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    Agarwood Essential Oil Ameliorates Restrain Stress-Induced Anxiety and Depression by Inhibiting HPA Axis Hyperactivity. Wang Shuai,Wang Canhong,Yu Zhangxin,Wu Chongming,Peng Deqian,Liu Xinmin,Liu Yangyang,Yang Yun,Guo Peng,Wei Jianhe International journal of molecular sciences In our previous investigation, we found that agarwood essential oil (AEO) has a sedative-hypnotic effect. Sedative-hypnotic drugs usually have an anxiolytic effect, where concomitant anxiety and depression are a common comorbidity. Therefore, this study further investigated the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of AEO using a series of animal behavior tests on a restraint stress-induced mice model. The elevated plus maze (EPM) test, the light dark exploration (LDE) test, and the open field (OF) test demonstrated that AEO has a significant anxiolytic effect. Simultaneously, the tail suspension (TS) test and the forced swimming (FS) test illuminated that AEO has an antidepressant effect with the immobility time decreased. Stress can cause cytokine and nitric oxide (NO) elevation, and further lead to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity. AEO was shown to dose-dependently inhibit the levels of cytokines, including interleukin 1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, and IL-6 in serum, significantly decrease the mRNA level of neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and inhibit the nNOS protein level in the hippocampus. Concomitant measurements of the HPA axis upstream regulator corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and its receptor CRFR found that AEO significantly decreases the gene expression of CRF, and significantly inhibits the gene transcription and protein expression of CRFR in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Additionally, AEO dose-dependently reduces the concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) downstream of the HPA axis, as measured by ELISA kits. These results together demonstrate that AEO exerts anxiolytic and antidepressant effects which are related to the inhibition of CRF and hyperactivity of the HPA axis. 10.3390/ijms19113468
    Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil inhalation prevents memory impairment, anxiety and depression in scopolamine-treated rats. Bagci Eyup,Aydin Emel,Ungureanu Eugen,Hritcu Lucian Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie Anthriscus nemorosa (Bieb.) Sprengel is used for medicinal purposes in traditional medicine around the world, including Turkey. Ethnobotanical studies suggest that Anthriscus essential oil could improve memory in Alzheimer's disease. The current study was hypothesized to investigate the beneficial effects of inhaled Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil on memory, anxiety and depression in scopolamine-treated rats. Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil was administered by inhalation in the doses of 1% and 3% for 21 continuous days and scopolamine (0.7mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30min before the behavioral testing. Y-maze and radial arm-maze tests were used for assessing memory processes. Also, the anxiety and depressive responses were studied by elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests. As expected, the scopolamine alone-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease the percentage of the spontaneous alternation in Y-maze test, increase the number of working and reference memory errors in radial arm-maze test, decrease of the exploratory activity, the percentage of the time spent and the number of entries in the open arm within elevated plus-maze test and decrease of swimming time and increase of immobility time within forced swimming test. However, dual scopolamine and Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil-treated rats showed significant improvement of memory formation and exhibited anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in scopolamine-treated rats. These results suggest that Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil inhalation can prevent scopolamine-induced memory impairment, anxiety and depression. 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.10.075
    Effect of the fragrance inhalation of essential oil from Asarum heterotropoides on depression-like behaviors in mice. Park Hyun-Jung,Lim Eun-Ju,Zhao Rong Jie,Oh Sa Rang,Jung Ji Wook,Ahn Eun-Mi,Lee Eun Sook,Koo Jin Suk,Kim Hee Young,Chang Suchan,Shim Hyun Soo,Kim Kwang Joong,Gwak Young Seob,Yang Chae Ha BMC complementary and alternative medicine BACKGROUND:Psychological stressors may cause affective disorders, such as depression and anxiety, by altering expressions of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), serotonin (5-HT), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the brain. This study investigated the effects of essential oil from Asarum heterotropoides (EOAH) on depression-like behaviors and brain expressions of CRF, 5-HT, and TH in mice challenged with stress. METHODS:Male ICR mice received fragrance inhalation of EOAH (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g) for 3 h in the special cage capped with a filter paper before start of the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The duration of immobility was measured for the determination of depression-like behavior in the FST and TST. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine as positive control was administered at a dose of 15 mg/kg (i.p.) 30 min before start of behavioral testing. Immunoreactivities of CRF, 5-HT, and TH in the brain were also measured using separate groups of mice subjected to the FST. RESULTS:EOAH at higher doses (1.0 and 2.0 g) reduced immobility time in the FST and TST. In addition, EOAH at a dose of 1.0 g significantly reduced the expected increases in the expression of CRF positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus and the expression of TH positive neurons in the locus coeruleus, and the expected decreases of the 5-HT positive neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus. CONCLUSION:These results provide strong evidence that EOAH effectively inhibits depression-like behavioral responses, brain CRF and TH expression increases, and brain 5-HT expression decreases in mice challenged with stress. 10.1186/s12906-015-0571-1
