Mitochondrial impairment increases FL-PINK1 levels by calcium-dependent gene expression.
Gómez-Sánchez Rubén,Gegg Matthew E,Bravo-San Pedro José M,Niso-Santano Mireia,Alvarez-Erviti Lydia,Pizarro-Estrella Elisa,Gutiérrez-Martín Yolanda,Alvarez-Barrientos Alberto,Fuentes José M,González-Polo Rosa Ana,Schapira Anthony H V
Neurobiology of disease
Mutations of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). This gene encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which is partly localized to mitochondria, and has been shown to play a role in protecting neuronal cells from oxidative stress and cell death, perhaps related to its role in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. In this study, we report that increased mitochondrial PINK1 levels observed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophelyhydrazone (CCCP) treatment were due to de novo protein synthesis, and not just increased stabilization of full length PINK1 (FL-PINK1). PINK1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 4-fold after 24h. FL-PINK1 protein levels at this time point were significantly higher than vehicle-treated, or cells treated with CCCP for 3h, despite mitochondrial content being decreased by 29%. We have also shown that CCCP dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and induced entry of extracellular calcium through L/N-type calcium channels. The calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM impaired the CCCP-induced PINK1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, CCCP treatment activated the transcription factor c-Fos in a calcium-dependent manner. These data indicate that PINK1 expression is significantly increased upon CCCP-induced mitophagy in a calcium-dependent manner. This increase in expression continues after peak Parkin mitochondrial translocation, suggesting a role for PINK1 in mitophagy that is downstream of ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. This sensitivity to intracellular calcium levels supports the hypothesis that PINK1 may also play a role in cellular calcium homeostasis and neuroprotection.
Parkin Protects against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion Insult by Promoting Drp1 Degradation.
Tang Jiayu,Hu Zhiping,Tan Jieqiong,Yang Sonlin,Zeng Liuwang
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
Ischemic stroke results in severe brain damage and remains one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Effective neuroprotective therapies are needed to reduce brain damage resulting from ischemic stroke. Mitochondria are crucial for cellular energy production and homeostasis. Modulation of mitochondrial function mediates neuroprotection against ischemic brain damage. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and parkin play a key role in regulating mitochondrial dynamics. They are potential therapeutic targets for neuroprotection in ischemic stroke. Protective effects of parkin-Drp1 pathway on mitochondria were assessed in a cellular ischemia-reperfusion injury model. Mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a (N2a) cells were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGDR) insult. OGDR induces mitochondrial fragmentation. The expression of Drp1 protein is increased after OGDR insult, while the parkin protein level is decreased. The altered protein level of Drp1 after OGDR injury is mediated by parkin through ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Drp1 depletion protects against OGDR induced mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Meanwhile, parkin overexpression protects against OGDR induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction, which is attenuated by increased expression of Drp1. Our data demonstrate that parkin protects against OGDR insult through promoting degradation of Drp1. This neuroprotective potential of parkin-Drp1 pathway against OGDR insult will pave the way for developing novel neuroprotective agents for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion related disorders.
Pitavastatin activates mitophagy to protect EPC proliferation through a calcium-dependent CAMK1-PINK1 pathway in atherosclerotic mice.
Statins play a major role in reducing circulating cholesterol levels and are widely used to prevent coronary artery disease. Although they are recently confirmed to up-regulate mitophagy, little is known about the molecular mechanisms and its effect on endothelial progenitor cell (EPC). Here, we explore the role and mechanism underlying statin (pitavastatin, PTV)-activated mitophagy in EPC proliferation. ApoE mice are fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce atherosclerosis. In these mice, EPC proliferation decreases and is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy impairment via the PINK1-PARK2 pathway. PTV reverses mitophagy and reduction in proliferation. Pink1 knockout or silencing Atg7 blocks PTV-induced proliferation improvement, suggesting that mitophagy contributes to the EPC proliferation increase. PTV elicits mitochondrial calcium release into the cytoplasm and further phosphorylates CAMK1. Phosphorylated CAMK1 contributes to PINK1 phosphorylation as well as mitophagy and mitochondrial function recover in EPCs. Together, our findings describe a molecular mechanism of mitophagy activation, where mitochondrial calcium release promotes CAMK1 phosphorylation of threonine before phosphorylation of PINK1 at serine, which recruits PARK2 and phosphorylates its serine to activate mitophagy. Our results further account for the pleiotropic effects of statins on the cardiovascular system and provide a promising and potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis.
