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    Adverse Events After Transition From ICU to Hospital Ward: A Multicenter Cohort Study. Sauro Khara M,Soo Andrea,de Grood Chloe,Yang Michael M H,Wierstra Benjamin,Benoit Luc,Couillard Philippe,Lamontagne François,Turgeon Alexis F,Forster Alan J,Fowler Robert A,Dodek Peter M,Bagshaw Sean M,Stelfox Henry T Critical care medicine OBJECTIVES:To examine adverse events and associated factors and outcomes during transition from ICU to hospital ward (after ICU discharge). DESIGN:Multicenter cohort study. SETTING:Ten adult medical-surgical Canadian ICUs. PATIENTS:Patients were those admitted to one of the 10 ICUs from July 2014 to January 2016. INTERVENTIONS:None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Two ICU physicians independently reviewed progress and consultation notes documented in the medical record within 7 days of patient's ICU discharge date to identify and classify adverse events. The adverse event data were linked to patient characteristics and ICU and ward physician surveys collected during the larger prospective cohort study. Analyses were conducted using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 451 patients included in the study, 84 (19%) experienced an adverse event, the majority (62%) within 3 days of transfer from ICU to hospital ward. Most adverse events resulted only in symptoms (77%) and 36% were judged to be preventable. Patients with adverse events were more likely to be readmitted to the ICU (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.4-13.0), have a longer hospital stay (mean difference, 16.1 d; 95% CI, 8.4-23.7) or die in hospital (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.8-11.8) than those without an adverse event. ICU and ward physician predictions at the time of ICU discharge had low sensitivity and specificity for predicting adverse events, ICU readmissions, and hospital death. CONCLUSIONS:Adverse events are common after ICU discharge to hospital ward and are associated with ICU readmission, increased hospital length of stay and death and are not predicted by ICU or ward physicians. 10.1097/CCM.0000000000004327
    Early and Late Mortality Following Discharge From the ICU: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study. Rosa Regis G,Falavigna Maicon,Robinson Caroline C,Sanchez Evelin C,Kochhann Renata,Schneider Daniel,Sganzerla Daniel,Dietrich Camila,Barbosa Mirceli G,de Souza Denise,Rech Gabriela S,Dos Santos Rosa da R,da Silva Alice P,Santos Mariana M,Dal Lago Pedro,Sharshar Tarek,Bozza Fernando A,Teixeira Cassiano, Critical care medicine OBJECTIVES:To identify the frequency, causes, and risk factors of early and late mortality among general adult patients discharged from ICUs. DESIGN:Multicenter, prospective cohort study. SETTING:ICUs of 10 tertiary hospitals in Brazil. PATIENTS:One-thousand five-hundred fifty-four adult ICU survivors with an ICU stay greater than 72 hours for medical and emergency surgical admissions or greater than 120 hours for elective surgical admissions. INTERVENTIONS:None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The main outcomes were early (30 d) and late (31 to 365 d) mortality. Causes of death were extracted from death certificates and medical records. Twelve-month cumulative mortality was 28.2% (439 deaths). The frequency of early mortality was 7.9% (123 deaths), and the frequency of late mortality was 22.3% (316 deaths). Infections were the leading cause of death in both early (47.2%) and late (36.4%) periods. Multivariable analysis identified age greater than or equal to 65 years (hazard ratio, 1.65; p = 0.01), pre-ICU high comorbidity (hazard ratio, 1.59; p = 0.02), pre-ICU physical dependence (hazard ratio, 2.29; p < 0.001), risk of death at ICU admission (hazard ratio per 1% increase, 1.008; p = 0.03), ICU-acquired infections (hazard ratio, 2.25; p < 0.001), and ICU readmission (hazard ratio, 3.76; p < 0.001) as risk factors for early mortality. Age greater than or equal to 65 years (hazard ratio, 1.30; p = 0.03), pre-ICU high comorbidity (hazard ratio, 2.28; p < 0.001), pre-ICU physical dependence (hazard ratio, 2.00; p < 0.001), risk of death at ICU admission (hazard ratio per 1% increase, 1.010; p < 0.001), and ICU readmission (hazard ratios, 4.10, 4.17, and 1.82 for death between 31 and 60 days, 61 and 90 days, and greater than 90 days after ICU discharge, respectively; p < 0.001 for all comparisons) were associated with late mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Infections are the main cause of death after ICU discharge. Older age, pre-ICU comorbidities, pre-ICU physical dependence, severity of illness at ICU admission, and ICU readmission are associated with increased risk of early and late mortality, while ICU-acquired infections are associated with increased risk of early mortality. 10.1097/CCM.0000000000004024
    A population-based observational study of intensive care unit-related outcomes. With emphasis on post-hospital outcomes. Garland Allan,Olafson Kendiss,Ramsey Clare D,Yogendran Marina,Fransoo Randall Annals of the American Thoracic Society RATIONALE:Many studies of critical illness outcomes have been restricted to short-term outcomes, selected diagnoses, and patients in one or a few intensive care units (ICUs). OBJECTIVES:Evaluate a range of relevant outcomes in a population-based cohort of patients admitted to ICUs. METHODS:Among all adult residents of the Canadian province of Manitoba admitted to ICUs over a 9-year period, we assessed ICU, hospital, 30-day, and 180-day mortality rates; ICU and hospital lengths-of-stay; Post-hospital use of hospital care, ICU care, outpatient physician care, medications, and home care; and Post-hospital residence location. We explored data stratified by age, sex, and separate categories of geocoded income for urban and rural residents. For Post-hospital use variables we compared ICU patients with those admitted to hospitals without the need for ICU care. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:After ICU admission there was a high initial death rate, which declined between 30 and 180 days and thereafter remained at the lower value. Hospital mortality was 19.0%, with 21.7% dying within 6 months of ICU admission. Women had higher hospital mortality than men (20.8 vs. 17.8%; P = 0.0008). Among urban residents there was a steady gradient of declining hospital mortality with rising income (P < 0.0001). Mean ICU length of stay was 3.96 days, increasing 0.11 d/yr over the study period (P = 0.001); median ICU length of stay was 2.33 days and did not change over time. In the year after ICU care, 41% were rehospitalized, 10% were readmitted to an ICU, 98% had outpatient physician visits, 96% used prescription medications, and 27% used home care services. Although most of these parameters were statistically higher than for hospitalizations not requiring ICU care, differences were generally small. Among hospital survivors, 2.7% were discharged to chronic care facilities, with 2.5% living in such facilities 3 months later. CONCLUSIONS:Post-hospital medical resource use among ICU survivors is substantial, although similar to that after non-ICU hospitalization. Although the fraction of survivors unable to live independently was small, a larger fraction required home care services. Identifying Post-hospital supports needed by ICU survivors can be useful for policy makers and others responsible for healthcare planning. 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201405-201CME