    Dose-related effects of inhaled essential oils on behavioural measures of anxiety and depression and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Aponso Minoli,Patti Antonio,Bennett Louise E Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Essential oils (EOs) are extracts of organic, volatile metabolites of plants that are typically oily liquids at ambient temperatures. Inhalation of EOs can regulate brain health and functions associated with mood and neurodegeneration, reflecting their bioavailability to brain. The aim was to identify physicochemical properties that influenced EO volatility and pathways of brain uptake by inhalation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Dose-dependency of effects, determined as: total EO intake (μg/g bodyweight-BW), and rate of EO intake (μg/hr/g-BW), was determined by meta-analysis of data from animal studies (10 studies, 12 EOs), measuring effects on anxiety, depression and selected biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation (OSI). RESULTS:Results demonstrated benefits on animal behavior at EO intakes of 1-100 μg/g BW and 1-10 μg/hr/g BW (Elevated Plus Maze and Forced Swimming tests) and <100 μg/g BW and 10-100 g/hr/g BW (Marble Burying). EOs regulated OSI biomarkers at intakes of 10-100 μg/g BW and 1-10 μg/h/g BW, and a dose-dependent elevation of dopamine at >1000 μg/g BW and 100-1000 μg/hr/g BW. CONCLUSION:The results support that EO 'aromatherapy' can promote dose-dependent regulation of anxiety, depression and OSI and that efficacy requires optimization of dose. 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112469
    Effect of Inhaling Bergamot Oil on Depression-Related Behaviors in Chronic Stressed Rats. Saiyudthong Somrudee,Mekseepralard Chantana Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet BACKGROUND:Bergamot essential oil (BEO) possesses sedation and anxiolytic properties similar to diazepam. After long period of exposure to stressors, including restrained stress, depressive-like behavior can be produced. BEO has been suggested to reduce depression. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting this property. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of BEO in chronic stressed rats on: 1) behavior related depressive disorder, 2) hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis response, and iii) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in hippocampus. MATERIAL AND METHOD:Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 to 250 g, were induced chronic restrained stress 15 minutes dailyfor two weeks. For the next two weeks, these rats were divided intofour groups, control-i.p., fluoxetine-i.p., control-inhale, and BEO-inhale. Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg i.p.) or saline was intraperitoneally administered daily while 2.5% BEO or saline was inhaled daily. At the end of the treatment, rats were assessed for depressive-like behavior using the forced swimming test (FST). After the behavioral test, the animals were immediately decapitated and trunk blood samples were collected for the measurement ofcorticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels and hippocampus was dissected and stored in afreezer at -80 °C until assay for BDNF protein. RESULTS:BEO andfluoxetine significantly decreased the immobility time in the FST (p < 0.05). Fluoxetine tended to decrease serum corticosterone and significantly (p < 0.05) decreased serum ACTH while BEO had no effect on these two stress hormones. For BDNF protein determination, neither BEO norfluoxetine had any effect on BDNF protein levels in hippocampus compared to their controls. CONCLUSION:The inhalation ofBEO decrease behavior related depressive disorder similar tofluoxetine but has no effect on HPA axis response and BDNF protein levels in chronic restrained stress.
    Research Progress of Essential Oil as a New Complementary Therapy in the Treatment of Depression. Liang Xinli,Wang Xinli,Zhao Guowei,Huang Xiaoying,Xu Xiqiang,Dong Wei Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry Depression is a mood disorder or affective disorder disease with depression as the main symptom. It has become a kind of mental disease that cannot be ignored in the world that seriously endangers human physical and mental health. Antidepressants commonly used in clinics generally have some defects, including slow action, unremarkable effects, and large side-effects. Therefore, there has a huge developing space for the research of new and effective therapeutic drugs to supplement or replace traditional drugs. The essential oil has obvious advantages in the treatment of depression and other emotional diseases, its aromatic odor can directly stimulate the olfactory nerves, and the lipophilic small- molecular compounds can cross the blood-brain barrier easily to play its regulatory role of releasing neurotransmitters and hormones related to depression, or adjusting the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and proinflammatory cytokines. The pathogenesis of depression and the problems in traditional medication were illustrated, the research on the antidepressant effects and mechanism of essential oils in recent years is summarized, and the antidepressant chemical components in plant essential oils are reviewed in this article. The article provides scientific basis for an essential oil to be a new choice for relieving depression and treating depression. 10.2174/1389557521666210219161747
    The regulatory effect of Xiaoyao San on glucocorticoid receptors under the condition of chronic stress. Lu Jiandong,Fu Lijun,Qin Guozhong,Shi Pengliang,Fu Wenjun Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) In modern society, fierce competitions cause yearly increase of depression and anxiety. Xiaoyao San is a traditional Chinese medicine which relieves depression and nourishes liver. The active ingredients contain saikoside A, saikoside C, saikoside D, ferulic acid, ligustilide, Atractylenolide I, Atractylenolide II, Atractylenolide Ⅲ, paeoniflorin, Albiflorin, liquiritin, glycyrrhizic acid and pachymic acid. In stress condition, glucocorticoid receptors participate in the hypothalamus-pituitarium-adrenal gland (HPA) axis to regulate the balance of organism. In response to stress, the HPA axis (hypothalamus-pituitarium-adrenal gland) is activated and the levels of glucocorticoid (GC) and catecholamine (CA) are increased to enhance neuroendocrine reactions. Chronic stress activates HPA axis and sustaining increase of GC, reduces the expression amount of GR and inhibits the mechanism of negative feedback on HPA. The lower negative feedback on HPA could lead to ketonemia. Several active ingredients of Xiaoyao San can raise the expression of GR and recover the negative feedback of HPA axis to relieve depression and illness state. In spite of the poor understanding of the current effective components in Xiaoyao San, this will be the focus of our further research. The study of Xiaoyao San could help us better understand its anti-depression mechanism and cure the patients.