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase regulates the PINK1/Parkin and DJ-1 pathways of mitophagy during sepsis.
Zhang Xianghong,Yuan Du,Sun Qian,Xu Li,Lee Emma,Lewis Anthony J,Zuckerbraun Brian S,Rosengart Matthew R
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
During sepsis and shock states, mitochondrial dysfunction occurs. Consequently, adaptive mechanisms, such as fission, fusion, and mitophagy, are induced to eliminate damaged portions or entire dysfunctional mitochondria. The regulatory PINK1/Parkin and DJ-1 pathways are strongly induced by mitochondrial depolarization, although a direct link between loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δ) and mitophagy has not been identified. Mitochondria also buffer Ca, and their buffering capacity is dependent on Δ Here, we characterize a role for calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) I in the regulation of these mechanisms. Loss of Δ with either pharmacologic depolarization or LPS leads to Ca-dependent mitochondrial recruitment and activation of CaMKI that precedes the colocalization of PINK1/Parkin and DJ-1. CaMKI is required and serves as both a PINK1 and Parkin kinase. The mechanisms operate in both immune and nonimmune cells and are induced in models of endotoxemia, sepsis, and hemorrhagic shock. These data support the idea that CaMKI links mitochondrial stress with the PINK1/Parkin and DJ-1 mechanisms of mitophagy.-Zhang, X., Yuan, D., Sun, Q., Xu, L., Lee, E., Lewis, A. J., Zuckerbraun, B. S., Rosengart, M. R. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase regulates the PINK1/Parkin and DJ-1 pathways of mitophagy during sepsis.
Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission in cardiovascular disease.
Acta pharmacologica Sinica
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles undergoing cycles of fusion and fission to modulate their morphology, distribution, and function, which are referred as 'mitochondrial dynamics'. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is known as the major pro-fission protein whose activity is tightly regulated to clear the damaged mitochondria via mitophagy, ensuring a strict control over the intricate process of cellular and organ dynamics in heart. Various posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of Drp1 have been identified including phosphorylation, SUMOylation, palmitoylation, ubiquitination, S-nitrosylation, and O-GlcNAcylation, which implicate a role in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. An intact mitochondrial homeostasis is critical for heart to fuel contractile function and cardiomyocyte metabolism, while defects in mitochondrial dynamics constitute an essential part of the pathophysiology underlying various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the critical role of Drp1 in the pathogenesis of CVDs including endothelial dysfunction, smooth muscle remodeling, cardiac hypertrophy, pulmonary arterial hypertension, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, and myocardial infarction. We also highlight how the targeting of Drp1 could potentially contribute to CVDs treatments.
Novel regulatory roles of Mff and Drp1 in E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH5-dependent degradation of MiD49 and Mcl1 and control of mitochondrial dynamics.
Cherok Edward,Xu Shan,Li Sunan,Das Shweta,Meltzer W Alex,Zalzman Michal,Wang Chunxin,Karbowski Mariusz
Molecular biology of the cell
MARCH5, an OMM-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase, controls mitochondrial function. Despite its importance, the mechanism and factors controlling MARCH5 activity are largely unknown. Here we report that the MARCH5 C-terminal domain plays a critical role in degradation of MARCH5 substrates, likely by facilitating release of ubiquitinated proteins from the OMM. We also found that the mitochondrial fission proteins Drp1 and Mff negatively regulate MARCH5's activity toward MiD49 and Mcl1. Knockouts of either Drp1 or Mff led to reduced expression, shorter half-lives, and increased ubiquitination of MiD49 and Mcl1. Effects of Mff and Drp1 depletion on degradation rates and ubiquitination of Mcl1 and MiD49 were eliminated in Drp1/MARCH5 and Mff/MARCH5 cells. Our data show that it is not mitochondrial morphology per se but rather Mff and Drp1 that directly control MARCH5. Consistently, we find that Mff is an integral component of the MARCH5/p97/Npl4 complex, which is also controlled by MARCH5's C-terminal domain. Furthermore, not only mitochondrial fission but also fusion is regulated through Mff and Drp1 protein activities. Thus, in addition to their canonical roles in mitochondrial fission, Mff and Drp1 also act as regulatory factors that control mitochondrial fission and fusion.