    Readmissions to Intensive Care: A Prospective Multicenter Study in Australia and New Zealand. Santamaria John D,Duke Graeme J,Pilcher David V,Cooper D James,Moran John,Bellomo Rinaldo, Critical care medicine OBJECTIVES:To determine factors independently associated with readmission to ICU and the independent association of readmission with subsequent mortality. DESIGN:Prospective multicenter observational study. SETTING:Forty ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. PATIENTS:Consecutive adult patients discharged alive from ICU to hospital wards between September 2009 and February 2010. INTERVENTIONS:Measurement of hospital mortality. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:We studied 10,210 patients and 674 readmissions. The median age was 63 years (interquartile range, 49-74), and 6,224 (61%) were male. The majority of readmissions were unplanned (84.1%) but only deemed preventable in a minority (8.9%) of cases. Time to first readmission was shorter for unplanned than planned readmission (3.2 vs 6.9 d; p < 0.001). Primary diagnosis changed between admission and readmission in the majority of patients (60.2%) irrespective of planned (58.2%) or unplanned (60.6%) status. Using recurrent event analysis incorporating patient frailty, we found no association between readmissions and hospital survival (hazard ratios: first readmission 0.88, second readmission 0.90, third readmission 0.44; p > 0.05). In contrast, age (hazard ratio, 1.03), a medical diagnosis (hazard ratio, 1.43), inotrope use (hazard ratio, 3.47), and treatment limitation order (hazard ratio, 17.8) were all independently associated with outcome. CONCLUSIONS:In this large prospective study, readmission to ICU was not an independent risk factor for mortality. 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002066
    The epidemiology of intensive care unit readmissions in the United States. Brown Sydney E S,Ratcliffe Sarah J,Kahn Jeremy M,Halpern Scott D American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine RATIONALE:The incidence of intensive care unit (ICU) readmissions across the United States is unknown. OBJECTIVES:To determine incidence of ICU readmissions in United States hospitals, and describe the distribution of time between ICU discharges and readmissions. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study used 196,202 patients in 156 medical and surgical ICUs in 106 community and academic hospitals participating in Project IMPACT from April 1, 2001, to December 31, 2007. We used mixed-effects logistic regression, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, to describe how ICU readmission rates differed across patient types, ICU models, and hospital types. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Measurements consisted of 48- and 120-hour ICU readmission rates and time to readmission. A total of 3,905 patients (2%) were readmitted to the ICU within 48 hours, and 7,171 (3.7%) within 120 hours. In adjusted analysis, there was no difference in ICU readmissions across patient types or ICU models. Among medical patients, those in academic hospitals had higher odds of 48- and 120-hour readmission than patients in community hospitals without residents (1.51 [95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.02] and 1.63 [95% confidence interval, 1.24-2.16]). Median time to ICU readmission was 3.07 days (interquartile range, 1.27-6.58). Closed ICUs had the longest times to readmission (3.55 d [interquartile range, 1.42-7.50]). CONCLUSIONS:Approximately 2% and 4% of ICU patients discharged to the ward are readmitted within 48 and 120 hours, within a median time of 3 days. Medical patients in academic hospitals are more likely to be readmitted than patients in community hospitals without residents. ICU readmission rates could be useful for policy makers and investigations into their causes and consequences. 10.1164/rccm.201109-1720OC
    Outcomes After Direct Discharge Home From Critical Care Units: A Population-Based Cohort Analysis. Critical care medicine OBJECTIVES:To compare health service use and clinical outcomes for patients with and without direct discharge to home (DDH) from ICUs in Ontario. DESIGN:Population-based, observational, cohort study using propensity scoring to match patients who were DDH to those not DDH and a preference-based instrumental variable (IV) analysis using ICU-level DDH rate as the IV. SETTING:ICUs in Ontario. PATIENTS:Patients discharged home from a hospitalization either directly or within 48 hours of care in an ICU between April 1, 2015, and March 31, 2017. INTERVENTION:DDH from ICU. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Among 76,737 patients in our cohort, 46,859 (61%) were DDH from the ICU. In the propensity matched cohort, the odds for our primary outcome of hospital readmission or emergency department (ED) visit within 30 days were not significantly different for patients DDH (odds ratio [OR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.96-1.04), and there was no difference in mortality at 90 days for patients DDH (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.97-1.21). The effect on hospital readmission or ED visits was similar in the subgroup of patients discharged from level 2 (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.92-1.04) and level 3 ICUs (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09) and in the subgroups with cardiac conditions (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.96-1.12) and noncardiac conditions (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.94-1.03). Similar results were obtained in the IV analysis (coefficient for hospital readmission or ED visit within 30 d = -0.03 ± 0.03 ( se ); p = 0.3). CONCLUSIONS:There was no difference in outcomes for patients DDH compared with ward transfer prior to discharge when two approaches were used to minimize confounding within a large health systemwide observational cohort. We did not evaluate how patients are selected for DDH. Our results suggest that with careful patient selection, this practice might be feasible for routine implementation to ensure efficient and safe use of limited healthcare resources. 10.1097/CCM.0000000000005533
    Repeated maternal ICU admission: Results from a nationwide analysis. Chantry Anne Alice,Monnet Clémence,Fresson Jeanne,Miller Daphnis,Bonnet Marie-Pierre,Deneux-Tharaux Catherine Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine OBJECTIVE:To determine the rate and profile of repeated maternal ICU admissions during or after pregnancy and to compare the characteristics of these women's first and second ICU admissions. METHODS:A descriptive analysis from the French national hospital discharge database that included all women admitted to an ICU during pregnancy or within 42 days after delivery, between 2010 and 2014. RESULTS:During the 5-year study period, there were 371 women with more than one maternal ICU admission, representing 2.5% of all women admitted during or after pregnancy (371/15,096) and a 0.9 per 10,000 deliveries (371/4,030,409) rate of repeated maternal ICU admission. Compared with women with only one maternal ICU admission, those with repeated maternal ICU admissions were more often admitted during the pregnancy rather than during or after the delivery stay (P < 0.001), for organ failure or sepsis (P < 0.001), and with a SAPS-II score > 25 (P < 0.001). Women with repeated admissions were usually readmitted for the same indications and had similar SAPS-II scores. Half of ICU readmissions occurred within 72 h of first ICU discharge, with similar causes and levels of severity for both stays. CONCLUSION:Although the rate of women with repeated maternal ICU admissions was low, their initial stay had a specific profile of causes of admission and greater severity compared with the stay of women admitted only once. The pattern and similar characteristics of both first and second ICU admission and the short interval for readmission suggests that some ICU discharges may have been potentially premature. 10.1016/j.accpm.2021.100905