    The Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine Zhike-Houpu Herbal Pair on Depressive Behaviors and Hippocampal Serotonin 1A Receptors in Rats After Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress. Xia Zian,Zhang Chunhu,Du Yuanhao,Huang Wei,Xing Zhihua,Cao Hui,Nie Kechao,Wang Yang,Xiong Xingui,Yang Bo Psychosomatic medicine OBJECTIVE:Zhike-Houpu herbal pair (ZKHPHP) is a well-known Chinese medicine to treat gastrointestinal motility dysfunction. Recently, many researchers have found that some of the compounds of ZKHPHP such as meranzin hydrate and magnolol have antidepressant effects. However, little is known about the antidepressant mechanism of ZKHPHP. Therefore, the main aim of the study is to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of ZKHPHP and its possible mechanism of action on 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (HTR1A) in the hippocampus CA1 region in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress. METHODS:Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following six groups: normal, model, ZKHPHP (3 g/kg), ZKHPHP (10 g/kg), ZKHPHP (20 g/kg), and ZKHPHP (30 g/kg); n = 8 per group. We exposed the rats to chronic unpredictable mild stress and then assessed antidepressant-like effects of ZKHPHP by measuring weight change, observing the open-field test, and measuring sucrose water consumption. The antidepressant mechanism was examined by measuring the effect of ZKHPHP on HTR1A protein expression and HTR1A mRNA expression in the hippocampus CA1 region by using immunohistochemistry analysis, Western blotting, and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:ZKHPHP (10 or 20 g/kg) reduced the incidence of depressive-like behaviors and increased HTR1A protein and HTR1A mRNA expression in the hippocampus CA1 in rats displaying depressive behavior, whereas ZKHPHP (3 or 30 g/kg) had no obvious effect on the measured depression indicators. CONCLUSIONS:These data show that ZKHPHP has antidepressant-like effects based on a chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression model in rats. ZKHPHP may be attractive as an antidepressant because of its beneficial effects on depression and the absence of gastrointestinal dysregulation, which is a frequently observed unintended effect of many commonly used antidepressive medications. 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000639
    powder alleviates the hippocampal neuron damage in chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression model rats in hippocampus via connexin 43Cx43/glucocorticoid receptor/brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathway. Zhang Yuanyuan,Luo Yong,Hou Xuenan,Lu Kang,He Yanhong,Yang Baoying,Qin Yi Bioengineered Powder (XYP) has been widely applied in China to treat stress-related illnesses, such as migraine, depression, Parkinson's disease, insomnia, and hypertension. Herein, this study aims to explore the effect of XYP on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression and its underlying mechanisms. CUMS-induced depression rat models were established, they were subsequently randomly divided and treated with various conditions. Results of this study indicated that supplementation of XYP observably abolished CUMS-induced hippocampal damage and serum corticosterone (CORT) elevation. In mechanism, we discovered that CUMS induction could cause a prominent downregulation in glucocorticoid receptor (GR), phosphorylated-GR (p-GR), connexin 43 (Cx43), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a remarkable upregulation in c-Src. While the introduction of XYP could reverse the changes in all of these indicators mediated by CUMS. Furthermore, we proved that Cx43 could interact with GR, and the protective effect of XYP on hippocampal neurons is realized by up-regulating GR. Summarized, this study indicated that XYP could ameliorate hippocampal neuron damage in CUMS-induced depression model rats through acting on Cx43/GR/BDNF axis. 10.1080/21655979.2021.2005744
    Anti-depressive effects of Jiao-Tai-Wan on CORT-induced depression in mice by inhibiting inflammation and microglia activation. Bai Guiqin,Qiao Yiqi,Lo Po-Chieh,Song Lei,Yang Yuna,Duan Lining,Wei Sufen,Li Min,Huang Shuiqing,Zhang Beiping,Wang Qi,Yang Cong Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Jiao-Tai-Wan (JTW) is a very famous traditional Chinese medicine formula for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, especially in anxiety, insomnia and depression. However, its molecular mechanism of treatment remains indistinct. AIM OF THE STUDY:We aimed to reveal the action mechanism of JTW on anti-depression via inhibiting microglia activation and pro-inflammatory response both in vivo and in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS:The corticosterone (CORT)-induced depression mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of JTW. Behavioral tests (open field, elevated plus maze, tail suspension and forced swim test) were conducted to evaluate the effect of JTW on depressive-like behaviors. The levels of inflammatory factors and the concentration of neurotransmitters were detected by RT-qPCR or ELISA assays. Then three hippocampal tissue samples per group (Control, CORT, and JTW group) were sent for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Transcriptomics data analysis was used to screen the key potential therapeutic targets and signaling pathways of JTW. Based on 8 bioactive species of JTW by our previous study using High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, molecular docking analyses were used to predict the interaction of JTW-derived compounds and depression targets. Finally, the results of transcriptome and molecular docking analyses were combined to verify the targets, key pathways, and efficacy of JTW treatment in vivo and vitro. RESULTS:JTW ameliorated CORT-induced depressive-like behaviors, neuronal damage and enhanced the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in the serum of mice. JTW also inhibited CORT-induced inflammatory activation of microglia and decreased the serum levels of interleukin- 6(IL-6) and interleukin- 1β (IL-1β) in vivo. Transcriptomic data analysis showed there were 10 key driver analysis (KDA) genes with the strongest correlation which JTW regulated in depression mice. Molecular docking analysis displayed bioactive compound Magnoflorine had the strongest binding force to the key gene colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), which is the signaling microglia dependent upon for their survival. Meanwhile, CSF1R staining showed it was consistent with inflammatory activation of microglia. Our vitro experiment also showed JTW and CSF1R inhibitor significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon-gamma (IFNɣ)-induced inflammatory activation response in macrophage cells. CONCLUSIONS:Our study suggests that JTW might ameliorate CORT-induced neuronal damage in depression mice by inhibiting CSF1R mediated microglia activation and pro-inflammatory response. 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114717
