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    Factor VIII expression in liver disease. Hollestelle Martine J,Geertzen Hendrika G M,Straatsburg Irene H,van Gulik Thomas M,van Mourik Jan A Thrombosis and haemostasis Liver disease is associated with markedly elevated plasma factor VIII (FVIII) levels, whereas the synthesis of many other coagulation factors and proteins is reduced. In order to define the mechanism of FVIII increase, we have determined the expression levels of FVIII, both at mRNA and protein level, in patients with liver disease who underwent partial liver resection. In addition, the expression of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), proteins known for their ability to modulate FVIII plasma levels, were examined. Tissue samples for RNA extraction were obtained from 4 patients with cirrhosis, 9 patients with liver failure without cirrhosis and 6 patients with liver metastasis of a colon or rectum carcinoma (control group). In patients with liver cirrhosis hepatic FVIII and LRP mRNA levels were significantly lower than controls (p < or = 0.010), while VWF mRNA was significantly higher (p < or = 0.050). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cellular VWF protein distribution was also increased in cirrhotic livers compared to liver tissue from patients with non-cirrhotic liver disease. In cirrhotic tissue enlarged portal veins appeared to overgrow FVIII producing sinusoidal endothelial cells. Similarly, the number of LRP-producing cells appeared to be lower in cirrhotic tissue than in controls. The plasma concentration of both FVIII and VWF was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis than control subjects (p = 0.038 and 0.010 respectively). These results demonstrate that elevated plasma FVIII levels in liver cirrhosis are associated with increased hepatic biosynthesis of VWF and decreased expression of LRP, rather than increased FVIII synthesis. 10.1160/TH03-05-0310
    Gut-derived endotoxin stimulates factor VIII secretion from endothelial cells. Implications for hypercoagulability in cirrhosis. Carnevale Roberto,Raparelli Valeria,Nocella Cristina,Bartimoccia Simona,Novo Marta,Severino Anna,De Falco Elena,Cammisotto Vittoria,Pasquale Chiara,Crescioli Clara,Scavalli Antonio Sili,Riggio Oliviero,Basili Stefania,Violi Francesco Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Patients with cirrhosis display enhanced blood levels of factor VIII, which may result in harmful activation of the clotting system; however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. METHODS:We performed a cross-sectional study in patients with cirrhosis (n=61) and matched controls (n=61) comparing blood levels of factor VIII, von Willebrand factor (vWf), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and positivity for Escherichia coli DNA. Furthermore, we performed an in vitro study to investigate if LPS, in a concentration range similar to that found in the peripheral circulation of cirrhotic patients, was able to elicit factor VIII secretion from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). RESULTS:Patients with cirrhosis displayed higher serum levels of LPS (55.8 [42.2-79.9] vs. 23.0 [7.0-34.0]pg/ml, p<0.001), factor VIII (172.0 [130.0-278.0] vs. 39.0 [26.0-47.0]U/dl, p<0.0001), vWf (265.0 [185.0-366.0] vs. 57.0 [48.0-65.0]U/dl, p<0.001) and positivity for Escherichia coli DNA (88% vs. 3%, p<0.001, n=34) compared to controls. Serum LPS correlated significantly with factor VIII (r=0.80, p<0.001) and vWf (r=0.63, p<0.001). Only LPS (beta-coefficient=0.70, p<0.0001) independently predicted factor VIII levels. The in vitro study showed that LPS provoked factor VIII and vWf release from HUVEC via formation and secretion of Weibel-Palade bodies, a phenomenon blunted by pre-treating HUVEC with an inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4. CONCLUSIONS:The study provides the first evidence that LPS derived from gut microbiota increases the systemic levels of factor VIII via stimulating its release by endothelial cells. Lay summary: Cirrhosis is associated with thrombosis in portal and systemic circulation. Enhanced levels of factor VIII have been suggested to play a role but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here we show that patients with cirrhosis display a concomitant increase of factor VIII and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli and suggest that LPS contributes to the release of factor VIII from endothelial cells. 10.1016/j.jhep.2017.07.002