    Relationship between ICU bed availability, ICU readmission, and cardiac arrest in the general wards. Town James A,Churpek Matthew M,Yuen Trevor C,Huber Michael T,Kress John P,Edelson Dana P Critical care medicine OBJECTIVE:The decision to admit a patient to the ICU is complex, reflecting patient factors and available resources. Previous work has shown that ICU census does not impact mortality of patients admitted to the ICU. However, the effect of ICU bed availability on patients outside the ICU is unknown. We sought to determine the association between ICU bed availability, ICU readmissions, and ward cardiac arrests. DESIGN:In this observational study using data collected between 2009 and 2011, rates of ICU readmission and ward cardiac arrest were determined per 12-hour shift. The relationship between these rates and the number of available ICU beds at the start of each shift (accounting for census and nursing capacity) was investigated. Grouped logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. SETTING:Five specialized adult ICUs comprising 63 adult ICU beds in an academic medical center. PATIENTS:Any patient admitted to a non-ICU inpatient unit was counted in the ward census and considered at risk for ward cardiac arrest. Patients discharged from an ICU were considered at risk for ICU readmission. INTERVENTIONS:None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Data were available for 2,086 of 2,190 shifts. The odds of ICU readmission increased with each decrease in the overall number of available ICU beds (odds ratio = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00-1.12; p = 0.03), with a similar but not statistically significant association demonstrated in ward cardiac arrest rate (odds ratio = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.98-1.14; p = 0.16). In subgroup analysis, the odds of ward cardiac arrest increased with each decrease in the number of medical ICU beds available (odds ratio = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06-1.49; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Reduced ICU bed availability is associated with increased rates of ICU readmission and ward cardiac arrest. This suggests that systemic factors are associated with patient outcomes, and flexible critical care resources may be needed when demand is high. 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000401
    Association between intensive care unit occupancy at discharge, afterhours discharges, and clinical outcomes: a historical cohort study. Fergusson Nicholas A,Ahkioon Steve,Ayas Najib,Dhingra Vinay K,Chittock Dean R,Sekhon Mypinder S,Mitra Anish R,Griesdale Donald E G Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie PURPOSE:There is a paucity of evidence evaluating whether intensive care unit (ICU) discharge occupancy is associated with clinical outcomes. It is unknown whether increased discharge occupancy leads to greater afterhours discharges and downstream consequences. We explore the association between ICU discharge occupancy and afterhours discharges, 72-hr readmission, and 30-day mortality. METHODS:This single-centre, historical cohort study included all patients discharged from the Vancouver General Hospital ICU between 5 April 2010 and 13 September 2017. Data were obtained from the British Columbia Critical Care Database. Occupancy was defined as the number of ICU bed hours utilized divided by the available bed hours for that day. Any discharge between 22:00 and 6:59 was considered afterhours. Logistic regression models adjusting for important covariates were constructed. RESULTS:We included 8,862 ICU discharges representing 7,288 individual patients. There were 1,180 (13.3%) afterhours discharges, 408 (4.6%) 72-hr readmissions, and 574 (6.5%) 30-day post-discharge deaths. Greater discharge occupancy was associated with afterhours discharges (per 10% increase: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.20; P = 0.005). Discharge occupancy was not associated with 72-hr readmission (per 10% increase: aOR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.09; P = 0.62) or 30-day mortality (per 10% increase: aOR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.16; P = 0.32). Afterhours discharge was not associated with 72-hr readmission (aOR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.54; P = 0.34) or 30-day mortality (aOR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.36; P = 0.69). CONCLUSIONS:Greater ICU discharge occupancy was associated with a significant increase in afterhours discharges. Nevertheless, neither discharge occupancy nor afterhours discharge were associated with 72-hr readmission or 30-day mortality. 10.1007/s12630-020-01762-w
    Factors associated with increased risk of readmission to intensive care in Australia. Renton J,Pilcher D V,Santamaria J D,Stow P,Bailey M,Hart G,Duke G Intensive care medicine PURPOSE:To determine the epidemiology, in-hospital mortality, trends, patient characteristics and predictors of intensive care unit (ICU) readmission in Australia. METHODS:A retrospective longitudinal study of data for 38 Australian ICUs extracted from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database (ANZICS-ADP) for the years 2000-2007. Demographic, diagnostic, physiological and outcome data were analysed. A multivariate model was constructed to identify risk factors for ICU readmission. Outcomes examined included observed and risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality. RESULTS:A total of 247,103 patients were discharged alive from their first ICU admission; 13,598 (5.5%) were readmitted at least once. Variables associated with an odds ratio greater than 1.05 for readmission (p < 0.001) were an initial ICU admission source other than elective surgery, any chronic health variable on severity scoring, tertiary hospital ICU and discharge between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. Five initial diagnoses were associated with an odds ratio (OR) greater than 2 for readmission (p < 0.001). In-hospital mortality in readmitted patients was 20.7% compared with 4.4% in those not readmitted. Readmission rates have not changed over the study period. After adjustment for illness severity and readmission propensity, ICU readmission remained significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (OR 5.4, 95%, confidence interval (CI) 5.1-5.7). CONCLUSIONS:Many risk factors for increased ICU readmission were identified in this study including ICU discharge between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. This was the only modifiable variable studied. Prospective studies are required to identify other factors and to determine whether interventions may reduce ICU readmission and its high associated in-hospital mortality. 10.1007/s00134-011-2318-x
    Predicting cardiovascular intensive care unit readmission after cardiac surgery: derivation and validation of the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease (APPROACH) cardiovascular intensive care unit clinical prediction model from a registry cohort of 10,799 surgical cases. van Diepen Sean,Graham Michelle M,Nagendran Jayan,Norris Colleen M Critical care (London, England) INTRODUCTION:In medical and surgical intensive care units, clinical risk prediction models for readmission have been developed; however, studies reporting the risks for cardiovascular intensive care unit (CVICU) readmission have been methodologically limited by small numbers of outcomes, unreported measures of calibration or discrimination, or a lack of information spanning the entire perioperative period. The purpose of this study was to derive and validate a clinical prediction model for CVICU readmission in cardiac surgical patients. METHODS:A total of 10,799 patients more than or equal to 18 years in the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease (APPROACH) registry who underwent cardiac surgery (coronary artery bypass or valvular surgery) between 2004 and 2012 and were discharged alive from the first CVICU admission were included. The full cohort was used to derive the clinical prediction model and the model was internally validated with bootstrapping. Discrimination and calibration were assessed using the AUC c index and the Hosmer-Lemeshow tests, respectively. RESULTS:A total of 479 (4.4%) patients required CVICU readmission. The mean CVICU length of stay (19.9 versus 3.3 days, P <0.001) and in-hospital mortality (14.4% versus 2.2%, P <0.001) were higher among patients readmitted to the CVICU. In the derivation cohort, a total of three preoperative (age ≥ 70, ejection fraction, chronic lung disease), two intraoperative (single valve repair or replacement plus non-CABG surgery, multivalve repair or replacement), and seven postoperative variables (cardiac arrest, pneumonia, pleural effusion, deep sternal wound infection, leg graft harvest site infection, gastrointestinal bleed, neurologic complications) were independently associated with CVICU readmission. The clinical prediction model had robust discrimination and calibration in the derivation cohort (AUC c index = 0.799; Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.192). The validation point estimates and confidence intervals were similar to derivation model. CONCLUSIONS:In a large population-based dataset incorporating a comprehensive set of perioperative variables, we have derived a clinical prediction model with excellent discrimination and calibration. This model identifies opportunities for targeted therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing CVICU readmissions in high-risk patients. 10.1186/s13054-014-0651-5
