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    Plasma phosphorylated tau 217 and phosphorylated tau 181 as biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a retrospective diagnostic performance study. The Lancet. Neurology BACKGROUND:Plasma tau phosphorylated at threonine 217 (p-tau217) and plasma tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-tau181) are associated with Alzheimer's disease tau pathology. We compared the diagnostic value of both biomarkers in cognitively unimpaired participants and patients with a clinical diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease syndromes, or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) syndromes. METHODS:In this retrospective multicohort diagnostic performance study, we analysed plasma samples, obtained from patients aged 18-99 years old who had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease syndromes (Alzheimer's disease dementia, logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, or posterior cortical atrophy), FTLD syndromes (corticobasal syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia, or semantic variant primary progressive aphasia), or mild cognitive impairment; the participants were from the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Memory and Aging Center, San Francisco, CA, USA, and the Advancing Research and Treatment for Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Consortium (ARTFL; 17 sites in the USA and two in Canada). Participants from both cohorts were carefully characterised, including assessments of CSF p-tau181, amyloid-PET or tau-PET (or both), and clinical and cognitive evaluations. Plasma p-tau181 and p-tau217 were measured using electrochemiluminescence-based assays, which differed only in the biotinylated antibody epitope specificity. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to determine diagnostic accuracy of both plasma markers using clinical diagnosis, neuropathological findings, and amyloid-PET and tau-PET measures as gold standards. Difference between two area under the curve (AUC) analyses were tested with the Delong test. FINDINGS:Data were collected from 593 participants (443 from UCSF and 150 from ARTFL, mean age 64 years [SD 13], 294 [50%] women) between July 1 and Nov 30, 2020. Plasma p-tau217 and p-tau181 were correlated (r=0·90, p<0·0001). Both p-tau217 and p-tau181 concentrations were increased in people with Alzheimer's disease syndromes (n=75, mean age 65 years [SD 10]) relative to cognitively unimpaired controls (n=118, mean age 61 years [SD 18]; AUC=0·98 [95% CI 0·95-1·00] for p-tau217, AUC=0·97 [0·94-0·99] for p-tau181; p=0·31) and in pathology-confirmed Alzheimer's disease (n=15, mean age 73 years [SD 12]) versus pathologically confirmed FTLD (n=68, mean age 67 years [SD 8]; AUC=0·96 [0·92-1·00] for p-tau217, AUC=0·91 [0·82-1·00] for p-tau181; p=0·22). P-tau217 outperformed p-tau181 in differentiating patients with Alzheimer's disease syndromes (n=75) from those with FTLD syndromes (n=274, mean age 67 years [SD 9]; AUC=0·93 [0·91-0·96] for p-tau217, AUC=0·91 [0·88-0·94] for p-tau181; p=0·01). P-tau217 was a stronger indicator of amyloid-PET positivity (n=146, AUC=0·91 [0·88-0·94]) than was p-tau181 (n=214, AUC=0·89 [0·86-0·93]; p=0·049). Tau-PET binding in the temporal cortex was more strongly associated with p-tau217 than p-tau181 (r=0·80 vs r=0·72; p<0·0001, n=230). INTERPRETATION:Both p-tau217 and p-tau181 had excellent diagnostic performance for differentiating patients with Alzheimer's disease syndromes from other neurodegenerative disorders. There was some evidence in favour of p-tau217 compared with p-tau181 for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease syndromes versus FTLD syndromes, as an indication of amyloid-PET-positivity, and for stronger correlations with tau-PET signal. Pending replication in independent, diverse, and older cohorts, plasma p-tau217 and p-tau181 could be useful screening tools to identify individuals with underlying amyloid and Alzheimer's disease tau pathology. FUNDING:US National Institutes of Health, State of California Department of Health Services, Rainwater Charitable Foundation, Michael J Fox foundation, Association for Frontotemporal Degeneration, Alzheimer's Association. 10.1016/S1474-4422(21)00214-3
    The role of PET/CT amyloid Imaging compared with Tc99m-HMPAO SPECT imaging for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease. Suppiah S,Ching S M,Nordin A J,Vinjamuri S The Medical journal of Malaysia BACKGROUND:Imaging such as Tc99m-HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT) amyloid scans are used to aid the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE:We aimed to correlate the ability of these modalities to differentiate Probable AD and Possible AD using the clinical diagnosis as a gold standard. We also investigated the correlation of severity of amyloid deposit in the brain with the diagnosis of AD. METHODS:A retrospective study of 47 subjects (17 Probable AD and 30 Possible AD) who were referred for PET/CT amyloid scans to our centre was conducted. Hypoperfusion in the temporo-parietal lobes on Tc99m-HMPAO SPECT and loss of grey-white matter contrast in cortical regions on PET/CT Amyloid scans indicating the presence of amyloid β deposit were qualitatively interpreted as positive for AD. SPECT and PET/CT were also read in combination (Combo reading). The severity of amyloid β deposit was semiquantitatively assessed in a visual binary method using a scale of Grade 0-4. The severity of amyloid β deposit was assessed in a visual binary method and a semi-quantitative method using a scale of Grade 0-4. RESULTS:There was significant correlation of Tc99m-HMPAO SPECT, PET/CT amyloid findings and Combo reading with AD. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 87.5%, 73.7%, 58.3% and 93.3% (SPECT); 62.5%, 77.4%, 58.8% and 80.0% (PET/CT) and 87.5%, 84.2%, 70.0% and 30.0% (Combo reading) respectively. The grade of amyloid deposition was not significantly correlated with AD (Spearman's correlation, p=0.687). CONCLUSION:There is an incremental benefit in utilizing PET/CT amyloid imaging in cases with atypical presentation and indeterminate findings on conventional imaging of Alzheimer's disease.