    ADAMTS-13/von Willebrand factor ratio: A prognostic biomarker for portavein thrombosis in compensated cirrhosis. A prospective observational study. Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver BACKGROUND AND AIMS:In cirrhosis, decreased portal flow velocity, thrombophilia factors, and portal hypertension are considered risk factors for portal vein thrombosis (PVT). In cirrhosis, the transformation of the stellate cells causes a progressive decrease of ADAMTS-13, while VWF multimers secretion by endothelial cells is strongly enhanced. This imbalance leads to an accumulation of ultra-large VWF multimers that in sinusoidal circulation could favor PVT both in intra- and extra-hepatic branches, mostly in decompensated cirrhosis. This prospective study was aimed at identifying possible clinical, biochemical, and hemostatic factors predictive for non-tumoral PVT in a cohort of patients with compensated cirrhosis. METHODS:Seventynine compensated cirrhosis patients were prospectively followed for 48 months, receiving a periodic Doppler-ultrasound liver examination associated with an extensive evaluation of clinical, biochemical, and hemostatic profile. RESULTS:Five patients developed PVT (cumulative prevalence = 6.3%), occurring 4-36 months after enrollment. In logistic regression analysis, the ADAMTS-13/VWF:GpIbR ratio < 0.4 was the only independent variable significantly associated with PVT (OR 14.6, 95% C.I.:1.36-157.2, p = 0.027). A Cox-regression-analysis confirmed this finding (HR = 7.7, p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS:The ADAMTS-13/VWF ratio < 0.4 measured in compensated cirrhosis could be a reliable predictive biomarker for PVT development, paving the way to novel therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat PVT in this clinical setting. 10.1016/j.dld.2022.06.004
    Evaluation of Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Endothelial Biomarkers in Cirrhotic Patients With or Without Portal Venous Thrombosis. Ren Wenhua,Zhang Jing,Chen Yuying,Wen Meng,Su Yu,Zhao Yujing,Lu Shan,Wu Jun Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis To evaluate variations in coagulation, fibrinolysis and endothelial marker expression in cirrhotic patients and to explore their clinical value and predictive performance in cirrhotic patients with or without portal vein thrombosis (PVT), we performed a case-control study with 175 cirrhotic patients and 50 healthy individuals. 99 patients had PVT and another 76 patients did not. All participants were evaluated for plasma levels of conventional hemostatic markers. Thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), plasmin-α2-plasmin inhibitor complex (PIC), thrombomodulin (TM), tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor complex (t-PAIC), von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF: Ag) and coagulation factor Ⅷ (FⅧ: c) were also assessed and the ratio of TAT/t-PAIC was calculated. We analyzed differences in these biomarkers among the three groups and constructed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Patients with PVT exhibited significantly higher TAT and TAT/t-PAIC than cirrhotic patients without PVT (both P < 0.001). Areas under the curve (AUC) of ROC analyses for TAT and TAT/t-PAIC were 0.68 and 0.66, the cut-off levels were 1.55 ng/ml and 0.46, with sensitivities and specificities of 78.79% and 51.32% regarding TAT, 39.8% and 90.79% regarding TAT/t-PAIC. Levels of FⅧ: c and vWF: Ag in patients with PVT were significantly lower than those without PVT (p = 0.026 and p = 0.027, respectively). The AUC, cut-off level, sensitivity and specificity of FⅧ: c were 0.64, 111.1%, 66.67% and 60%, respectively. For vWF: Ag they were 0.61, 429%, 89.66% and 38.71%, respectively. Cirrhotic patients have disorders of coagulation, fibrinolysis and the endothelial system. TAT, TAT/t-PAIC, FⅧ: c and vWF: Ag can be used as potential biomarkers for predicting PVT in cirrhotic patients. 10.1177/1076029620982666
    Presence of portal vein thrombosis in liver cirrhosis is strongly associated with low levels of ADAMTS-13: a pilot study. Lancellotti Stefano,Basso Maria,Veca Vito,Sacco Monica,Riccardi Laura,Pompili Maurizio,De Cristofaro Raimondo Internal and emergency medicine Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) dramatically changes the prognosis of cirrhotic patients, especially those waiting for liver transplantation. However, the possible contribution to PVT of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and ADAMTS-13 is poorly documented. The aim of our study was to assess the presence of alterations of VWF and ADAMTS-13 serum levels in cirrhotic patients with PVT. Twenty-four patients with PVT (group PVT) and 60 without PVT (group without PVT) were enrolled. A comprehensive analysis of biochemical and hemostatic parameters was performed. ADAMTS-13 activity was significantly lower in group A (median 16.8 vs. 69.1 %, p = 0.0047). Group PVT, compared to group without PVT, showed a significantly higher VWF:act, (median 308.4 vs 203.3 %, p = 0.032), whereas no difference was observed for VWF:Ag, FVIII level and the presence of risk factors for venous thromboembolism. No correlation was found between the Child-Pugh score and ADAMTS-13 activity. In multivariable logistic regression analysis performed on data concerning both group PVT and without PVT, only the ADAMTS-13 activity (p = 0.007) was independently and inversely associated with PVT. In conclusion, ADAMTS-13 activity is independently associated with PVT in cirrhotic patients. 10.1007/s11739-016-1467-x
