD). BPs significantly reduced serum creatinine level and urinary albumin excretion rate, with the attenuated swelling of kidneys. BPs treatment obviously alleviated the pathological damage of renal tissue. The progression of renal injury in BPs treated mice was inhibited with less expression of type IV collagen (Col IV), fibronectin (FN) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The inhibition of inflammation in kidney was associated with the reduced level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). BPs administration suppressed the over-expression of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) with lowered activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in renal tissue of diabetic mice. Oral administration of BPs effectively prevented the development ofrenal injury in diabetic mice. This study suggested that the protection provided by BPs might affect through the interruption of HMGB1-TLR4 pathway, leading to the inhibition of renal inflammation and fibrotic process. 10.1016/S1875-5364(19)30078-0
    Jian-Pi-Yi-Shen Formula ameliorates chronic kidney disease: involvement of mitochondrial quality control network. Liu Xinhui,Chen Jianping,Liu Xiaoyan,Wang Dongtao,Zheng Ping,Qi Airong,Yi Tiegang,Li Shunmin BMC complementary and alternative medicine BACKGROUND:Jian-Pi-Yi-Shen Formula (JPYSF), a Chinese herbal decoction with the efficacies of 'fortify the spleen and tonify the kidney' and 'activate blood and resolve stasis', is effective for the treatment of chronic kidney disease in clinic. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects and possible mechanisms of JPYSF on retarding chronic kidney disease progression in 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6 Nx) rats. METHODS:Perindopril (4 mg/kg/d) and JPYSF (2.72 g/kg/d) were administrated by gavage to 5/6 Nx rats daily for 6 weeks. The therapeutic effects of JPYSF were evaluated by renal function, pathological injury, and fibrosis. The protein levels associated with mitochondrial quality control network were measured by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. RESULTS:5/6 Nx rats showed obvious decline in renal function as evidenced by increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and urinary protein excretion, and significant injury in kidney structure as evidenced by glomerular hypertrophy, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Administration of JPYSF for 6 weeks could improve renal function and ameliorate kidney structure injury in 5/6 Nx rats. Furthermore, the remnant kidneys of 5/6 Nx rats showed unbalanced mitochondrial quality control network manifested as decreased mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion, and mitophagy, and increased mitochondrial fission. Treatment of JPYSF could restore aforesaid aspects of mitochondrial quality control network. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that JPYSF can notably ameliorate 5/6 Nx-induced chronic kidney disease, which may be related with modulation of mitochondrial quality control network. 10.1186/s12906-018-2395-2
    Sedum sarmentosum Bunge extract exerts renal anti-fibrotic effects in vivo and in vitro. Bai Yongheng,Lu Hong,Zhang Ge,Wu Cunzao,Lin Chengcheng,Liang Yong,Chen Bicheng Life sciences AIMS:Sedum sarmentosum Bunge, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has a wide range of clinical effects, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-cancer properties. In this study, we determined whether S. sarmentosum Bunge Extract (SSBE) has anti-fibrotic effects on renal tissues. MAIN METHODS:We investigated the effects of SSBE on aristolochic acid (AA)-induced injury to renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) in vitro and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis in vivo by evaluating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Furthermore, we examined the expression levels of TGF-β1 and its receptor. KEY FINDINGS:In cultured RTECs (NRK-52E), AA promoted renal EMT and ECM accumulation by up-regulating the expression of mesenchymal markers and ECM components and by down-regulating the expression of epithelial markers. In addition, AA induced an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 and enhanced expression of TGF-β1 and its receptor. SSBE treatment significantly inhibited AA-induced TGF-β1 expression and prevented the induction of EMT and deposition of ECM. In the UUO rats, tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis were obviously increased. SSBE administration protected renal function, as indicated by reduced serum creatinine levels, and alleviated renal interstitial fibrosis. These anti-fibrotic effects were associated with a reduction in TGF-β1 expression and inhibition of EMT and ECM accumulation. SIGNIFICANCE:These findings suggest that SSBE may have therapeutic potential for fibrotic kidney diseases. 10.1016/j.lfs.2014.04.013
    ShenShuai II Recipe Attenuates Apoptosis and Renal Fibrosis in Chronic Kidney Disease by Increasing Renal Blood Flow and Improving Oxygen Consumption. Wang Meng,Yang Jing,Zhou Yuan,Wang Chen Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM . Hypoxia plays a significant role in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal fibrosis. In China, Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used to treat CKD. ShenShuai II Recipe (SSR) is a commonly used prescription which has shown good results against CKD. However, the exact mechanisms of SSR are still unknown. In this study, chronic renal failure (CRF) was induced in rats by the 5/6 renal ablation/infarction (A/I) surgery; we investigated the efficacy and mechanisms of SSR on CKD in the current study. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into the four groups: (1) sham operation group, (2) 5/6 (A/I) model group, (3) 5/6 (A/I) +SSR group, and (4) 5/6 (A/I) +Losartan group (5/6 (A/I) +Los). After 8 weeks of treatment, we evaluated renal blood flow (RBF) and oxygen consumption along with renal function, apoptosis, and renal fibrosis. Our results showed that SSR significantly improved RBF and reduced intrarenal oxygen consumption and apoptosis. Moreover, SSR markedly attenuated interstitial fibrosis, accompanied by decreased levels of serum creatinine (Scr), serum uric acid (UA), increased hemoglobin (HB), and evaluated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs). These results suggest that SSR could mediate renal protection by improving intrarenal hypoxia and, furthermore, participate in the antiapoptotic effects by downregulating apoptosis markers (cleaved caspase-3 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl2) in 5/6 (A/I) model with CRF rats. 10.1155/2018/7602962
    Anti-fibrotic effect of wogonin in renal tubular epithelial cells via Smad3-dependent mechanisms. Meng Xiao-Ming,Ren Gui-Ling,Gao Li,Li Hai-Di,Wu Wei-Feng,Li Xiao-Feng,Xu Tao,Wang Xue-Fu,Ma Tao-Tao,Li Zeng,Huang Cheng,Huang Yan,Zhang Lei,Lv Xiong-Wen,Li Jun European journal of pharmacology Renal fibrosis, a common feature and leading cause for End Stage Renal Disease, still lacks effective therapy. In the current study, we detected and compared the anti-fibrotic effects of wogonin and wogonoside, two major components of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, in TGF-β1-treated tubular epithelial cells of human and murine origins. Results consistently showed that compared with wogonoside, wogonin inhibits TGF-β1-induced upregulated mRNA and protein levels of collagen I and α-SMA with more efficiency, which was further confirmed by the immunofluorescence results that wogonin decreased the percentage of collagen I and α-SMA positive cells in TGF-β1-treated tubular epithelial cells. Mechanistically, wogonin mainly decreased Smad3 phosphorylation, but had marginal effect on non-canonical TGF-β signaling pathways, such as p38 and ERK MAP Kinase. Furthermore, in the cells deficient for TGF-β signaling or downstream Smad3, results demonstrated that even high concentration of wogonin failed to further decrease the level of collagen I and α-SMA, indicating the essential role of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling inhibition in the therapeutic action of wogonin in TGF-β1-stimulated tubular epithelial cells. Collectively, our results indicated that wogonin may be utilized as a potential anti-fibrotic Traditional Chinese Medicine monomer in the treatment of renal fibrosis. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.07.014
    A combination of Chinese herbs, Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Angelica sinensis, enhanced nitric oxide production in obstructed rat kidney. Meng Liqiang,Qu Lei,Tang Jiawei,Cai Shao-Qing,Wang Haiyan,Li Xiaomei Vascular pharmacology BACKGROUND:The persistent renal hemodynamic maladjustment caused by imbalances between vasoactivators predisposes the kidney to tubulointerstitial injury and ultimate interstitial fibrosis. The decoction (A&A) of a combination of roots of two Chinese herbs, Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Angelica sinensis, has shown antifibrotic effects in rats with chronic kidney diseases and improvement of renal blood flow in rats with acute ischemic renal injury. In the present study, we investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of A&A on vasoactivators in the process of renal interstitial fibrosis. METHODS:Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and UAA (UUO plus A&A administration) groups. After oral administration of A&A (14 g/kg/d) for 3, 7 and 10 days, morphological changes were evaluated by HE, Masson and Sirius red staining technique. The levels of Ang-II, ET-1, and the activities of different nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) in renal homogenate were measured by radioimmunoassay. The nitrite concentration as nitric oxide (NO) production was measured using the Griess reagent. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining were performed to determine the expressions of eNOS, nNOS, and iNOS in the kidney. The ability of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated by spectrophotometry. RESULTS:Morphological analysis showed severe interstitial mononuclear cells infiltration, tubular atrophy, renal fibrosis and collagen expression in kidneys of UUO group, which reduced by A&A administration (p<0.05, UAA vs. UUO group). The levels of Ang-II and ET-I were increased in obstructed kidneys, but not significantly changed after A&A administration. NO production did not change in obstructed kidney at day 3 but increased in day 7 and day 10. Administering A&A progressively increased NO production by 2.2, 1.2, and 1.2 fold at days 3, 7 and 10, respectively. The activities of constitutive NOS and iNOS were comparable between UUO group and sham group. In contrast, the activity of constitutive NOS was much higher in UAA than that of UUO rats, which increased 78%, 68% and 78% at days 3, 7 and 10 respectively, although the protein expression of eNOS, nNOS and iNOS in renal tissue had no change in UAA rats. The activities of scavenging ROS in UUO group were not significantly different from the sham group at days 3 and 7, but increased at day 10 (24.1+/-15.0 vs. 10.1+/-0.8 U/min/mg protein, p<0.05). After A&A administration, the activities of scavenging ROS were significantly increased at days 3 and 7 (51.5+/-17.9 vs. 11.7+/-7.4 U/min/mg protein, p<0.05; and 16.1+/-5.6 vs. 7.7+/-1.4 U/min/mg protein, p<0.05) respectively, comparing with the UUO group. CONCLUSION:The anti-fibrosis effects of A&A might be associated with enhancing NO production via eNOS activation and scavenging ROS, and in turn might improve ischemic microvasculature and attenuate interstitial fibrosis. 10.1016/j.vph.2007.06.002
    Cordyceps cicadae extracts ameliorate renal malfunction in a remnant kidney model. Zhu Rong,Chen Yi-ping,Deng Yue-yi,Zheng Rong,Zhong Yi-fei,Wang Lin,Du Lan-ping Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health problem with an urgent need for new pharmacological agents. Cordyceps cicadae is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has potential renoprotective benefits. The current study aimed to determine any scientific evidence to support its clinical use. METHODS:We analyzed the potential of two kinds of C. cicadae extract, total extract (TE) and acetic ether extract (AE), in treating kidney disease simulated by a subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) model. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into seven groups: sham-operated group, vehicle-treated SNx, Cozaar, 2 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 1 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 92 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx, and 46 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx. Renal injury was monitored using urine and serum analyses, and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stainings were used to analyze the level of fibrosis. The expression of type IV collagen (Col IV), fibronectin (FN), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:Renal injury, reflected in urine and serum analyses, and pathological changes induced by SNx were attenuated by TE and AE intervention. The depositions of Col IV and FN were also decreased by the treatments and were accompanied by reduced expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF. In some respects, 2 g/(kg∙d) of TE produced better effects than Cozaar. CONCLUSIONS:For the first time, we have shown that C. cicadae may inhibit renal fibrosis in vivo through the TGF-β1/CTGF pathway. Therefore, we conclude that the use of C. cicadae could provide a rational strategy for combating renal fibrosis. 10.1631/jzus.B1100034
    Eucommia bark (Du-Zhong) improves diabetic nephropathy without altering blood glucose in type 1-like diabetic rats. Niu Ho-Shan,Liu I-Min,Niu Chiang-Shan,Ku Po-Ming,Hsu Chao-Tien,Cheng Juei-Tang Drug design, development and therapy BACKGROUND:Eucommia bark, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver barks (Du-Zhong in Mandarin), is an herb used for renal dysfunction in Chinese traditional medicine. In an attempt to develop this herb as a treatment for diabetic nephropathy (DN), we investigated the effects of Du-Zhong on renal dysfunction in type 1-like diabetic rats. METHODS:Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to induce type 1-like diabetes in rats (STZ-diabetic rats). In addition to hyperglycemia, STZ-diabetic rats showed significant nephropathy, including higher plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and renal fibrosis. Western blot analysis of renal cortical tissue was applied to characterize the changes in potential signals related to nephropathy. RESULTS:Oral administration of Du-Zhong (1 g/kg/day) to STZ-diabetic rats for 20 days not only decreased the plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine but also improved renal fibrosis, whereas the plasma glucose level was not changed. The higher expressions of protein levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and connective tissue growth factor in diabetic rats were markedly attenuated by Du-Zhong. The increased phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in STZ-diabetic rats was also reduced by Du-Zhong. However, Du-Zhong cannot reverse the hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 in the diabetic kidney. CONCLUSION:Oral administration of Du-Zhong improves STZ-induced DN in rats by inhibiting TGF-β/Smad signaling and suppressing TGF-β/connective tissue growth factor expression. Therefore, active principle from Du-Zhong is suitable to develop as new agent for DN in the future. 10.2147/DDDT.S98558