MITOL-mediated DRP1 ubiquitylation and degradation promotes mitochondrial hyperfusion in a CMT2A-linked MFN2 mutant.
Das Rajdeep,Kamal Izaz Monir,Das Subhrangshu,Chakrabarti Saikat,Chakrabarti Oishee
Journal of cell science
Mutations in mitofusin 2 (MFN2) that are associated with the pathology of the debilitating neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2A (CMT2A) are known to alter mitochondrial morphology. One such abundant MFN2 mutation, R364W, results in the generation of elongated, interconnected mitochondria. However, the mechanism leading to this mitochondrial aberration remains poorly understood. Here, we show that mitochondrial hyperfusion in the presence of R364W-MFN2 is due to increased degradation of DRP1 (also known as DNM1L). The E3 ubiquitin ligase MITOL (also known as MARCHF5) is known to ubiquitylate both MFN2 and DRP1. Interaction with and subsequent ubiquitylation by MITOL is stronger in the presence of wild-type MFN2 than with R364W-MFN2. This differential interaction of MITOL with MFN2 in the presence of R364W-MFN2 renders the ligase more available for DRP1 ubiquitylation. Multi-monoubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of DRP1 in R364W-MFN2 cells in the presence of MITOL eventually leads to mitochondrial hyperfusion. Here, we provide a mechanistic insight into mitochondrial hyperfusion, while also reporting that MFN2 can indirectly modulate DRP1 - an effect not shown previously. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
Deubiquitinase OTUD6A promotes proliferation of cancer cells via regulating Drp1 stability and mitochondrial fission.
Shi Le,Liu Jing,Peng Yunhua,Zhang Jinfang,Dai Xiangpeng,Zhang Shuangxi,Wang Yongyao,Liu Jiankang,Long Jiangang
Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is a cytosolic protein responsible for mitochondrial fission and is essential in the initiation and development of several human diseases, including cancer. However, the regulation of Drp1, especially of its ubiquitination, remains unclear. In this study, we report that the ovarian tumor-associated protease deubiquitinase 6A (OTUD6A) deubiquitylates and stabilizes Drp1, thereby facilitating regulation of mitochondrial morphology and tumorigenesis. OTUD6A is upregulated in human patients with colorectal cancer. The depletion of OTUD6A leads to lower Drp1 levels and suppressed mitochondrial fission, and the affected cells are consequently less prone to tumorigenesis. Conversely, the overexpression of OTUD6A increases Drp1 levels and its protein half-life and enhances cancer cell growth. Therefore, our results reveal a novel upstream protein of Drp1, and its role in tumorigenesis that is played, in part, through the activation of mitochondrial fission mediated by Drp1.
SQSTM1/p62 promotes mitochondrial ubiquitination independently of PINK1 and PRKN/parkin in mitophagy.
