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    The nature and biology of basement membranes. Pozzi Ambra,Yurchenco Peter D,Iozzo Renato V Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology Basement membranes are delicate, nanoscale and pliable sheets of extracellular matrices that often act as linings or partitions in organisms. Previously considered as passive scaffolds segregating polarized cells, such as epithelial or endothelial cells, from the underlying mesenchyme, basement membranes have now reached the center stage of biology. They play a multitude of roles from blood filtration to muscle homeostasis, from storing growth factors and cytokines to controlling angiogenesis and tumor growth, from maintaining skin integrity and neuromuscular structure to affecting adipogenesis and fibrosis. Here, we will address developmental, structural and biochemical aspects of basement membranes and discuss some of the pathogenetic mechanisms causing diseases linked to abnormal basement membranes. 10.1016/j.matbio.2016.12.009
    Clinicopathological characteristics and predictors of poor outcome in anti-glomerular basement membrane disease - a fifteen year single center experience. Zahir Zafirah,Wani Asif Sadiq,Prasad Narayan,Jain Manoj Renal failure INTRODUCTION:Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is a small vessel vasculitis affecting the renal and lung capillary beds. We aim to study the clinicopathological characteristics and predictors of poor outcome of this disease in our population. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This is a 15 year retrospective, single center observational study of Indian cohort. Patients with biopsy proven anti-GBM disease were studied. RESULTS:Anti-GBM disease was found in 0.5% of the total cases. The mean age at presentation was 46.7 years. Compared to renal limited disease those with pulmonary-renal syndrome had a higher frequency of hypertension, oliguria, percentage of crescents, interstitial inflammation and glomerulosclerosis. Double positive (anti-GBM and ANCA antibodies) patients showed more of glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (IFTA) as well as periglomerular granulomas on biopsy. Patient survival at one year was 40.4% and death censored renal survival was 9.7%. Factors affecting the dialysis dependency at presentation were oligoanuria ( = .04), creatinine levels >5.7 mg/dl ( = .003), and high mean anti-GBM titers ( = .008). Atypical cases accounted for 8.3% of these patients. Oligoanuria (HR = 5.0,  = .05), high serum creatinine (HR = 1.55,  = .05), severe glomerulosclerosis (HR = 1.09,  = .03), and IFTA (HR = 2,  = .04) were associated with poor renal outcome. Advanced age (HR = 1.92,  = .03), high serum creatinine (HR = 1.9,  = .04) and high anti-GBM titers (HR = 1.01,  = .03) were associated with poor patient survival. CONCLUSIONS:Anti-GBM is a rare disease with poor prognosis and varied presentations. Patients with pulmonary-renal syndrome showed severe disease whereas double positive had more of chronic changes. The predictors of poor prognosis include advanced age, oliguria, serum anti-GBM levels, serum creatinine levels, degree of glomerulosclerosis and IFTA. Atypical anti-GBM cases should be kept in mind while evaluating renal biopsies. 10.1080/0886022X.2020.1854301
    Endothelial Basement Membrane Laminins as an Environmental Cue in Monocyte Differentiation to Macrophages. Li Lixia,Song Jian,Chuquisana Omar,Hannocks Melanie-Jane,Loismann Sophie,Vogl Thomas,Roth Johannes,Hallmann Rupert,Sorokin Lydia Frontiers in immunology Monocyte differentiation to macrophages is triggered by migration across the endothelial barrier, which is constituted by both endothelial cells and their underlying basement membrane. We address here the role of the endothelial basement membrane laminins (laminins 411 and 511) in this monocyte to macrophage switch. Chimeric mice carrying CX3CR1-GFP bone marrow were employed to track CCL2-induced monocyte extravasation in a cremaster muscle model using intravital microscopy, revealing faster extravasation in mice lacking endothelial laminin 511 ( ) and slower extravasation in mice lacking laminin 411 ( ). CX3CR1-GFP extravasating monocytes were found to have a higher motility at laminin 511 low sites and to preferentially exit vessels at these sites. However, experiments reveal that this is not due to effects of laminin 511 on monocyte migration mode nor on the tightness of the endothelial barrier. Rather, using an intestinal macrophage replenishment model and differentiation studies, we demonstrate that laminin 511, together with the attached endothelium, promote monocyte differentiation to macrophages. Macrophage differentiation is associated with a change in integrin profile, permitting differentiating macrophages to distinguish between laminin 511 high and low areas and to preferentially migrate across laminin 511 low sites. These studies highlight the endothelial basement membrane as a critical site for monocyte differentiation to macrophages, which may be relevant to the differentiation of other cells at vascular niches. 10.3389/fimmu.2020.584229
