Protein kinase C-α upregulates sodium channel Nav1.9 in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons in an inflammatory arthritis pain model of rat.
Bai Qian,Shao Jinping,Cao Jing,Ren Xiuhua,Cai Weihua,Su Songxue,George Sanjeeth,Tan Zhiyong,Zang Weidong,Dong Tieli
Journal of cellular biochemistry
Previous studies have found that increased expression of Nav1.9 and protein kinase C (PKC) contributes to pain hypersensitivity in a couple of inflammatory pain models. Here we want to observe if PKC can regulate the expression of Nav1.9 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pain model. A chronic knee joint inflammation model was produced by intra-articular injection of the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in rats. Nociceptive behaviors including mechanical, cold, and heat hyperalgesia were examined. The expression of Nav1.9 and PKCα in DRG was detected by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. The in vitro and in vivo effects of a PKC activator (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate [PMA]) and a PKC inhibitor (GF-109203X) on the expression of Nav1.9 were examined. Moreover, the effects of PKC modulators on nociceptive behaviors were studied. Increased mechanical, heat, and cold sensitivity was observed 3 to 14 days after CFA injection. Parallel increases in messenger RNA and protein expression of Nav1.9 and PKCα were found. Immunofluorescence experiments found that Nav1.9 was preferentially colocalized with IB4+DRG neurons in RA rats. In cultured DRG neurons, PMA increased Nav1.9 expression while GF-109203X prevented the effect of PMA. PMA increased Nav1.9 expression in naïve rats while GF-109203X decreased Nav1.9 expression in RA rats. In naïve rats, PMA caused mechanical and cold hyperalgesia. On the other hand, GF-109203X attenuated mechanical and cold hyperalgesia in RA-pain model. Nav1.9 might be upregulated by PKCα in DRG, which contributes to pain hypersensitivity in CFA-induced chronic knee joint inflammation model of RA pain.
MicroRNA-182 Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Regulating Nav1.7 Following Spared Nerve Injury in Rats.
Cai Weihua,Zhao Qingzan,Shao Jinping,Zhang Jingjing,Li Lei,Ren Xiuhua,Su Songxue,Bai Qian,Li Ming,Chen Xuemei,Wang Jian,Cao Jing,Zang Weidong
The sodium channel 1.7 (Nav1.7), which is encoded by SCN9A gene, is involved in neuropathic pain. As crucial regulators of gene expression, many miRNAs have already gained importance in neuropathic pain, including miR-182, which is predicted to regulate the SCN9A gene. Nav1.7 expression in L4-L6 dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) can be up regulated by spared nerve injury (SNI), while miR-182 expression was down regulated following SNI model. Exploring the connection between Nav1.7 and miR-182 may facilitate the development of a better-targeted therapy. In the current study, direct pairing of miR-182 with the SCN9A gene was verified using a luciferase assay in vitro. Over-expression of miR-182 via microinjection of miR-182 agomir reversed the abnormal increase of Nav1.7 at both mRNA and protein level in L4-6 DRGs of SNI rats, and significantly attenuated the hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulus in the rats. In contrast, administration of miR-182 antagomir enhanced the Nav1.7 expression at both mRNA and protein level in L4-6 DRGs, companied with the generation of mechanical hypersensitivity in naïve rats. Collectively, we concluded that miR-182 can alleviate SNI- induced neuropathic pain through regulating Nav1.7 in rats.
N-Methyladenosine Demethylase FTO Contributes to Neuropathic Pain by Stabilizing G9a Expression in Primary Sensory Neurons.
Li Yize,Guo Xinying,Sun Linlin,Xiao Jifang,Su Songxue,Du Shibin,Li Zhen,Wu Shaogen,Liu Weili,Mo Kai,Xia Shangzhou,Chang Yun-Juan,Denis Daniel,Tao Yuan-Xiang
Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Nerve injury-induced change in gene expression in primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is critical for neuropathic pain genesis. N-methyladenosine (mA) modification of RNA represents an additional layer of gene regulation. Here, it is reported that peripheral nerve injury increases the expression of the mA demethylase fat-mass and obesity-associated proteins (FTO) in the injured DRG via the activation of Runx1, a transcription factor that binds to the gene promoter. Mimicking this increase erases mA in euchromatic histone lysine methyltransferase 2 () mRNA (encoding the histone methyltransferase G9a) and elevates the level of G9a in DRG and leads to neuropathic pain symptoms. Conversely, blocking this increase reverses a loss of mA sites in mRNA and destabilizes the nerve injury-induced G9a upregulation in the injured DRG and alleviates nerve injury-associated pain hypersensitivities. FTO contributes to neuropathic pain likely through stabilizing nerve injury-induced upregulation of G9a, a neuropathic pain initiator, in primary sensory neurons.
Differentially Expressed Genes in the Brain of Aging Mice With Cognitive Alteration and Depression- and Anxiety-Like Behaviors.