Yamada Tatsuya,Dawson Ted M,Yanagawa Toru,Iijima Miho,Sesaki Hiromi
The ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins labels damaged mitochondria for degradation through mitophagy. We recently developed an system in which mitophagy is slowed by inhibiting mitochondrial division through knockout of , a dynamin related GTPase that mediates mitochondrial division. Using this system, we revealed that the ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins required SQSTM1/p62, but not the ubiquitin E3 ligase PRKN/parkin, during mitophagy. Here, we tested the role of PINK1, a mitochondrial protein kinase that activates mitophagy by phosphorylating ubiquitin, in mitochondrial ubiquitination by knocking out in -knockout liver. We found mitochondrial ubiquitination did not decrease in the absence of PINK1; instead, PINK1 was required for the degradation of MFN1 (mitofusin 1) and MFN2, two homologous outer membrane proteins that mediate mitochondrial fusion in -knockout hepatocytes. These data suggest that mitochondrial ubiquitination is promoted by SQSTM1 independently of PINK1 and PRKN during mitophagy. PINK1 and PRKN appear to control the balance between mitochondrial division and fusion . DNM1L/DRP1: dynamin 1-like; KEAP1: kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; KO: knockout; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MFN1/2: mitofusin 1/2; OPA1: OPA1, mitochondrial dynamin like GTPase; PDH: pyruvate dehydrogenase E1; PINK1: PTEN induced putative kinase 1; PRKN/parkin: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase.
Mitophagy-dependent macrophage reprogramming protects against kidney fibrosis.
Mitophagy, by maintaining mitochondrial quality control, plays a key role in maintaining kidney function and is impaired in pathologic states. Macrophages are well known for their pathogenic role in kidney fibrosis. Here, we report that PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in macrophages is compromised in experimental and human kidney fibrosis. We demonstrate downregulation of mitophagy regulators mitofusin-2 (MFN2) and Parkin downstream of PINK1 in kidney fibrosis. Loss of either Pink1 or Prkn promoted renal extracellular matrix accumulation and frequency of profibrotic/M2 macrophages. Pink1-/- or Prkn-/- BM-derived macrophages (BMDMs) showed enhanced expression of rictor. Mitochondria from TGF-β1-treated Pink1-/- BMDMs exhibited increased superoxide levels, along with reduced respiration and ATP production. In addition, mitophagy in macrophages involves PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of downstream MFN2, MFN2-facilitated recruitment of Parkin to damaged mitochondria, and macrophage-specific deletion of Mfn2 aggravates kidney fibrosis. Moreover, mitophagy regulators were downregulated in human CKD kidney and TGF-β1-treated human renal macrophages, whereas Mdivi1 treatment suppressed mitophagy mediators and promoted fibrotic response. Taken together, our study is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate that macrophage mitophagy plays a protective role against kidney fibrosis via regulating the PINK1/MFN2/Parkin-mediated pathway.
Hypoxia-induced PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy promotes pulmonary vascular remodeling.
Linqing Li,Yuhan Qin,Erfei Luo,Yong Qiao,Dong Wang,Chengchun Tang,Gaoliang Yan,Bo Liu
Biochemical and biophysical research communications
Pulmonary vascular remodeling (PVR) is not only the main pathophysiological feature of Pulmonary Artery Hypertension (PAH) but also the main reason for the progressive aggravation of PAH. Its central link is the excessive proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), which leads to the imbalance of proliferation/apoptosis, leads to the formation of PAH. At present, we found that hypoxia can up-regulate the expression of mitophagy protein PINK1/Parkin, induce the proliferation of PASMCs, and inhibit apoptosis. Knocking down PINK1 and/or Parkin, found that the proliferation of PASMCs was significantly inhibited compared with that of PINK1/Parkin, while the proliferation of cells under PINK1 Parkin was significantly lower than that of PINK1 Parkinor PINK1 Parkin. These results suggest that hypoxia can activate the PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy pathway, induce the excessive proliferation of PASMCs, eventually lead to PVR, leading to HPH. Our team is further exploring which substances in HPH can induce mitotic response, which molecules specifically mediate the activation of mitotic pathways, and what role they play in the occurrence and development of HPH disease.
PINK1-induced phosphorylation of mitofusin 2 at serine 442 causes its proteasomal degradation and promotes cell proliferation in lung cancer and pulmonary arterial hypertension.
