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    Association of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration with Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women in the US. Journal of personalized medicine The association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum 25(OH)D concentration and breast cancer in postmenopausal women in the United States using nationally representative sample surveys. We used the data from seven cycles of National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2001 to 2014. Participants were non-institutionalized postmenopausal women (n = 8108). In restricted cubic spline analysis, a significant, nonlinear, invert 'U' relationship was observed between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and breast cancer in postmenopausal women ( = 0.029). Overall, breast cancer risk was highest (OR = 1.5) between 70 nmol/L and 80 nmol/L of serum 25(OH)D concentration. Then after serum 25(OH)D 80 nmol/L concentration, the breast cancer risk declined. In multivariate-adjusted logistic regression, the risk of having breast cancer was significantly higher in serum 25(OH)D 75-˂100 nmol/L category compared to the 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L category [OR and 95% CI: 2.4 (1.4-4.0)]. In conclusion, serum vitamin D concentrations ≥ 100 nmol/L are associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Controlled trials are required to verify if serum 25(OH)D ≥ 100 nmol/L offers protection against breast cancer in postmenopausal women. 10.3390/jpm12060944
    Fruit and vegetable consumption and breast cancer incidence: Repeated measures over 30 years of follow-up. Farvid Maryam S,Chen Wendy Y,Rosner Bernard A,Tamimi Rulla M,Willett Walter C,Eliassen A Heather International journal of cancer We evaluated the relation of fruit and vegetable consumption, including specific fruits and vegetables, with incident breast cancer characterized by menopausal status, hormone receptor status and molecular subtypes. Fruit and vegetable consumption, cumulatively averaged across repeated, validated questionnaires, was examined in relation to risk of invasive breast cancer among 182,145 women initially aged 27-59 years in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1980-2012) and NHSII (1991-2013). Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for known risk factors, was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and assessed tumors by hormone receptor status and molecular subtypes. We prospectively documented 10,911 invasive breast cancer cases. Greater intake of total fruits and vegetables, especially cruciferous and yellow/orange vegetables, was associated with significantly lower breast cancer risk (>5.5 vs. ≤2.5 servings/day HR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.83-0.96; p = 0.006). Intake of total vegetables was especially associated with lower risk of estrogen receptor negative tumors (HR per 2 additional servings/day as a continuous variable = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.77-0.93; p = 0.02). Among molecular subtypes, higher intake of total fruits and vegetables (HR per 2 additional servings/day as a continuous variable) was most strongly associated with lower risk of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-enriched (HR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.67-0.93), basal-like (HR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.72-0.97) and luminal A (HR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.89-0.99), but not with luminal B tumors (p = 0.03). In conclusion, our findings support that higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and specifically cruciferous and yellow/orange vegetables, may reduce the risk of breast cancer, especially those that are more likely to be aggressive tumors. 10.1002/ijc.31653
    Inhibin B and luteinizing hormone levels in girls aged 6-11 years from NHANES III, 1988-1994. Sims Emily K,Addo O Y,Gollenberg Audra L,Himes John H,Hediger Mary L,Lee Peter A Clinical endocrinology OBJECTIVE:To evaluate inhibin B and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in a large, representative cross-sectional sample of US girls and characterize the relationships of these laboratory values with age, clinical signs of puberty and other correlates. DESIGN:Cross-sectional analysis of LH and inhibin B in banked serum from 720 girls aged 6-11 years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). MEASUREMENTS:Levels of inhibin B and LH, race, ethnicity and anthropometric measurements were compared for all girls. Visual assessment of pubertal stage was performed on girls aged 8 years and older. A two-part model was used to establish normative data and Tobit regression models were used to evaluate associations with participant characteristics. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to identify optimum cut points predictive of puberty onset. RESULTS:Mean hormone levels progressively increased with age. LH levels progressively increased with pubertal stage. Inhibin B levels increased gradually from breast stage I to II, then more sharply to peak at stage III, followed by a plateau at stages IV and V. ROC curves indicated that both hormones were consistent with pubertal onset as indicated by breast stage II. CONCLUSIONS:This study characterizes inhibin B and LH values in a large, representative cross-sectional sample of US girls. Inhibin B can be a useful tool in combination with other clinical and biochemical parameters to evaluate gonadal function as a reflection of pubertal progression in girls. 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2012.04393.x