    [Efficacy and mechanism of acupuncture combined with for diarrhea-type irritable bowel syndrome of liver depression and spleen deficiency]. Wang Shan-Shan,Wang Xu-Rui,Yang Rui-Yong,Xu Yue,Li Ming-Yue Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion OBJECTIVE:To observe the clinical effect of acupuncture at lower- acupoints and front- acupoints combined with (TXYF) for diarrhea-type irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) of liver depression and spleen deficiency, and to explore its possible mechanism. METHODS:A total of 123 IBS-D patients with syndrome of liver depression and spleen deficiency were randomly divided into an acupuncture+TXYF group, a TXYF group and a medication group, 41 cases in each group. The patients in TXYF group were treated with oral administration of TXYF, three times a day. The patients in acupuncture+TXYF group were treated with oral administration of TXYF and routine acupuncture at Shangjuxu (ST 37), Tianshu (ST 25), Taichong (LR 3), Sanyinjiao (SP 6) and Zusanli (ST 36), once a day. The patients in medication group were treated with oral administration of pinaverium bromide, 50 mg, three times a day. All the treatment was given for four weeks. The total score of TCM syndrome scale, self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS) scores as well as the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive peptide (VIP) and MAPK signal pathway indicators of ERK1 mRNA and ERK2 mRNA were compared before and after treatment; the clinical effect was also compared. RESULTS:After treatment, the total score of TCM syndrome scale and SAS and SDS scores in each group were significantly reduced (<0.05), and the scores in the acupuncture+TXYF group were lower than those in TXYF group and medication group (<0.05). The total effective rate was 87.8% (36/41) in the acupuncture+TXYF group, which was higher than 78.0% (32/41) in the TXYF group and 68.3% (28/41) in the medication group (<0.05). After treatment, the levels of CGRP and VIP in each group were decreased (<0.05), and the levels in the acupuncture+TXYF group were lower than those in the TXYF group and the medication group (<0.05). After treatment, the levels of ERK1 mRNA and ERK2 mRNA in each group were decreased (<0.05), and the levels in acupuncture+TXYF group were lower than those in medication group (<0.05). CONCLUSION:The acupuncture at lower- acupoints and front- acupoints combined with TXYF could effectively alleviate the clinical symptoms, improve anxiety and depression in IBS-D patients with syndrome of liver depression and spleen deficiency, and its mechanism may be related to regulating the expression of ERK1 mRNA and ERK2 mRNA in MAPK signaling pathway, and reducing the serum levels of CGRP and VIP. 10.13703/j.0255-2930.20190818-k0004
    Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effect of musk in an animal model of depression: how it works. Ayuob Nasra Naeim Anatomical science international Depression has become a common public health problem that is showing increasing prevalence. Slow onset of action, low response rates and drug resistance are potential limitations of the current antidepressant drugs. Alternative therapy using natural substances, specifically aromatherapy, is currently tried to treat depression. This work aimed to assess the efficacy of musk in relieving the behavioral, biochemical and hippocampal histopathological changes induced by exposure to chronic mild stress in mice and explore the possible mechanism behind this antidepressant-like effect. Forty male albino mice were divided into four groups (n = 10): control, a group exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and two groups exposed to CUMS and then treated with fluoxetine or musk. Behavioral changes and serum corticosterone levels were assessed at the end of the experiment. Protein and gene expressions of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus were assessed using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Histopathological examination of the hippocampus and immunohistochemical techniques using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ki67, caspase-3, BDNF and GR were performed. Inhalation of musk had an antidepressant-like effect in an animal model of depression. Musk alleviated the behavioral changes and elevated serum corticosterone levels induced by exposure to chronic stress. It reduced the hippocampal neuronal apoptosis and stimulated neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Musk's action may be related to the upregulation of hippocampal GR and BDNF expressions. Musk is considered a potential antidepressant so it is advisable to assess its efficacy in treating depressed patient. 10.1007/s12565-016-0357-7
    Application of microdialysis for elucidating the existing form of hyperoside in rat brain: comparison between intragastric and intraperitoneal administration. Guo Jian-ming,Lin Ping,Duan Jin-ao,Shang Er-xin,Qian Da-wei,Tang Yu-ping Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) is an important anti-depressant herb used in clinic and commonly prescribed for mild depression. Hyperoside is one of the major components of H. perforatum and is also detected in many plant species such as Abelmoschus manihot, Black Currant, Rosa agrestis, Apocynum venetum and Nelumbo nucifera. AIM OF THE STUDY:As the hyperoside showed CNS (central nervous system) protective activity (e.g. anti-depressant-like effect), the possibility of hyperoside or its metabolites to reach CNS should be investigated. Moreover, the pharmacokinetics profile of hyperoside or its metabolites in rat brain should be studied for further elucidating the mechanism of hyperoside action on CNS. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A simple method for simultaneous determination of unbound hyperoside and its metabolite 3'-O-methyl-hyperoside in rat brain was developed by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and microdialysis technique. This method was applied for pharmacokinetics study of hyperoside and 3'-O-methyl-hyperoside in rat brain after intragastric (i.g.) and intraperitoneally (i.p.) administration of hyperoside in vivo. RESULTS:Results showed that neither hyperoside nor its metabolites were detected in rat brain after i.g. administration but both compounds could be detected after i.p. administration. Considering the activity of hyperoside through both i.g. and i.p. administration, our results imply that the active components of hyperoside in vivo might be different. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify the active components of hyperoside in vivo through these two different routes. Moreover, non-oral administration route (e.g., i.p.) should be further investigated and be explored to obtain higher bioavailability and better activity for hyperoside. Our results also showed that the real existing form of hyperoside in rat brain were hyperoside and its methylated metabolite with maximum concentration to be 63.78 ng/mL and 24.66 ng/mL after 20mg/kg i.p. administration, respectively. Therefore, a more reasonable concentration of hyperoside should be considered in in vitro assay to reflect the real situation of hyperoside concentration in vivo. CONCLUSION:Due to the wide use of herbal remedies containing hyperoside, our investigation will contribute to further clarifying the action of this substance. Moreover, this method will be applied for clinical pharmacokinetics study of hyperoside and its metabolite as well as herbs that contain hyperoside. 10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.008
    Efficacy and Safety of Flexibly Dosed Esketamine Nasal Spray Combined With a Newly Initiated Oral Antidepressant in Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Randomized Double-Blind Active-Controlled Study. Popova Vanina,Daly Ella J,Trivedi Madhukar,Cooper Kimberly,Lane Rosanne,Lim Pilar,Mazzucco Christine,Hough David,Thase Michael E,Shelton Richard C,Molero Patricio,Vieta Eduard,Bajbouj Malek,Manji Husseini,Drevets Wayne C,Singh Jaskaran B The American journal of psychiatry OBJECTIVE:About one-third of patients with depression fail to achieve remission despite treatment with multiple antidepressants. This study compared the efficacy and safety of switching patients with treatment-resistant depression from an ineffective antidepressant to flexibly dosed esketamine nasal spray plus a newly initiated antidepressant or to a newly initiated antidepressant (active comparator) plus placebo nasal spray. METHODS:This was a phase 3, double-blind, active-controlled, multicenter study conducted at 39 outpatient referral centers. The study enrolled adults with moderate to severe nonpsychotic depression and a history of nonresponse to at least two antidepressants in the current episode, with one antidepressant assessed prospectively. Confirmed nonresponders were randomly assigned to treatment with esketamine nasal spray (56 or 84 mg twice weekly) and an antidepressant or antidepressant and placebo nasal spray. The primary efficacy endpoint, change from baseline to day 28 in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score, was assessed by a mixed-effects model using repeated measures. RESULTS:Of 435 patients screened, 227 underwent randomization and 197 completed the 28-day double-blind treatment phase. Change in MADRS score with esketamine plus antidepressant was significantly greater than with antidepressant plus placebo at day 28 (difference of least square means=-4.0, SE=1.69, 95% CI=-7.31, -0.64); likewise, clinically meaningful improvement was observed in the esketamine plus antidepressant arm at earlier time points. The five most common adverse events (dissociation, nausea, vertigo, dysgeusia, and dizziness) all were observed more frequently in the esketamine plus antidepressant arm than in the antidepressant plus placebo arm; 7% and 0.9% of patients in the respective treatment groups discontinued study drug because of an adverse event. Adverse events in the esketamine plus antidepressant arm generally appeared shortly after dosing and resolved by 1.5 hours after dosing. CONCLUSIONS:Current treatment options for treatment-resistant depression have considerable limitations in terms of efficacy and patient acceptability. Esketamine is expected to address an unmet medical need in this population through its novel mechanism of action and rapid onset of antidepressant efficacy. The study supports the efficacy and safety of esketamine nasal spray as a rapidly acting antidepressant for patients with treatment-resistant depression. 10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19020172
    Intravenous administration of adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine combined with fluoxetine in major depressive disorder: protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Chen Yiyi,Cao Xiaomin,Zang Wensi,Tan Shanyong,Ou Chun-Quan,Shen Xiaoyan,Gao Tianming,Zhao Lianxu Trials BACKGROUND:Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder. With systematic antidepressant treatment, 50-75% of patients have a treatment response but require 4-6 weeks to have their symptoms alleviated. Therefore, researchers anticipate the development of novel fast-acting antidepressants. Previous studies have revealed that the decrease of bio-energetic metabolism may contribute to the occurrence of depression, while our team has found adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) to be fast-acting antidepressants in the depressed-animal model. ATP and PCr have already been widely prescribed clinically as energy supplements for cells. This will be the first clinical attempt of the intravenous administration of ATP and PCr combined with orally administered fluoxetine in MDD. METHODS:This is a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. A total of 42 patients will be divided randomly into three groups. Patients will receive an intravenous administration of ATP or PCr or saline twice daily combined with orally administered fluoxetine (20 mg/day) for the first 2 weeks and fluoxetine monotherapy for the following 4 weeks. Follow-up assessment will be completed at week 10. Feasibility outcomes will include percentages of patient eligibility, intention to use medication, willingness to participate, drug adherence, completion of the scheduled assessment, retention, drop-out, etc. Physical examination results, Side Effect Rating Scale, adverse events, results from blood tests, electroencephalogram, and electrocardiograph will be recorded for safety evaluation of the augmentation therapy. The trends of efficacy will be evaluated by the reduction rate of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the mean change of the Clinical Global Impression Scale, and the Patients Health Questionaire-9 items. DISCUSSION:In our study, ATP and PCr will be given by intravenous infusion. Thus patients will be hospitalized for the initial 2 weeks for safety concern. Hospitalization will be an impact factor for the recruitment, participation, drop-out, efficacy, results, etc. The evaluation of our feasibility outcomes, study setting, safety of augmentation therapy and possible efficacy trends among groups, will facilitate a full-scale trial design and sample size calculation. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT03138681 . Registered on 3 May 2017. First patient: 4 May 2017. 10.1186/s13063-018-3115-4