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Impaired mitochondrial fusion, due in part to decreased mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) expression, contributes to unrestricted cell proliferation and apoptosis-resistance in hyperproliferative diseases like pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We hypothesized that Mfn2 levels are reduced due to increased proteasomal degradation of Mfn2 triggered by its phosphorylation at serine 442 (S442) and investigated the potential kinase mediators. Mfn2 expression was decreased and Mfn2 S442 phosphorylation was increased in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from PAH patients and in NSCLC cells. Mfn2 phosphorylation was mediated by PINK1 and protein kinase A (PKA), although only PINK1 expression was increased in these diseases. We designed a S442 phosphorylation deficient Mfn2 construct (PD-Mfn2) and a S442 constitutively phosphorylated Mfn2 construct (CP-Mfn2). The effects of these modified Mfn2 constructs on Mfn2 expression and biological function were compared with those of the wildtype Mfn2 construct (WT-Mfn2). WT-Mfn2 increased Mfn2 expression and mitochondrial fusion in both PAH and NSCLC cells resulting in increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation. Compared to WT-Mfn2, PD-Mfn2 caused greater Mfn2 expression, suppression of proliferation, apoptosis induction, and cell cycle arrest. Conversely, CP-Mfn2 caused only a small increase in Mfn2 expression and did not restore mitochondrial fusion, inhibit cell proliferation, or induce apoptosis. Silencing PINK1 or PKA, or proteasome blockade using MG132, increased Mfn2 expression, enhanced mitochondrial fusion and induced apoptosis. In a xenotransplantation NSCLC model, PD-Mfn2 gene therapy caused greater tumor regression than did therapy with WT-Mfn2. Mfn2 deficiency in PAH and NSCLC reflects proteasomal degradation triggered by Mfn2-S442 phosphorylation by PINK1 and/or PKA. Inhibiting Mfn2 phosphorylation has potential therapeutic benefit in PAH and lung cancer.
Decreased expression of Drp1 and Fis1 mediates mitochondrial elongation in senescent cells and enhances resistance to oxidative stress through PINK1.
Mai Sören,Klinkenberg Michael,Auburger Georg,Bereiter-Hahn Jürgen,Jendrach Marina
Journal of cell science
Mitochondria display different morphologies, depending on cell type and physiological situation. In many senescent cell types, an extensive elongation of mitochondria occurs, implying that the increase of mitochondrial length in senescence could have a functional role. To test this hypothesis, human endothelial cells (HUVECs) were aged in vitro. Young HUVECs had tubular mitochondria, whereas senescent cells were characterized by long interconnected mitochondria. The change in mitochondrial morphology was caused by downregulation of the expression of Fis1 and Drp1, two proteins regulating mitochondrial fission. Targeted photodamage of mitochondria induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which triggered mitochondrial fragmentation and loss of membrane potential in young cells, whereas senescent cells proved to be resistant. Alterations of the Fis1 and Drp1 expression levels also influenced the expression of the putative serine-threonine kinase PINK1, which is associated with the PARK6 variant of Parkinson's disease. Downregulation of PINK1 or overexpression of a PINK1 mutant (G309D) increased the sensitivity against ROS in young cells. These results indicate that there is a Drp1- and Fis1-induced, and PINK1-mediated protection mechanism in senescent cells, which, when compromised, could contribute to the age-related progression of Parkinson's disease and arteriosclerosis.
Functional interplay between Parkin and Drp1 in mitochondrial fission and clearance.
Buhlman Lori,Damiano Maria,Bertolin Giulia,Ferrando-Miguel Rosa,Lombès Anne,Brice Alexis,Corti Olga
Biochimica et biophysica acta
Autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson's disease is most often caused by mutations in the genes encoding the cytosolic E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin and the mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase PINK1. Studies in Drosophila models and mammalian cells have demonstrated that these proteins regulate various aspects of mitochondrial physiology, including organelle transport, dynamics and turnover. How PINK1 and Parkin orchestrate these processes, and whether they always do so within a common pathway remain to be clarified. We have revisited the role of PINK1 and Parkin in mitochondrial dynamics, and explored its relation to the mitochondrial clearance program controlled by these proteins. We show that PINK1 and Parkin promote Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission by mechanisms that are at least in part independent. Parkin-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation was abolished by treatments interfering with the calcium/calmodulin/calcineurin signaling pathway, suggesting that it requires dephosphorylation of serine 637 of Drp1. Parkinson's disease-causing mutations with differential impact on mitochondrial morphology and organelle degradation demonstrated that the pro-fission effect of Parkin is not required for efficient mitochondrial clearance. In contrast, the use of Förster energy transfer imaging microscopy revealed that Drp1 and Parkin are co-recruited to mitochondria in proximity of PINK1 following mitochondrial depolarization, indicating spatial coordination between these events in mitochondrial degradation. Our results also hint at a major role of the outer mitochondrial adaptor MiD51 in Drp1 recruitment and Parkin-dependent mitophagy. Altogether, our observations provide new insight into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics by Parkin and its relation to the mitochondrial clearance program mediated by the PINK1/Parkin pathway.