    Radiomics Analysis of Brain [F]FDG PET/CT to Predict Alzheimer's Disease in Patients with Amyloid PET Positivity: A Preliminary Report on the Application of SPM Cortical Segmentation, Pyradiomics and Machine-Learning Analysis. Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland) BACKGROUND:Early in-vivo diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial for accurate management of patients, in particular, to select subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that may evolve into AD, and to define other types of MCI non-AD patients. The application of artificial intelligence to functional brain [F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography(CT) aiming to increase diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of AD is still undetermined. In this field, we propose a radiomics analysis on advanced imaging segmentation method Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM)-based completed with a Machine-Learning (ML) application to predict the diagnosis of AD, also by comparing the results with following Amyloid-PET and final clinical diagnosis. METHODS:From July 2016 to September 2017, 43 patients underwent PET/CT scans with FDG and Florbetaben brain PET/CT and at least 24 months of clinical/instrumental follow-up. Patients were retrospectively evaluated by a multidisciplinary team (MDT = Neurologist, Psychologist, Radiologist, Nuclear Medicine Physician, Laboratory Clinic) at the G. Giglio Institute in Cefalù, Italy. Starting from the cerebral segmentations applied by SPM on the main cortical macro-areas of each patient, Pyradiomics was used for the feature extraction process; subsequently, an innovative descriptive-inferential mixed sequential approach and a machine learning algorithm (i.e., discriminant analysis) were used to obtain the best diagnostic performance in prediction of amyloid deposition and the final diagnosis of AD. RESULTS:A total of 11 radiomics features significantly predictive of cortical beta-amyloid deposition ( = 6) and AD ( = 5) were found. Among them, two higher-order features (original_glcm_Idmn and original_glcm_Id), extracted from the limbic enthorinal cortical area (ROI-1) in the FDG-PET/CT images, predicted the positivity of Amyloid-PET/CT scans with maximum values of sensitivity (SS), specificity (SP), precision (PR) and accuracy (AC) of 84.92%, 75.13%, 73.75%, and 79.56%, respectively. Conversely, for the prediction of the clinical-instrumental final diagnosis of AD, the best performance was obtained by two higher-order features (original_glcm_MCC and original_glcm_Maximum Probability) extracted from ROI-2 (frontal cortex) with a SS, SP, PR and AC of 75.16%, 80.50%, 77.68%, and 78.05%, respectively, and by one higher-order feature (original_glcm_Idmn) extracted from ROI-3 (medial Temporal cortex; SS = 80.88%, SP = 76.85%, PR = 75.63%, AC = 78.76%. CONCLUSIONS:The results obtained in this preliminary study support advanced segmentation of cortical areas typically involved in early AD on FDG PET/CT brain images, and radiomics analysis for the identification of specific high-order features to predict Amyloid deposition and final diagnosis of AD. 10.3390/diagnostics12040933
    Amyloid-β PET-Correlation with cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and prediction of Alzheimer´s disease diagnosis in a memory clinic. Müller Ebba Gløersen,Edwin Trine Holt,Stokke Caroline,Navelsaker Sigrid Stensby,Babovic Almira,Bogdanovic Nenad,Knapskog Anne Brita,Revheim Mona Elisabeth PloS one BACKGROUND:Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a clinical diagnosis but biomarkers from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and more lately amyloid imaging with positron emission tomography (PET), are important to support a diagnosis of AD. OBJECTIVE:To compare amyloid-β (Aβ) PET imaging with biomarkers in CSF and evaluate the prediction of Aβ PET on diagnosis in a memory clinic setting. METHODS:We included 64 patients who had lumbar puncture and Aβ PET with 18F-Flutemetamol performed within 190 days. PET was binary classified (Flut+ or Flut-) and logistic regression analyses for correlation to each CSF biomarker; Aβ 42 (Aβ42), total tau (T-tau) and phosphorylated tau (P-tau), were