    Leisure-time physical activity and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in cancer survivors: a cross-sectional analysis using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Yang Lin,Toriola Adetunji T BMJ open OBJECTIVES:Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) is associated with improved cancer prognosis in some studies, yet it may be a surrogate marker for physical activity. We investigated the associations of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with circulating 25-OHD levels in cancer survivors, and determined whether associations differ by indoor and outdoor activity. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:The US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). PARTICIPANTS:Cancer survivors with available data on demographic information, measures of adiposity, smoking history, self-reported LTPA and circulating 25-OHD levels in five waves of NHANES (2001-2010). MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES:Circulating 25-OHD levels. RESULTS:Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations of self-reported LTPA with 25-OHD, adjusting for potential confounders. Due to the differences in LTPA measure, the analyses were conducted separately for 2001-2006 and 2007-2010 data. We further estimated associations by indoor and outdoor activity in the 2001-2006 data. There were 1530 cancer survivors (mean age=60.5 years, mean body mass index=28.6 kg/m). The prevalent cancer sites were breast (19.3%), prostate (18.8%), cervix (10.4%) and colon (8.6%). Compared with inactive cancer survivors, being physically active was associated with higher circulating 25-OHD levels (8.07 nmol/L, 95% CI 4.63 to 11.52) for 2001-2006 data. In the mutually adjusted model, higher outdoor activity (5.83 nmol/L, 95% CI 1.64 to 10.01), but not indoor activity (2.93 nmol/L, 95% CI -1.80 to 7.66), was associated with statistically significantly higher 25-OHD levels. The interaction between indoor and outdoor activities was, however, not significant (p=0.29). The only statistically significant association seen in the 2007-2010 data was among obese cancer survivors. CONCLUSION:Physical activity, particularly outdoor activity, is associated with higher 25-OHD levels in cancer survivors. In view of the possible beneficial effects of vitamin D on cancer prognosis, engaging in outdoor physical activity could provide clinically meaningful increases in 25-OHD levels among cancer survivors. 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016064
    Association between breast cancer and allostatic load by race: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2008. Parente Victoria,Hale Lauren,Palermo Tia Psycho-oncology BACKGROUND:Breast cancer and its treatment introduce numerous physiologic, psychological, social, and economic stressors to a woman with the diagnosis. Allostatic load, a composite score of biomarkers representing physiologic dysregulation, may serve as a measure of the biological burden of breast cancer. This study investigates the association between breast cancer and allostatic load scores by comparing allostatic load scores in those with a history of breast cancer to those without, stratified by race. METHODS:Black and white women aged 35 to 85 were analyzed using the data from NHANES 1999-2008 (n = 4875 women, of which 188 women had a history of breast cancer). Stratified by race, we ran multivariate analyses with history of breast cancer as a predictor for elevated allostatic load while adjusting for other potentially confounding variables. RESULTS:Although a history of breast cancer was not associated with elevated allostatic load in white women, it was significantly associated with elevated allostatic load in black women after adjusting for age, income, education, insurance type, smoking status, alcohol intake, and physical activity [Odds Ratio (OR) 2.08 (95%CI 1.02, 4.22)]. Furthermore, an interaction between black and having a history of breast cancer was found to be significant in predicting elevated allostatic load scores after adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and comorbidity characteristics. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that the biological toll of breast cancer may be greater in black women than white women. 10.1002/pon.3044
    Pre-diagnostic polyphenol intake and breast cancer survival: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Kyrø Cecilie,Zamora-Ros Raul,Scalbert Augustin,Tjønneland Anne,Dossus Laure,Johansen Christoffer,Bidstrup Pernille Envold,Weiderpass Elisabete,Christensen Jane,Ward Heather,Aune Dagfinn,Riboli Elio,His Mathilde,Clavel-Chapelon Françoise,Baglietto Laura,Katzke Verena,Kühn Tilman,Boeing Heiner,Floegel Anna,Overvad Kim,Lasheras Cristina,Travier Noémie,Sánchez Maria-José,Amiano Pilar,Chirlaque Maria-Dolores,Ardanaz Eva,Khaw Kay-Tee,Wareham Nick,Perez-Cornago Aurora,Trichopoulou Antonia,Lagiou Pagona,Vasilopoulou Effie,Masala Giovanna,Grioni Sara,Berrino Franco,Tumino Rosario,Sacerdote Carlotta,Mattiello Amalia,Bueno-de-Mesquita H Bas,Peeters Petra H,van Gils Carla,Borgquist Signe,Butt Salma,Zeleniuch-Jacquotte Anne,Sund Malin,Hjartåker Anette,Skeie Guri,Olsen Anja,Romieu Isabelle Breast cancer research and treatment The aim was to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic intakes of polyphenol classes (flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other polyphenols) in relation to breast cancer survival (all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality). We used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Pre-diagnostic