    Total Flavonoids from Leaves of Carya Cathayensis Ameliorate Renal Fibrosis via the miR-21/Smad7 Signaling Pathway. Wu Xiaoli,Ding Xiaoqiang,Ding Zhishan,Jia Ping Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology BACKGROUND/AIMS:Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the most common pathway of progressive kidney injury, leading to end-stage renal disease. At present, no effective prophylactic treatment method is available. This study investigated the anti-fibrotic effects of total flavonoids (TFs) extracted from leaves of Carya Cathayensis in vivo and in vitro, and explored the underlying mechanisms. METHODS:Anti-fibrotic effects of TFs were measured using a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated mouse tubular epithelial cells (mTECs). mRNA expression and protein levels of Collagen I, Collagen III, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were also tested by real-time reverse transcription PCR and western blot analysis. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, expression of miR-21 was examined in mTECs treated with TFs using miR-21 mimics transfected into mTECs before TGF-β1 and TFs treatment. Regulation of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad) signaling by miR-21 was subsequently validated via overexpression and deletion of miR-21 followed by a luciferase assay. RESULTS:TFs treatment attenuated renal fibrosis, and inhibited expression of collagens and α-SMA in the kidneys of mice subjected to UUO. In vitro, the TFs significantly decreased expression of fibrotic markers in TGF-β1-treated mTECs. Moreover, TFs reduced miR-21 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner in mTECs, increased expression of Smad7, and decreased phosphorylation of Smad3. Treatment with miR-21 mimics abolished the anti-fibrotic effects of the TFs on the TGF-β1-treated mTECs. In addition, genetic deletion of miR-21 upregulated expression of Smad7 and suppressed phosphorylation of Smad3, attenuating renal fibrosis in mice. Bioinformatics predictions revealed the potential binding site of miR-21 in the 3'-untranslated region of Smad7, and this was further confirmed by the luciferase assay. CONCLUSION:TFs ameliorate renal fibrosis via a miR-21/Smad7 signaling pathway, indicating a potential therapy for the prevention of renal fibrosis. 10.1159/000493458
    Danggui Buxue Tang Attenuates Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis via Suppressing NLRP3 Inflammasome in a Rat Model of Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction. Wang Linna,Ma Jiwei,Guo Cunxia,Chen Changyong,Yin Zhong,Zhang Xueguang,Chen Xiangmei BioMed research international Inflammation significantly contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to characterize Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) renoprotection and relationship with NOD-like receptors family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome expression in rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to UUO and randomly assigned to untreated UUO, enalapril-treated (10 mg/kg/day), and DBT-treated (9 g/kg/day) groups. Sham-operated rats served as controls, with 8 rats in each group. All rats were sacrificed for blood and renal specimen collection at 14 days after UUO. Untreated UUO rats exhibited azotemia, intense tubulointerstitial collagen deposition, upregulations of tubulointerstitial injury index, augmentation levels of collagen I (Col I), -smooth muscle actin (-SMA), NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), pro-caspase-1, caspase-1, IL-1, and pro-IL-1. DBT treatment significantly attenuated interstitial collagen deposition and tubulointerstitial injury, lowering Col I and -SMA levels. Synchronous expressions of NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1, caspase-1, pro-IL-1, and IL-1 decreased in renal tissue. In comparison to enalapril, DBT significantly reduced tubulointerstitial injury, interstitial collagen deposition, and expressions of Col I and IL-1. Thus, DBT offers renoprotection in UUO rats, which was associated with suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome expression and following reduction of the secretion of cytokine IL-1. The mechanisms of multitargets of traditional Chinese medicine can be better used for antifibrotic treatment. 10.1155/2016/9368483
    Therapeutic Effects of Tangshen Formula on Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats. Zhao TingTing,Sun SiFan,Zhang HaoJun,Huang XiaoRu,Yan MeiHua,Dong Xi,Wen YuMin,Wang Hua,Lan Hui Yao,Li Ping PloS one OBJECTIVE:Inflammation and fibrosis are essential promoters in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetes. The present study examined the anti-inflammation and anti-fibrosis effect of Tangshen Formula (TSF), a traditional Chinese medicine, on DN. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Protective role of TSF in DN was examined in a rat model of type 2 DN that was established by high-fat diet-fed and low-dose-streptozotocin injection. TSF was suspended in 0.5% CMC-Na solution and delivered by oral gavage at a dosage of 1.67g/Kg body weight/day. The therapeutic effects and mechanisms of TSF on diabetic kidney injury were examined. RESULTS:We found that TSF treatment for 20 weeks attenuated DN by significantly inhibiting urinary excretion of albumin and renal histological injuries. These beneficial effects were associated with an inactivation of NF-κB signaling, thereby blocking the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα), chemokine (MCP-1), and macrophage infiltration in the TSF-treated rats with type 2 DN. In addition, TSF treatment also inactivated TGF-β/Smad3 signaling and therefore suppressed renal fibrosis including expressions of fibronectin, collagen I, and collagen IV. Further studies revealed that the inhibitory effect of TSF on TGF-β/Smad3 and NF-κB signaling in DN was associated with inhibition of Smurf2-dependent ubiquitin degradation of Smad7. CONCLUSIONS:The present study reveals that TSF has therapeutic potential for type 2 DN in rats. Blockade of NF-κB-driven renal inflammation and TGF-β/Smad3-mediated renal fibrosis by preventing the Smurf2-mediated Smad7 degradation pathway may be mechanisms through which TSF inhibits type 2 DN. 10.1371/journal.pone.0147693
    Total flavonoids from Smilax glabra Roxb blocks epithelial-mesenchymal transition and inhibits renal interstitial fibrosis by targeting miR-21/PTEN signaling. Luo Qihan,Cai Zhaowei,Tu Jue,Ling Yun,Wang Dejun,Cai Yueqin Journal of cellular biochemistry BACKGROUND:Smilax glabra Roxb, a traditional Chinese herb, has been widely used in folk medicine. The current study was performed to investigate the protective effect of S. glabra Roxb extract, pure total flavonoids from Smilax glabra Roxb (PTFS), on renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) and its underlying mechanism. METHODS:First, a surgical model of unilateral ureteral obstruction was established in rats to induce RIF. Then, rats were grouped and treated with PTFS at different concentration. Second, HK-2 cells underwent an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by the addition of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Additionally, HK-2 cells after inducing for EMT were transfected with microRNA-21 (miR-21) mimic or inhibitor. These HK-2 cells were grouped and treated with PTFS at different concentration. Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were performed to detect the expression of possible signaling factor involved in RIF in renal tissues or HK-2 cells after PTFS treatment. RESULTS:In vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that PTFS treatment could decrease the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA; mesenchymal marker) and increase the expression of E-cadherin (epithelial marker) in both messenger RNA and protein level. Moreover, PTFS also attenuated the expression of TGF-β1/Smad signaling in both renal tissues and HK-2 cells that underwent EMT. Overexpression or inhibition of miR-21 in HK-2 cells activated or blocked the PI3K/Akt signaling via targeting phosphatase and tension homolog (PTEN), and then promoted or suppressed the progress of TGF-β1-induced EMT by regulating the expression of α-SMA and E-cadherin. Furthermore, PTFS treatment inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT progress by blocking miR-21/PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling. CONCLUSION:PTFS has strong anti-EMT and antifibrosis effects both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism underlying these effects may be related to inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad, and their downstream miR-21/PTEN signaling, leading to blocks of EMT process during RIF. 10.1002/jcb.27668
    KLF 15 Works as an Early Anti-Fibrotic Transcriptional Regulator in Ang II-Induced Renal Fibrosis via Down-Regulation of CTGF Expression. Gu Xiangchen,Xu Dechao,Fu Lili,Wang Yi,Mei Changlin,Gao Xiang Kidney & blood pressure research BACKGROUND/AIMS:Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been regarded as an important profibrogenic cytokine in renal fibrosis. Krüppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) has been identified as an important negative transcription factor in renal fibrosis. However, little is known about the role of KLF15 in Ang II-induced renal fibrosis. METHODS:In this study, we randomized mice into a control group, Ang II group or Ang II plus losartan group. KLF15 expression was examined with real-time PCR and immunofluorescence in these groups. In vitro, KLF15 expression was examined by Western blot in rat renal fibroblasts (NRK-49F) stimulated with Ang II, and the effect of altered KLF15 expression on the regulation of the profibrotic factor connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was further explored with co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. RESULTS:Compared with the control group, the murine model of Ang II-induced renal fibrosis demonstrated a significant decrease in renal KLF15 expression at 4 weeks and presented with progressive renal fibrosis at 6 weeks. Meanwhile, losartan, an angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, effectively prevented the down-regulation of KLF15 expression induced by Ang II infusion. In vitro, NRK-49F cells stimulated with Ang II exhibited a significant decrease in KLF15 expression, accompanied by a marked increase in the expression of profibrotic factors and in the production of extracellular matrix. The up-regulation of CTGF expression induced by Ang II stimulation was inhibited by KLF15 overexpression in NRK-49F cells, and losartan treatment prevented the down-regulation of KLF15 expression and the up-regulation of CTGF expression induced by Ang II stimulation. Furthermore, CoIP and ChIP assays revealed that the transcription regulator KLF15 directly bound to the co-activator P/CAF and repressed its recruitment to the CTGF promoter. CONCLUSIONS:Ang II down-regulates KLF15 expression via the AT1 receptor, and KLF15 is likely to inhibit Ang II-induced CTGF expression by repressing the recruitment of the co-activator P/CAF to the CTGF promoter. 10.1159/000485349
    Safflower extract: a novel renal fibrosis antagonist that functions by suppressing autocrine TGF-beta. Yang Yu-Lin,Chang Shan-Yu,Teng Hsiang-Chun,Liu Yi-Shiuan,Lee Tao-Chen,Chuang Lea-Yea,Guh Jinn-Yuh,Chang Fang-Rong,Liao Tung-Nan,Huang Jau-Shyang,Yeh Jeng-Hsien,Chang Wen-Teng,Hung Min-Yuan,Wang Ching-Jen,Chiang Tai-An,Hung Chien-Ya,Hung Tsung-Jen Journal of cellular biochemistry Progressive renal disease is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the renal interstitium. Hence, developing agents that antagonize fibrogenic signals is a critical issue facing researchers. The present study investigated the blood-circulation-promoting Chinese herb, safflower, on fibrosis status in NRK-49F cells, a normal rat kidney interstitial fibroblast, to evaluate the underlying signal transduction mechanism of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a potent fibrogenic growth factor. Safflower was characterized and extracted using water. Renal fibrosis model was established both in vitro with fibroblast cells treated with beta-hydroxybutyrate and in vivo using rats undergone unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Western blotting was used to examine protein expression in TGF-beta-related signal proteins such as type I and type II TGF-beta receptor, Smads2/3, pSmad2/3, Smads4, and Smads7. ELISA was used to analyze bioactive TGF-beta1 and fibronectin levels in the culture media. Safflower extract (SE) significantly inhibited beta-HB-induced fibrosis in NRK cells concomitantly with dose-dependent inhibition of the type I TGF-beta1 receptor and its down-stream signals (i.e., Smad). Moreover, SE dose-dependently enhanced inhibitory Smad7. Thus, SE can suppress renal cellular fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-beta autocrine loop. Moreover, remarkably lower levels of tissue collagen were noted in the nephron and serum TGF-beta1 of UUO rats receiving oral SE (0.15 g/3 ml/0.25 kg/day) compared with the untreated controls. Hence, SE is a potential inhibitor of renal fibrosis. We suggest that safflower is a novel renal fibrosis antagonist that functions by down-regulating TGF-beta signals. 10.1002/jcb.21676
    Danggui Shaoyao San Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis via Regulation of Hypoxia and Autophagy. Zhang Meng-Yun,Chen Hui-Hua,Tian Jing,Chen Hui-Juan,Zhu Ling-Ling,Zhao Pei,Zhang Ting Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Danggui Shaoyao San (DSS), a traditional Chinese medicinal prescription, was widely used to reinforce earth to activate collaterals in ancient times. Recently, many clinical studies found that DSS had a renoprotection. In this study, we evaluated the effect of DSS on unilateral ureteral obstruction- (UUO-) induced renal fibrosis in rats and investigated the mechanisms underlying the effect. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomized to UUO or Sham operation. After 1 day, the rats that underwent UUO were randomized to treatment for four experimental groups (n=10 each group): Sham, UUO only, UUO+ benazepril (Bena), and UUO+DSS. After 4 weeks, we demonstrated that DSS significantly suppressed UUO-induced renal hypertrophy by gravimetric. In addition, DSS obviously prevented UUO-induced disorder in renal structure and renal function by HE and biochemistry test. We also found that DSS abrogated UUO-induced renal fibrosis by Masson's staining and collagen volume fraction (CVF) analysis; this is consistent with the western blot analysis that showed DSS abrogated the UUO-induced enhanced TGF-1 and weakened BMP-7. Compared with the UUO only group, rats treated with DSS exhibited significant increase in vascular density, followed by decrease in hypoxia and HIF-1 protein level through western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Furthermore, we also determined proteins of autophagy and DSS enhanced autophagy to prevent the damage-induced by UUO. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that DSS had a renoprotection effect in ameliorating renal fibrosis possibly via attenuating tissue hypoxia and regulating autophagy. 10.1155/2019/2985270
    Shenqiwan Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis in Rats by Inhibiting TGF-1/Smads Signaling Pathway. Chen Hongshu,Xu Yiqing,Yang Yuanxiao,Zhou Xiaojie,Dai Shijie,Li Changyu Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) refers to the transition of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells. Emerging evidence suggests that EMT is a key point in renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). Traditional Chinese Medicine Shenqiwan (SQW) is widely used in clinical treatment of chronic kidney disease, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of SQW on renal fibrosis and its association with TGF-1/Smads signaling pathway. A rat model of adenine (150 mg/kg) was established and intragastrically treated with various concentrations of SQW at dose of 1.5 g/kg, 3 g/kg, and 6 g/kg. Control group and model group were given the same volume of saline. Meanwhile, the positive control group was treated with Enalapril (4 mg/kg). Animals were sacrificed on 21st day after administration. The results showed that SQW could significantly relieve renal pathological damage caused by adenine, increase gene and protein expression of E-cadherin, and decrease the expression of Vimentin in kidney samples. In addition, SQW efficiently inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of p-Smad2/3 by upregulating Smad7. These results suggest that SQW could slow down the progression of renal fibrosis, possibly by inhibiting TGF-1/Smads signaling pathway. 10.1155/2017/7187038