    Predicting risk of unplanned hospital readmission in survivors of critical illness: a population-level cohort study. Lone Nazir I,Lee Robert,Salisbury Lisa,Donaghy Eddie,Ramsay Pamela,Rattray Janice,Walsh Timothy S Thorax BACKGROUND:Intensive care unit (ICU) survivors experience high levels of morbidity after hospital discharge and are at high risk of unplanned hospital readmission. Identifying those at highest risk before hospital discharge may allow targeting of novel risk reduction strategies. We aimed to identify risk factors for unplanned 90-day readmission, develop a risk prediction model and assess its performance to screen for ICU survivors at highest readmission risk. METHODS:Population cohort study linking registry data for patients discharged from general ICUs in Scotland (2005-2013). Independent risk factors for 90-day readmission and discriminant ability (c-index) of groups of variables were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Derivation and validation risk prediction models were constructed using a time-based split. RESULTS:Of 55 975 ICU survivors, 24.1% (95%CI 23.7% to 24.4%) had unplanned 90-day readmission. Pre-existing health factors were fair discriminators of readmission (c-index 0.63, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.64) but better than acute illness factors (0.60) or demographics (0.54). In a subgroup of those with no comorbidity, acute illness factors (0.62) were better discriminators than pre-existing health factors (0.56). Overall model performance and calibration in the validation cohort was fair (0.65, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.66) but did not perform sufficiently well as a screening tool, demonstrating high false-positive/false-negative rates at clinically relevant thresholds. CONCLUSIONS:Unplanned 90-day hospital readmission is common. Pre-existing illness indices are better predictors of readmission than acute illness factors. Identifying additional patient-centred drivers of readmission may improve risk prediction models. Improved understanding of risk factors that are amenable to intervention could improve the clinical and cost-effectiveness of post-ICU care and rehabilitation. 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2017-210822
    Readmission of ICU patients: A quality indicator? Woldhek Annemarie L,Rijkenberg Saskia,Bosman Rob J,van der Voort Peter H J Journal of critical care PURPOSE:Readmission rate is frequently proposed as a quality indicator because it is related to both patient outcome and organizational efficiency. Currently available studies are not clear about modifiable factors as tools to reduce readmission rate. MATERIAL AND METHODS:In a 14year retrospective cohort study of 19,750 ICU admissions we identified 1378 readmissions (7%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis for determinants of readmission within 24h, 48h, 72h and any time during hospital admission was performed with adjustment for patients' characteristics and initial admission severity scores. RESULTS:In all models with different time points, patients with older age, a medical and emergency surgery initial admission and patients with higher SOFA score have a higher risk of readmission. Immunodeficiency was a predictor only in the at any time model. Confirmed infection was predicted in all models except the 24h model. Last day noradrenaline treatment was predicted in the 24 and 48h model. Mechanical ventilation on admission independently protected for readmission, which can be explained by the large number of cardiac surgery patients. All multivariate models had a moderate performance with the highest AUC of 0.70. CONCLUSIONS:Readmission can be predicted with moderate precision and independent variables associated with readmission are age, severity of disease, type of admission, infection, immunodeficiency and last day noradrenaline use. The latter factor is the only one that can be modified and therefore readmission rate does not meet the criteria to be used as a useful quality indicator. 10.1016/j.jcrc.2016.12.001
    Increased risk of death and readmission after hospital discharge of critically ill patients in a developing country: a retrospective multicenter cohort study. de Lima Vanessa Chaves Barreto Ferreira,Bierrenbach Ana Luiza,Alencar Gizelton Pereira,Andrade Ana Lucia,Azevedo Luciano Cesar Pontes Intensive care medicine PURPOSE:To describe long-term mortality and hospital readmissions of patients admitted to Brazilian intensive care units (ICU). METHODS:Retrospective cohort study of adult patients admitted to Brazilian hospitals affiliated to the Public Healthcare System from 10 state capitals. ICU patients were paired to non-ICU patients by frequency matching (ratio 1:2), according to postal code and admission semester. Hospitalization records were linked through deterministic linkage to national mortality data. Primary outcome was mortality up to 1 year. Other outcomes were mortality and readmissions at 30 and 90 days and 3 years. Multiple Cox regressions were used adjusting for age, sex, cancer diagnosis, type of hospital, and surgical status. RESULTS:We included 324,594 patients (108,302 ICU and 216,292 non-ICU). ICU patients had increased hospital length of stay [9 (5-17) vs. 3 (1-6) days, p < 0.001] and mortality (18.5 vs. 3.6%, p < 0.001) versus non-ICU patients. One year after discharge, ICU patients were more frequently readmitted to hospital (25.4 vs. 17.4%, p < 0.001) and to ICU (31.4 vs. 7.3%, p < 0.001) than controls. Mortality up to 1 year was also higher for ICU patients (14.3 vs. 3.9%, p < 0.001). A significant interaction between surgical status and mortality was found, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) up to 1 year of 2.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5-2.9] for surgical patients, and 3.4 (95%CI 3.3-3.5) for medical patients. The risk for death and readmission diminished over time up to 3 years. CONCLUSIONS:In a public healthcare system of a developing country, ICU patients have excessive long-term mortality and frequent readmissions. The ICU burden tended to reduce over time after hospital discharge. 10.1007/s00134-018-5252-3
    Re-Admission within 72 Hours in Thai Surgical Intensive Care Units (Thai-SICU) Study: Characteristics, and Outcomes. Poopipatpab Sujaree,Teeratchanan Tanawadee,Chittawatanarat Kaweesak,Trongtrakul Konlawij Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet Objective:To identify incidence, characteristics and outcomes of patients who were re-admitted to surgical intensive care units (SICUs). Material and Method:Multicenter prospective cohort study conducted in 9 university-affiliated surgical ICUs in Thailand(THAI-SICU study) from April 2011 to January 2013. Results:A total of 144 patients (3.1%) re-admitted to our surgical ICUs from 4,652 cases were recruited. Re-admission baseline characteristics were advanced age (mean = 71 years), low body mass index, and higher APACHE-II and SOFA score within 24 hours of first ICU admission. Many significant comorbidities were found in the re-admission group, including: hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases. ICU mortality and hospital mortality were higher in readmission group than those in the non re-admission group (20.1% vs. 9.3%, p<0.001 and 27.8% vs. 11.3%, p<0.001, respectively). The relative risk ratio for mortality between re-admission and non re-admission in ICU was 2.17 times and in hospital mortality was 2.46 times greater. Independent potential risk factors for re-admission were age (OR 1.028, 95% CI 1.001-1.051), emergency surgical intervention (OR 1.978, 95% CI 1.027-3.813), transfer back from general wards (OR 4.175, 95% CI 2.020-8.628), and respiratory failure needing mechanical ventilation (OR 2.167, 95% CI 1.065-4.407). Conclusion:Re-admission was found in 3.1% of cases in our surgical ICUs. This problem is associated with significantly higher ICU and hospital mortality. Risk factors of re-admission were patient age, emergency surgery, re-admission from general wards, and need for respiratory support.
