Validating and Comparing C-TIRADS, K-TIRADS and ACR-TIRADS in Stratifying the Malignancy Risk of Thyroid Nodules.
Frontiers in endocrinology
The thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS) was proposed by experts for optimal ultrasound evaluation of malignancy risk of thyroid focal lesions. There are several versions of TIRADS, some of them have been validated sufficiently, and the others have not been well assessed. In this study, a recently launched Chinese version of TIRADS (C-TIRADS) for malignancy risk stratification of thyroid nodules was validated, and the performance was compared to that of the Korean TIRADS (K-TIRADS) and American College of Radiology(ACR) TIRADS (ACR-TIRADS). Archives of 2177 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasound examination, coarse needle tissue biopsy and/or surgery were reviewed, and 1978 patients with 1982 thyroid nodules were assessed according to the three TIRADSs. The histopathology was taken as the golden standard. The results showed the 1982 thyroid nodules were consisted of 1306 benign nodules and 676 malignant nodules. The malignancy risk accounted for 1.09%, 2.14%, 10.34%, 49.28%, 88.19% and 85.29% of the total nodules that were categorised as C-TIRADS 2, 3, 4A, 4B, 4C and 5, respectively; 0.00%, 1.64%, 2.87%,18.71% and 82.22% of the total nodules that were categorised as ACR-TIRADS 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively; 0.85%, 3.27%, 24.27% and 80.96% of the total nodules that were categorised as K-TIRADS 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The correlation between the category of TIRADS and percentile of malignancy was 0.94 in the C-TIRADS, 1.00 in the ACR-TIRADS, and 1.00 in the K-TIRADS, respectively. The highest values of accuracy(AUC) ROC curves C-TIRADS 4B, K-TIRADS 5 and ACR-TIRADS 5 were taken as the cut-off values for risk stratification, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and AUC by C-TIRADS 4B, K-TIRADS 5 and ACR-TIRADS 5 for malignancy risk stratification of thyroid nodules were 90.83%, 84.23%, 74.88% and 94.66% and 0.88, respectively; 83.58%, 89.82%, 80.95%, 91.36% and 0.87, respectively; and 85.50%, 90.35%, 82.10%, 92.33% and 0.88, respectively (>0.05 for all). We concluded that the C-TIRADS has excellent performance in the malignancy risk stratification of thyroid nodules by the optimized cut-off value, which is comparable to that in K-TIRADS and ACR-TIRADS.
Comparing shear wave elastography and fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of solid thyroid nodules.
European journal of translational myology
This descriptive study was performed on individuals who were referred to Imam Reza Hospital for fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) based on the results of gray scale ultrasound and the decision of the referring physician. In addition to determining the gray scale characteristics of the nodules, shear wave elastography (SWE) was also performed and the results were recorded. These were also taken from the patients FNAB results. Finally, the findings of SWE and FNAB methods were compared and analyzed using SPSS software version 16. Based on the results presented herein, a significant relationship was observed between the results of SWE and FNA in the diagnosis of malignancy in solid thyroid nodules. This agreement was found to be higher in men (K = 0.866) than women (K = 0.849). Taken together, our data suggest that shear wave elastography can replace FNA in the diagnosis of malignancy in solid thyroid nodules.
Comparison of Modified Rose Method of Thyroid Palpation Versus Other Methods for the Detection of Retrosternal and Nodular Goitre.
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies
Objectives:This is a diagnostic test research study to evaluate the various existing methods of thyroid examination and their comparison with the novel modified Rose method. It also aims to measure inter-examiner variation in clinical findings based on the level of education and training, as compared to ultrasonography. Methodology:This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital with 83 patients presenting to surgery OPD with neck swelling. Each patient was examined by one trained Junior Resident and a Surgery Consultant with all the four methods and with ultrasonography. Data was analysed by Stata-14, agreement between the two categorical variables was assessed by Kappa. In case of continuous variable agreement was assessed by Intra class correlation and Bland-Altman plot. Results:Modified Rose method by the consultant has the highest sensitivity (98%) and diagnostic odds (210) as compared to others but its specificity ranges from 46.7-91.1% to diagnose retro-sternal extension of a goiter. It has 93.98% agreement for identification of nodules. It has a high specificity (Consultant - 100%, Resident - 95.5%) with relatively lower sensitivity (Consultant - 94%, Resident - 86.8%) to diagnose solitary thyroid nodule (STN) but the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing a multinodular goitre (MNG) was high. However, the highest sensitivity to diagnose STN was highest with Crile's method, but specificity was low. Lahey's method was a better clinical method to palpate lymph nodes compared to the other three. Conclusion:Examination in modified Rose's position is a better method of clinical examination of thyroid especially in patients with occult substernal extension. Lahey's method is a better method to examine cervical lymph nodes.