    Qingxuan Jiangya Decoction Mitigates Renal Interstitial Fibrosis in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats by Regulating Transforming Growth Factor-1/Smad Signaling Pathway. Liu Wangyu,Lin Shan,Cai Qiaoyan,Zhang Ling,Shen Aling,Chen Youqin,Chu Jianfeng,Peng Jun Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Qingxuan Jiangya Decoction (QXJYD) is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in the clinical treatment of hypertension. Earlier studies had shown that QXJYD could inhibit the elevation of blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and prevent remodeling of arterial vessels. This study examines the therapeutic efficacy of QXJYD against elevated blood pressure using the SHR model, as well as the mechanisms behind its antihypertensive activity and protection against renal fibrosis. The results showed that QXJYD significantly attenuated the increase in blood pressure in SHRs and mitigated the development of renal interstitial fibrosis. In addition, QXJYD also robustly decreased the excess accumulation of extracellular matrix and attenuated the elevated expression of MMPs. The antihypertensive effects and renal protection of QXJYD were determined to be strongly associated with inhibition of TGF-1/Smad signaling pathway. 10.1155/2017/1576328
    Ethanol extract of gardenia fruit alleviates renal interstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats. Li Xiaobo,Ma Min,Zhang Xianggui,Deng Liang,Wang Yarong,Bian Zhuang,Cai Shining,Peng Bangya,Yang Jiangquan,Chen Yang Experimental and therapeutic medicine Gardenia fruit has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. A previous study by the present authors indicated that the ethanol extract of gardenia fruits (EEG) primarily contains eight constituents. In the present study, the potential effects of EEG on unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal interstitial fibrosis were observed in rats. A total of 30 rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each): Sham group, UUO group, and EEG group, which were administered with EEG (200 mg/kg/day) or the same volume of distilled water as a vehicle. UUO were established by ligating left ureter at two points and cut between the ligatures. All rats were sacrificed at 14 days after UUO operation. the present results demonstrated that EEG significantly elevated the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and E-cadherin induced by UUO (both P<0.05), and reduced levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor and α-smooth muscle actin (all P<0.05). The present findings suggest that EEG is a potential novel renoprotective compound for renal fibrosis through inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. 10.3892/etm.2017.4662
    Ultra performance liquid chromatography-based metabonomic study of therapeutic effect of the surface layer of Poria cocos on adenine-induced chronic kidney disease provides new insight into anti-fibrosis mechanism. Zhao Ying-Yong,Feng Ya-Long,Bai Xu,Tan Xiao-Jie,Lin Rui-Chao,Mei Qibing PloS one The surface layer of Poria cocos (Fu-Ling-Pi, FLP) is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and its diuretic effect was confirmed in rat. Ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight high-sensitivity mass spectrometry and a novel mass spectrometry(Elevated Energy) data collection technique was employed to investigate metabonomic characteristics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) induced from adenine excess and the protective effects of FLP. Multiple metabolites are detected in the CKD and are correlated with progressive renal injury. Among these biomarkers, lysoPC(18∶0), tetracosahexaenoic acid, lysoPC(18∶2), creatinine, lysoPC (16∶0) and lysoPE(22∶0/0∶0) in the FLP-treated group were completely reversed to levels in the control group which lacked CKD. Combined with biochemistry and histopathology results, the changes in serum metabolites indicate that the perturbations of phospholipids metabolism, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism are related to adenine-induced CKD and to the interventions of FLP on all the three metabolic pathways. FLP may regulate the metabolism of these biomarkers, especially their efficient utilization within the context of CKD. Furthermore, these biomarkers might serve as characteristics to explain the mechanisms of FLP. 10.1371/journal.pone.0059617
    Huangkui capsule alleviates renal tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition in diabetic nephropathy via inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation and TLR4/NF-κB signaling. Han Wenbei,Ma Qian,Liu Yinglu,Wu Wei,Tu Yue,Huang Lu,Long Yan,Wang Wenwen,Yee Hongyun,Wan Ziyue,Tang Renmao,Tang Haitao,Wan Yigang Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Huangkui capsule (HKC), an anti-inflammatory Chinese modern patent medicine, has been now widely applied to the clinical therapy of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the overall therapeutic mechanisms in vivo are still unclear. Renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the major pathogenesis of renal interstitial fibrosis in DN. Recently, the physiological roles of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling are closely linked to EMT. But, it remains elusive whether HKC regulates renal tubular EMT in vivo through targeting NLRP3 inflammasome activation and TLR4/NF-κB signaling in the kidneys. PURPOSE:This study thereby aimed to clarify the therapeutic effects of HKC on renal tubular EMT in DN and its underlying mechanisms in vivo, compared to rapamycin (RAP). METHODS:Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the Sham group, the Vehicle group, the HKC group and the RAP group. The early DN rat models were induced by unilateral nephrectomy combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, and administered with HKC suspension or RAP suspension or vehicle after modeling for 4 weeks. Changes in the incipient renal lesions-related parameters in urine and blood were analyzed, respectively. Renal interstitial tissues were isolated for histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting at sacrifice. RESULTS:For the early DN rat models, HKC at the suitable dose of 2 g/kg/day ameliorated the general condition and biochemical parameters partially including kidney weight (KW), urinary albumin (UAlb), serum creatinine (Scr) and serum albumin (Alb), attenuated renal tubular EMT significantly and inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in the kidneys obviously, which was superior to RAP generally. In addition to these, HKC also suppressed TLR4/NF-κB signaling in the kidneys of the DN model rats accurately, which was different from RAP specifically. CONCLUSION:The results of this study further indicated that HKC, different from RAP, can alleviate renal tubular EMT in the DN model rats, likely by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation and TLR4/NF-κB signaling in the kidneys. Our findings thus provide the more accurate information in vivo about a clinical value of HKC, a traditional anti-inflammatory phytomedicine, in the treatment of the early DN patients. 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.12.021
    Triptolide Restores Autophagy to Alleviate Diabetic Renal Fibrosis through the miR-141-3p/PTEN/Akt/mTOR Pathway. Li Xiao-Yu,Wang Shan-Shan,Han Zhe,Han Fei,Chang Yun-Peng,Yang Yang,Xue Mei,Sun Bei,Chen Li-Ming Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids Fibrosis is the major pathological feature of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Autophagy, a process to maintain metabolic homeostasis, is obviously inhibited in DKD. Triptolide (TP) is a traditional Chinese medicine extract known for immune suppression and anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of TP on autophagy and fibrosis in DKD. TP restored autophagy and alleviated fibrosis in DKD rats and high-glucose-incubated human mesangial cells. After we applied 3-methyladenine (an autophagy inhibitor) and autophagy-related gene 5-small interfering RNA (siRNA), we found that the improvement of fibrosis on TP was related to the restoration of autophagy. In addition, miR-141-3p levels were increased under high glucose but reduced after TP treatment. miR-141-3p overexpression aggravated the fibrosis and restrained the autophagy further, while miR-141-3p inhibition imitated the effects of TP. As an action target, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) showed corresponding opposite changes. After PTEN-siRNA transfection, the effects of TP on autophagy and fibrosis were inhibited. PTEN levels were downregulated, with downstream phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) upregulated in high glucose, which were reversed by TP treatment. These findings indicate that TP alleviates fibrosis by restoring autophagy through the miR-141-3p/PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathway and is a novel therapeutic option for DKD. 10.1016/j.omtn.2017.08.011
    Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt ameliorates high glucose-induced renal fibrosis and inflammation via the TGF-β1/SMADS/AMPK/NF-κB pathways. Yao Lan,Li Jie,Li Linlin,Li Xinxia,Zhang Rui,Zhang Yujie,Mao Xinmin BMC complementary and alternative medicine BACKGROUND:Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt is an ethnomedicine widely used in Xinjiang, China. It is consumed as a herbal tea by local Uyghur people to treat high blood pressure and diarrhea. Our previous study confirmed that the ethyl acetate extract of Coreopsis tinctoria (AC) had a protective effect on diabetic nephropathy (DN) in an in vivo experiment. Here we aim to elucidate the protective mechanism of AC and marein, the main ingredient in Coreopsis tinctoria on renal fibrosis and inflammation in vitro under high glucose (HG) conditions. METHODS:A HG-induced barrier dysfunction model in rat mesangial cells (HBZY-1) was established. The cells were exposed to AC and marein and/or HG for 24 h. Then, the renal protective effects of AC and marein via transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smads, AMP-activated kinase protein (AMPK), and nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) signaling were assessed. RESULTS:Both AC and marein suppressed rat mesangial cell hyperplasia and significantly attenuated the expression of HG-disrupted fibrotic and inflammatory proteins in HBZY-1 cells. It was also confirmed that AC and marein remarkably attenuated HG-induced renal inflammation and fibrosis by regulating the AMPK, TGF-β1/Smads, and NF-κB signaling pathways. CONCLUSION:These results indicated that AC and marein may delay the progression of DN, at least in part, by suppressing HG-induced renal inflammation and fibrosis. Marein may be one of the bioactive compounds in AC. 10.1186/s12906-018-2410-7
    Astragaloside IV suppresses transforming growth factor-β1 induced fibrosis of cultured mouse renal fibroblasts via inhibition of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Che Xiajing,Wang Qin,Xie Yuanyuan,Xu Weijia,Shao Xinghua,Mou Shan,Ni Zhaohui Biochemical and biophysical research communications Renal fibrosis, a progressive process characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to organ dysfunction, is a characteristic of chronic kidney diseases. Among fibrogenic factors known to regulate the renal fibrotic process, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a central role. In the present study, we examined the effect of Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a component of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Astragalus membranaceus, on the processes associated with renal fibrosis in cultured mouse renal fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1. RT-PCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence staining and collagen assays showed that AS-IV suppressed TGF-β1 induced fibroblast proliferation, transdifferentiation, and ECM production in a dose-dependent manner. Examination of the underlying mechanisms showed that the effect of AS-IV on the inhibition of fibroblast differentiation and ECM formation were mediated by its modulation of the activity of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that AS-IV alleviates renal interstitial fibrosis via a mechanism involving the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of AS-IV for the treatment of chronic kidney diseases. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.07.116
    Ureic clearance granule, alleviates renal dysfunction and tubulointerstitial fibrosis by promoting extracellular matrix degradation in renal failure rats, compared with enalapril. Huang Yan-Ru,Wei Qing-Xue,Wan Yi-Gang,Sun Wei,Mao Zhi-Min,Chen Hao-Li,Meng Xian-Jie,Shi Xi-Miao,Tu Yue,Zhu Quan Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Chinese herbal compound prescription has a unique therapeutic action on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in China. In clinics, Uremic Clearance Granules (UCG), a compounded Chinese patent medicine, has been frequently used to treat chronic renal failure (CRF) patients for nearly 30 years, however, the deep therapeutic mechanisms involved in vivo remain a challenge. This study aims to demonstrate the effects and mechanisms of UCG on renal dysfunction and tubulointerstitial fibrosis by regulating extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1/Smad signaling activity in vivo, compared with enalapril. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Twenty-six rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, a sham-operated group (Sham group), a vehicle-intervened group (Vehicle group), a UCG-treated group (UCG group) (5g/kg/day) and an enalapril-treated group (Enalapril group) (20mg/kg/day). The rats with renal failure were induced by adenine (150 mg/kg/day) and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), and killed on day 35 after the administration. Proteinuria, urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG), blood biochemical parameters, renal morphological changes, collagen type IV (CIV), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, as well as the key molecular protein expressions in TGF-beta1/Smad signaling pathway were observed, respectively. RESULTS:Adenine administration and UUO induced severe renal damages, as indicated by renal dysfunction, proteinuria and the marked histopathological injuries in the tubules and interstitium, which were associated with MMP-2/TIMP-1 imbalance and TGF-beta1/Smad signaling activity, as shown by up-regulation of the protein expressions of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta receptor type I (RI), TGF-beta receptor type II (RII), Smad2/3, phosphorylated-Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) and Smad4, as well as down-regulation of the protein expression of Smad7 in the kidney. UCG treatment, however, significantly not only attenuated renal dysfunction and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, but also improved the protein expressions of MMP-2, TIMP-1, TGF-beta1, TGF-beta RI, p-Smad2/3, Smad4 and Smad7 in the kidney. Besides, the effects of UCG were stronger than those of enalapril partly. CONCLUSION:UCG similar to enalapril, is renoprotective via ameliorating renal dysfunction and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the renal failure model. The potential mechanisms by which UCG exerts its therapeutical effects in vivo are through promoting ECM degradation and regulating MMP-2/TIMP-1 balance or signaling molecular activity in TGF-beta1/Smad pathway in the kidney. These findings suggest that UCG treatment is undoubtedly useful in preventing the progression of CRF. 10.1016/j.jep.2014.07.048