    SARS-CoV-2 crosses the blood-brain barrier accompanied with basement membrane disruption without tight junctions alteration. Zhang Ling,Zhou Li,Bao Linlin,Liu Jiangning,Zhu Hua,Lv Qi,Liu Ruixue,Chen Wei,Tong Wei,Wei Qiang,Xu Yanfeng,Deng Wei,Gao Hong,Xue Jing,Song Zhiqi,Yu Pin,Han Yunlin,Zhang Yu,Sun Xiuping,Yu Xuan,Qin Chuan Signal transduction and targeted therapy SARS-CoV-2 has been reported to show a capacity for invading the brains of humans and model animals. However, it remains unclear whether and how SARS-CoV-2 crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Herein, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was occasionally detected in the vascular wall and perivascular space, as well as in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) in the infected K18-hACE2 transgenic mice. Moreover, the permeability of the infected vessel was increased. Furthermore, disintegrity of BBB was discovered in the infected hamsters by administration of Evans blue. Interestingly, the expression of claudin5, ZO-1, occludin and the ultrastructure of tight junctions (TJs) showed unchanged, whereas, the basement membrane was disrupted in the infected animals. Using an in vitro BBB model that comprises primary BMECs with astrocytes, SARS-CoV-2 was found to infect and cross through the BMECs. Consistent with in vivo experiments, the expression of MMP9 was increased and collagen IV was decreased while the markers for TJs were not altered in the SARS-CoV-2-infected BMECs. Besides, inflammatory responses including vasculitis, glial activation, and upregulated inflammatory factors occurred after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, our results provide evidence supporting that SARS-CoV-2 can cross the BBB in a transcellular pathway accompanied with basement membrane disrupted without obvious alteration of TJs. 10.1038/s41392-021-00719-9
    Combining biomarkers of clot resolution and alveolar basement membrane destruction predicts mortality in the ECLIPSE COPD cohort. Sand Jannie M B,Rønnow Sarah R,Langholm Lasse L,Karsdal Morten A,Manon-Jensen Tina,Tal-Singer Ruth,Miller Bruce E,Vestbo Jørgen,Leeming Diana J Respiratory medicine BACKGROUND:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by abnormal epithelial repair resulting in a hypercoagulable state with intra-alveolar accumulation of fibrin and alveolar basement membrane destruction. This study aimed to investigate if the combination of two serological biomarkers evaluating these pathological processes could improve the prediction of mortality risk compared to single biomarkers. METHODS:Matrix metalloproteinase-mediated degradation of the type IV collagen α3 chain (C4Ma3), located in the alveolar basement membrane, and plasmin-mediated degradation of crosslinked fibrin (X-FIB), an end-product of fibrinogen, were assessed serologically in a subset of the ECLIPSE cohort (n = 982). Biomarker data were dichotomized into high versus low at the median. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyze the predictive value of having one or two high biomarkers for all-cause mortality over two years. RESULTS:COPD participants with high levels of two biomarkers were at significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality with a hazard ratio of 7.66 (95% CI 1.75-33.48; p = 0.007) while participants with one high biomarker were not at significantly higher risk (HR 3.79 [95% CI 0.85-16.94]; p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS:A combination of serological biomarkers of alveolar basement membrane destruction and clot resolution was predictive of all-cause mortality in COPD. The combination of two different pathological aspects may strengthen prognostic accuracy and could be used in conjunction with clinical assessment to guide treatment decisions. 10.1016/j.rmed.2020.106185