Systematic review and meta-analysis: diagnostic value of different ultrasound for benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
Background:Conventional ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are commonly used in the diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. However, the value of the two methods in the diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules remains controversial. Methods:PubMed, Medline, EBSCO, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database and manual journal retrieval were searched from January 2000 to January 2022, to include research on conventional ultrasound or CEUS in the diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodule related clinical studies. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan5.3 and Stata Corp to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of conventional ultrasound and CEUS in the diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules with 95% confidence interval (CI) as indicators. Heterogeneity of the results was evaluated by Q test and I in RevMan5.3. Deek's method was used to evaluate publication bias. Results:A total of 1,378 nodules were included in 11 literatures, including 535 malignant thyroid nodules and 843 benign thyroid nodules. Heterogeneity tests conducted for CEUS diagnostic sensitivity of the 6 included literatures indicated that there was no heterogeneity among the study groups [Q=2.05, degree of freedom (df) =5.00, I=0.00%, P=0.84]. The combined sensitivity was 0.87, with 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82 to 0.90. Heterogeneity tests on the diagnostic specificity of CEUS of the six included literatures suggested that there was heterogeneity among the different study groups (Q=14.27, df =5.00, I=64.96%, P=0.01). The combined specificity was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.78 to 0.89). Heterogeneity tests performed on the sensitivity of five conventional ultrasound diagnosis articles revealed that there was heterogeneity among different study groups (Q=13.62, df =4.00, I=70.64%, P=0.01). The combined sensitivity was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78 to 0.92). Heterogeneity tests on the specificity of conventional ultrasound diagnosis in five included literatures indicated that there was heterogeneity among different study groups (Q=16.94, df =4.00, I=76.39%, P=0.00). The combined specificity was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75 to 0.90). There was no bias in the included literature. Discussion:The sensitivity of CEUS in the diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules was slightly higher than that of conventional ultrasound, which provides a reference for the clinical diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
Summary of Meta-analyses of Studies Involving TIRADS Classifications (EU-TIRADS, ACR-TIRADS, and K-TIRADS) in Evaluating the Malignant Potential of Focal Lesions of The Thyroid Gland.
Journal of ultrasonography
Numerous scientific societies around the world have published their TIRADS (Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System) classifications that evaluate the risk of malignancy of focal thyroid lesions, presenting different ultrasound features for each category and lesion size thresholds to determine eligibility for biopsy. The use of such risk estimation systems in focal thyroid lesions facilitates the reporting of thyroid ultrasound findings and improves the qualification of focal lesions for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). In this publication, the three most popular TIRADS classifications, European - EU-TIRADS, Korean - K-TIRADS, and developed by the American Society of Radiology - ACR-TIRADS, are presented and discussed based on a literature review. The results of available head-to-head statistical analyses comparing the classifications are also presented. The advantage of the EU-TIRADS and K-TIRADS systems is that they include only the most important ultrasound features, so their application is not time-consuming, and the scores are easy to incorporate into clinical practice. ACR-TIRADS, unlike other scales, is based on a unique classification system and represents the most comprehensive classification. Each of the five categories of ultrasound features - morphology, echogenicity, shape, margins, microcalcifications - are evaluated and assigned a score from 0 to 3, with a higher score being associated with a higher risk of cancer. Based on the available data, the greatest benefit has been demonstrated for the ACR-TIRADS classification, which also has implications for minimising the number of unnecessary FNABs. However, limitations related to the heterogeneity of the groups analysed in the study, including differences in the populations studied, inclusion criteria, proportions of patients of either sexes, and the number of malignant lesions analysed, should also be taken into account.
Summary of Meta-analyses of Studies Considering Lesion Size Cut-off Thresholds for The Assessment of Eligibility for FNAB and Sonoelastography and Inter- and Intra-observer Agreement in Estimating the Malignant Potential of Focal Lesions of The Thyroid Gland.
