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    Is Gut Microbiota a Key Player in Epilepsy Onset? A Longitudinal Study in Drug-Naive Children. Ceccarani Camilla,Viganò Ilaria,Ottaviano Emerenziana,Redaelli Maria Gaia,Severgnini Marco,Vignoli Aglaia,Borghi Elisa Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology Microbiota alterations have been recently investigated in individuals with epilepsy and in other neurological diseases as environmental factors that play a role, by acting through the gut-brain axis, in the pathological process. Most studies focus on the contribution of bacterial communities in refractory epilepsy and suggest a beneficial role of ketogenic diet in modulating the gut microbiota and seizure occurrence. However, they do not evaluate whether epilepsy itself alters the gut microbiota in these patients or if the gut microbial communities could contribute as a seizure trigger. In this pilot study, we performed 16S rRNA sequencing and investigated the gut microbial communities of eight children at their seizure onset and after anti-seizure was started (one year follow-up) and we compared microbial data with seven healthy children, age- and sex-matched. In drug-naive subjects, we observed a microbial signature that shared several features with those reported in refractory epilepsy, such as an increased abundance in spp. and Proteobacteria and a decreased relative abundance in spp.We suggest that a bacterial-mediated proinflammatory milieu could contribute to seizure occurrence in children with new onset of epilepsy, as already reported for individuals with drug-resistant epilepsy, and that it could vary during treatment in those who are drug-responsive. 10.3389/fcimb.2021.749509
    Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Relieves Gastrointestinal and Autism Symptoms by Improving the Gut Microbiota in an Open-Label Study. Li Ning,Chen Hongyan,Cheng Yi,Xu Fenghua,Ruan Guangcong,Ying Senhong,Tang Wen,Chen Lu,Chen Minjia,Lv LinLing,Ping Yi,Chen Dongfeng,Wei Yanling Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe brain development disorder that is characterized by deficits in social communication and restricted, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gut microbiota disorders play important roles in gastrointestinal symptoms and neurodevelopmental dysfunction in ASD patients. Manipulation of the gut microbiota by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was recently shown to be a promising therapy for the treatment of various diseases. Here, we performed a clinical trial to evaluate the effect of FMT on gastrointestinal (GI) and ASD symptoms and gut microbiota alterations in children with ASD. We found that there was a large difference in baseline characteristics of behavior, GI symptoms, and gut microbiota between children with ASD and typically developing (TD) control children. FMT could improve GI symptoms and ASD symptoms without inducing any severe complications. Similarly, FMT significantly changed the serum levels of neurotransmitters. We further observed that FMT could promote the colonization of donor microbes and shift the bacterial community of children with ASD toward that of TD controls. The abundance of pre-FMT was positively correlated with high GSRS scores, whereas a decrease in abundance induced by FMT was associated with the FMT response. Our data suggest that FMT might be a promising therapeutic strategy to improve the GI and behavioral symptoms of patients with ASD, possibly due to its ability to alter gut microbiota and highlight a specific microbiota intervention that targets that can enhance the FMT response. This trial was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (www.chictr.org.cn) (trial registration number ChiCTR1800014745). 10.3389/fcimb.2021.759435
    Differential Gut Microbiota Compositions Related With the Severity of Major Depressive Disorder. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology Objective:Increasing evidence shows a close relationship between gut microbiota and major depressive disorder (MDD), but the specific mechanisms remain unknown. This study was conducted to explore differential gut microbiota compositions related to the severity of MDD. Methods:Healthy controls (HC) (n = 131) and MDD patients (n = 130) were included. MDD patients with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score <25 and ≥25 were assigned into moderate (n = 72) and severe (n = 58) MDD groups, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to analyze the gut microbiota compositions at the genus level. Results:Thirty-six and 27 differential genera were identified in moderate and severe MDD patients, respectively. The differential genera in moderate and severe MDD patients mainly belonged to three (Firmicutes, Actinobacteriota, and Bacteroidota) and two phyla (Firmicutes and Bacteroidota), respectively. One specific covarying network from phylum Actinobacteriota was identified in moderate MDD patients. In addition, five genera (, , , , and ) from the shared differential genera by two MDD groups had a fair efficacy in diagnosing MDD from HC (AUC = 0.786). Conclusions:Our results were helpful for further exploring the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of depression and developing objective diagnostic methods for MDD. 10.3389/fcimb.2022.907239