Li Mengqi,Su Songxue,Cai Weihua,Cao Jing,Miao Xuerong,Zang Weidong,Gao Shichao,Xu Ying,Yang Jianjun,Tao Yuan-Xiang,Ai Yanqiu
Frontiers in cell and developmental biology
Despite the great increase in human lifespan with improved medical care, the physiological and pathological changes such as memory and cognitive disorders and associated anxiety and depression are major concern with aging. Molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are little known. The present study examined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and the genes with differentially expressed isoforms in three brain regions, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala and hippocampus, throughout the lifespan of mice. Compared to 2-month old mice, both 12- and 24-month old mice displayed memory and cognitive impairments in the Morris water maze, Y-maze, and novel object recognition tests and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in the tail suspension, forced swimming, open field, and elevated plus maze tests. RNA sequencing analysis identified 634 and 1078 DEGs in ACC, 453 and 1015 DEGs in the amygdala and 884 and 1054 DEGs in hippocampus in the 12- and 24-month old mice, respectively. Similarly, many genes with differentially expressed isoforms were also identified in these three brain regions in the 12- and 24-month old mice. Further functional analysis revealed that many DEGs and the genes with differentially expressed isoforms in the ACC and amygdala were mapped to depression- and anxiety-related genes, respectively and that a lot of DEGs and the genes with differentially expressed isoforms in hippocampus were mapped to cognitive dysfunction-related genes from both 12- and 24-month old mice. All of these mapped DEGs and the genes with differentially expressed isoforms were closely related to neuroinflammation. Our findings indicate that these neuroinflammation-related DEGs and the genes with differentially expressed isoforms are likely new targets in the management of memory/cognitive impairment and emotional disorders during the aging.
TRPM3 Channels Play Roles in Heat Hypersensitivity and Spontaneous Pain after Nerve Injury.
Su Songxue,Yudin Yevgen,Kim Nawoo,Tao Yuan-Xiang,Rohacs Tibor
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Transient receptor potential melastatin 3 (TRPM3) is a heat-activated ion channel in primary sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). Pharmacological and genetic studies implicated TRPM3 in various pain modalities, but TRPM3 inhibitors were not validated in TRPM3 mice. Here we tested two inhibitors of TRPM3 in male and female wild-type and TRPM3 mice in nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. We found that intraperitoneal injection of either isosakuranetin or primidone reduced heat hypersensitivity induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in wild-type, but not in TRPM3 mice. Primidone was also effective when injected locally in the hindpaw or intrathecally. Consistently, intrathecal injection of the TRPM3 agonist CIM0216 reduced paw withdrawal latency to radiant heat in wild-type, but not in TRPM3 mice. Intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg/kg, but not 0.5 mg/kg isosakuranetin, inhibited cold and mechanical hypersensitivity in CCI, both in wild-type and TRPM3 mice, indicating a dose-dependent off-target effect. Primidone had no effect on cold sensitivity, and only a marginal effect on mechanical hypersensitivity. Genetic deletion or inhibitors of TRPM3 reduced the increase in the levels of the early genes c-Fos and pERK in the spinal cord and DRGs in CCI mice, suggesting spontaneous activity of the channel. Intraperitoneal isosakuranetin also inhibited spontaneous pain related behavior in CCI in the conditioned place preference assay, and this effect was eliminated in TRPM3 mice. Overall, our data indicate a role of TRPM3 in heat hypersensitivity and in spontaneous pain after nerve injury. Neuropathic pain is a major unsolved medical problem. The heat-activated TRPM3 ion channel is a potential target for novel pain medications, but the pain modalities in which it plays a role are not clear. Here we used a combination of genetic and pharmacological tools to assess the role of this channel in spontaneous pain, heat, cold, and mechanical hypersensitivity in a nerve injury model of neuropathic pain in mice. Our findings indicate a role for TRPM3 in heat hyperalgesia, and spontaneous pain, but not in cold and mechanical hypersensitivity. We also find that not only TRPM3 located in the peripheral nerve termini, but also TRPM3 in the spinal cord or proximal segments of DRG neurons are important for heat hypersensitivity.
Gene Transcript Alterations in the Spinal Cord, Anterior Cingulate Cortex, and Amygdala in Mice Following Peripheral Nerve Injury.
Su Songxue,Li Mengqi,Wu Di,Cao Jing,Ren Xiuhua,Tao Yuan-Xiang,Zang Weidong
Frontiers in cell and developmental biology
Chronic neuropathic pain caused by nerve damage is a most common clinical symptom, often accompanied by anxiety- and depression-like symptoms. Current treatments are very limited at least in part due to incompletely understanding mechanisms underlying this disorder. Changes in gene expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) have been acknowledged to implicate in neuropathic pain genesis, but how peripheral nerve injury alters the gene expression in other pain-associated regions remains elusive. The present study carried out strand-specific next-generation RNA sequencing with a higher sequencing depth and observed the changes in whole transcriptomes in the spinal cord (SC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala (AMY) following unilateral fourth lumbar spinal nerve ligation (SNL). In addition to providing novel transcriptome profiles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs, we identified pain- and emotion-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and revealed that numbers of these DEGs displayed a high correlation to neuroinflammation and apoptosis. Consistently, functional analyses showed that the most significant enriched biological processes of the upregulated mRNAs were involved in the immune system process, apoptotic process, defense response, inflammation response, and sensory perception of pain across three regions. Moreover, the comparisons of pain-, anxiety-, and depression-related DEGs among three regions present a particular molecular map among the spinal cord and supraspinal structures and indicate the region-dependent and region-independent alterations of gene expression after nerve injury. Our study provides a resource for gene transcript expression patterns in three distinct pain-related regions after peripheral nerve injury. Our findings suggest that neuroinflammation and apoptosis are important pathogenic mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain and that some DEGs might be promising therapeutic targets.