    Fuzheng Huayu Formula () prevents rat renal interstitial fibrosis induced by HgCl via antioxidative stress and down-regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B activity. Yuan Ji-Li,Tao Yan-Yan,Wang Qing-Lan,Shen Li,Liu Cheng-Hai Chinese journal of integrative medicine OBJECTIVE:To investigate the mechanism of action of Fuzheng Huayu Formula (, FZHY) against renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) relating to oxidative injury and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity. METHODS:Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal group, model group and FZHY treatment group. The RIF model was induced by oral administration of HgCl at a dose of 8 mg/kg body weight once a day for 9 weeks. Meanwhile, rats in FZHY treatment group orally took FZHY at a dose of 4.0 g/kg rat weight for 9 weeks. The content of hydroxyproline (Hyp) and collagen deposition in kidney were observed. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), the content of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) of kidney were tested. The expressions of inhibitor-κappa B (IκB), phospho-IκB (p-IκB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed by Western blot. α-SMA expression was also observed by immunofluorescent staining. MMP-2 activity was measured by gelatin zymography. NF-κB activation was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. RESULTS:Renal interstitial fibrosis was induced by HgCl, demonstrated by remarkably increased Hyp contents and excessive collagen deposition in kidney (P<0.01). FZHY significantly inhibited renal interstitial collagen deposition and reduced Hyp content of the HgCl-treated rats (P<0.01). GSH content decreased obviously, and MDA content increased signifificantly in HgCl-treated rats compared with that of normal rats (P<0.01). FZHY significantly increased GSH content and decreased MDA content in the model rats (P<0.01). The expression α-SMA was increased in model rats compared with that of normal rats, FZHY signifificantly decreased its expression (P<0.01). The expressions of p-IκB and TNF-α and MMP-2, MMP-2 activity, and NF-κB activation were increased in model group compared with that in normal group (P<0.01), FZHY signifificantly decreased NF-κB activation, MMP-2 activity and p-IκB and TNF-α expressions (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS:FZHY could protect kidney from oxidative injury intoxicated by HgCl, and antagonized oxidative stress-stimulated NF-κB activity through inhibition of IκB phosphorylation in the interstitial fibrotic kidney, these effects importantly contributed to FZHY action mechanism against renal interstitial fifibrosis. 10.1007/s11655-016-2540-z
    Natural products for the prevention and treatment of kidney disease. Chen Dan-Qian,Hu He-He,Wang Yan-Ni,Feng Ya-Long,Cao Gang,Zhao Ying-Yong Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the common causes resulting in a high morbidity and mortality. Renal fibrosis is the main pathological features of CKD. Natural products have begun to gain widely popularity worldwide for promoting healthcare and preventing CKD, and have been used as a conventional or complementary therapy for CKD treatment. PURPOSE:The present paper reviewed the therapeutic effects of natural products on CKD and revealed the molecular mechanisms of their anti-fibrosis. METHODS:All the available information on natural products against renal fibrosis was collected via a library and electronic search (using Web of Science, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Splinker, etc.). RESULTS:Accumulated evidence demonstrated that natural products exhibited the beneficial effects for CKD treatment and against renal fibrosis. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanism of CKD and natural products against renal fibrosis, followed by an in-depth discussion of their molecular mechanism of natural products including isolated compounds and crude extracts against renal fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. A number of isolated compounds have been confirmed to retard renal fibrosis. CONCLUSION:The review provides comprehensive insights into pathophysiological mechanisms of CKD and natural products against renal fibrosis. Particular challenges are presented and placed within the context of future applications of natural products against renal fibrosis. 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.09.182
    Shenkang injection, a modern preparation of Chinese patent medicine, diminishes tubulointerstitial fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy via targeting pericyte-myofibroblast transition. Liu Yinglu,Shi Ge,Yee Hongyun,Wang Wenwen,Han Wenbei,Liu Buhui,Wu Wei,Tu Yue,Ma Qian,Huo Dongqin,Wan Ziyue,Cao Dongwei,Wan Yigang American journal of translational research Shenkang injection (SKI), a modern preparation of Chinese patent medicine, has been widely applied to clinical therapy in the chronic renal failure patients. However, it remains elusive whether SKI can ameliorate tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) . Recently, pericyte-myofibroblast transition (PMT) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of TIF in obstructive nephropathy (ON). This report thus aims to demonstrate the therapeutic mechanisms of the dose-effects of SKI on TIF by targeting PMT and its signaling activation, compared with imatinib. All rats were divided into 5 groups, the sham-operated group, the vehicle-intervened group, the high dose of SKI-treated group, the low dose of SKI-treated group and the imatinib-treated group. The ON model rats were induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), and administered with either the different doses of SKI or imatinib before and after modeling and for a period of 4 weeks. The changes before and after drugs intervention in TIF and PMT markers, and in platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) signaling pathways activation in the kidneys were analyzed, respectively. As a result, PMT trigger was persistently accompanied with TIF exasperation in the obstructed kidneys after UUO, and that SKI definitely targeted PMT and significantly diminished TIF . In addition, the high dose of SKI, superior to imatinib, specifically blocked PMT through inhibiting the activation of PDGFR and VEGFR signaling in the kidneys of the UUO model rats. Overall, these findings may further suggest that targeting PMT can provide new strategies for ON treatment.
    Metabolomics study of renal fibrosis and intervention effects of total aglycone extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis in unilateral ureteral obstruction rats. Fang Junwei,Wang Wenyu,Sun Shujun,Wang Yang,Li Qianhua,Lu Xiong,Qiu Mingfeng,Zhang Yongyu Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Scutellariae Radix (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) is a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) which mainly contains flavonoids. Our previous studies have demonstrated that total aglycone extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis (TAES) can improve kidney disease in rats. AIM OF THE STUDY:To investigate the renal fibrosis (RF) pathogenesis and TAES treatment mechanism in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) rats, using a metabolomics approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). METHODS:Rats with RF were divided into 6 groups with rats subjected to sham operation as normal control. The effects of TAES on some RF closely related parameters in UUO rats were investigated. A metabolomics method, based on GC/MS, was developed to monitor metabolic alterations in urine. Multivariate data analysis was utilized to identify biomarkers potentially associated with RF and the anti-RF activity of TAES. Ontology-based enrichment analysis by BiNChE and pathway analysis by MetPA aid in the interpretation of difference metabolites. RESULTS:After 10 days of treatment, the parameters of renal function begin returning to normal, and the abnormal high expressions of genes associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) were relived. In the metabolomics study, metabolic perturbations induced by UUO were reversed after treatment and TAES showed a dose-dependent therapy effect on RF, meanwhile, 18 potential biomarkers associated with RF were identified. Enrichment analysis of metabolites shows an over representation of mostly alkane-alpha, omega-diamine and alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acid, and these biomarkers are primarily involved in Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, Retinol metabolism, Arginine and proline metabolism and Fructose and mannose metabolism. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicate that TAES have positive effects on UUO-induced RF in rats, meanwhile, metabolomics method coupled with metabolites enrichment analysis is a useful tool for revealing the pathogenesis of diseases and action mechanism of TCM on the whole body. 10.1016/j.jep.2016.06.014
    Time Course of the Effects of Buxin Yishen Decoction in Promoting Heart Function and Inhibiting the Progression of Renal Fibrosis in Myocardial Infarction Caused Type 2 Cardiorenal Syndrome Rats. Qiu Qi,Cao Jinglin,Wang Yong,Zhang Yunnan,Wei Yun,Hao Xiaoyan,Mu Yu,Lin Yang Frontiers in pharmacology This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine-Buxin Yishen decoction (BXYS) on type 2 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) caused by myocardial infarction and explore the possible mechanism BXYS works. A chronic heart failure (CHF) rat model induced by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation was used and five groups were created that included a sham group, a CHF model group, a fosinopril group, a BXYS (0.4 g/kg) group and a BXYS (0.8 g/kg) group. Heart function, renal hemodynamics, neuroendocrine factors, serum, and urine concentration of soluble form connective tissue growth factor (sCTGF), expression of CTGF mRNA, CTGF, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) in renal tissues were evaluated after 28 days and 60 days of drug administration. Histological analysis of kidney tissues was also performed. experiments were designed to verify the results of experiments by detecting factors including CTGF, α-SMA, in NRK-52E cells. Rats with CHF showed obvious pathophysiological changes including: altered renal hemodynamic parameters; dysregulated heart function; changes to serum concentrations of angiotensin II (AngII), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), C-reactive protein (CRP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP); high serum and urine sCTGF concentration; high CTGF mRNA, CTGF, α-SMA and LRP expression in renal tissues; increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and fibrosis in renal tissues. Treatment of BXYS was correlated with a restoration of heart function and improvement of renal hemodynamics, lower serum and urine sCTGF, lower CTGF mRNA, CTGF, α-SMA and LRP expression in renal tissues and lower ECM deposition. In addition, experiments showed that treatment with BXYS reduced the α-SMA and LRP concentration in NRK-52E cells, which were similar experiments. In conclusion, the current study provided evidences that BXYS played a role in improving heart function and delaying the progress of renal fibrosis. Meanwhile, the CTGF-LRP pathway might be one of the therapeutic targets for myocardial infarction caused type 2 CRS which showed a positive change after BXYS treatment and is worthy of further exploration. 10.3389/fphar.2019.01267
    NiaoDuQing granules relieve chronic kidney disease symptoms by decreasing renal fibrosis and anemia. Wang Xu,Yu Suyun,Jia Qi,Chen Lichuan,Zhong Jinqiu,Pan Yanhong,Shen Peiliang,Shen Yin,Wang Siliang,Wei Zhonghong,Cao Yuzhu,Lu Yin Oncotarget NiaoDuQing (NDQ) granules, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been clinically used in China for over fourteen years to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD). To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic benefits of NDQ, we designed an approach incorporating chemoinformatics, bioinformatics, network biology methods, and cellular and molecular biology experiments. A total of 182 active compounds were identified in NDQ granules, and 397 putative targets associated with different diseases were derived through ADME modelling and target prediction tools. Protein-protein interaction networks of CKD-related and putative NDQ targets were constructed, and 219 candidate targets were identified based on topological features. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the candidate targets were mostly related to the TGF-β, the p38MAPK, and the erythropoietin (EPO) receptor signaling pathways, which are known contributors to renal fibrosis and/or renal anemia. A rat model of CKD was established to validate the drug-target mechanisms predicted by the systems pharmacology analysis. Experimental results confirmed that NDQ granules exerted therapeutic effects on CKD and its comorbidities, including renal anemia, mainly by modulating the TGF-β and EPO signaling pathways. Thus, the pharmacological actions of NDQ on CKD symptoms correlated well with predictions. 10.18632/oncotarget.18473
    You-gui Pill ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis via inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Wang Li,Cao Ai-Li,Chi Yang-Feng,Ju Zheng-Cai,Yin Pei-Hao,Zhang Xue-Mei,Peng Wen Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:You-gui Pill (YGP), a traditional Chinese medicinal prescription, was widely used to warm and recuperate "kidney-yang" clinically for hundreds of years in China. Recent studies found that YGP had a potential benefit for renoprotection. AIM OF THE STUDY:The present study aimed to elucidate the in vivo and in vitro efficacy of YGP on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and the molecular mechanism is also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Rat renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis model was elicited by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Sprague-Dawley rats underwent UUO and were studied after 14 days. Animals were randomly subjected to six groups: sham, UUO, UUO/YGP (0.14, 0.42, 1.26g/kg/d), and UUO/enalapril (10mg/kg/d). HE, Masson and ELISA were used for evaluate renal injury and function. Immunohistochemical analysis and western blot were used to detect the expressions of α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen matrix and Smads. In vitro studies were investigated in TGF-β1-stiumlated NRK-49F cell line. RESULTS:Oral administration of YGP significantly decreased UUO-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, and there was no significant difference between YGP at 1.26g/kg and enalapril at 10mg/kg treatment (P>0.05). Meanwhile, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were reduced dramatically (P<0.01). In coincide with the decreased of TGF-β1, α-SMA, fibronectin and collagen matrix expressions were also declined with YGP treatment in both UUO kidneys and TGF-β1-stimulated NRK-49F cell line. Additionally, nuclear translocation of p-Smad2/3 was markedly down-regulated by YGP (P<0.001), with a relative mild up-regulated expression of Smad7 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Our findings demonstrate that YGP had a renoprotective effect in ameliorating renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and this activity possibly via suppression of the TGF-β and its downstream regulatory signaling pathway, including Smad2/3. 10.1016/j.jep.2015.04.037