usual diet was assessed using dietary questionnaires, and polyphenol intakes were estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. We followed 11,782 breast cancer cases from time of diagnosis until death, end of follow-up or last day of contact. During a median of 6 years, 1482 women died (753 of breast cancer). We related polyphenol intake to all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality using Cox proportional hazard models with time since diagnosis as underlying time and strata for age and country. Among postmenopausal women, an intake of lignans in the highest versus lowest quartile was related to a 28 % lower risk of dying from breast (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 0.72, 95 % CI 0.53; 0.98). In contrast, in premenopausal women, a positive association between lignan intake and all-cause mortality was found (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 1.63, 95 % CI 1.03; 2.57). We found no association for other polyphenol classes. Intake of lignans before breast cancer diagnosis may be related to improved survival among postmenopausal women, but may on the contrary worsen the survival for premenopausal women. This suggests that the role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer survival is complex and may be dependent of menopausal status. 10.1007/s10549-015-3595-9
    Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time of breast cancer survivors, and associations with adiposity: findings from NHANES (2003-2006). Lynch Brigid M,Dunstan David W,Healy Genevieve N,Winkler Elisabeth,Eakin Elizabeth,Owen Neville Cancer causes & control : CCC OBJECTIVE:Obesity and physical inactivity are poor prognostic indicators for breast cancer. Studies to date have relied on self-report measures of physical activity, which tend mainly to assess moderate-to-vigorous intensity leisure-time physical activity. We report the cross-sectional associations of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time with adiposity in a sample of breast cancer survivors from the United States. METHODS:One hundred and eleven women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 reported a history of breast cancer. Participants wore an accelerometer for 7 days, and activity levels were summarized as moderate-to-vigorous intensity (accelerometer counts/min > or =1,952), light intensity (counts/min 100-1,951), and sedentary time (counts/min <100). Anthropometric measures were taken by study staff at examination centers. RESULTS:Participants spent the majority of their day in sedentary time (66%) or in light intensity activities (33%). Log moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity was negatively associated with adiposity (waist circumference beta = -9.805 [95% CI: -15.836, -3.775]; BMI beta = -3.576 [95% CI: -6.687, -0.464]). Light intensity physical activity was negatively associated with adiposity; however, the fully adjusted models did not retain statistical significance. Similarly, sedentary time was positively associated with adiposity, but the fully adjusted models were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study to describe the objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time of breast cancer survivors. Increasing moderate-to-vigorous and light intensity physical activity, and decreasing sedentary time, may assist with weight management and improve other metabolic health outcomes for breast cancer survivors. 10.1007/s10552-009-9460-6
    Weight Fluctuation and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study. Komaroff Marina Journal of obesity OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study is to investigate if weight fluctuation is an independent risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (PBC) among women who gained weight in adult years. METHODS:NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study (NHEFS) database was used in the study. Women that were cancers-free at enrollment and diagnosed for the first time with breast cancer at age 50 or greater were considered cases. Controls were chosen from the subset of cancers-free women and matched to cases by years of follow-up and status of body mass index (BMI) at 25 years of age. Weight fluctuation was measured by the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) from a simple linear regression model for each woman with their body mass index (BMI) regressed on age (started at 25 years) while women with the positive slope from this regression were defined as weight gainers. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS:A total of 158 women were included into the study. The conditional logistic regression adjusted for weight gain demonstrated positive association between weight fluctuation in adult years and postmenopausal breast cancers (odds ratio/OR = 1.67; 95% confidence interval/CI: 1.06-2.66). CONCLUSIONS:The data suggested that long-term weight fluctuation was significant risk factor for PBC among women who gained weight in adult years. This finding underscores the importance of maintaining lost weight and avoiding weight fluctuation. 10.1155/2016/7168734
