Iodinated Contrast Media Substitution to Prevent Recurrent Hypersensitivity Reactions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Background Changing iodinated contrast media (ICM) may reduce the risk of recurrent ICM-induced hypersensitivity reactions in patients with a prior reaction. Purpose To perform a systematic review on the effectiveness of ICM change in comparison with no change to prevent recurrent ICM immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Materials and methods Multiple data bases were searched without language restriction between January 1990 and August 2021 to identify comparative studies of any design that included patients with a prior ICM hypersensitivity reaction to low-osmolality ICM and re-exposure to intravascular ICM. The methods used included a duplicate assessment of eligibility, double extraction of quantitative data, validity assessment, and random-effects meta-analysis. The primary outcome was the incidence of all-grade immediate recurrent hypersensitivity reactions. Secondary outcomes were the incidence of severe immediate recurrent hypersensitivity reactions and other adverse events associated with ICM change. Results Six retrospective observational studies at moderate to severe risk of bias assessed 7155 adult patients (4329 in the ICM change group and 2826 in the no-change group). Studies adopted nonstandardized switching methods, and the proportions of the ICM change group ranged between 19% (five of 27 examinations) and 80% (3104 of 3880 examinations). A Bayesian meta-analysis revealed that changing ICM was associated with a reduced risk of recurrent hypersensitivity reaction by 61% (risk ratio = 0.39; 95% credible interval [CrI]: 0.24, 0.58). The wide-ranging estimates of risk reduction were not explained by the risk of bias ratings, the event rates in the no-change group, the index-reaction severity, or the co-administered nonstandard premedication. Rare severe recurrent reactions (five studies with five events) precluded a conclusion (risk ratio = 0.34, favoring ICM change; CrI: 0.01, 3.74). Adverse events associated with ICM change were not reported. Conclusion In observational evidence of limited quality, iodinated contrast media (ICM)-change was associated with a reduced risk of recurrent immediate hypersensitivity reaction in patients with a prior ICM-induced hypersensitivity reaction. © RSNA, 2022 See also the editorial by McDonald in this issue.