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    Overexpression of NEK2 is correlated with poor prognosis in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Wang Chenfeng,Huang Yan,Ma Xin,Wang Baojun,Zhang Xu International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology OBJECTIVES:Never in mitosis gene A-related kinase 2 (NEK2) has been implicated in tumorigenesis in various tissues, but its function in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tumorigenesis is unclear. We evaluated the correlation between NEK2 expression and ccRCC. METHODS:Immunohistochemistry analysis of NEK2 protein was done on high-density multi-organ Human Cancer tissue microarray derived from the patient samples from clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We used multiple clinical cohorts to analyze the NEK2 immunohistochemical staining expression across human cancers. The cancer genome atlas (TCGA) data analysis of NEK2 was done through UALCAN web servers. Association of NEK2 and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was done on both of our clinical database and available TCGA datasets. RESULTS:Using the UALCAN cancer transcriptional data analysis website, we found that NEK2 is overexpressed in ccRCC, and its expression was associated with overall survival. According to the analyses of our own clinical database and immunohistochemical staining, protein levels of NEK2 were elevated in renal carcinoma compared to adjacent normal tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of both UALCAN and our database showed that high expression of NEK2 was associated with a poor prognosis. Multivariate and univariate analyses showed that NEK2 expression was closely related to a poor prognosis. The findings suggest that NEK2 is associated with ccRCC. CONCLUSION:These studies show that NEK2 is over-expressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and plays an essential role in cancer cell survival, as such NEK2 could serve as a novel potential target for therapeutic intervention in ccRCC. 10.1177/20587384211065893
    Otoferlin is a prognostic biomarker in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma: A systematic expression analysis. Cox Alexander,Tolkach Yuri,Stein Johannes,Kristiansen Glen,Ritter Manuel,Ellinger Jörg International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association OBJECTIVES:To comprehensively investigate the role of otoferlin as a prognostic and diagnostic biomarker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. METHODS:Three independent cohorts were used to study otoferlin in clear cell renal cell carcinoma: The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort (messenger ribonucleic acid expression; clear cell renal cell carcinoma n = 514, normal renal tissue n = 81); study validation cohort (messenger ribonucleic acid expression; clear cell renal cell carcinoma n = 79, normal renal tissue n = 44); and immunohistochemistry cohort (protein expression; clear cell renal cell carcinoma n = 142, normal renal tissue n = 30). Otoferlin gene expressions were extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas database or determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry staining against otoferlin on tissue microarrays. Correlations between otoferlin messenger ribonucleic acid/protein expression and clinicopathological data/patient survival were statistically tested. RESULTS:Otoferlin messenger ribonucleic acid expression was significantly upregulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma compared with normal renal tissue. High expression levels correlated with advanced stage, higher grade and metastatic tumors, accompanied by independent prognostic significance for overall and cancer-specific survival. In contrast, otoferlin protein expression was downregulated in tumor tissue. Although, high otoferlin expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma was positively correlated with histological grading and independently predictive of a shortened progression-free survival. CONCLUSION:Our data suggest otoferlin as an indicator of tumor aggressiveness and as a prognostic biomarker for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma, leading to the conclusion that otoferlin could promote the malignancy of clear cell renal cell carcinoma. 10.1111/iju.14486
    A robust ferroptosis-related gene signature predicts overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Canxuan Li,Dan Long Future oncology (London, England) To investigate the prognostic values and potential mechanisms of ferroptosis-related genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Univariate Cox, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression and multivariate Cox regression analyses were employed to identify prognosis-related hub ferroptosis-related genes and establish a prognostic model. The authors established a novel clinical predictive model based on seven hub ferroptosis-related genes in The Cancer Genome Atlas training cohort (n = 374) that was verified in the testing cohort (n = 156) and the entire group (n = 530). Functional analysis indicated that several carcinogenic pathways were enriched. Tumor-infiltrating cells and immunosuppressive molecules were significantly different between the two risk groups. Collectively, the authors successfully constructed a novel ferroptosis-related risk signature that was significantly associated with the prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma. 10.2217/fon-2021-0275
    Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 2 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in clear cell renal cell carcinoma metastasis by downregulating the NF-κB pathway. Duan Jiachen,Jin Mengyuan,Yang Dongjing,Shi Jihua,Gao Jie,Guo Danfeng,Tang Hongwei,Zhang Shuijun,Qiao Baoping Bioengineered Clear cell renal cell carcinoma, the most common type of renal cancer, is associated with poor survival. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 2 regulates the molecular mechanisms of cancer cells. However, its mechanism in clear cell renal cell carcinoma remains unclear. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess ubiquitin-specific peptidase 2 expression in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma samples. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 2 was weakly expressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma samples and associated with poor patient outcomes. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 2 inhibition promoted clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 2 overexpression inhibited clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and . RNA-sequencing showed significant changes in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related pathways following ubiquitin-specific peptidase 2 knockdown. Western blotting was performed to detect the protein expression levels. Expression of p-nuclear factor-κB p65, N-cadherin, Vimentin, and Snail, which were markedly increased, as well as E-cadherin, which was decreased following ubiquitin-specific peptidase 2 knockdown. Rescue experiments using the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 revealed that the migration and invasion abilities and the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathway proteins were inhibited in both the short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for ubiquitin-specific peptidase 2 and shRNA for negative control groups. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 2 is a potential biomarker to distinguish clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients from healthy individuals. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 2-mediated inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells is dependent on the nuclear factor-κB pathway. 10.1080/21655979.2022.2033403
    Renal cell carcinoma: a review of biology and pathophysiology. Nabi Shahzaib,Kessler Elizabeth R,Bernard Brandon,Flaig Thomas W,Lam Elaine T F1000Research Over the past decade, our understanding of the biology and pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has improved significantly. Insight into the disease process has helped us in developing newer therapeutic approaches toward RCC. In this article, we review the various genetic and immune-related mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and development of this cancer and how that knowledge is being used to develop therapeutic targeted drugs for the treatment of RCC. The main emphasis of this review article is on the most common genetic alterations found in clear cell RCC and how various drugs are currently targeting such pathways. This article also looks at the role of the immune system in allowing the growth of RCC and how the immune system can be manipulated to reactivate cytotoxic immunity against RCC. 10.12688/f1000research.13179.1
    Low expression of ferritinophagy-related NCOA4 gene in relation to unfavorable outcome and defective immune cells infiltration in clear cell renal carcinoma. Mou Yanhua,Wu Jinchun,Zhang Yao,Abdihamid Omar,Duan Chaojun,Li Bin BMC cancer BACKGROUND:Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is susceptible to ferroptosis, and immunotherapy is recently recommended as a priority for the initial treatment of metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma. Increased ferroptosis and immune activation can synergistically reinforce each other in killing cancer cells. NCOA4 depletion can eliminate iron accumulation and thus weaken ferroptosis. Here, we aim to identify and validate the association between NCOA4 expression, clinicopathologic characteristics, and overall survival in ccRCC by using The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus databases. We further analyze the interacted proteins of NCOA4 and infiltrated immune cells via TIMER and GEPIA databases. METHODS:NCOA4 expression in clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) tissues and normal adjacent tissues in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data were primarily screened, and further validated in another independent cohort from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database and human protein atlas. The relationships of NCOA4 expression and clinicopathologic parameters and overall survival (OS) were assessed using multivariate methods and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. And the proteins network with which NCOA4 interacted were also built using the online STRING website. Meanwhile, we use TIMER and GEPIA databases to investigate the relationships between NCOA4 expression and infiltrated immune cells and their corresponding gene marker sets. RESULTS:Contrast to normal tissue, NCOA4 expression was lower in ccRCC tumor tissue(p < 0.05). Lower NCOA4 expression was closely associated with high-grade malignancy and advanced TNM stage. Univariate and multivariate analysis indicated the overall survival of ccRCC cases with low NCOA4 level is shorter than those of patients with high NCOA4 expression (p < 0.05). FTL and FTH1 were the important proteins interacting with NCOA4. ccRCC with NCOA4 deficiency presented the paucity of infiltrated immune cells and their matching marker sets, including CD8+ T cells. CONCLUSION:Deficient NCOA4 expression was related to disease progression and poor prognosis, as well as impaired infiltration of immune cells in ccRCC. 10.1186/s12885-020-07726-z
    Impact of Extracellular Matrix Components to Renal Cell Carcinoma Behavior. Majo Sandra,Courtois Sarah,Souleyreau Wilfried,Bikfalvi Andreas,Auguste Patrick Frontiers in oncology Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents the main renal tumors and are highly metastatic. They are heterogeneous tumors and are subdivided in 12 different subtypes where clear cell RCC (ccRCC) represents the main subtype. Tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed, in RCC, mainly of different fibrillar collagens, fibronectin, and components of the basement membrane such as laminin, collagen IV, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Little is known about the role of these ECM components on RCC cell behavior. Analysis from The Human Protein Atlas dataset shows that high collagen 1 or 4A2, fibronectin, entactin, or syndecan 3 expression is associated with poor prognosis whereas high collagen 4A3, syndecan 4, or glypican 4 expression is associated with increased patient survival. We then analyzed the impact of collagen 1, fibronectin 1 or Matrigel on three different RCC cell lines (Renca, 786-O and Caki-2) . We found that all the different matrices have little effect on RCC cell proliferation. The three cell lines adhere differently on the three matrices, suggesting the involvement of a different set of integrins. Among the 3 matrices tested, collagen 1 is the only component able to increase migration in the three cell lines as well as MMP-2 and 9 activity. Moreover, collagen 1 induces MMP-2 mRNA expression and is implicated in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition of two RCC cell lines via Zeb2 (Renca) or Snail 2 (Caki-2) mRNA expression. Taken together, our results show that collagen 1 is the main component of the ECM that enhances tumor cell invasion in RCC, which is important for the metastasic process. 10.3389/fonc.2020.00625