    Intranasal co-delivery of berberine and evodiamine by self-assembled thermosensitive in-situ hydrogels for improving depressive disorder. Xu Dong,Qiu Chao,Wang Yue,Qiao Tao,Cui Yuan-Lu International journal of pharmaceutics The orally administrated antidepressants not only caused side effects such as dizziness, diarrhea, and drug resistance, but also worked slowly. Therefore, new antidepressants and preparations derived from natural medicines play an important role in the study of antidepressant drugs. It was reported that the two components of Zuojin pill, berberine (BBR) and evodiamine (EVO), were used in combination to improve depressive disorder. In our study, a self-assembled thermosensitive in-situ hydrogel was prepared to achieve sustained co-delivery of BBR and EVO. The preparation process of hydrogel consists of two steps, namely, the inclusion of the drugs and thermosensitive self-assembly of the hydrogel. In vitro experimental results indicated that the prepared hydrogel showed a good thermosensitive property under physiological temperature. The hydrogel had a slow and controlled release behavior for BBR and EVO, according with first-order equation. In vivo experimental results indicated that compared to intragastric administration of drug solution, the intranasal administration of hydrogel increased bioavailability of BBR and EVO, approximately 135 and 112 folds, respectively. The hydrogel at a low dose significantly reversed behavioral despair of the mice, improved depressive symptom of rats, and treated depressive disorder by regulating the abnormal levels of monoamine neurotransmitters (including 5-hydroxytryptamine, noradrenalin and dopamine) metabolism and related metabolic pathways such as purine, citrate cycle, scorbate and aldarate, butanoate, vitamin B6, and pyrimidine metabolism. Therefore, as a drug co-delivery system, the intranasally administrated hydrogels with a good release and high bioavailability provides a non-invasive therapeutic strategy for the clinical treatment of depression, which attains antidepressant effects by regulation of the monoamine neurotransmitters metabolism and related metabolic pathways. 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120667
    Involvement of serotoninergic and adrenergic systems on the antidepressant-like effect of E. uniflora L. leaves essential oil and further analysis of its antioxidant activity. Victoria Francine Novack,de Siqueira Brahm Arthur,Savegnago Lucielli,Lenardão Eder João Neuroscience letters In this work we evaluated antidepressant-like effect of E. uniflora leaves EO employing the tail suspension test. The involvement of serotonergic and adrenergic systems was appraised. EO was administered by oral route (p.o.) in mice and the doses of 10 and 50mg/kg exhibited antidepressant-like action in the TST. The effect of EO (10mg/kg) was prevented by the pretreatment of mice with ketanserin (5mg/kg, intraperitoneal), prazosin (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) and yohimbine (0.1mg/kg, i.p.). In addition, further analysis of the in vitro antioxidant effect of the EO was made against lipid oxidation. The results revealed that EO has a potent antioxidant activity and therapeutic potential for the development of phytomedicines with antidepressant and antioxidant properties. 10.1016/j.neulet.2013.03.054
    Inhalation Aromatherapy Brain-Targeted Nasal Delivery: Natural Volatiles or Essential Oils on Mood Disorders. Frontiers in pharmacology Mood disorders, also often referred to as affective disorders, are a group of psychiatric illnesses that severely impact mood and its related functions. The high medical expenditures have placed a significant financial burden on patients and their families. Aromatherapy is an alternative and complementary treatment that utilizes essential oils (EOs) or volatile oils (VOs) to achieve major therapeutic goals. In general, EOs are volatile chemicals that enter the body primarily through skin absorption and/or nasal inhalation. In addition, they can work through oral administration. Inhalation aromatherapy has shown unique advantages for treating mood disorders, especially depression, anxiety and mental disorders such as sleep disorder, which have been validated over the last decade through clinical and animal studies. Accumulating evidence has shown that EOs or VOs can bypass the blood-brain barrier to target brain tissue through the nasal-brain pathway. Subsequently, they act on the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and limbic system in the brain to improve symptoms of anxiety, depression and improve sleep quality. Here, we review the natural aromatic plants' volatiles or essential oils used commonly as adjuncts to manage mood disorders and illustrate the mechanisms of inhalation aromatherapy, and mainly summarized the application of transnasal inhalation aromatherapy in depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders. We conclude that aromatherapy does not cause side-effects, which is vastly different from commonly used psychotropic drugs. Inhalation aromatherapy brain-targeted nasal delivery offers potentially efficacious treatment for mental disorders and merits further study. 10.3389/fphar.2022.860043
    Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model. Piccinelli Ana Claudia,Santos Joyce Alencar,Konkiewitz Elisabete Castelon,Oesterreich Silvia Aparecida,Formagio Anelise Samara Nazari,Croda Julio,Ziff Edward Benjamim,Kassuya Cândida Aparecida Leite Nutritional neuroscience OBJECTIVES:Previous studies have shown that essential oil containing (R)-(+)-limonene and α-phellandrene, extracted from fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. This work aimed to verify the antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from S. terebinthifolius fruits in spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain in rats. METHODS:In the present work, essential oil from fruits of S. terebinthifolius, as well as the pure (R)-(+)-limonene and α-phellandrene compounds, were assayed for their effects on SNI-induced mechanical and cold hyperalgesia, and depressive-like behavior (immobility in forced swim test) in rats. The locomotor activity was evaluated in open-field test. RESULTS:Oral administration for up to 15 days of essential oil of S. terebinthifolius (100 mg/kg), (R)-(+)-limonene (10 mg/kg), α-phellandrene (10 mg/kg), and also subcutaneous 10 mg/kg dose of ketamine (positive control) significantly inhibited SNI-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and increased immobility in the forced swim test. On the 15th day of oral treatment, α-phellandrene, but neither the essential oil from S. terebinthifolius nor (R)-(+)-limonene, prevented the SNI-induced increase in sensitivity to a cold stimulus. The oral treatment with essential oil (100 mg/kg) or with compounds (10 mg/kg) did not interfere on locomotor activity. DISCUSSION:Together, the results of the present work show that essential oil of S. terebinthifolius and compounds present in this oil, including (R)-(+)-limonene and α-phellandrene, exhibit antihyperalgesic effects against mechanical hyperalgesia, and are antidepressive, while only α-phellandrene inhibited cold hyperalgesia in SNI rats. 10.1179/1476830514Y.0000000119
    Garlic essential oil mediates acute and chronic mild stress-induced depression in rats via modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Huang Yun-Ju,Lu Kuan-Hung,Lin Yu-En,Panyod Suraphan,Wu Hsin-Yu,Chang Wan-Ting,Sheen Lee-Yan Food & function Garlic essential oil (GEO) and its major organosulfur component (diallyl disulfide, DADS) possess diverse biological properties; however, limited information on their antidepressant-like effects is available. This study is the first to investigate these effects of GEO using the forced swimming test (FST) and unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) induced depression in rats. After oral administration for 28 consecutive days, GEO (25 and 50 mg per kg bw) significantly reduced the immobility time in the FST. Additionally, GEO and DADS significantly reversed the sucrose preference index decrease induced by 5 weeks of UCMS. GEO (25 mg per kg bw) effectively decreased the frontal cortex turnover ratio of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), thus increasing the 5-HT and DA levels, with no hippocampal effects. Chronic GEO treatment increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), c-AMP response element binding protein (CREB), and protein kinase B (AKT) expression, exhibiting its effects via monoamine neurotransmitter modulation and the BDNF-related signaling pathway. 10.1039/c9fo00601j
    Sedative and hypnotic effects of compound Anshen essential oil inhalation for insomnia. BMC complementary and alternative medicine BACKGROUNDS:The chemical composition of many essential oils indicates that they have sedative and hypnotic effects, but there is still a lack of systematic studies on the sedative and hypnotic effects of essential oils. In addition, aromatherapy does not seem to have the side effects of many traditional psychotropic substances, which is clearly worthwhile for further clinical and scientific research. The clinical application of essential oils in aromatherapy has received increasing attention, and detailed studies on the pharmacological activities of inhaled essential oils are increasingly needed. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE:As insomniacs are usually accompanied by symptoms of depression and anxiety of varying degrees, based on the theory of aromatherapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, this experiment is to study a Compound Anshen essential oil that is compatible with Lavender essential oil, Sweet Orange essential oil, Sandalwood essential oil and other aromatic medicine essential oils with sedative and hypnotic effects, anti-anxiety and anti-depression effects. To study the sedative and hypnotic effects of Compound Anshen essential oil inhaled and the main chemical components of Compound Anshen essential oil, and to compare and analyze the pharmacodynamics of diazepam, a commonly used drug for insomnia. METHODS:The Open field test and Pentobarbital-induced sleep latency and sleep time experiments were used to analyze and compare the sedative and hypnotic effects of inhaling Compound Anshen essential oil and the administration of diazepam on mice. The changes of 5-HT and GABA in mouse brain were analyzed by Elisa. The main volatile constituents of Compound Anshen essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS:Inhalation of Compound Anshen essential oil can significantly reduce the spontaneous activity of mice, reduce latency of sleeping time and prolong duration of sleeping time. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that Compound Anshen essential oil can increase the content of 5-HT and GABA in mouse brain. The main volatile chemical constituents of the Compound Anshen essential oil are D-limonene (24.07%), Linalool (21.98%), Linalyl acetate (15.37%), α-Pinene (5.39%), and α-Santalol (4.8%). CONCLUSION:The study found that the inhalation of Compound Anshen essential oil has sedative and hypnotic effect. This study provides a theoretical basis for further research and development of the sedative and hypnotic effects of Compound Anshen essential oil based on the theory of aromatherapy. 10.1186/s12906-019-2732-0
    Inhalation of Roman chamomile essential oil attenuates depressive-like behaviors in Wistar Kyoto rats. Kong Yingying,Wang Ting,Wang Rong,Ma Yichuan,Song Shanshan,Liu Juan,Hu Weiwei,Li Shengtian Science China. Life sciences The idea of aromatherapy, using essential oils, has been considered as an alternative antidepressant treatment. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Roman chamomile essential oil inhalation for two weeks on depressive-like behaviors in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. We found that inhalation of either Roman chamomile or one of its main components α-pinene, attenuated depressive-like behavior in WKY rats in the forced swim test. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation analysis (iTRAQ), we found that inhalation of α-pinene increased expression of proteins that are involved in oxidative phosphorylation, such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6C-2, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A2, ATPase inhibitor in the hippocampus, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6C-2, ATP synthase subunit e, Acyl carrier protein, and Cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 6 in the PFC (prefrontal cortex). In addition, using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction technique, we confirmed an increase of parvalbumin mRNA expression in the hippocampus, which was shown to be upregulated by 2.8-fold in iTRAQ analysis, in α-pinene treated WKY rats. These findings collectively suggest the involvement of mitochondrial functions and parvalbumin-related signaling in the antidepressant effect of α-pinene inhalation. 10.1007/s11427-016-9034-8