    Blood levels of endocrine-disrupting metals and prevalent breast cancer among US women. Wei Yudan,Zhu Jianmin Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England) A growing body of evidence has pointed to a role of environmental chemical exposures in breast cancer etiology. This study was to examine the association between exposure to the endocrine-disrupting metals, including cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg), and breast cancer in US women. A nationally representative subsample of 9260 women aged ≥ 20 years in the 2003-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for the association of blood levels of these metals with prevalent breast cancer using multivariate logistic regression models. Of the study participants, 284 women (weighted prevalence, 2.8%) were self-reported being diagnosed with breast cancer during 2003-2012. Breast cancer women showed significantly elevated blood levels of Cd and Pb, but not Hg. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found that women in all of the higher quartiles of blood lead levels (BLLs) had significantly increased odds ratio of prevalent breast cancer compared with those in the lowest quartile. However, a significant association with prevalent breast cancer was not seen with blood levels of either Cd or Hg. Our study demonstrates a potential relationship between lead exposure, measured as BLLs, and female breast cancer. Additional epidemiologic and mechanistic studies would further explore these interactions and elucidate the potential role of lead exposure in breast cancer etiology. 10.1007/s12032-019-1328-3
    Environmental estrogen-like endocrine disrupting chemicals and breast cancer. Morgan Marisa,Deoraj Alok,Felty Quentin,Roy Deodutta Molecular and cellular endocrinology BACKGROUND:Estrogen-mimicking endocrine disruptors (EEDs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates have been found ubiquitously throughout our environment. Although exposure to EEDs has the ability to interfere with endocrine control of reproductive function and development in both humans and wildlife, inconsistent reports have made it difficult to draw conclusions concerning the hypothesized increased risk of breast cancer associated with EEDs. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between exposure to PCBs, BPA or phthalates; and risk of breast cancer in U.S. women using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data between 1999 and 2004. METHODS:We analyzed data from female participants (20 years of age and older) collected by NHANES between 1999 and 2004 for exposure assessment based on lipid adjusted serum levels of 6 individual PCB congeners (PCB 074, 099, 118, 138, 153, and 180), the sum of dioxin-like PCBs (074 and 118), and the sum of non-dioxin-like PCBs (099 + 138 + 153 + 187). Levels of urinary BPA and seven phthalate metabolites mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(3-caroxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MZP), and three metabolites of di (2-ehtylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP): [mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)] were obtained from the 2003-2010 yearly survey cycles in participants aged 6 years and older. Assessments of EEDs or their metabolites were analyzed in conjunction with medical and reproductive health questionnaire data. Age, race/ethnicity, age at menarche, body mass index (BMI; kg/m), and lactation were considered as potential confounders in our final models. Geometric means (GM) were calculated to compare PCB, BPA or phthalate concentrations in women who self-reported a breast cancer diagnosis versus women who self-reported never being diagnosed with breast cancer. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between PCB, BPA or phthalate measurements and breast cancer. RESULTS:In age, race/ethnicity, and BMI adjusted models, PCB138 was the only congener found to be significantly associated with breast cancer [OR of 3.16; 95% CI: 1.14-8.76]. We also found the sum of non-dioxin-like PCBs to be significantly associated with breast cancer [OR of 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00-1.29]. Risk of breast cancer, however, was not found to be significantly associated with phthalate, phthalate metabolites, and BPA in unadjusted or adjusted logistic regression models. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest a link between environmental exposures to PCB 138 and breast cancer. There were no significant associations between phthalates or BPA and breast cancers. These findings should be interpreted with caution because of the use of cross-sectional self-reported data and a small sample size of breast cancer subjects. Nonetheless, our finding emphasizes a need of comprehensive environmental molecular epidemiologic study to determine the potential role of environmental exposures to PCBs, phthalates, and BPA in the development of breast cancer. 10.1016/j.mce.2016.10.003
    Associations of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time with biomarkers of breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: findings from NHANES (2003-2006). Lynch Brigid M,Friedenreich Christine M,Winkler Elisabeth A H,Healy Geneviève N,Vallance Jeff K,Eakin Elizabeth G,Owen Neville Breast cancer research and treatment Physical activity reduces the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer through multiple inter-related biologic mechanisms; sedentary time may contribute additionally to this risk. We examined cross-sectional associations of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time with established biomarkers of breast cancer risk in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women. Accelerometer, anthropometric and laboratory data were available for 1,024 (n = 443 fasting) postmenopausal women in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. Associations of quartiles of the accelerometer variables (moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity, light-intensity activity and sedentary time per day; average