    ICU readmission of patients with cancer: Incidence, risk factors and mortality. AbuSara Aseel K,Nazer Lama H,Hawari Feras I Journal of critical care PURPOSE:Few studies evaluated ICU readmission in cancer patients. This study aimed to describe the incidence and risk factors for ICU readmission in cancer patients and the association with mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A retrospective cohort study at a comprehensive cancer center, which included cancer patients who were discharged after their initial ICU admission over a 5-year period. The characteristics and outcomes of patients who required ICU readmission within 30 days of discharge were compared to those who did not require readmission during the study period. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with readmission and to evaluate the association between readmission and mortality. RESULTS:Among 1582 patients discharged from the ICU, 313(19.8%) were readmitted after a median of 6 days. The most common readmission diagnoses were respiratory failure and sepsis. Mechanical ventilation (OR 5.80; 95% CI 4.29-7.84) and thrombocytopenia (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.16-2.38), on the first ICU admission were associated with readmission. Readmission was associated with a higher risk of 28-day and 90-day mortality, (OR 3.02; CI 2.3-4.00) and (OR 3.47; 95% CI 2.69-4.49), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:ICU readmission was associated with increased mortality. Mechanical ventilation and thrombocytopenia at the first admission were associated with ICU readmission. 10.1016/j.jcrc.2019.02.008
    Readmission to the Intensive Care Unit: Incidence, Risk Factors, Resource Use, and Outcomes. A Retrospective Cohort Study. Ponzoni Carolina R,Corrêa Thiago D,Filho Roberto R,Serpa Neto Ary,Assunção Murillo S C,Pardini Andreia,Schettino Guilherme P P Annals of the American Thoracic Society RATIONALE:Readmission to the intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with poor clinical outcomes, increased length of ICU and hospital stay, and higher costs. Nevertheless, knowledge of epidemiology of ICU readmissions, risk factors, and attributable outcomes is restricted to developed countries. OBJECTIVES:To determine the effect of ICU readmissions on in-hospital mortality, determine incidence of ICU readmissions, identify predictors of ICU readmissions and hospital mortality, and compare resource use and outcomes between readmitted and nonreadmitted patients in a developing country. METHODS:This retrospective single-center cohort study was conducted in a 40-bed, open medical-surgical ICU of a private, tertiary care hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. The Local Ethics Committee at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein approved the study protocol, and the need for informed consent was waived. All consecutive adult (≥18 yr) patients admitted to the ICU between June 1, 2013 and July 1, 2015 were enrolled in this study. RESULTS:Comparisons were made between patients readmitted and not readmitted to the ICU. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of ICU readmissions and hospital mortality. Out of 5,779 patients admitted to the ICU, 576 (10%) were readmitted to the ICU during the same hospitalization. Compared with nonreadmitted patients, patients readmitted to the ICU were more often men (349 of 576 patients [60.6%] vs. 2,919 of 5,203 patients [56.1%]; P = 0.042), showed a higher (median [interquartile range]) severity of illness (Simplified Acute Physiology III score) at index ICU admission (50 [41-61] vs. 42 [32-54], respectively, for readmitted and nonreadmitted patients; P < 0.001), and were more frequently admitted due to medical reasons (425 of 576 [73.8%] vs. 2,998 of 5,203 [57.6%], respectively, for readmitted and nonreadmitted patients; P < 0.001). Simplified Acute Physiology III score (P < 0.001), ICU admission from the ward (odds ratio [OR], 1.907; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.463-2.487; P < 0.001), vasopressors need during index ICU stay (OR, 1.391; 95% CI, 1.130-1.713; P = 0.002), and length of ICU stay (P = 0.001) were independent predictors of ICU readmission. After adjusting for severity of illness, ICU readmission (OR, 4.103; 95% CI, 3.226-5.518; P < 0.001), admission source, presence of cancer, use of vasopressors, mechanical ventilation or renal replacement therapy, length of ICU stay, and nighttime ICU discharge were associated with increased risk of in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS:Readmissions to the ICU were frequent and strongly related to poor outcomes. The degree to which ICU readmissions are preventable as well as the main causes of preventable ICU readmissions need to be further determined. 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201611-851OC
    Association between nursing cost and patient outcomes in intensive care units: A retrospective cohort study of Belgian hospitals. Intensive & critical care nursing INTRODUCTION:Hospitals with better nursing resources report more favourable patient outcomes with almost no difference in cost as compared to those with worse nursing resources. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nursing cost per intensive care unit bed and patient outcomes (mortality, readmission, and length of stay). METHODOLOGY:This was a retrospective cohort study using data collected from the intensive care units of 17 Belgian hospitals from January 01 to December 31, 2018. Hospitals were dichotomized using median annual nursing cost per bed. A total of 18,235 intensive care unit stays were included in the study with 5,664 stays in the low-cost nursing group and 12,571 in the high-cost nursing group. RESULTS:The rate of high length of stay outliers in the intensive care unit was significantly lower in the high-cost nursing group (9.2% vs 14.4%) compared to the low-cost nursing group. Intensive care unit readmission was not significantly different in the two groups. Mortality was lower in the high-cost nursing group for intensive care unit (9.9% vs 11.3%) and hospital (13.1% vs 14.6%) mortality. The nursing cost per intensive care bed was different in the two groups, with a median [IQR] cost of 159,387€ [140,307-166,690] for the low-cost nursing group and 214,032€ [198,094-230,058] for the high-cost group. In multivariate analysis, intensive care unit mortality (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.69-0.92, p < 0.0001), in-hospital mortality (OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.93, p < 0.0001), and high length of stay outliers (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.42-0.55, p < 0.0001) were lower in the high-cost nursing group. However, there was no significant effect on intensive care readmission between the two groups (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.97-1.51, p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:This study found that higher-cost nursing per bed was associated with significantly lower intensive care unit and in-hospital mortality rates, as well as fewer high length of stay outliers, but had no significant effect on readmission to the intensive care unit. . 10.1016/j.iccn.2022.103296
    Predicting Readmission to Intensive Care After Cardiac Surgery Within Index Hospitalization: A Systematic Review. Kimani Linda,Howitt Samuel,Tennyson Charlene,Templeton Richard,McCollum Charles,Grant Stuart W Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia Readmission to the cardiac intensive care unit after cardiac surgery has significant implications for both patients and healthcare providers. Identifying patients at risk of readmission potentially could improve outcomes. The objective of this systematic review was to identify risk factors and clinical prediction models for readmission within a single hospitalization to intensive care after cardiac surgery. PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases were searched to identify candidate articles. Only studies that used multivariate analyses to identify independent predictors were included. There were 25 studies and five risk prediction models identified. The overall rate of readmission pooled across the included studies was 4.9%. In all 25 studies, in-hospital mortality and duration of hospital stay were higher in patients who experienced readmission. Recurring predictors for readmission were preoperative renal failure, age >70, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction <30%, type and urgency of surgery, prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time, prolonged postoperative ventilation, postoperative anemia, and neurologic dysfunction. The majority of readmissions occurred due to respiratory and cardiac complications. Four models were identified for predicting readmission, with one external validation study. As all models developed to date had limitations, further work on larger datasets is required to develop clinically useful models to identify patients at risk of readmission to the cardiac intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. 10.1053/j.jvca.2021.02.056