Journal of ultrasonography
Thyroid cancer is a tumour with a steadily increasing incidence. It accounts for 7% to 15% of focal lesions detected by ultrasound, depending on age, gender and other factors affecting its occurrence. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is an essential method to establish the diagnosis but, in view of its limitations, sonoelastography is seen as a non-invasive technique useful in differentiating the nature of lesions and monitoring them after fine-needle aspiration biopsy. This paper presents a literature review on the role of both sonoelastographic techniques (relative strain sonoelastography, shear wave sonoelastography) to assess the deformability of focal thyroid lesions. Ultrasound examination is a relatively subjective method of thyroid imaging, depending on the skills of the examiner, the experience of the centre, and the quality of equipment used. As a consequence, there are inconsistencies between the results obtained by different examiners () and by the same examiner (). In this paper, the authors present a review of the literature on inter-observer and intra-observer variability in the assessment of individual features of ultrasound imaging of focal lesions in the thyroid. In addition, the authors report on an analysis of cut-off thresholds for the size of lesions constituting the basis for fine-needle aspiration biopsy eligibility assessment. The need to diagnose carcinomas up to 10 mm in diameter is highlighted, however a more liberal approach is recommended in terms of indications for biopsy in lesions associated with a low risk of malignancy, where, based on consultations with patients, active ultrasound surveillance might even be considered.
SARS-CoV-2 and Subacute Thyroiditis: A Case Report and Literature Review.
Case reports in medicine
Introduction:Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is an inflammatory disorder of the thyroid gland, usually triggered by a recent viral or bacterial infection of upper respiratory tracts. The disease is characterized by neck pain radiating to the ears and thyroid gland tenderness. In most cases, it is associated with a transient episode of hyperthyroidism, which is followed by euthyroidism. However, sometimes, it manifests itself with hypothyroidism. . The present report described a case of SAT who was a 55-year-old man presenting to an endocrine clinic with tachycardia, tremor, and neck pain radiating to the jaw and ears. His thyroid function test revealed thyrotoxicosis, and thyroid ultrasound findings were consistent with SAT. The patient reported a history of COVID-19 about 15 days before presentation, which was confirmed by a positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions:It is of great importance for physicians to note that thyrotoxicosis in a patient with a recent history of COVID-19 can be due to SAT. Therefore, they should not begin antithyroid drugs without ordering proper investigations.
Large Parathyroid Tumor 8 Years after Thyroid Surgery: A Case Report.
Case reports in oncology
This report represents an unusually large parathyroid carcinoma (PC) mimicking thyroid nodule recurrence after hemithyroidectomy. PC is a rare endocrine malignancy accounting for less than 1% of hyperparathyroidism cases. This is the first case report where contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was performed on a PC. A 63-year-old female presented with an enlarged mass on the left side of the neck. In 2012, left-side hemithyroidectomy was done due to a benign goiter. In 2020, laboratory analysis showed markedly elevated parathyroid hormone and calcium. Multiparametric neck ultrasonography was performed including B-mode, color Doppler, shear wave elastography, and CEUS. Computed tomography revealed an irregular mass in proximity to the trachea, esophagus, and dislocation of the common carotid artery. Perifocal fatty tissue appeared normal. Scintigraphy displayed a suspected parathyroid tumor or a suspected left lobe nodule of thyroid. Based on the biochemical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism and radiological examinations, a suspected parathyroid tumor was considered. Intraoperative findings demonstrated an unusually large 9 × 6 cm tumor (84 g) adjacent to the common carotid artery anterolaterally and the recurrent laryngeal nerve medially. Pathohistological examination revealed a tumor solid in structure, with focal necrosis penetrating the capsule. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for chromogranin, CD56, and Ki-67 (8-10%) and negative for CK20 and CK7. The morphological and immunohistochemical results correspond to PC. PC is a challenging diagnosis requiring a multidisciplinary approach, especially in the case of previous neck surgery. The only curative treatment for PC is radical surgery. Lifelong monitoring of PCs is mandatory due to the high recurrence rate.
[The value of ACR-TIRADS and C-TIRADS in the diagnosis of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto thyroiditis].
Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
To explore the diagnostic value of American Society of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System（ACR-TIRADS） and Chinese Thyroid Nodule Ultrasound Malignant Risk Stratification（C-TIRADS） in nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto thyroiditis. This retrospective analysis included 144 patients（204 thyroid nodules） accompanied by nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis or papillary thyroid carcinoma under the background of Hashimoto thyroiditis confirmed by surgical pathology examination in the First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University from August 2018 to May 2021, all nodules were examined by ultrasound, and 204 nodules were scored and graded according to the classification standards of ACR-TIRADS and C-TIRADS. The surgical pathological results were the gold standard. The receiver operating characteristic curve of ACR-TIRADS and C-TIRADS was constructed to evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of the two guideline. ①Ultrasound feature results showed that nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and Papillary thyroid carcinoma had statistically significant differences in the location, echogenicity, calcifications and margins（<0.001）, but there is no significant difference in structure and aspect ratio between the two kinds of nodular（=0.141, =0.240）; nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis were mostly absent focal echogenicity and hyperechogenicity, while papillary thyroid carcinoma was mostly manifested as focal echogenicity and extrinsic thyroid invasion. ②The sensitivity and negative predictive value of C-TIRADS were 91.7% and 83.1%, respectively, which were higher than those of ACR-TIRADS, and the difference was statistically significant（=0.021, =0.013）; The specificity and positive predictive value of C-TIRADS T were 98.3% and 99.2%, both of which were slightly higher than ACR-TIRADS, althought the difference was not statistically significant（=0.157, =0.062）. The area under the curve of the ACR-TIRADS and C-TIRADS were 0.806 and 0.941, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant（=0.031）. ③The unnecessary FNAB rate of C-TIRADS was 10.3%, which was lower than ACR-TIRADS. C-TI-RADS has a better diagnostic value of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid papillary carcinoma under the background of Hashimoto thyroiditis, which is helpful for clinical evaluation of such nodules.
Diagnostic and prognostic value of combined detection of serum Tg, IFN - γ and TgAb in thyroid adenoma.
Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France)
This study aimed to explore the value of combined detection of serum thyroglobulin (Tg), interferon - γ (IFN - γ) and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) in the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid adenoma (TA). For this purpose, 100 patients with TA in our hospital from January 2017 to December 2020 were selected as the observation group, and they were divided into good prognosis group (83 cases) and poor prognosis group (17 cases) according to the surgical treatment; another 50 healthy people who received physical examination in our hospital. The levels of serum Tg, IFN - γ and TgAb in each group were detected and compared; the diagnostic and prognostic value of combined detection of serum Tg, IFN - γ and TgAb in thyroid adenoma were analyzed. Results showed that compared with the control group, the levels of Tg and TgAb in the observation group were significantly increased, and the levels of IFN - γ were significantly decreased (P < 0.05); compared with the poor prognosis group, the levels of Tg and TgAb in the good prognosis group were significantly decreased, and the levels of IFN - γ were significantly increased (P < 0.05); The area under curve (AUC) of the combined detection of serum Tg, IFN-γ and TgAb for TA diagnosis and prognosis assessment was significantly higher than the value detected by a single indicator. In general, the combined detection of serum Tg, IFN - γ and TgAb has high diagnostic and prognostic value for TA, and has high clinical reference value.
Diagnostic accuracy of palpation versus ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy for diagnosis of malignancy in thyroid nodules: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMC endocrine disorders
Thyroid nodule is a common health problem in endocrinology. Thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytology performed by palpation guided FNAB (PGFNAB) and ultrasound-guided FNAB (USGFNAB) are the preferred examinations for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer and part of the integration of the current thyroid nodule assessment. Although studies have shown USGFNAB to be more accurate than PGFNAB, inconsistencies from several studies and clinical guidelines still exist.The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of Palpation versus Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy in diagnosing malignancy of thyroid nodules.The systematic review and meta-analysis were prepared based on the PRISMA standards. Literature searches were carried out on three online databases (Pubmed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Proquest) and grey literatures. Data extraction was carried out manually from various studies that met the eligibility, followed by analysis to obtain pooled data on sensitivity, specificity, Diagnostic Odds Ratio (DOR) and Area Under Curve (AUC), and the comparison of the two methods.Total of 2517 articles were obtained, with 11 studies were included in this systematic review. The total sample was 2382, including 1128 subjects using PGFNAB and 1254 subjects using USGFNAB. The risk of bias was assessed using QUADAS-2 with mild-moderate results. The results of sensitivity, specificity, AUC and DOR in diagnosing thyroid nodules using PGFNAB were 76% (95% CI, 49-89%), 77% (95% CI, 56-95%), 0.827 and 11.6 (95% CI, 6-21) respectively. The results of sensitivity, specificity, AUC and DOR in diagnosing thyroid nodules using USGFNAB were 90% (95% CI, 81-95%), 80% (95% CI, 66-89%), 0.92 and 40 (95% CI, 23-69), respectively the results of the comparison test between PGFNAB and USGFNAB; Tsens USGFNAB of 0.99 (p = 0.023), AUC difference test of 0.093 (p = 0.000023).The diagnostic accuracy of USGFNAB is higher than PGFNAB in diagnosing malignancy of thyroid nodules. If it is accessible, the author recommends using USGFNAB as a diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules.