    The portal vein in patients with cirrhosis is not an excessively inflammatory or hypercoagulable vascular bed, a prospective cohort study. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH BACKGROUND:A hypercoagulable state is not associated with development of portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis, as we previously demonstrated. However, some groups demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory markers and activation of hemostasis in the portal vein (PV) compared to posthepatic veins, but because the liver is involved in clearance of these markers, we hypothesize that interpretation of these data is not straightforward. AIM:To determine whether the PV has particular proinflammatory/hypercoagulable characteristics by comparing plasma sampled in the PV, hepatic vein (HV), and the systemic circulation. METHODS:Plasma samples from 51 cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement, were taken from the PV, HV, and jugular vein (JV). Markers of inflammation (lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), neutrophil-extracellular-traps (cfDNA, MPO-DNA), endothelial damage (von Willebrand factor [VWF]), and hemostasis were determined and compared among the three vascular beds. RESULTS:Markers of inflammation were slightly, but significantly higher in the PV than in the HV and systemic circulation. VWF and markers of hemostasis were modestly elevated in the PV. Levels of multiple markers were lower in the HV compared with the PV and systemic circulation. Higher model for end-stage liver disease score was associated with a more prothrombotic state in all three sample sites. CONCLUSION:In contrast to published studies, we did not detect a clear proinflammatory or prothrombotic environment in the PV of cirrhotic patients. Many markers are lowest in the HV, indicating that the low levels of these markers in the HV, at least in part, reflect clearance of those markers in the liver. 10.1111/jth.15797
    Portal Vein Thrombosis in Cirrhosis. Journal of clinical and experimental hepatology Patients with cirrhosis of the liver are at high risk of developing portal vein thrombosis (PVT), which has a complex, multifactorial cause. The condition may present with a myriad of symptoms and can occasionally cause severe complications. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of PVT. There are uncertainties regarding the effect on PVT and its treatment outcome in patients with cirrhosis. The main challenge for managing PVT in cirrhosis is analyzing the risk of hemorrhage compared to the risk of thrombus extension leading to complications. All current knowledge regarding non-tumor PVT in cirrhosis, including epidemiology, risk factors, classification, clinical presentation, diagnosis, impact on natural history, and treatment, is discussed in the present article. 10.1016/j.jceh.2021.11.003
    Nonmalignant portal vein thrombi in patients with cirrhosis consist of intimal fibrosis with or without a fibrin-rich thrombus. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) BACKGROUND AND AIM:Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a common complication of cirrhosis. The exact pathophysiology remains largely unknown, and treatment with anticoagulants does not lead to recanalization of the portal vein in all patients. A better insight into the structure and composition of portal vein thrombi may assist in developing strategies for the prevention and treatment of PVT. APPROACH AND RESULTS:Sixteen prospectively and 63 retrospectively collected nonmalignant portal vein thrombi from patients with cirrhosis who underwent liver transplantation were included. Histology, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess structure and composition of the thrombi. Most recent CT scans were reanalyzed for thrombus characteristics. Clinical characteristics were related to histological and radiological findings. All samples showed a thickened, fibrotic tunica intima. Fibrin-rich thrombi were present on top of the fibrotic intima in 9/16 prospective cases and in 21/63 retrospective cases. A minority of the fibrotic areas stained focally positive for fibrin/fibrinogen (16% of cases), von Willebrand factor (VWF; 10%), and CD61 (platelets, 21%), while most of the fibrin-rich areas stained positive for those markers (fibrin/fibrinogen, 100%; VWF, 77%; CD61, 100%). No associations were found between clinical characteristics including estimated thrombus age and use of anticoagulants and presence of fibrin-rich thrombi. CONCLUSION:We demonstrate that PVT in patients with cirrhosis consists of intimal fibrosis with an additional fibrin-rich thrombus in only one-third of cases. We hypothesize that our observations may explain why not all portal vein thrombi in patients with cirrhosis recanalize by anticoagulant therapy. 10.1002/hep.32169