    Cang-Ai Volatile Oil Ameliorates Depressive Behavior Induced by Chronic Stress Through IDO-Mediated Tryptophan Degradation Pathway. Zhang Kailing,Lei Na,Li Meng,Li Jijun,Li Caijun,Shen Yue,Guo Peixin,Xiong Lei,Xie Yuhuan Frontiers in psychiatry Cang-ai volatile oil (CAVO) is a Chinese herbal volatile oil. Previous studies report that CAVO exhibits of anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory effects, and modulates activity of monoamine neurotransmitter. The current study sought to explore whether CAVO exhibits anti-depressant effects of CAVO through inhibition of inflammatory response and regulation of indoleamine 2 and 3-dioxygenase (IDO) mediated tryptophan degradation pathway. The study established chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) depression-like model using rats. Body weight and food intake of animals were determined, and open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST), and sucrose preference test (SPT) were performed to explored the behavioral changes of animals. Expression levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10), kynurenine (KYN), quinolinic acid (QUIN), tryptophan (Trp), kynurenic acid (KYNA), serotonin (5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) in the prefrontal cortex of CUMS rats were determined by ELISA. Co-localization of the microglia markers, Iba1 and IL-6 was determined by immunofluorescence. Western blotting was performed to determine the protein expression level of IDO1. The findings of the current study showed that CAVO increased the body weight and food intake of rats and alleviated depression-like behaviors as shown in OFT, FST, and SPT analysis. ELISA assay showed that CAVO decreased IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels and increased levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in the prefrontal cortex of CUMS rats. Analysis showed that CAVO significantly reduced KYN and QUIN levels and the ratio of KYN/Trp, whereas it increased the levels of Trp, KYNA, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that CAVO reduced the number of positive cells with co-localization of microglia markers, Iba1 and IL-6. Western blot analysis showed that CAVO decreased the protein expression level of IDO1 in rats. The findings show that the anti-depressant effects of CAVO are mainly attributed to inhibition of the activation of microglia and downregulation of IDO expression, thus inhibiting the kynurenine pathway and reversing the effects exerted on the 5-HT system. 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.791991
    Flower essential oil of Tagetes minuta mitigates oxidative stress and restores BDNF-Akt/ERK2 signaling attenuating inflammation- and stress-induced depressive-like behavior in mice. Brain research Essential oils (EO) are plant extracts widely used for various pharmacological applications and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects have received a lot of attention because they hold the potential to reduce oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation, alterations involved in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. This study examined the benefits of administration of flower EO of the Tagetes minuta (10 and 50 mg/kg, intragastric route) in attenuating behavioral, neurochemical, and neuroendocrine changes in animal models of depressive-like behavior induced by acute restraint stress and lipopolysaccharide (0.83 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). We demonstrated that the treatment of mice with flower EO of the T. minuta reversed the depressive-like behavior induced by stress or inflammatory challenge in mice. This effect is most likely due to the reversal of oxidative stress in the hippocampus of mice, the decrease in plasma corticosterone levels, and restoration of the mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, protein kinase B, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. As an outcome, flower EO of the T. minuta has promising antidepressant properties and could be considered for new therapeutic strategies for major depressive disorder. 10.1016/j.brainres.2022.147845
    The Combination of and Volatile Oils Exerts Antidepressant Effects in a CUMS-Induced Rat Model by Regulating the HPA Axis and Levels of Neurotransmitters. Li Huiting,Li Yuanhui,Zhang Xiaofei,Ren Guilin,Wang Liangfeng,Li Jianzhe,Wang Mengxue,Ren Tao,Zhao Yi,Yang Ming,Huang Xiaoying Frontiers in pharmacology The (CX)- (MX) herbal pair is frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions for treating depression. The volatile oil from CX and MX has been shown to have good pharmacological activities on the central nervous system, but its curative effect and mechanism in the treatment of depression are unclear. Therefore, the antidepressant effect of the volatile oil from CX-MX (CMVO) was studied in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats. The suppressive effects of CMVO (25, 50, 100 μL/kg) against CUMS-induced depression-like behavior were evaluated using the forced swimming test (FST), open field test (OFT) and sucrose preference test (SPT). The results showed that CMVO exhibited an antidepressant effect, reversed the decreased sugar preference in the SPT and prolongation of immobility time in the FST induced by CUMS, increased the average speed, time to enter the central area, total moving distance, and enhanced the willingness of rats to explore the environment in the OFT. Inhalational administration of CMVO decreased levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in serum and the expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA in the hypothalamus, which indicated regulation of over-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In addition, CMVO restored levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine, norepinephrine and acetylcholine in the hippocampus. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results showed that CMVO up-regulated the expression of 5-HT mRNA. This study demonstrated the antidepressant effect of CMVO in CUMS rats, which was possibly mediated via modulation of monoamine and cholinergic neurotransmitters and regulation of the HPA axis. 10.3389/fphar.2020.614413