A prospective comparison of ACR-TIRADS and EU-TIRADS in thyroid nodule assessment for FNA-US.
OBJECTIVE:Prospective data on the accuracy of ultrasound (US) classification systems in thyroid nodules are still scarce. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy of the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR-TIRADS) and European (EU)-TIRADS classification systems. DESIGN AND PATIENTS:Consecutive patients with one or more thyroid nodule(s) who underwent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) under ultrasonographic guidance (FNA-US) were prospectively evaluated. MEASUREMENTS:Clinical evaluation and US data were collected. The reference standard used for this study was FNA-US cytology and histopathological diagnosis. RESULTS:A total of 186 thyroid nodules in 166 patients were evaluated, resulting in 168 nodules from 149 patients with conclusive benign or malignant results. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV) and false negative (FN) were 100.0%, 28.7%, 100.0% and 0.0%, respectively, for ACR-TIRADS; and 90.0%, 19.1%, 96.8% and 9.1% (n = 1), respectively, for EU-TIRADS. The number of unnecessary FNA-US indicated by ACR-TIRADS was lower than EU-TIRADS (71.3% vs. 80.9%, p = .017), and the number of possibly avoided FNA-US was higher (26.7% vs. 17.8%). Using the same threshold of ACR-TIRADS to indicate FNA-US in EU-TIRADS 3 nodules (2.5 cm), there was an improvement in specificity (30.6%) and avoided FNA-US (28.6%). The best performance of both systems was demonstrated when FNA-US would be indicated only in highly suspicious nodules and/or in the presence of lymphadenopathy, with 85.7% and 89.3% of possibly avoided FNA-US for ACR-TIRADS and EU-TIRADS, respectively, without increasing FN. CONCLUSION:Both systems presented high sensitivity, but low specificity in selecting nodules for FNA-US. The use of nodular size for FNA-US selection is questioned.
Ultrasound gray scale ratio for differential diagnosis of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma from benign micronodule in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
BMC endocrine disorders
BACKGROUND:To investigate the diagnostic value of ultrasound gray scale ratio (UGSR) in differentiating papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs) from benign micronodules (BMNs) in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). METHODS:The ultrasound images of 285 PTMCs (from 247 patients) and 173 BMNs (from 140 patients) in the HT group, as well as 461 PTMCs (from 417 patients) and 234 BMNs (from 197 patients) in the non-HT group were retrospectively analyzed. The diagnosis of all cases was confirmed by histopathological examinations. The gray scale values of the nodules and surrounding thyroid tissues were measured and subsequently the UGSRs were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the area under the curve (AUC), optimal UGSR threshold, sensitivity and specificity in differentiating PTMCs and BMNs in the two groups. RESULTS:The UGSR of PTMC and BMN was 0.52 ± 0.12 and 0.85 ± 0.24 in the HT group (P < 0.001), and 0.57 ± 0.13 and 0.87 ± 0.20 in the non-HT group (P < 0.001), respectively. The difference in PTMC-UGSR was significant between the two groups (P < 0.001), whereas BMN-UGSR did not differ between the two groups (P = 0.416). The AUC, optimal UGSR threshold, sensitivity and specificity of UGSR for differentiating PTMC and BMN in the HT and non-HT group were 0.890 versus 0.901, 0.68 versus 0.72, 91.23% versus 90.67%, and 77.46% versus 82.05%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The USGR of the HT group was lower than that of the non-HT group. Moreover, UGSR exhibited important diagnostic value in differentiating PTMC from BMN in both HT and non-HT groups.