    The vascular basement membrane in the healthy and pathological brain. Thomsen Maj S,Routhe Lisa J,Moos Torben Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism The vascular basement membrane contributes to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is formed by brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs). The BCECs receive support from pericytes embedded in the vascular basement membrane and from astrocyte endfeet. The vascular basement membrane forms a three-dimensional protein network predominantly composed of laminin, collagen IV, nidogen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans that mutually support interactions between BCECs, pericytes, and astrocytes. Major changes in the molecular composition of the vascular basement membrane are observed in acute and chronic neuropathological settings. In the present review, we cover the significance of the vascular basement membrane in the healthy and pathological brain. In stroke, loss of BBB integrity is accompanied by upregulation of proteolytic enzymes and degradation of vascular basement membrane proteins. There is yet no causal relationship between expression or activity of matrix proteases and the degradation of vascular matrix proteins in vivo. In Alzheimer's disease, changes in the vascular basement membrane include accumulation of Aβ, composite changes, and thickening. The physical properties of the vascular basement membrane carry the potential of obstructing drug delivery to the brain, e.g. thickening of the basement membrane can affect drug delivery to the brain, especially the delivery of nanoparticles. 10.1177/0271678X17722436
    Fibrosis Is a Basement Membrane-Related Disease in the Cornea: Injury and Defective Regeneration of Basement Membranes May Underlie Fibrosis in Other Organs. Wilson Steven E Cells Every organ develops fibrosis that compromises functions in response to infections, injuries, or diseases. The cornea is a relatively simple, avascular organ that offers an exceptional model to better understand the pathophysiology of the fibrosis response. Injury and defective regeneration of the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) or the endothelial Descemet's basement membrane (DBM) triggers the development of myofibroblasts from resident corneal fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived blood borne fibrocytes due to the increased entry of TGF beta-1/-2 into the stroma from the epithelium and tears or residual corneal endothelium and aqueous humor. The myofibroblasts, and disordered extracellular matrix these cells produce, persist until the source of injury is removed, the EBM and/or DBM are regenerated, or replaced surgically, resulting in decreased stromal TGF beta requisite for myofibroblast survival. A similar BM injury-related pathophysiology can underly the development of fibrosis in other organs such as skin and lung. The normal liver does not contain traditional BMs but develops sinusoidal endothelial BMs in many fibrotic diseases and models. However, normal hepatic stellate cells produce collagen type IV and perlecan that can modulate TGF beta localization and cognate receptor binding in the space of Dissé. BM-related fibrosis is deserving of more investigation in all organs. 10.3390/cells11020309
    Basement Membrane Regulates Fibronectin Organization Using Sliding Focal Adhesions Driven by a Contractile Winch. Lu Jiaoyang,Doyle Andrew D,Shinsato Yoshinari,Wang Shaohe,Bodendorfer Molly A,Zheng Minhua,Yamada Kenneth M Developmental cell We have discovered that basement membrane and its major components can induce rapid, strikingly robust fibronectin organization. In this new matrix assembly mechanism, α5β1 integrin-based focal adhesions slide actively on the underlying matrix toward the ventral cell center through the dynamic shortening of myosin IIA-associated actin stress fibers to drive rapid fibronectin fibrillogenesis distal to the adhesion. This mechanism contrasts with classical fibronectin assembly based on stable or fixed-position focal adhesions containing αVβ3 integrins plus α5β1 integrin translocation into proximal fibrillar adhesions. On basement membrane components, these sliding focal adhesions contain standard focal adhesion constituents but completely lack classical αVβ3 integrins. Instead, peripheral α3β1 or α2β1 adhesions mediate initial cell attachment but over time are switched to α5β1 integrin-based sliding focal adhesions to assemble fibronectin matrix. This basement-membrane-triggered mechanism produces rapid fibronectin fibrillogenesis, providing a mechanistic explanation for the well-known widespread accumulation of fibronectin at many organ basement membranes. 10.1016/j.devcel.2020.01.007
    Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease associated with thin basement membrane nephropathy: A case report. Medicine RATIONALE:Simultaneous occurrence of anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease and thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN), both of which invade the type IV collagen subunits, is very rare. Here, we present the case of a 20-year-old male patient diagnosed with both anti-GBM disease and TBMN upon presenting dyspnea and hemoptysis. PATIENT CONCERNS:No laboratory abnormalities, except arterial hypoxemia (PaO275.4 mmHg) and microscopic hematuria, were present. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral infiltrations in the lower lung fields; thus, administration of empirical antibiotics was initiated. Gross hemoptysis persisted nonetheless, and bronchoscopy revealed diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage with no endobronchial lesions. Broncho-alveolar lavage excluded bacterial pneumonia, tuberculosis, and fungal infection. DIAGNOSIS:Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of his serum was positive for anti-GBM antibody (95.1 U/mL). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) test was positive for both HLA-DR15/-DR04. Other than diffuse thinning of the GBM (average thickness, 220 nm), index kidney biopsy did not demonstrate any specific abnormalities such as crescent formation. INTERVENTIONS:Methylprednisolone was administered intravenously for 7 consecutive days (500 mg/day), followed by the daily dose of oral prednisolone (80 mg). Cyclophosphamide was also orally administered every day for 3 months (250 mg/day). Following 6 sessions of plasmapheresis, the anti-GBM antibody in serum became negative. OUTCOMES:There was no clinical evidence suggesting recurrence of pulmonary hemorrhage or azotemia during hospitalization and 12-month follow-up period. Twelve months after hospital discharge, oral prednisolone was discontinued. LESSONS:The patients with concurrent anti-GBM disease and TBMN will have a favorable prognosis after proper therapy. However, further research is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis and long-term outcome of the comorbidity of these 2 diseases. 10.1097/MD.0000000000026095
    Human Cytomegalovirus Interactions with the Basement Membrane Protein Nidogen 1. Kuan Man I,Jaeger Hannah K,Balemba Onesmo B,O'Dowd John M,Duricka Deborah,Hannemann Holger,Marx Emmerentia,Teissier Natacha,Gabrielli Liliana,Bonasoni Maria Paola,Keithley Elizabeth M,Fortunato Elizabeth A Journal of virology In 2000, we reported that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) induced specific damage on chromosome 1. The capacity of the virus to induce DNA breaks indicated potent interaction between viral proteins and these loci. We have fine mapped the 1q42 breaksite. Transcriptional analysis of genes encoded in close proximity revealed virus-induced downregulation of a single gene, (). Beginning between 12 and 24 hours postinfection (hpi) and continuing throughout infection, steady-state (ss) NID1 protein levels were decreased in whole-cell lysates and secreted supernatants of human foreskin fibroblasts. Addition of the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 to culture medium stabilized NID1 in virus-infected cells, implicating infection-activated proteasomal degradation of NID1. Targeting of NID1 via two separate pathways highlighted the virus' emphasis on NID1 elimination. NID1 is an important basement membrane protein secreted by many cell types, including the endothelial cells (ECs) lining the vasculature. We found that ss NID1 was also reduced in infected ECs and hypothesized that virus-induced removal of NID1 might offer HCMV a means of increased distribution throughout the host. Supporting this idea, transmigration assays of THP-1 cells seeded onto -knockout (KO) EC monolayers demonstrated increased transmigration. NID1 is expressed widely in the developing fetal central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS) and is important for neuronal migration and neural network excitability and plasticity and regulates Schwann cell proliferation, migration, and myelin production. We found that NID1 expression was dramatically decreased in clinical samples of infected temporal bones. While potentially beneficial for virus dissemination, HCMV-induced elimination of NID1 may underlie negative ramifications to the infected fetus. We have found that HCMV infection promotes the elimination of the developmentally important basement membrane protein nidogen 1 (NID1) from its host. The virus both decreased transcription and induced degradation of expressed protein. Endothelial cell (EC) secretion of basement membrane proteins is critical for vascular wall integrity, and infection equivalently affected NID1 protein levels in these cells. We found that the absence of NID1 in an EC monolayer allowed increased transmigration of monocytes equivalent to that observed after infection of ECs. The importance of NID1 in development has been well documented. We found that NID1 protein was dramatically reduced in infected inner ear clinical samples. We believe that HCMV's attack on host NID1 favors viral dissemination at the cost of negative developmental ramifications in the infected fetus. 10.1128/JVI.01506-20