length of active and sedentary bouts) with the continuous biomarkers were assessed using linear regression models. Following adjustment for potential confounders, including sedentary time, moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity had significant (P < 0.05), inverse associations with all biomarker outcomes (body mass index, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). Light-intensity activity and sedentary time were significantly associated in fully adjusted models with all biomarkers except fasting glucose. Active bout length was associated with a smaller waist circumference and lower C-reactive protein levels, while sedentary bout length was associated with a higher BMI. The associations of objectively assessed moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity with breast cancer biomarkers are consistent with the established beneficial effects of self-reported exercise on breast cancer risk. Our findings further suggest that light-intensity activity may have a protective effect, and that sedentary time may independently contribute to breast cancer risk. 10.1007/s10549-011-1559-2
    Prevalence of breast cancer-related risk factors in underweight premenopausal women: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-VI. Kim Joo Heung,Yoon Kwang Hyun,Hur Ho,Park Seho,Kim Jee Ye,Park Hyung Seok,Kim Seung Ii,Cho Young Up,Park Byeong-Woo Breast cancer research and treatment PURPOSE:This study aimed to examine the prevalence and trends of breast cancer-related risk factors and characteristics in premenopausal underweight Korean women according to birth year cohort. METHODS:Socioeconomic and breast cancer-related risk factors were investigated in 13,415 premenopausal women using nationwide cross-sectional surveys performed between 2007 and 2015. Underweight was defined as body mass index < 18.5 kg/m. Multivariable models were created using complex sample procedures. RESULTS:Underweight women comprised 9.5% of the sample. Compared with those who were obese or of normal weight, underweight women were characterized by younger age, higher rate of metropolitan residence, higher economic status, more education, higher rates of non-manual employment and unmarried status, lower rate of early menarche, higher rates of nulliparity, lower parity, alcohol consumption, and never having breastfed, and lower levels of high physical activity. Multivariable analysis showed that underweight women had a significantly lower rate of early menarche, lower parity, higher nulliparity, older age at first delivery, and lower levels of high physical activity compared to premenopausal women with normal weight. These trends were more apparent among women born in recent years. CONCLUSIONS:Underweight Korean premenopausal women exhibit distinctive features associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, except for a lower rate of early menarche. These associations were prominent in recent generations. Assessment of the association between underweight and premenopausal breast cancer risk should focus on promoting healthy lifestyles to reduce breast cancer risk. 10.1007/s10549-018-05091-x
    Identifying the link between chemical exposures and breast cancer in African American women via integrated in vitro and exposure biomarker data. Polemi Katelyn M,Nguyen Vy K,Heidt Julien,Kahana Adam,Jolliet Olivier,Colacino Justin A Toxicology Among women, breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer worldwide and has the second highest mortality rate of any cancer in the United States. The breast cancer related death rate is 40 % higher in non-Hispanic Black women compared to non-Hispanic White women. The incidence of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive subtype of breast cancer for which there is no targeted therapy, is also approximately three times higher for Black, relative to, White women. The drivers of these differences are poorly understood. Here, we aimed to identify chemical exposures which play a role in breast cancer disparities. Using chemical biomonitoring data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and biological activity data from the EPA's ToxCast program, we assessed the toxicological profiles of chemicals to which US Black women are disproportionately exposed. We conducted a literature search to identify breast cancer targets in ToxCast to analyze the response of chemicals with exposure disparities in these assays. Forty-three chemical biomarkers are significantly higher in Black women. Investigation of these chemicals in ToxCast resulted in 32,683 assays for analysis, 5172 of which contained nonzero values for the concentration at which the dose-response fitted model reaches the cutoff considered "active". Of these chemicals BPA, PFOS, and thiram are most comprehensively assayed. 2,5-dichlorophenol, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and methyl and propyl parabens had higher biomarker concentrations in Black women and moderate testing and activity in ToxCast. The distribution of active concentrations for these chemicals in ToxCast assays are comparable to biomarker concentrations in Black women NHANES participants. Through this integrated analysis, we identify that multiple chemicals, including thiram, propylparaben, and p,p' DDE, have disproportionate exposures in Black women and have breast cancer associated biological activity at human exposure relevant doses. 10.1016/j.tox.2021.152964
