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    Red cell distribution width and erythrocyte osmotic stability in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knychala Maria Aparecida,Garrote-Filho Mario da Silva,Batista da Silva Breno,Neves de Oliveira Samantha,Yasminy Luz Sarah,Marques Rodrigues Manuela Ortega,Penha-Silva Nilson Journal of cellular and molecular medicine This study aimed to investigate the relationship between red cell distribution width (RDW) and erythrocyte osmotic stability in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals in both sexes. The study sample (N = 122) was constituted by 53 type 2 diabetics (DM) and 69 non-diabetics (ND), being 21 and 22 men in each group, respectively. The osmotic stability of erythrocytes was obtained by the variation in saline concentration (dX) capable of determining hypoosmotic lysis. Higher RDW values and lower serum iron concentrations were found in the diabetic group when compared to the non-diabetic volunteers. In the group of diabetic women, RDW was positively correlated with the reticulocyte index, and both RDW and dX were negatively correlated with iron, haemoglobin, transferrin saturation index, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. In all the groups studied, RDW was positively correlated with dX, especially in the diabetic group, where the correlation was the strongest. RDW elevation in both women and men with type 2 diabetes mellitus was associated with decreased serum iron indicators. Furthermore, RDW has a similar meaning to dX, as small erythrocytes have less haemoglobin, resulting in both an increase of RDW and dX. 10.1111/jcmm.16184
    The effects of Fushen Granule on the composition and function of the gut microbiota during Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis. Lin Wei,Jiang Chen,Yu Hangxing,Wang Lingling,Li Jiaqi,Liu Xinyue,Wang Lingyun,Yang Hongtao Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an acknowledged treatment for patients with irreversible kidney failure. The treatment usually causes peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis (PDRP), a common complication of PD that can lead to inadequate dialysis, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and even death. Recent studies indicated that Fushen Granule (FSG), a Chinese herbal formula, improves the treatment of PD. However, the mechanism of how FSG plays its role in the improvement is still unclear. Gut microbiota has been closely related to the development of various diseases. We carried out a randomized controlled trial to assess whether FSG can modulate the gut microbiota during PDRP treatment. METHODS:Forty-two PDRP patients were recruited into the clinical trial, and they were randomly divided into control(CON), probiotics(PRO) or Fushen granule group(FSG). To check whether FSG improve the PD treatment, we assessed the clinical parameters, including albumin(ALB), hemoglobin(HGB), blood urea nitrogen(BUN) and creatinine(CR). Fecal samples were collected before hospitalization and discharge, and stored at -80°C within 1 hour. And we assessed the microbial population and function by applying the 16S rRNA gene sequencing and functional enrichment analysis. RESULTS:Compared to control group, ALB is improved in both probiotics and FSG groups, while HGB is increased but BUN and CR is reduced in FSG group. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that FSG and PRO affected the composition of the microbial community. FSG significantly increased a abundant represented by Bacteroides, Megamonas and Rothia, which was significantly correlated with the improvements in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates that FSG ameliorates the nutritional status and improves the quality of life by enriching beneficial bacteria associated with metabolism. These results indicate that FSG as alternative medicine is a promising treatment for patients with PDRP. 10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153561