The Parkinson's disease-associated gene PINK1 protects neurons from ischemic damage by decreasing mitochondrial translocation of the fission promoter Drp1.
Zhao Yanxin,Chen Fangzhe,Chen Shufen,Liu Xueyuan,Cui Mei,Dong Qiang
Journal of neurochemistry
Our previous study has shown that PTEN-induced novel kinase 1 (PINK1) knocking down significantly induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Although PINK1 is proved to be associated with autosomal recessive parkinsonism and its function in this chronic pathological process is widely studied, its role in acute energy crisis such as ischemic stroke is poorly known. In this study by employing an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) neuronal model, we explored the function of PINK1 in cerebral ischemia. Human PINK1, two PINK1 mutants W437X and K219M, or Pink1 shRNA were transduced before OGD using lentiviral delivery. Our results showed that over-expression of wild-type PINK1 significantly ameliorated OGD induced cell death and energy disturbance including reduced ATP generation and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. PINK1 over-expression also reversed OGD increased mitochondrial fragmentation, and suppressed the translocation of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Transduction of the mutant PINK1 failed to provide any protective effect, while knockdown of Pink1 significantly increased the severity of OGD-induced neuronal damage. Importantly, inhibition of Drp1 reversed the effects of knocking down Pink1 on neuronal death and ATP production in response to OGD. This study demonstrates that PINK1 prevents ischemic damage in neurons by attenuating mitochondrial translocation of Drp1, which maintains mitochondrial function and inhibits ischemia-induced mitochondrial fission. These novel findings implicate a pivotal role of PINK1 regulated mitochondrial dynamics in the pathology of ischemic stroke. In this study by employing an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) neuronal model, we explored the function of PINK1 in cerebral ischemia. We indicated that PINK1 significantly ameliorated OGD induced cell death and energy disturbance including reduced ATP generation and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential by attenuating mitochondrial translocation of Drp1, which maintains mitochondrial function and inhibits ischemia-induced mitochondrial fission.
The role of DRP1- PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy in early cadmium-induced liver damage.
Sun Jian,Yu Fan,Wang Tao,Bian Jianchun,Liu Zongping,Zou Hui
Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant that causes varying degrees of damage to multiple systems of the body. However, the specific mechanism of Cd-induced liver mitophagy remains unclear. In the present study, 5-week-old BALB/c mice and a mouse liver parenchyma cell line (AML12) were studied using a combination of in vivo and in vitro studies. We found that Cd damaged liver cells, destroy the structure and function of mitochondria, and increased the production of superoxide anions. This study further examined the effect of Cd on mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy and showed that Cd increased mitochondrial division and induced mitophagy. The PINK1-Parkin pathway is a classical mitophagy pathway. Cd-induced mitophagy was inhibited after significantly knocking down Pink1. Mdivi-1 can effectively inhibit mitochondrial division. In this study, Mdivi-1 inhibited the expression of DRP1 and significantly inhibited the occurrence of mitophagy induced by Cd. We further examined the effect of Cd on mitophagy flux. Cd did not increase lysosomal colocalization with mitochondria. In summary, Cd increase the level of oxidative stress, destroy the structure and function of mitochondria, destroy the homeostasis of mitochondrial division and fusion, induce mitophagy through the PINK1-Parkin pathway. Mitophagy plays a protective role in early cadmium-induced liver damage.
PGAM5 regulates PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy via DRP1 in CCCP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.