    Establishing a Cell-Based High-Content Screening Assay for TCM Compounds with Anti-Renal Fibrosis Effects. Wang Xi-Ting,Sun Xue-Jiao,Li Cheng,Liu Yi,Zhang Lan,Li Ya-Dong,Wu Qing-Hua,Li Shi-You,Li Yu Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Renal fibrosis is thought to be the final common pathway leading to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal failure. Except for renal replacement therapy, no adequate treatment regimen is available; therefore studies on the treatment of renal fibrosis have attracted significant interest. In recent years, studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may represent an attractive source to produce drugs with antifibrosis effects. The aim of this study was to establish a robust cell-based high-content screening (HCS) approach to identify TCM compounds with antifibrosis effects in NRK49F cells following TGF-1 exposure. When designing the model, one of the most important steps involved the stability and reproducibility of this cell-based model. Therefore, we initially optimized the experimental parameters. Then, our HCS model was validated using SB525334, an inhibitor of the TGF-1 receptor, and curcumin and emodin, two TCM compounds with well-documented anti-renal fibrosis activity. Subsequently, the proven reliable HCS model was used to screen a standard TCM compound library, which included 344 TCM molecules. Based on our HCS algorithm, a total of 16 compounds were identified to have prospective inhibitory activity. These compounds were further validated by verification experiments. Strikingly, eight compounds have been shown to inhibit renal fibrosis; six of them had rarely been described in the literature, namely, Ligustrazine, Glycyrrhizic acid, Astragaloside iv, Hydroxysafflor Yellow A, Crocin, and Gypenosides. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which a HCS assay was performed to identify TCM compounds with anti-renal fibrosis effects. The HCS approach was successfully applied to screen active compounds and will be propitious to further anti-renal fibrosis drugs discovery research. Meanwhile, it may offer possibilities for identifying lead compounds for treating other diseases from registered Chinese herbal medicines. 10.1155/2018/7942614
    Combination of active components of Xiexin decoction ameliorates renal fibrosis through the inhibition of NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad pathways in db/db diabetic mice. Wu Jia-Sheng,Shi Rong,Lu Xiong,Ma Yue-Ming,Cheng Neng-Neng PloS one Xiexin decoction, a herbal therapeutic agent commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine, is recognized for its beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy exerted through the combined action of multiple components, including Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids (A), Radix et Rhizoma Rhei polysaccharides (P), and Radix Scutellaria flavones (F). Our previous studies have shown that a combination of A, P, and F (APF) exhibits renoprotective effects against diabetic nephropathy. This study was aimed at determining the effects of APF on renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy and elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms. To evaluate the effects of APF, in vivo, db/db diabetic mice were orally administered a low or high dose of APF (300 or 600 mg/kg, respectively) once a day for 8 weeks. We evaluated the blood and urine indices of metabolic and renal function, renal tissue histopathology, renal inflammation, and fibrosis. APF treatment significantly ameliorated glucose and lipid metabolism dysfunction, decreased urinary albumin excretion, normalized creatinine clearance, and reduced the morphological changes in renal tissue. Additionally, APF administration in db/db diabetic mice reduced the elevated levels of renal inflammation mediators such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and active nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). APF treatment also reduced type I and IV collagen, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and TGF-β1 type II receptor expression levels, and decreased the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in the kidneys of db/db diabetic mice. These results suggest that APF reduces renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy through the NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathways. In vitro, APF treatment reduced cell proliferation and protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, TGF-β1 and NF-κB in mesangial cells cultured with high glucose concentrations. Our findings indicate that treatment with multi-component herbal therapeutic formulations may be a useful approach for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. 10.1371/journal.pone.0122661
    Puerarin attenuates renal fibrosis by reducing oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis via MAPK signal pathways in vivo and in vitro. Zhou Xiangjun,Bai Chen,Sun Xinbo,Gong Xiaoxin,Yang Yong,Chen Congbo,Shan Guang,Yao Qisheng Renal failure Puerarin (PR) is an isoflavonoid isolated from the root of the plant Pueraria lobata and has been widely used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Oxidative stress and epithelial cell apoptosis play important roles in the renal fibrotic process. The present study aimed to determine whether or not PR inhibits renal fibrosis by reducing oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis. In vivo, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) induced renal fibrosis, and epithelial cell apoptosis. A total of 24 mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: sham, UUO alone, UUO +50 mg/kg PR, and UUO +100 mg/kg PR. In vitro, 200 μM hydrogen peroxide (HO) induced epithelial cell apoptosis. The experiments were dived into four groups: control, HO alone, HO+50 μM PR, and HO+100 μM PR. Tubular injury was measured in the renal cortex of the mice through periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) was measured through Sirius red (SR), immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, and Western blot. Renal epithelial cell apoptosis was measured through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP Nick-End labeling (TUNEL), flow cytometry (FCM), and Hoechst assays. The protein expression of NOX4, caspase3, ERK, P38, and JNK was assessed through Western blot. PAS staining showed that PR decreased renal tubular injury in UUO mice. SR and IHC staining demonstrated that PR decreased the accumulation of ECM. PR treatment significantly inhibited epithelial cell apoptosis according to the results of TUNEL, FCM, Hoechst, and Western blot. Furthermore, NOX4 increased in UUO mice and decreased with PR treatment. HO-derived oxidative stress activated epithelial apoptosis and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and PR treatment significantly reversed it. These results suggest that PR treatment ameliorates renal fibrosis by inhibiting oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis through MAPK signaling. 10.1080/0886022X.2017.1305409
    Shenqi detoxification granule combined with P311 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal fibrosis via TGF-β1-Smad-ILK pathway. Cai Pingping,Liu Xiang,Xu Yuan,Qi Fanghua,Si Guomin Bioscience trends Shenqi detoxification granule (SDG), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, has been shown to have nephroprotective and anti-fibrotic activities in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, its mechanisms in renal fibrosis and the progression of CKD remain largely unknown. P311, a highly conserved 8-kDa intracellular protein, plays a key role in renal fibrosis by regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Previously, we found P311 might be involved in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis by inhibiting EMT via the TGF-β1-Smad-ILK pathway. We also found SDG combined with P311 could ameliorate renal fibrosis by regulating the expression of EMT markers. Here we further examined the effect and mechanism of SDG combined with P311 on TGF-β1-mediated EMT in a rat model of unilateral ureteral occlusion (UUO) renal fibrosis. After establishment of the UUO model successfully, the rats were gavaged with SDG daily and/or injected with recombinant adenovirus p311 (also called Ad-P311) through the tail vein each week for 4 weeks. Serum creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and albumin (ALB) levels were tested to observe renal function, and hematoxylin eosin (HE) and Masson staining were performed to observe kidney histopathology. Furthermore, the expression of EMT markers (E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)) and EMT-related molecules TGF-β1, pSmad2/3, Smad7 and ILK were observed using immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis. Treatment with SDG and P311 improved renal function and histopathological abnormalities, as well as reversing the changes of EMT markers and EMT-related molecules, which indicated SDG combined with P311 could attenuate renal fibrosis in UUO rats, and the underlying mechanism might involve TGF-β1-mediated EMT and the TGF-β1-Smad-ILK signaling pathway. Therefore, SDG might be a novel alternative therapy for treating renal fibrosis and delaying the progression of CKD. Furthermore, SDG combined with P311 might have a synergistic effect on attenuating renal fibrosis. 10.5582/bst.2017.01311
    Celastrol alleviates renal fibrosis by upregulating cannabinoid receptor 2 expression. Tang Ming,Cao Xu,Zhang Kun,Li You,Zheng Quan-You,Li Gui-Qing,He Qian-Hui,Li Shu-Jing,Xu Gui-Lian,Zhang Ke-Qin Cell death & disease Renal fibrosis is the final manifestation of various chronic kidney diseases, and no effective therapy is available to prevent or reverse it. Celastrol, a triterpene that derived from traditional Chinese medicine, is a known potent anti-fibrotic agent. However, the underlying mechanisms of action of celastrol on renal fibrosis remain unknown. In this study, we found that celastrol treatment remarkably attenuated unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced mouse renal fibrosis. This was evidenced by the significant reduction in tubular injury; collagen deposition; accumulation of fibronectin, collagen I, and α-smooth muscle actin; and the expression levels of pro-fibrotic factors Vim, Cola1, and TGF-β1 mRNA, as well as inflammatory responses. Celastrol showed similar effects in a folic acid-induced mouse renal fibrosis model. Furthermore, celastrol potentiated the expression of the anti-fibrotic factor cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) in established mouse fibrotic kidney tissues and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)-stimulated human kidney 2 (HK-2) cells. In addition, the CB2R antagonist (SR144528) abolished celastrol-mediated beneficial effects on renal fibrosis. Moreover, UUO- or TGF-β1-induced activation of the pro-fibrotic factor SMAD family member 3 (Smad3) was markedly inhibited by celastrol. Inhibition of Smad3 activation by an inhibitor (SIS3) markedly reduced TGF-β1-induced downregulation of CB2R expression. In conclusion, our study provides the first direct evidence that celastrol significantly alleviated renal fibrosis, by contributing to the upregulation of CB2R expression through inhibiting Smad3 signaling pathway activation. Therefore, celastrol could be a potential drug for treating patients with renal fibrosis. 10.1038/s41419-018-0666-y
    Acetylshikonin from Zicao ameliorates renal dysfunction and fibrosis in diabetic mice by inhibiting TGF-β1/Smad pathway. Li Zezhao,Hong Zhen,Peng Zhiqing,Zhao Yongcai,Shao Rusheng Human cell Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the major cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetic patients. Zicao, a well-known Chinese traditional medicine, has attracted much attention due to its beneficial effects in various medical fields. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of acetylshikonin, the main ingredient of Zicao, on renal dysfunction in DN. Our results showed that administration with acetylshikonin not only decreased blood urea nitrogen, urine creatinine and the mean kidney-to-body weight ratio in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, but also restored the loss of body weight, whereas the blood glucose was not changed. Masson's trichrome staining showed that acetylshikonin treatment resulted in a marked decrease in kidney fibrosis from diabetic mice. The increased expression of fibrosis proteins, such as plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), connective tissue growth factor, and collagen III and IV, were reduced after acetylshikonin administration. In addition, the expressions of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and infiltration of macrophages in kidney tissues were decreased in acetylshikonin-treated diabetic mice. Acetylshikonin led to a reduction of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression and Smad-2/3 phosphorylation, as accompanied by increased Smad7 expression. Furthermore, in vitro treatment with acetylshikonin markedly attenuated TGF-β1-induced the PAI-1, collagen III and IV, and Smad-2/3 phosphorylation in HK2 immortalized human proximal tubule epithelial cells. Acetylshikonin also prevented epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β1. Collectively, our study provides evidences that acetylshikonin attenuates renal fibrosis though inhibiting TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, suggesting that acetylshikonin may be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of DN. 10.1007/s13577-017-0192-8
    Huangkui capsule attenuates renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy rats through regulating oxidative stress and p38MAPK/Akt pathways, compared to α-lipoic acid. Mao Zhi-Min,Shen Shan-Mei,Wan Yi-Gang,Sun Wei,Chen Hao-Li,Huang Meng-Meng,Yang Jing-Jing,Wu Wei,Tang Hai-Tao,Tang Ren-Mao Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Abelmoschus manihot (L.) medic (AM) is a natural medicinal plant used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Recently, Huangkui capsule (HKC), a Chinese patent medicine extracted from AM, has been widely applied to the clinical therapy of renal fibrosis in patients with early diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the therapeutic mechanisms involved in vivo remain ambiguous. The goal of this study is to expound the mechanism in vivo of HKC in order to deepen the understanding of its clinical effects, by using the approaches of contrasting the dose-effects of HKC on oxidative stress (OS) in the kidney compared to α-lipoic acid (LA), and then demonstrating whether and how anti-oxidative properties of HKC or LA might be beneficial for the treatment of renal fibrosis in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Thirty-three rats were divided into 5 groups, a Sham group, a Vehicle group, a L-HKC group, a H-HKC group and a LA group. The different doses of HKC, LA and distilled water were daily administrated for 8 weeks after the induction of DN by the unilateral nephrectomy combined with streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneal injections. Rat's general status, biochemical parameters, renal histological changes and OS indicators, as well as the key protein expressions in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)/serine-threonine kinase (Akt) signaling pathways and downstream cytokines including transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were examined, respectively. RESULTS:HKC and LA ameliorated body weight, kidney weight, urinary albumin and renal function including blood urea nitrogen and serum uric acid, attenuated renal fibrosis including the cell numbers and extracellular matrix rate in glomerulus, and controlled OS indicators including malondialdehyde, total superoxide dismutase, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4, but did not lower blood glucose in DN model rats. Among them, the anti-renal fibrosis effect of H-HKC was better than that of LA. In addition, HKC simultaneously down-regulated the protein expressions of phosphorylated p38MAPK, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), TGF-β1 and TNF-α in the kidney of DN model rats, unlike HKC, LA only down-regulated p-Akt and TNF-α protein expressions. CONCLUSION:We have demonstrated that HKC, similar to LA, is renoprotective via attenuating OS and renal fibrosis in the DN rat model. The potential mechanisms by which HKC and LA exert their therapeutic effects in vivo are respectively through down-regulating the activation of p38MAPK and/or Akt pathways as well as the expressions of TGF-β1 and/or TNF-α in the kidney. Our findings thus provide the useful information about a clinical combination of HKC and LA in early DN patients. 10.1016/j.jep.2015.07.036
    Qi-Zhu-Xie-Zhuo-Fang reduces serum uric acid levels and ameliorates renal fibrosis in hyperuricemic nephropathy rats. Huijuan Wang,Xiaoxu Chen,Rui Song,Xinghui Li,Beibei Tao,Jianchun Mao Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie Hyperuricemia is associated with the development of chronic kidney disease. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by hyperuricemia is blamed for initiation of renal fibrosis, which is one of the main characters of hyperuricemic nephropathy. Qi-Zhu-Xie-Zhuo-Fang (QZXZF) has been employed clinically for many years to treat patients with hyperuricemic nephropathy, but the mechanism underlying the therapeutic potential remains unclear. In the present study, QZXZF was applied to rats treated with adenine (100mg/kg) and potassium oxonate (300mg/kg) and biochemical estimations, morphology and immunohistochemistry were performed to investigate whether QZXZF can improve hyperuricemia induced renal fibrosis and to explore the possible mechanisms. We found QZXZF significantly reduced serum uric acid, cystatinC and hepatic xanthine oxidase (XO) activities, meanwhile improved renal histopathologic changes of hyperuricemic nephropathy rats. Furthermore, QZXZF not only substantially decreased the protein levels of fibronectin and Collagen I but also downregulated E-cadherin and upregulated α-SMA in the kidneys of hyperuricemic nephropathy rats. In conclusion, QZXZF reduced serum uric acid levels and protected kidney against fibrosis in potassium oxonate and adenine induced hyperuricemic nephropathy rats. The mechanism might be associated with the inhibition of hepatic XO activity and the renal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.04.031
    Mechanism research of Bu-Shen-Huo-Xue formula against renal fibrosis in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy via E-cadherin, α-SMA, and TGF-β1
. Lu Jian-Rao,Han Hai-Yan,Hu Jing,Zhang Chuan-Fu,Chen Jie,Chen Xiu-Feng,Wang Xin-Hua,Pan Rong-Hua Clinical nephrology OBJECTIVE:Renal fibrosis generally results in renal failure during the end stage of chronic renal diseases. There are many cell factors including E-cadherin, α-SMA, and TGF-β1 influencing deposition of extracellular matrix and leading to renal fibrosis. As the most important and widely-used therapy for various diseases in China for thousands of years, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides a novel treatment for renal fibrosis. For clinical application, we explore the effect of Bu-Shen-Huo-Xue formula (BSHX), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, on E-cadherin and α-SMA in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy to induce chronic renal failure (CRF); they were divided into three groups including a CRF control group, a BSHX group, and a Cozaar group, and compared with a normal control group. After 8 weeks of therapy with the respective drug, E-cadherin, α-SMA, and TGF were detected by immunohistochemistry assays in renal tissues. RESULTS:As the immunohistochemistry assays indicated, BSHX could significantly enhance the expression of E-cadherin and depress the levels of α-SMA and TGF-β1 expression in rats' renal tissues with 5/6 nephrectomy. CONCLUSION:BSHX can effectively relieve the renal fibrosis in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy via the change of cell factor levels including enhancement of the expression of E-cadherin and depression of the levels of α-SMA and TGF-β1 expression.
. 10.5414/CN109298
    HuangQi Decoction Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis via TGF-β/Smad Signaling Pathway In Vivo and In Vitro. Zhao Jie,Wang Li,Cao Ai-Li,Jiang Ming-Qian,Chen Xia,Wang Yi,Wang Yun-Man,Wang Hao,Zhang Xue-Mei,Peng Wen Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology OBJECTIVE:Traditional Chinese Medicine compound HuangQi decoction is widely used in clinical treatment of chronic kidney disease, but its role on renal interstitial fibrosis and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of HuangQi decoction on renal interstitial fibrosis and its association with the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway Methods: A total of 120 C57/BL mice were randomly divided into six groups: sham group, sham plus high-dose HuangQi decoction (1.08g/kg) group, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model group, and UUO model plus low to high doses of HuangQi decoction (0.12g/kg, 0.36g/kg and 1.08g/kg respectively) groups. Animals were sacrificed 14 days after the administration and ipsilateral kidney tissue was sampled for pathologic examinations. Immunohistochemistry, PCR and western blot were used to detect the expressions of related molecules in the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. TGF-β1 was used in in vitro experiments to induce human kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK2). RESULTS:HuangQi decoction improved ipsilateral kidney fibrosis in UUO mice and downregulated the expressions of TGF-β1, TβRI, TβRII, Smad4, Smad2/3, P-Smad2/3, α-SMA, collagen type I, III and IV in a dose-dependent manner while upregulated the expression of Smad7 in the same fashion. Similar results were found in in vitro studies. CONCLUSION:The protective effect of HuangQi decoction for unilateral ureteral obstruction kidney damage in mice was mediated by downregulating the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. 10.1159/000443115
    [Pathomechanisms of pericyte-myofibroblast transition in kidney and interventional effects of Chinese herbal medicine]. Liu Ying-Lu,Shi Ge,Cao Dong-Wei,Wan Yi-Gang,Wu Wei,Tu Yue,Liu Bu-Hui,Han Wen-Bei,Yao Jian Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica In the kidney, pericyte is the major source of myofibroblast (MyoF) in renal interstitium. It is reported that pericyte-myofibroblast transition(PMT)is one of the important pathomechanisms of renal interstitial fibrosis(RIF). Among them, the main reasons for promoting RIF formation include pericyte recruitment, activation and isolation, as well as the lack of pericyte-derived erythropoietin. During the PMT startup process, pericyte activation and its separation from microvessels are controlled by multiple signal transduction pathways, such as transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β)pathway, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) pathway and platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) pathway;Blocking of these signaling pathways can not only inhibit PMT, but also suppress renal capillaries reduction and further alleviate RIF. In clinic, many traditional Chinese medicine compound prescriptions, single traditional Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and their extracts have the clear effects in alleviating RIF, and some of their intervention actions may be related to pericyte and its PMT. Therefore, the studies on PMT and its drug intervention will become the main development direction in the research field of anti-organ fibrosis by CHM. 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20180531.002
    Astragaloside IV from Astragalus membranaceus ameliorates renal interstitial fibrosis by inhibiting inflammation via TLR4/NF-кB in vivo and in vitro. Zhou Xiangjun,Sun Xinbo,Gong Xiaoxin,Yang Yong,Chen Congbo,Shan Guang,Yao Qisheng International immunopharmacology Renal fibrosis is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, activation and proliferation of fibroblasts, and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is traditional Chinese medicine and has a range of pharmacological effects. Astragaloside IV (As IV) is the main compound of AM and has anti-inflammation activities. Whether As IV ameliorates renal interstitial fibrosis by inhibiting inflammation remains unknown. Accordingly, this study investigated the ameliorating effect of As IV on renal fibrosis. Renal fibrosis was induced in vivo using the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model. UUO mice were administered intragastrically with As IV (20 and 40mg/kg/day). After a week, ECM including fibronectin and collagen I was examined by Immunohistochemistry and Western blot, inflammatory cells (CD68 and CD3) were detected by Immunohistochemistry, the release of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) was inspected by polymerase chain reaction, and signaling pathway was determined by Western blot. In vitro, 100ng/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated epithelial cells to construct the inflammatory model; these cells were treated by As IV (10 and 20μM) with or without TAK-242 (1μM) for 48h. The released inflammatory cytokines were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and signaling pathway was evaluated by Western blot. As IV decreased accumulation of ECM and infiltration of inflammatory cells in UUO-induced renal fibrosis. Furthermore, As IV markedly attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokines in UUO mouse and LPS-induced epithelial cells. As IV also inhibited the TLR4 and nuclear factor (NF)-кB signaling pathway in vivo and vitro. These results demonstrate that As IV protects against the progression of renal fibrosis by inhibiting inflammation via the TLR4/NF-кB signaling pathway. 10.1016/j.intimp.2016.11.006
    Tanshinone IIA attenuates renal fibrosis and inflammation via altering expression of TGF-β/Smad and NF-κB signaling pathway in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Wang Dong-Tao,Huang Ren-Hua,Cheng Xin,Zhang Zhi-Hua,Yang Ya-Jun,Lin Xin International immunopharmacology PURPOSE:In traditional Chinese medicine, Tanshinone IIA is used to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, its biological activity and mechanism of action in renal fibrosis and inflammation are not fully identified. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of Tanshinone IIA treatment on CKD by assessing potential modulation of the TGF-β/Smad and NF-κB signaling pathway. METHODS:CKD was produced in rats by 5/6 nephrectomy. They were then divided into the following groups: control (sham operation); CKD (5/6 nephrectomy); 5/6 nephrectomy+Tanshinone IIA (10mg/kg in average, once a day for 16 weeks). Serum and urine samples were obtained from animals in each group, and serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels and 24h urinary protein excretion were measured. Tissue samples from the kidney were used for morphometric studies (Masson's trichrome). The expression of fibronectin protein and collagen types I, III, IV, and TGF-β, TNF-α, CXCL-1, MCP-1, RANTES mRNA were evaluated using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis; the TGF-β/Smad and NF-κB signaling pathway was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. RESULTS:The following effects were observed in CKD rats treated with Tanshinone IIA: (1) marked improvements in Scr, and 24h urine protein excretion; (2) significant reductions in protein and mRNA levels of fibronectin, collagen III, and collagen IV and TNF-α, MCP-1, and CXCL-1; (3) significantly inhibited the TGF-β/Smad and NF-κB signaling activation. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that Tanshinone IIA suppresses renal fibrosis and inflammation via altering expression of TGF-β/Smad and NF-κB pathway in the remnant kidney, thus supporting the potential of Tanshinone IIA as a new therapeutic agent for slowing the progression of CKD. 10.1016/j.intimp.2015.02.027
    Chinese herbal medicine Shenqi Detoxification Granule inhibits fibrosis in adenine induced chronic renal failure rats. Peng Min,Cai Pingping,Ma Hongbo,Meng Hongyan,Xu Yuan,Zhang Xiaoyi,Si Guomin African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM BACKGROUND:Progressive fibrosis accompanies all chronic renal disease, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF,) and platelet-derived growth factor-B, (PDGF-B,) play important roles in extra-cellular matrix abnormal accumulation, while endothelin-1 (ET-1) nitric oxide (NO,) are related to endothelial dysfunction, which mediates the progression of renal fibrosis. Shenqi Detoxification Granule (SDG), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, has been used for treatment of chronic renal failure in clinic for many years. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In order to evaluate the efficacy, and explore the mechanism of SDG to inhibit the progression of renal fibrosis, study was carried out using the adenine-induced Wister rats as the CRF model, and losartan as postive control drug. Levels of serum creatinine [Scr], and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin (ALB), 24hrs, urine protein (24hUP), triacylglycerol (TG), and cholesterol (CHO), together with ET-1, and NO were detected. Pathological changes of renal tissues were observed by HE, staining. In addition, CTGF and PDGF-B expression were analyzed by immuno-histo-chemistry. RESULTS:The results indicated that SDG can effectively reduce Scr, BUN, 24hUP, TG, and CHO levels, increase ALB levels, inhibit renal tissue damage in CRF rats, and the mechanism maybe reduce PDGF-B, CTGF expression and ET-1/NO. CONCLUSION:Shenqi Detoxification Granule is a beneficial treatment for chronic renal failure. 10.4314/ajtcam.v11i1.31
    Renoprotective effect of Zhenwu decoction against renal fibrosis by regulation of oxidative damage and energy metabolism disorder. Li Shasha,Xiao Xue,Han Ling,Wang Yiming,Luo Guoan Scientific reports Zhenwu decoction (ZWD) is a promising traditional Chinese prescription against renal fibrosis, while its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Rat model of renal fibrosis were established and divided into control group, model group, ZWD treatment group and enalapril maleate treatment group. Metabolic profiles on serum samples from each group were acquired by using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry. Metabolomics combined with molecular biology were comparatively conducted on samples of various groups. Fifteen potential biomarkers were identified and these biomarkers are mainly phospholipids and fatty acids. The results showed renal fibrosis was associated with oxidative damage and energy metabolism disorder. The results of histopathology, biochemistry and metabolomics demonstrated that ZWD exhibited an efficient renoprotective effect by alleviating oxidative stress, increasing energy metabolism and regulating fibrotic cytokines. This study provided scientific support for the research and development of new drugs from traditional Chinese medicine. 10.1038/s41598-018-32115-9
    [Regulatory mechanism of p38MAPK signaling pathway on renal tissue inflammation in chronic kidney disease and interventional effect of traditional Chinese medicine]. Zhao Qing,Wan Yigang,Wang Chaojun,Wei Qingxue,Chen Haoli,Meng Xianjie,Yao Jian Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica The inflammatory reaction of renal tissues and its relevant tissue damages (such as glomerulosclerosis and renal interstitial fibrosis) are important factors for the development of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) to end-state renal diseases. Of them, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating expression and bioactivity of multiple nuclear transcription factors, impacting synthesis of downstream inflammatory mediators and activating inflammatory cells. Some monomer traditional Chinese medicines and their extracts (such as emodin and berberine) and some traditional Chinese medicine compound prescriptions (such as Yishen Huoxue decoction) can affect inflammatory reaction of renal tissues by regulating p38MAPK signaling pathway, thas improving reduce glomerulus and renal interstitial inflammatory injury.
    [Regulatory mechanism of NF-kappaB signaling pathway on renal tissue inflammation in chronic kidney disease and interventional effect of traditional Chinese medicine]. Liu Hong,Sun Wei,Wan Yi-Gang,Tu Yue,Yu Bing-Yin,Hu Hao Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica In chronic kidney disease (CKD), inflammatory responses during the progression of renal tissue and tissue injury related causes its progression to end-state renal disease. Among them, nuclear factor (nuclear factor, NF)-kappaB signaling pathway by regulating the corresponding nuclear expression of target gene transcription, as well as affecting the synthesis of inflammatory mediators, induction of inflammation lead to kidney damage and renal fibrosis. Some single herbs and their extracts (such as Astragali Radix, Scutellariae Radix, Ginkgo Folium) and some traditional Chinese medicine (such as Danggui Buxue decoction, Qilian decoction) can reduce the inflammatory damage induced by renal tissue NF-kappaB signaling pathway and delay the progression of CKD.
    Chinese Herbal Formulas and Renal Fibrosis: An Overview. Shen Yu-Li,Wang Su-Juan,Rahman Khalid,Zhang Li-Jun,Zhang Hong Current pharmaceutical design All forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD) eventually lead to renal fibrosis irrespective of its origin. It is generally characterized by an excessive accumulation and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and to date, no ideal treatment has been established. Bian-Zheng-Lun-Zhi (syndrome differentiation and treatment), a classic feature of traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), is a unique method used to diagnose and treat the pathology of a disease. Zheng (syndrome) is used to demonstrate the nature of a disease completely in an extensive and specific manner. Chinese herbal formulas are determined according to TCM theory and this review highlights these formulas and suggests a possible mechanism for their use in the treatment of renal fibrosis. 10.2174/1381612824666180829103355
    Pterostilbene alleviates fructose-induced renal fibrosis by suppressing TGF-β1/TGF-β type I receptor/Smads signaling in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Gu Ting-Ting,Chen Tian-Yu,Yang Yan-Zi,Zhao Xiao-Juan,Sun Yang,Li Tu-Shuai,Zhang Dong-Mei,Kong Ling-Dong European journal of pharmacology High dietary fructose is a key causative factor in the development of renal fibrosis. Pterostilbene has anti-fibrotic effect. Understanding the action mechanism of pterostilbene in fructose-induced renal fibrosis remains as a challenge. Here, fructose feeding was found to promote the progress of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs) and collagen deposition in renal cortex of rats with tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Simultaneously, it impaired insulin receptor (IR)/insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, and increased transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and TGF-β type I receptor to enhance phosphorylation of drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (Smad2) and Smad3, and Smad4 expression in rat kidney cortex. These changes were also observed in cultured PTECs HK-2 cells exposed to 5 mM fructose. The data from fructose-exposed HK-2 cells co-incubated with TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor further demonstrated that the activation of TGF-β1/TGF-β type I receptor/Smads signaling promoted renal tubular EMT and collagen accumulation. Pterostilbene was found to ameliorate fructose-induced renal fibrosis in rats. Importantly, pterostilbene improved IR/IRS-1/Akt pathway impairment and suppressed TGF-β1/TGF-β type I receptor/Smads signaling activation in vivo and in vitro, being consistent with its reduction of EMT and collagen deposition. Upregulation of IR/Akt signaling by pterostilbene was also confirmed in Akt inhibitor (MK-2206 2HCl) or IR inhibitor (GSK1904529A)-treated HK-2 cells. Taken together, pterostilbene may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of fructose-induced kidney fibrosis with insulin signaling impairment. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2018.10.008
    Astragaloside IV improves renal function and fibrosis via inhibition of miR-21-induced podocyte dedifferentiation and mesangial cell activation in diabetic mice. Wang Xiaolei,Gao Yanbin,Tian Nianxiu,Zou Dawei,Shi Yimin,Zhang Nan Drug design, development and therapy Background:Podocyte dedifferentiation and mesangial cell (MC) activation play an important role in many glomerular diseases associated with fibrosis. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is closely linked to renal fibrosis, but it is unknown whether and how miR-21 promotes podocyte dedifferentiation and MC activation and whether astragaloside IV (AS-IV) improves renal function and fibrosis through the regulation of miR-21. Materials and methods:Cultured MCs, primary mouse podocytes, and diabetic KK-Ay mice were treated with AS-IV. Cell transfection, Western blot, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence assay, immunohistochemical assay, and electronic microscopy were used to detect the markers of podocyte dedifferentiation and MC activation and to observe the renal morphology. Results:Our data showed that miR-21 expression was increased and that AS-IV decreased miR-21 levels in cells, serum, and kidney. Overexpressed miR-21 promoted podocyte dedifferentiation and MC activation, and treatment with AS-IV reversed this effect. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-21 activated the β-catenin pathway and the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smads pathway in the process of podocyte dedifferentiation and MC activation, which was abolished by AS-IV treatment. In addition, both the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV-939 and the TGF-β1/Smads pathway inhibitor SB431542 reversed the effect of AS-IV. Furthermore, AS-IV improved renal function and fibrosis in diabetic KK-Ay mice. Conclusion:Our results indicated that AS-IV ameliorates renal function and renal fibrosis by inhibiting miR-21 overexpression-induced podocyte dedifferentiation and MC activation in diabetic kidney disease. These findings pave way for future studies investigating AS-IV as a potential therapeutic agent in the management of glomerular diseases. 10.2147/DDDT.S170840
    [Research on the intervention of Yishen Huoxue prescription to renal fibrosis through the signal regulation by microRNA-126 to VEGF-Notch]. Zhong Jian,Zhao Ningbo,Liu Chaoye,Hu Junfu,Zhang Weiying,Xiong Chong,Chen Hongtong,Gong Caidi Zhonghua wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue OBJECTIVE:To explore the molecular mechanism of Yishen Huoxue prescription in delaying the development of renal fibrosis by regulating the microRNA-126/vascular endothelial growth factor-Notch (miR-126/VEGF-Notch) signaling pathway. METHODS:Ninety male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sham operation group (sham group), unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model group, losartan group (50 mg×kg×d) and high, medium and low doses Yishen Huoxue prescription group (25.2, 12.6, 6.3 mL/kg). Each treatment group began to administer drugs by gavage on the day when UUO modeling was finished until the end of the experiment. Left renal tissues of rats were harvested after 7, 14 and 21 days postoperatively. The pathological changes of renal tissue were observed after hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Masson staining under the microscope, and the renal fibrosis score was calculated. The mRNA expressions of renal tissues miR-126, VEGFA, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), Notch1 were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS:(1) Pathology results: the kidney tissue of sham group was normal. In UUO model group, renal tubules expanded and inflammatory cells in renal interstitium increased; renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis could be seen 7 days after operation, and the degree of fibrosis was gradually increased with time. The renal fibrosis score at each time point after operation in UUO model group was significantly higher than that in sham group. Compared with UUO model group, each treatment group were improved the degree of renal swelling and atrophy of renal parenchyma; the score of renal fibrosis were significantly decreased in the middle and high doses Yishen Huoxue prescription group and losartan group at the 7th day after operation (1.00±1.00, 0.91±0.58, 1.01±0.58 vs. 2.00±0.00, all P < 0.01); but there was no significant difference between low dose Yishen Huoxue prescription group and UUO model group. (2) RT-PCR results: Compared with sham group, the mRNA expressions of miR-126, VEGFA, VEGFR-2 and Notch1 in renal tissues were significantly increased at each time point after operation in UUO model group. Compared with the UUO model group, the mRNA expressions of miR-126, VEGFA, VEGFR-2 and Notch1 in renal tissue of 7 days postoperatively in the middle and high doses Yishen Huoxue prescription group and the losartan group were significantly increased [miR-126 (2): 0.465±0.067, 0.639±0.092, 0.404±0.069 vs. 0.132±0.021; VEGFA (2): 0.024±0.005, 0.027±0.007, 0.023±0.006 vs. 0.014±0.006; VEGFR-2 (2): 0.021±0.007, 0.023±0.008, 0.019±0.007 vs. 0.012±0.004; Notch1 (2): 0.017±0.004, 0.020±0.005, 0.018±0.005 vs. 0.007±0.004; all P < 0.05]; compared with the losartan group, the mRNA expressions of each index in the middle and high doses Yishen Huoxue prescription group were increased at all the time points, but there was no significant difference between them (all P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in mRNA expression of each index between low dose Yishen Huoxue prescription group and UUO model group. CONCLUSIONS:The medium and high doses of Yishen Huoxue prescription can effectively antagonize renal fibrosis. Yishen Huoxue prescription may use up-regulation the signaling pathways of miR-126/VEGF-Notch to mediate renal microvascular newly born, eventually to improve renal microvascular damage and delay the development of renal fibrosis progression. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-4352.2018.010.018
    Kangxianling decoction prevents renal fibrosis in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy and inhibits Ang II-induced ECM production in glomerular mesangial cells. Ji Jing,Tao Pengyu,He Liqun Journal of pharmacological sciences Renal fibrosis is a common pathological change in all stages of kidney disease. Kangxianling decoction was widely used in patients with chronic kidney disease, which could improve symptoms such as poor appetite, edema, and fatigue. However, its effect on renal fibrosis remains to be studied. In this study, we investigated its effects on renal fibrosis in a rat model of 5/6 Nephrectomy (5/6 N) in vivo and in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated rat glomerular mesangial cells (HBZY-1) in vitro. Our data showed that 5/6 N induced renal fibrosis and combined with the activation of JNK signaling, the upregulation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), collagen I (Col-I) and fibronectin (FN). The administration of kangxianling decoction inhibited the activation of JNK signaling and attenuated the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in damaged kidneys. In HBZY-1 cells, Ang II increased the protein expression of Col-I and FN. It also activates JNK signaling and TGF-β in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of the HBZY-1 cells with kangxianling decoction blocked Ang II-induced JNK activation and ECM overproduction. Our results indicated that Kangxianling Decoction could reduce renal fibrosis, accompanied by inhibiting the production of ECM proteins and JNK, along with downregulation of TGF-β, Ang II. 10.1016/j.jphs.2019.03.003
    Periplaneta Americana Extract May Attenuate Renal Fibrosis through Inhibiting Janus Tyrosine Kinase 2/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Pathway. Liu Jingsong,Zhou Lin,He Liyu,Zhong Ying,Zhang Xiaobai,Xiao Bofei,Liu Guoyong Pharmacology BACKGROUND:Periplaneta americana is one of the ancient insect groups with the strongest vitality. Periplaneta americana extract (PAE) has been explored as an alternative remedy for many diseases. Although much progress has been made in the study about PAE, the role of the drug in renal disease is rarely reported, especially in renal fibrosis. This study was designed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of PAE treatment to renal fibrosis. METHOD:An in vivo, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model was built. Then the mice were treated with PAE (100 mg/kg body weight) once daily by oral gavage, again starting on the day of UUO and continued for 1 week. At the end of 1 week, the mice were sacrificed; kidney samples were collected for further analysis. In vitro, Boston University mouse proximal tubular cells were plated in 35-mm dishes at a density of 0.3 * 106 cells/dish. Then the cells were treated with 5-ng/mL TGF-β1 in serum-free DMEM medium for an indicated length of time. The experimental groups were pretreated with the indicated concentrations of PAE (0.3125 mg/mL). The cells were further cultured for 24 h, and then cells were monitored morphologically or collected for biochemical analyses. RESULTS:Both in vivo and vitro PAE inhibits the expression of FN and alpha-smooth muscle actin and suppresses renal fibrosis. Importantly, PAE protects against renal fibrosis by inhibiting Janus tyrosine kinase 2 (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT) tyrosine phosphorylation. CONCLUSION:PAE attenuates renal fibrosis through the suppression of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. 10.1159/000488535
    Dihydroartemisinin attenuates renal fibrosis through regulation of fibroblast proliferation and differentiation. Zhang Bo,Liu Peihua,Zhou Yan,Chen Zhi,He Yao,Mo Miao,Dai Guoyu,Xia Weiping,Du Yongchao,Liu Yuhang,Chen Xiang Life sciences AIMS:Renal fibrosis is the most common final stage of progressive renal disease, characterized by fibroblast proliferation, fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) exerts antitumor, antibacterial, and antifibrotic effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether DHA has beneficial effects on unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis in mice and to examine explore the underlying possible mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were intragastrically administered DHA for 14 consecutive days after UUO operation. Afterward, interstitial collagen deposition, expression of collagen I and III, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) were assessed in the kidneys. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)-induced primary human kidney fibroblasts were treated with DHA to further investigate the mechanism underlying its action. KEY FINDINGS:In vivo, DHA reduced UUO-induced morphological and pathological changes and the degree of renal fibrosis. In addition, DHA mitigated fibroblast proliferation and differentiation in kidney tissue induced by UUO. In vitro, DHA significantly attenuated the TGF-β1-induced primary human kidney fibroblast proliferation and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. Moreover, treatment with DHA attenuated the up-regulation of phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT) in UUO model and TGF-β1-induced primary human kidney fibroblasts. SIGNIFICANCE:We provide in vivo and in vitro evidence that DHA may relieve renal fibrosis through regulation of fibroblast proliferation and differentiation by mitigating the PI3K/AKT pathway. DHA may potentially be used as a therapeutic antifibrotic agent for the treatment of renal fibrosis. 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.03.020
    Pterostilbene, a bioactive component of blueberries, alleviates renal fibrosis in a severe mouse model of hyperuricemic nephropathy. Pan Jing,Shi Min,Li Lingzhi,Liu Jing,Guo Fan,Feng Yanhuan,Ma Liang,Fu Ping Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie Accumulating evidences indicated that hyperuricemia was an independent risk factor for kidney diseases and contributed to kidney fibrosis. Preventing and treating renal fibrosis was an optimal treatment for hyperuricemia-induced kidney diseases. In the study, pterostilbene (PTE) as a bioactive component of blueberries was confirmed to possess lowering serum uric acid and renal protective functions by the decrease of serum creatinine, BUN, urine albumin, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) in a mouse model of hyperuricemic nephropathy (HN). Importantly, PTE treatment remarkably alleviated renal fibrosis of HN mice indicated by the downregulation of fibronectin, collagen I and α-SMA production. Furthermore, PTE could suppress the fibrosis-related protein expressions of TGF-β1/Smad3, Src and STAT3 in the kidneys of HN mice. In conclusion, PTE suppressed the activation of TGF-β1/Smad3, Src and STAT3 signaling pathway to alleviate renal fibrosis of HN mice, highlighting that PTE was a potential antifibrotic strategy for hyperuricemic nephropathy. 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.11.022
    New Therapies for the Treatment of Renal Fibrosis. Liu Feng,Zhuang Shougang Advances in experimental medicine and biology Renal fibrosis is the common pathway for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end stage of renal disease. It is now widely accepted that the degree of renal fibrosis correlates with kidney function and CKD stages. The key cellular basis of renal fibrosis includes activation of myofibroblasts, excessive production of extracellular matrix components, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Many cellular mechanisms responsible for renal fibrosis have been identified, and some antifibrotic agents show a greater promise in slowing down and even reversing fibrosis in animal models; however, translating basic findings into effective antifibrotic therapies in human has been limited. In this chapter, we will discuss the effects and mechanisms of some novel antifibrotic agents in both preclinical studies and clinical trials. 10.1007/978-981-13-8871-2_31
    Renoprotective effect and mechanism of polysaccharide from Polyporus umbellatus sclerotia on renal fibrosis. Li Hailun,Yan Zhuan,Xiong Qingping,Chen Xiaoling,Lin Yongtao,Xu Yong,Bai Lin,Jiang Wei,Zheng Donghui,Xing Changying Carbohydrate polymers As a fungal polysaccharide, polysaccharide (PPUS) from Polyporus umbellatus sclerotia have showed remarkable anti-inflammatory activities. In view of the closely relationship between inflammation and renal fibrosis, and considering the significant role of other fungal polysaccharides on treatment of renal fibrosis, we speculated that PPUS may have therapeutic effects on renal fibrosis. However, there was not any reports about PPUS treatment this disease. The purpose of this paper is to investigate renoprotective effect and mechanism of PPUS on renal fibrosis. The results indicated that PPUS can improve renal function and ameliorate the degree of renal collagen deposition and further fibrosis. Its mechanism was found to be related with decreased inflammation, suppressive epithelial-mesenchymal transition, reconstructed the balance of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, and pro-fibrotic and anti-fibrotic factors. The data implied that PPUS can serve as a clinical candidate on treatment of renal interstitial fibrosis. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.02.026
    Rhein alleviates renal interstitial fibrosis by inhibiting tubular cell apoptosis in rats. Chen Yakun,Mu Lin,Xing Lingling,Li Shaomei,Fu Shuxia Biological research BACKGROUND:Ureteral obstruction causes injury of the renal tissues and can irreversibly progress to renal fibrosis, with atrophy and apoptosis of tubular cells. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of rhein on the apoptosis o renal tubular cells as well as renal fibrosis using a rodent model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). METHODS:UUO was induced through ureteral ligation, then animals received treatments with rhein or vehicle. The control rats only received sham operation. The renal tissue was harvested 1 week after surgery for assessment of kidney fibrosis. RESULTS:The expressions of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), as well as the severity of renal tubular apoptosis and fibrosis were time-dependently increased following UUO. Treatments with rhein partially inhibited such responses. Renal interstitial fibrosis was associated with STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) phosphorylation as well as altered expressions of Bax and Bcl2, both apoptosis-related proteins. Treatment with rhein also partly blocked these responses. CONCLUSION:These findings demonstrated that rhein mitigated apoptosis of renal tubular cell as well as renal fibrosis in a UUO rodent model. This curative effect is likely mediated via suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation. 10.1186/s40659-019-0257-0
    Role of interleukin 17 in TGF-β signaling-mediated renal interstitial fibrosis. Sun Bin,Wang Hui,Zhang Lu,Yang Xiaofan,Zhang Mingshun,Zhu Xingxing,Ji Xiaohui,Wang Huijuan Cytokine BACKGROUND:Several studies suggest IL-17 is involved in the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. The exact role of IL-17 in renal interstitial fibrosis has not been fully elucidated. METHODS:We compared the histopathology of renal fibrosis as well as profibrotic TGF-β signaling in wild-type (WT) and IL-17 knock-out (IL-17) mice using UUO as the disease model. To find out the possible mechanisms involved in the exacerbated renal fibrosis happened to IL-17 mice, we analyzed the pattern of ECM synthesis by different fibroblasts cultured with IL-17 and associated signaling mediators. RESULTS:On day3 and day7, IL-17 mice developed more severe renal fibrosis compared with WT mice. IL-17 had an inhibitory factor in TGF-β-induced renal fibroblast activation and ECM synthesis, and sequentially in renal interstitial fibrosis, via down-regulation of Smad -independent pathway (p38MAPK and AKT phosphorylations). CONCLUSION:IL-17 acts an inhibitory factor in TGF-β-induced renal fibroblast activation and ECM synthesis, and sequentially in renal interstitial fibrosis, via down-regulation of Smad-independent pathway (p38MAPK and AKT phosphorylations). Clarifying the novel regulatory mechanisms of fibrosis by the cytokine IL-17 may lead to a new therapeutic approach for progressive renal disease and fibrosis. 10.1016/j.cyto.2017.10.015
    Ribes diacanthum Pall (RDP) ameliorates UUO-induced renal fibrosis via both canonical and non-canonical TGF-β signaling pathways in mice. Gu Lifei,Wang Yange,Yang Guolin,Tilyek Akhtolkhyn,Zhang Chunlei,Li Shaoheng,Yu Boyang,Chai Chengzhi,Cao Zhengyu Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Ribes diacanthum Pall (RDP), a folk medicine, has been widely used in Mongolia to treat urinary system diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY:To investigate the effectiveness of RDP on unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal interstitial fibrosis and the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 60 mice were randomly divided into six groups: sham group, sham plus RDP (40 mg/kg) group, UUO model group, and UUO model plus RDP (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg) groups. After surgery, aqueous extract of RDP were administrated intragastrically (i.g) daily for a week and ipsilateral kidneys were collected seven days after surgery. Levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr) were detected to reflect the kidney injury. Hematoxylin & eosin and Masson's trichrome staining were used to evaluate the kidney morphological changes and fibrosis, respectively. ELISA was used to examine the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Immunohistochemistry, western blot and PCR were used to examine the expression levels of key proteins involved in transforming growth factor (TGF-β)/Smad and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. RESULTS:RDP treatment attenuates the level of BUN and kidney fibrosis in UUO mice, decreases the expressions of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, Interleukin-1α, TGF-β1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, fibronectin, and vimentin, while increases the expressions of E-cadherin and hepatocyte growth factor. Moreover, RDP administration significantly decreases the levels of p-Smad2/3, p-ERK1/2, p-p38 and p-JNK, while increases the expression level of Smad7 in UUO models. CONCLUSION:These data demonstrate that RDP ameliorates renal fibrosis through TGF-β/Smad and MAPK pathways in a UUO mouse model. 10.1016/j.jep.2018.10.023
    Salidroside Ameliorates Renal Interstitial Fibrosis by Inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways. Li Rui,Guo Yujuan,Zhang Yiming,Zhang Xue,Zhu Lingpeng,Yan Tianhua International journal of molecular sciences Salidroside (Sal) is an active ingredient that is isolated from , which has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activities and a renal protective effect. However, the role of Sal on renal fibrosis has not yet been elucidated. Here, the purpose of the current study is to test the protective effects of Sal against renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF), and to explore the underlying mechanisms using both in vivo and in vitro models. In this study, we establish the unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) or folic acid (FA)-induced mice renal interstitial fibrosis in vivo and the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated human proximal tubular epithelial cell (HK-2) model in vitro. The levels of kidney functional parameters and inflammatory cytokines in serum are examined. The degree of renal damage and fibrosis is determined by histological assessment. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting are used to determine the mechanisms of Sal against RIF. Our results show that treatment with Sal can ameliorate tubular injury and deposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components (including collagen Ш and collagen I). Furthermore, Sal administration significantly suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as evidenced by a decreased expression of α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, snail, slug, and a largely restored expression of E-cadherin. Additionally, Sal also reduces the levels of serum biochemical markers (serum creatinine, Scr; blood urea nitrogen, BUN; and uric acid, UA) and decreases the release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α). Further study revealed that the effect of Sal on renal interstitial fibrosis is associated with the lower expression of TLR4, p-IκBα, p-NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, Sal treatment improves kidney function, ameliorates the deposition of the ECM components and relieves the protein levels of EMT markers in mouse kidneys and HK-2 cells. Furthermore, Sal treatment significantly decreases the release of inflammatory cytokines and inhibits the TLR4/NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Collectively, these results suggest that the administration of Sal could be a novel therapeutic strategy in treating renal fibrosis. 10.3390/ijms20051103