    Epidemiology and Outcomes of Patients Readmitted to the Intensive Care Unit After Cardiac Intensive Care Unit Admission. The American journal of cardiology Readmission to the intensive care unit (ICU) during the index hospitalization is associated with poor outcomes in medical or surgical ICU survivors. Little is known about critically ill patients with acute cardiovascular conditions cared for in a cardiac intensive care unit (CICU). We sought to describe the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of all ICU readmissions in patients who survived to CICU discharge. We retrospectively reviewed Mayo Clinic patients from 2007 to 2015 who survived the index CICU admission and identified patients with a second ICU stay during their index hospitalization; these patients were categorized as ICU transfers (patients who went directly from the CICU to another ICU) or ICU readmissions (patients initially transferred from the CICU to the ward, and then back to an ICU). Among 9,434 CICU survivors (mean age 67 years), 138 patients (1.5%) had a second ICU stay during the index hospitalization: 60 ICU transfers (0.6%) and 78 ICU readmissions (0.8%). The most common indications for ICU readmission were respiratory failure and procedure/surgery. On multivariable modeling, respiratory failure, severe acute kidney injury, and Charlson Comorbidity Index at the time of discharge from the index ICU stay were associated with ICU readmission. Death during the first ICU readmission (n = 78) occurred in 7.7% of patients. In-hospital mortality was higher for patients with a second ICU stay. In conclusion, few CICU survivors have a second ICU stay during their index hospitalization; these patients are at a higher risk of in-hospital and 1-year mortality. Respiratory failure, severe acute kidney injury, and higher co-morbidity burden identify CICU survivors at elevated risk of ICU readmission. 10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.01.038
    Intensive Care Unit Readmission After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation: Causes, Associated Factors, and Association With Patient Mortality. Hui John,Mauermann William J,Stulak John M,Hanson Andrew C,Maltais Simon,Barbara David W Anesthesia and analgesia BACKGROUND:Previous studies on readmissions after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation have focused on hospital readmissions after dismissal from the index hospitalization. Because few data exist, the purpose of this study was to examine intensive care unit (ICU) readmissions in patients during their initial hospitalization for LVAD implantation to determine reasons for, factors associated with, and incidence of mortality after ICU readmission. METHODS:A retrospective analysis was performed from February 2007 to March 2015 of patients at our institution receiving first-time LVAD implantation. After LVAD implantation, patients dismissed from the ICU who then required ICU readmission before hospital dismissal were compared to those not requiring ICU readmission before hospital dismissal with respect to preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors. RESULTS:Among 287 LVAD patients, 266 survived their initial ICU admission, of which 49 (18.4%) required ICU readmission. The most common reasons for readmission were bleeding and respiratory failure. Factors found to be univariably associated with ICU readmission were preoperative hemoglobin, preoperative aspartate aminotransferase, preoperative atrial fibrillation, preoperative dialysis, longer cardiopulmonary bypass times, and higher intraoperative allogeneic blood transfusion requirements. Multivariable analysis revealed ICU readmission to be independently associated with preoperative dialysis (odds ratio, 12.86; 95% confidence interval, 3.16-52.28; P < .001). Overall mortality at 1 year was 22.6%. Survival after hospital dismissal was worse for patients who required ICU readmission during the index hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.81; P = .019). CONCLUSIONS:ICU readmission after LVAD implantation occurred relatively frequently and was significantly associated with 1-year mortality after hospital dismissal. These data can perhaps be used to identify subsets of LVAD patients at risk for ICU readmission and may lead to implementation of practice changes to mitigate ICU readmissions. Future larger and prospective studies are warranted. 10.1213/ANE.0000000000003847
    Intensive care unit (ICU) readmission after major lung resection: Prevalence, patterns, and mortality. Jung Jae Jun,Cho Jong Ho,Hong Tae Hee,Kim Hong Kwan,Choi Yong Soo,Kim Jhingook,Shim Young Mog,Zo Jae Ill Thoracic cancer BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with mortality in patients re-admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) after initial recovery from major lung resection. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed the case records of all patients who underwent major lung resection between February 2011 and May 2013. A total of 1916 patients underwent major resection surgery for various lung diseases, 63 (3.3%) of which required ICU admission after initial recovery. We analyzed preoperative and perioperative data, including ICU factors and outcomes. RESULTS:The patient group included 57 men (90.5%) with a mean age of 65.3 years. Pathologic diagnosis was malignancy in 92.1% of patients, while 7.9% had benign disease. Open thoracotomy was performed in 84.1%, whereas minimally invasive approaches were performed in 15.9%. In-hospital mortality occurred in 16 (25.4%) patients. Patients were classified as either survivors (n = 47, 74.6%) or non-survivors (n = 16, 25.4%). The most common reason for ICU readmission was pulmonary complication (n = 50, 79.4%). Thirty-one patients (49.2%) required mechanical ventilation, seven (11.1%) required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and three (4.8%) required renal support. Multivariate analysis showed that acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and delirium were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality. In addition, delirium frequently occurred in patients with ARDS. CONCLUSION:ARDS and delirium were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients who were readmitted to the ICU after major lung resection. Future studies are needed to determine if the prevention of delirium and ARDS can improve postoperative outcomes for patients with lung cancer. 10.1111/1759-7714.12406
    [Readmission to the intensive care unit - epidemiology, prediction and clinical consequences]. Grochla Marek,Saucha Wojciech,Borkowski Jarosław,Knapik Piotr Wiadomosci lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960) Readmission to the ICU is considered a serious adverse event. The medical and economic impact of this complication is so significant, that a percentage of ICU readmissions is today considered an indicator of ICU quality. This review paper analyzes the available literature on epidemiology, prediction and the clinical effects of ICU readmissions. It turns out that there are no publications on this subject in the Polish literature. Data from other countries indicate, that a percentage of ICU readmissions depends on a variety of factors and is ranging from 2% to 15%. Hospitalization time after ICU readmission is longer and hospital mortality is higher. We do not have reliable tools for the prediction of this complication. In the Polish healthcare system, multidisciplinary ICUs are run by specialists in anaesthesiology and intensive therapy. Patients discharged from these departments constitute a high-risk population and are further referred to doctors representing various medical specialities. Few available data indicate that long-term outcomes of patients discharged from Polish ICU are very bad, especially in the elderly. The problem of maintaining proper continuity of treatment after discharge from a high level ofmedical supervision is therefore very important to ensure coordinated medical care.
    Longer length of stay, days between discharge/first readmission, and pulmonary involvement ≥50% increase prevalence of admissions in ICU in unplanned readmissions after COVID-19 hospitalizations. Journal of medical virology Hospital readmissions due to COVID-19 are one of the main concerns for the health system due to risks to the patient's life and increased use of health resources. Studies focusing on this issue are important to understand the risk factors and create strategies to avoid readmissions. We evaluated the readmission of patients with confirmed COVID-19 in a private hospital in southern Brazil, between March 2020 and 2021. Also, the characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and nonadmitted were compared. Poisson regression models with prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were applied to confirm the association between variables and ICU admission. Of the 2084 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 1806 were discharged alive. Among them, 106 were readmitted for unplanned reasons during one year. Early hospital readmission (≤30 days) occurred in 52.8% of the cases. The main reasons were respiratory, gastroenterological, kidney, and cardiac disease. The median age was 73.0 years old and women correspond to 52.8%. The presence of at least one comorbidity was detected in 87.7% of patients. Hypertension, diabetes, cardiac, and lung disease were more frequent. The ICU admitted patients (n = 43; 40.5%) mostly had 4-5 comorbidities, pulmonary involvement ≥50%, length of stay (LOS), and days between discharge and first readmission. Longer LOS (PR: 3.46; 95% CI: 1.24-5.67), days between discharge/first readmission (PR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.15-5.88), and pulmonary involvement (≥50%; PR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.11-3.54) were independently associated with ICU admission. Longer LOS, longer days between discharge/first readmission, and pulmonary involvement (≥50%) were associated with ICU admission in readmitted patients. Readmissions evaluation is pivotal and may help in ensuring safe care transition and postdischarge follow-up. 10.1002/jmv.27792
    Relationship between Use of Rehabilitation Resources and ICU Readmission and ER Visits in ICU Survivors: the Korean ICU National Data Study 2008-2015. Park Yun Hee,Ko Ryoung Eun,Kang Danbee,Park Jinkyeong,Jeon Kyeongman,Yang Jeong Hoon,Park Chi Min,Cho Joongbum,Park Young Sook,Park Hyejung,Cho Juhee,Guallar Eliseo,Suh Gee Young,Chung Chi Ryang Journal of Korean medical science BACKGROUND:Despite the increasing importance of rehabilitation for critically ill patients, there is little information regarding how rehabilitation therapy is utilized in clinical practice. Our objectives were to evaluate the implementation rate of rehabilitation therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) survivors and to investigate the effects of rehabilitation therapy on outcomes. METHODS:A retrospective nationwide cohort study with including > 18 years of ages admitted to ICU between January 2008 and May 2015 (n = 1,465,776). The analyzed outcomes were readmission to ICU readmission and emergency room (ER) visit. RESULTS:During the study period, 249,918 (17.1%) patients received rehabilitation therapy. The percentage of patients receiving any rehabilitation therapy increased annually from 14% in 2008 to 20% in 2014, and the percentages for each type of therapy also increased over time. The most common type of rehabilitation was physical therapy (91.9%), followed by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (29.6%), occupational (28.6%), respiratory, (11.6%) and swallowing (10.3%) therapies. After adjusting for confounding variables, the risk of 30-day ICU readmission was lower in patients who received rehabilitation therapy than in those who did not ( < 0.001; hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-0.75). And, the risk of 30-day ER visit was also lower in patients who received rehabilitation therapy ( < 0.001; HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77-0.88). CONCLUSION:In this nationwide cohort study in Korea, only 17% of all ICU patients received rehabilitation therapy. However, rehabilitation is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of 30-day ICU readmission and ER visit. 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e101
    A Comprehensive Review of the Outcome for Patients Readmitted to the ICU Following Trauma and Strategies to Decrease Readmission Rates. Morgan Madison,Vernon Tawnya,Bradburn Eric H,Miller Jo Ann,Jammula Shreya,Rogers Frederick B Journal of intensive care medicine In recent years, there has been an emphasis on evaluating the outcomes of patients who have experienced an intensive care unit (ICU) readmission. This may in part be due to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's Hospital Readmission Reduction Program which imposes financial sanctions on hospitals who have excessive readmission rates, informally known as bounceback rates. The financial cost associated with avoidable bounceback combined with the potentially preventable expenses can result in unnecessary financial strain. Within the hospital readmissions, there is a subset pertaining to unplanned readmission to the ICU. Although there have been studies regarding ICU bounceback, there are limited studies regarding ICU bounceback of trauma patients and even fewer proven strategies. Although many studies have concluded that respiratory complications were the most common factor influencing ICU readmissions, there is inconclusive evidence in terms of a broadly applicable strategy that would facilitate management of these patients. The purpose of this review is to highlight the outcomes of patients readmitted to the ICU and to provide an overview of possible strategies to aid in decreasing ICU readmission rates. 10.1177/0885066619899639
    A Multi-Center Thai University-Based Surgical Intensive Care Units Study (THAI-SICU Study): Outcome of ICU Care and Adverse Events. Kongsayreepong Suneerat,Chittawatanarat Kaweesak,Thawitsri Thammasak,Chatmongkolchart Sunisa,Morakul Sunthiti,Wacharasint Petch,Chau-In Waraporn,Poopipatpab Sujaree,Kusumaphanyo Chaiyapruk Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet Objective:Surgical intensive care units (SICUs) are special units for critically ill surgical patients both in the pre andpostoperative period. There is little aggregated information about surgical patients who are admitted to the Thai surgical ICU. The objective of this report was to describe patient characteristics, outcomes of ICU care, incidence and outcomes of adverse events in the SICU in the participating SICUs. Material and Method:This multi-center, prospective, observational study of nine university-based SICUs was done. All admitted patients with ages >18 years old were included. Information about patient characteristics, underlying medical problems, indication and type of ICU admission, severity score as ASA physical status in operative patients, APACHE II score and SOFA score, adverse events of interest, ventilator days, ICU and 28 days mortality. The association of outcome and predictors was reported by relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Statistical significant difference was defined by p<0.05. Results:During April 2011-January 2013 of total cohort time, a total of 4,652 patients from nine university-based SICUs were included in this study. Mode of patient age was 71-75 year old for both sexes. Median (IQR) of APACHE II scores and SOFA scores were 10 (7-10) and 2 (1-5), respectively. Seventy eight percent of patients were postoperative patients and 50% of them were ASA physical status III. The median of ICU stay was 2 (IQR 1-4) days. Each day of ICU increment was associated with increased 1.4 days of a hospital stay. Three percent of survived at discharge were clinically inappropriate discharge resulting in ICU readmission. Sixty-five percent were discharged home after ICU admission. ICU and 28 days mortality was 9.6% and 13.8%. The seven most common adverse events were sepsis (19.5%), acute kidney injury (AKI) (16.9%), new cardiac arrhythmias (6.2%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (5.8%), cardiac arrest (4.9%), delirium (3.5%) and reintubation within 72 hours (3.0%), respectively. Most of the adverse events occurred in the first five days, significantly less occurred after 15 days of ICU admission. The association between adverse events and 28 days mortality were significant for cardiac arrest (RR, 9.5; 95% CI, 8.6-10.4), respiratory failure [acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (RR, 4.6; 95% CI, 3.9-5.3), acute lung injury (ALI) (RR, 2.7; 95% CI, 2.1-3.6)], acute kidney injury (AKI) (RR, 4.2; 95% CI, 3.7-4.8), sepsis (RR, 3.6; 95% CI, 3.2-4.2), iatrogenic pneumothorax (RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.1-5.1), new seizure (RR, 3.1, 95% CI, 2.2-4.4), upper GI hemorrhage (RR, 3.0, 95% CI, 2.1-4.1), new cardiac arrhythmias (RR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.4-3.5), delirium (RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.7-2.8), acute myocardial infarction (RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.1), unplanned extubation (RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.1), intra-abdominal hypertension (RR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.7) and reintubation within 72 hours (RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1). Conclusion:This is the first large study of surgical critical care in Thailand, which had a systematic patient follow-upprogram. Most of the patients were elderly. Adverse events were most frequent during the first 5 days of admission and were associated with ICU and 28 days mortality.
    Factors and Outcomes of Intensive Care Unit Readmission in Elderly Patients. Gerontology INTRODUCTION:An increase in age has been observed among patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Age is a well-known risk factor for ICU readmission and mortality. However, clinical characteristics and risk factors of ICU readmission of elderly patients (≥65 years) have not been studied. METHODS:This retrospective single-center cohort study was conducted in a total of 122-bed ICU of a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Korea. A total of 85,413 patients were enrolled in this hospital between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2017. The odds ratio of readmission and in-hospital mortality was calculated by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:Totally, 29,503 patients were included in the study group, of which 2,711 (9.2%) had ICU readmissions. Of the 2,711 readmitted patients, 472 patients were readmitted more than once (readmitted 2 or more times to the ICU, 17.4%). In the readmitted patient group, there were more males, higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores, and hospitalized for medical reasons. Length of stay (LOS) in ICU and in-hospital were longer, and 28-day and in-hospital mortality was higher in readmitted patients than in nonreadmitted patients. Risk factors of ICU readmission included the ICU admission due to medical reason, SOFA score, presence of chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, transplantation, use of mechanical ventilation, and initial ICU LOS. ICU readmission and age (over 85 years) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality on multivariable analysis. The delayed ICU readmission group (>72 h) had higher in-hospital mortality than the early readmission group (≤72 h) (20.6 vs. 16.2%, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS:ICU readmissions occurred in 9.2% of elderly patients and were associated with poor prognosis and higher mortality. 10.1159/000516297
    Hospital Readmission and Post-Acute Care Use After Intensive Care Unit Admissions: New ICU Quality Metrics? Journal of intensive care medicine OBJECTIVE:Care coordination is a national priority. Post-acute care use and hospital readmission appear to be common after critical illness. It is unknown whether specialty critical care units have different readmission rates and what these trends have been over time. METHODS:In this retrospective cohort study, a cohort of 53,539 medical/surgical patients who were treated in a critical care unit during their index admission were compared with 209,686 patients who were not treated in a critical care unit. The primary outcome was 30-day all cause hospital readmission. Secondary outcomes included post-acute care resource use and immediate readmission, defined as within 7 days of discharge. RESULTS:Compared to patients discharged after an index hospitalization without critical illness, surviving patients following ICU admission were not more likely to be rehospitalized within 30 days (15.8 vs. 16.1%, p = 0.08). However, they were more likely to receive post-acute care services (45.3% vs. 70.9%, p < 0.001) as well as be rehospitalized within 7 days (5.2 vs. 6.0%, p < 0.001). Post-acute care use and 30-day readmission rates varied by ICU type, the latter ranging from 11.7% after admission in a cardiothoracic critical care unit to 23.1% after admission in a medical critical care unit. 30-day readmission after ICU admission did not decline between 2010 and 2015 (p = 0.38). Readmission rates declined over time for 2 of 4 targeted conditions (heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), but only when the hospitalization did not include ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS:Rehospitalization for survivors following ICU admission is common across all specialty critical care units. Post-acute care use is also common for this population of patients. Overall trends for readmission rates after critical illness did not change over time, and readmission reductions for targeted conditions were limited to hospitalizations that did not include an ICU admission. 10.1177/0885066620956633
    Septic shock: incidence, mortality and hospital readmission rates in French intensive care units from 2014 to 2018. Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine INTRODUCTION:Septic shock is responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Its evolution over the last few years and the leverage points for action to improve associated outcomes remain unclear. Our aim was to determine trends in the incidence and mortality of septic shock and associated risk factors in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and readmission rates after hospital discharge. METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the French national hospitalisation database, including adult patients with septic shock from 2014 to 2018. Primary outcomes were the incidence of septic shock and the hospital mortality rate at 30, 90 and 365 days. Secondary outcomes were all-cause hospital readmission. RESULTS:Septic shock was identified in 187,587 ICU stays. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of septic shock per 100 ICU admissions increased from 6.5% to 6.8% (P < .001); age- and sex-adjusted hospital mortality rates decreased from 47.3% to 44.5% (P < .001). The hospital readmission rate at 365 days was 65.0%. Older age, higher Charlson score, occurrence of organ failure and previous hospitalisation were associated with increased risk of mortality. Identification of a specific microorganism and a time between hospitalisation and ICU admission of less than one day were associated with a decreased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS:Our study revealed an increase in the incidence of septic shock and a decrease in mortality rates. Pathogen identification and rapid admission to the ICU were associated with better outcomes. The rate of hospital readmission increased, raising questions about the discharge criteria for these patients. 10.1016/j.accpm.2022.101082