    Logistic LASSO Regression for Dietary Intakes and Breast Cancer. McEligot Archana J,Poynor Valerie,Sharma Rishabh,Panangadan Anand Nutrients A multitude of dietary factors from dietary fat to macro and micronutrients intakes have been associated with breast cancer, yet data are still equivocal. Therefore, utilizing data from the large, multi-year, cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we applied a novel, modern statistical shrinkage technique, logistic least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression, to examine the association between dietary intakes in women, ≥50 years, with self-reported breast cancer ( = 286) compared with women without self-reported breast cancer (1144) from the 1999-2010 NHANES cycle. Logistic LASSO regression was used to examine the relationship between twenty-nine variables, including dietary variables from food, as well as well-established/known breast cancer risk factors, and to subsequently identify the most relevant variables associated with self-reported breast cancer. We observed that as the penalty factor (λ) increased in the logistic LASSO regression, well-established breast cancer risk factors, including age (β = 0.83) and parity (β = -0.05) remained in the model. For dietary macro and micronutrient intakes, only vitamin B12 (β = 0.07) was positively associated with self-reported breast cancer. Caffeine (β = -0.01) and alcohol (β = 0.03) use also continued to remain in the model. These data suggest that a diet high in vitamin B12, as well as alcohol use may be associated with self-reported breast cancer. Nonetheless, additional prospective studies should apply more recent statistical techniques to dietary data and cancer outcomes to replicate and confirm the present findings. 10.3390/nu12092652
    Prolonged Nightly Fasting and Breast Cancer Risk: Findings from NHANES (2009-2010). Marinac Catherine R,Natarajan Loki,Sears Dorothy D,Gallo Linda C,Hartman Sheri J,Arredondo Elva,Patterson Ruth E Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology BACKGROUND:A novel line of research has emerged, suggesting that daily feeding-fasting schedules that are synchronized with sleep-wake cycles have metabolic implications that are highly relevant to breast cancer. We examined associations of nighttime fasting duration with biomarkers of breast cancer risk among women in the 2009-2010 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. METHODS:Dietary, anthropometric, and HbA1c data were available for 2,212 women, and 2-hour postprandial glucose concentrations were available for 1,066 women. Nighttime fasting duration was calculated using 24-hour food records. Separate linear regression models examined associations of nighttime fasting with HbA1c and 2-hour glucose concentrations. Logistic regression modeled associations of nighttime fasting with elevated HbA1c (HbA1c ≥ 39 mmol/mol or 5.7%) and elevated 2-hour glucose (glucose ≥ 140 mg/dL). All models adjusted for age, education, race/ethnicity, body mass index, total kcal intake, evening kcal intake, and the number of eating episodes per day. RESULTS:Each 3-hour increase in nighttime fasting (roughly 1 SD) was associated with a 4% lower 2-hour glucose measurement [β, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.93-1.00; P < 0.05], and a nonstatistically significant decrease in HbA1c. Logistic regression models indicate that each 3-hour increase in nighttime fasting duration was associated with roughly a 20% reduced odds of elevated HbA1c (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.97; P < 0.05) and nonsignificantly reduced odds of elevated 2-hour glucose. CONCLUSIONS:A longer nighttime duration was significantly associated with improved glycemic regulation. IMPACT:Randomized trials are needed to confirm whether prolonged nighttime fasting could improve biomarkers of glucose control, thereby reducing breast cancer risk. 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-1292
    Urinary Phytoestrogen Levels Are Associated with Female Hormonal Cancers: An Analysis of NHANES Data From 1999 to 2010. Nutrition and cancer Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds that are structurally similar to endogenous estrogens. Studies have shown phytoestrogens to have possible health benefits although they could also act as endocrine disruptors. This is particularly relevant for estrogen-dependent cancers since estrogens increase risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer. Using data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES), we assessed the associations between urinary phytoestrogens (daidzein, equol, o-Desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), genistein, enterodiol, enterolactone) and breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer using multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Cancer diagnosis and other characteristics were collected via in-person questionnaires. We found women in the highest tertile for daidzein and enterodiol had over twice the odds of having breast cancer (OR = 2.51, 95% CI 1.44-4.36 for daidzein, OR = 2.78, 95% CI 1.44-5.37 for enterodiol). In addition, women in the highest tertiles for daidzein and genistein had three to four times the odds of having endometrial cancer, respectively (OR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.01-9.49 for daidzein, OR = 4.00, 95% CI 1.38-11.59 for genistein). Overall, phytoestrogens were positively associated with breast and endometrial cancer although the associations varied by phytoestrogen type. Additional studies are needed to further inform phytoestrogens' role in disease etiology.Supplemental data for this article is available online at at https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.2020304. 10.1080/01635581.2021.2020304