performed. Cut-off values were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Logistic regression was performed for prediction of clinical AD diagnosis. We assessed the interrater agreement of PET classification as well as for diagnoses, which were made both with and without knowledge of PET results. RESULTS:Thirty-two of the 34 patients (94%) in the Flut+ group and nine of the 30 patients (30%) in the Flut- group had a clinical AD diagnosis. There were significant differences in all CSF biomarkers in the Flut+ and Flut- groups. Aβ42 showed the highest correlation with 18F-Flutemetamol PET with a cut-off value of 706.5 pg/mL, corresponding to sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 87%. 18F-Flutemetamol PET was the best predictor of a clinical AD diagnosis. We found a very high interrater agreement for both PET classification and diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS:The present study showed an excellent correlation of Aβ42 in CSF and 18F-Flutemetamol PET and the presented cut-off value for Aβ42 yields high sensitivity and specificity for 18F-Flutemetamol PET. 18F-Flutemetamol PET was the best predictor of clinical AD diagnosis. 10.1371/journal.pone.0221365
    The congruency of neuropsychological and F18-FDG brain PET/CT diagnostics of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) in routine clinical practice: insights from a mixed neurological patient cohort. Hansen Sascha,Keune Jana,Küfner Kim,Meister Regina,Habich Juliane,Koska Julia,Förster Stefan,Oschmann Patrick,Keune Philipp M BMC neurology BACKGROUND:Diagnostics of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) require a multimodal approach. Neuropsychologists examine the degree and etiology of dementia syndromes and results are combined with those of cerebrospinal fluid markers and imaging data. In the diagnostic process, neuropsychologists often rely on anamnestic and clinical information, as well as cognitive tests, prior to the availability of exhaustive etiological information. The congruency of this phenomenological approach with results from FDG-PET/CT examinations remains to be explored. The latter yield highly accurate diagnostic information. METHOD:A mixed sample of N = 127 hospitalized neurological patients suspected of displaying a dementia syndrome underwent extensive neuropsychological and FDG-PET/CT examinations. Neuropsychological examinations included an anamnestic and clinical interview, and the CERAD cognitive test battery. Two decisional approaches were considered: First, routine diagnostic results were obtained, i.e. the final clinical decision of the examining neuropsychologist (AD vs. non-AD). Secondly, a logistic regression model was implemented, relying on CERAD profiles alone. CERAD subscales that best predicted AD based on FDG-PET/CT were identified and a nominal categorization obtained (AD vs. non-AD). Congruency of results from both approaches with those of the FDG-PET/CT (AD vs. non-AD) were estimated with Cohen's Kappa (κ) and Yule's Y coefficient of colligation. Descriptive estimates of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of CERAD relative to FDG-PET/CT diagnostics were derived. RESULTS:AD patients constituted N = 33/127 (26%) of the sample. The clinical decision approach (AD vs. non-AD) showed substantial agreement with the FDG-PET/CT classification (κ = .69, Y = .72) involving good accuracy (84.2%), moderate sensitivity (75.8%) and excellent specificity (92.6%). In contrast, the decisional approach that relied on CERAD data alone (AD vs. non-AD) involved only moderate agreement with the FDG-PET/CT (κ = .54, Y = .62) with lower accuracy (74.8%), attributable to decreased sensitivity (56.3%) and comparable specificity (93.3%). CONCLUSIONS:It is feasible to identify AD through a comprehensive neuropsychological examination in a mixed sample of neurological patients. However, within the boundaries of methods applied here, decisions based on cognitive test results alone appear limited. One may conclude that the clinical impression based on anamnestic and clinical information obtained by the neuropsychological examiner plays a crucial role in the identification of AD patients in routine clinical practice. 10.1186/s12883-022-02614-4