    Proteolytic and Opportunistic Breaching of the Basement Membrane Zone by Immune Cells during Tumor Initiation. van den Berg Maaike C W,MacCarthy-Morrogh Lucy,Carter Deborah,Morris Josephine,Ribeiro Bravo Isabel,Feng Yi,Martin Paul Cell reports Cancer-related inflammation impacts significantly on cancer development and progression. From early stages, neutrophils and macrophages are drawn to pre-neoplastic cells in the epidermis, but before directly interacting, they must first breach the underlying extracellular matrix barrier layer that includes the basement membrane. Using several different skin cancer models and a collagen I-GFP transgenic zebrafish line, we have undertaken correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) to capture the moments when immune cells traverse the basement membrane. We show evidence both for active proteolytic burrowing and for the opportunistic use of pre-existing weak spots in the matrix layer. We show that these small holes, as well as much larger, cancer cell-generated or wound-triggered gaps in the matrix barrier, provide portals for immune cells to access cancer cells in the epidermis and thus are rate limiting in cancer progression. 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.05.029
    To form and function: on the role of basement membrane mechanics in tissue development, homeostasis and disease. Khalilgharibi Nargess,Mao Yanlan Open biology The basement membrane (BM) is a special type of extracellular matrix that lines the basal side of epithelial and endothelial tissues. Functionally, the BM is important for providing physical and biochemical cues to the overlying cells, sculpting the tissue into its correct size and shape. In this review, we focus on recent studies that have unveiled the complex mechanical properties of the BM. We discuss how these properties can change during development, homeostasis and disease via different molecular mechanisms, and the subsequent impact on tissue form and function in a variety of organisms. We also explore how better characterization of BM mechanics can contribute to disease diagnosis and treatment, as well as development of better and models that not only impact the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, but can also reduce the use of animals in research. 10.1098/rsob.200360
    Basement membrane remodelling regulates mouse embryogenesis. Kyprianou Christos,Christodoulou Neophytos,Hamilton Russell S,Nahaboo Wallis,Boomgaard Diana Suarez,Amadei Gianluca,Migeotte Isabelle,Zernicka-Goetz Magdalena Nature Tissue sculpting during development has been attributed mainly to cellular events through processes such as convergent extension or apical constriction. However, recent work has revealed roles for basement membrane remodelling in global tissue morphogenesis. Upon implantation, the epiblast and extraembryonic ectoderm of the mouse embryo become enveloped by a basement membrane. Signalling between the basement membrane and these tissues is critical for cell polarization and the ensuing morphogenesis. However, the mechanical role of the basement membrane in post-implantation embryogenesis remains unknown. Here we demonstrate the importance of spatiotemporally regulated basement membrane remodelling during early embryonic development. Specifically, we show that Nodal signalling directs the generation and dynamic distribution of perforations in the basement membrane by regulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. This basement membrane remodelling facilitates embryo growth before gastrulation. The establishment of the anterior-posterior axis further regulates basement membrane remodelling by localizing Nodal signalling-and therefore the activity of matrix metalloproteinases and basement membrane perforations-to the posterior side of the embryo. Perforations on the posterior side are essential for primitive-streak extension during gastrulation by rendering the basement membrane of the prospective primitive streak more prone to breaching. Thus spatiotemporally regulated basement membrane remodelling contributes to the coordination of embryo growth, morphogenesis and gastrulation. 10.1038/s41586-020-2264-2