Park Yun Sun,Choi Su Eun,Koh Hyun Chul
Mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy are critical processes for regulating mitochondrial homeostasis. Phosphoglycerate mutase family member 5 (PGAM5) is a mitochondrial protein that plays crucial roles in apoptosis and necroptosis, but the roles of PGAM5 in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of PGAM5 in carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)-induced mitochondrial damage and the correlation between mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy using SH-SY5Y cells. We found that CCCP decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. CCCP increased PGAM5, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) expression of the mitochondrial fraction in a time-dependent manner. Knockdown of PGAM5 inhibited DRP1 translocation without a change in OPA1 expression in CCCP-treated cells. Furthermore, knockdown of PGAM5 and DRP1 significantly blocked the increase of PTEN-induced putative protein kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin expression in the mitochondrial fraction of CCCP-treated cells. Interestingly, CCCP did not alter PINK1/Parkin expression in the mitochondrial fraction of OPA1 knockdown cells. Inhibiting mitophagy by PGAM5 knockdown accelerated CCCP-induced apoptosis. CCCP treatment also results in PINK1 stabilization on the mitochondrial membrane, which subsequently increases Parkin recruitment from the cytosol to abnormal mitochondria. In addition, we found that CCCP increased the level of mitochondrial LC3II, indicating that Parkin recruitment of PINK1 is a result of mitophagy. We propose that activation of PGAM5 is associated with DRP1 recruitment and PINK1 stabilization, which contribute to the modulation of mitophagy in CCCP-treated cells with mitochondrial dysfunction. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PGAM5 regulates PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy, which can exert a neuroprotective effect against CCCP-induced apoptosis.
The Phosphorylation Status of Drp1-Ser637 by PKA in Mitochondrial Fission Modulates Mitophagy via PINK1/Parkin to Exert Multipolar Spindles Assembly during Mitosis.
Ko Huey-Jiun,Tsai Cheng-Yu,Chiou Shean-Jaw,Lai Yun-Ling,Wang Chi-Huei,Cheng Jiin-Tsuey,Chuang Tsung-Hsien,Huang Chi-Ying F,Kwan Aij-Lie,Loh Joon-Khim,Hong Yi-Ren
Mitochondrial fission and fusion cycles are integrated with cell cycle progression. Here we first re-visited how mitochondrial ETC inhibition disturbed mitosis progression, resulting in multipolar spindles formation in HeLa cells. Inhibitors of ETC complex I (rotenone, ROT) and complex III (antimycin A, AA) decreased the phosphorylation of Plk1 T210 and Aurora A T288 in the mitotic phase (M-phase), especially ROT, affecting the dynamic phosphorylation status of fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and the Ser637/Ser616 ratio. We then tested whether specific Drp1 inhibitors, Mdivi-1 or Dynasore, affected the dynamic phosphorylation status of Drp1. Similar to the effects of ROT and AA, our results showed that Mdivi-1 but not Dynasore influenced the dynamic phosphorylation status of Ser637 and Ser616 in Drp1, which converged with mitotic kinases (Cdk1, Plk1, Aurora A) and centrosome-associated proteins to significantly accelerate mitotic defects. Moreover, our data also indicated that evoking mito-Drp1-Ser637 by protein kinase A (PKA) rather than Drp1-Ser616 by Cdk1/Cyclin B resulted in mitochondrial fission via the PINK1/Parkin pathway to promote more efficient mitophagy and simultaneously caused multipolar spindles. Collectively, this study is the first to uncover that mito-Drp1-Ser637 by PKA, but not Drp1-Ser616, drives mitophagy to exert multipolar spindles formation during M-phase.
PINK1-mediated Mitophagy Contributes to Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension.
Saraji Alireza,Sydykov Akylbek,Schäfer Katharina,Garcia-Castro Claudia F,Henneke Ingrid,Alebrahimdehkordi Nasim,Kosanovic Djuro,Hadzic Stefan,Guenther Andreas,Hecker Matthias,Ghofrani Hossein A,Seeger Werner,Schermuly Ralph T,Weissmann Norbert,Sommer Natascha,Pak Oleg
American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology