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    Molecules Produced by Probiotics and Intestinal Microorganisms with Immunomodulatory Activity. Delgado Susana,Sánchez Borja,Margolles Abelardo,Ruas-Madiedo Patricia,Ruiz Lorena Nutrients Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. The probiotic microorganisms most commonly used in the food and pharmacy industry belong to and , and several strains of these genera have demonstrated beneficial attributes. In addition, some other intestinal bacteria inhabiting the human microbiota, such as and , have recently been discovered and are able to display health-promoting effects in animal and human trials. The beneficial properties of probiotics have been known for a long time, although little is known about the molecular mechanisms and the molecules responsible for their effects. However, in recent years, advances in microbiome studies, and the use of novel analytical and molecular techniques have allowed a deeper insight into their effects at the molecular level. This review summarizes the current knowledge of some of the molecules of probiotics and other intestinal commensal bacteria responsible for their immunomodulatory effect, focusing on those with more solid scientific evidence. 10.3390/nu12020391
    Research progress on the regulation mechanism of probiotics on the microecological flora of infected intestines in livestock and poultry. Letters in applied microbiology The animal intestine is a complex ecosystem composed of host cells, gut microbiota and available nutrients. Gut microbiota can prevent the occurrence of intestinal diseases in animals by regulating the homeostasis of the intestinal environment. The intestinal microbiota is a complex and stable microbial community, and the homeostasis of the intestinal environment is closely related to the invasion of intestinal pathogens, which plays an important role in protecting the host from pathogen infections. Probiotics are strains of microorganisms that are beneficial to health, and their potential has recently led to a significant increase in studies on the regulation of intestinal flora. Various potential mechanisms of action have been proposed on probiotics, especially mediating the regulation mechanism of the intestinal flora on the host, mainly including competitive inhibition of pathogens, stimulation of the host's adaptive immune system and regulation of the intestinal flora. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technology has given us a clearer understanding and has facilitated the development of research methods to investigate the intestinal microecological flora. This review will focus on the regulation of probiotics on the microbial flora of intestinal infections in livestock and poultry and will depict future research directions. 10.1111/lam.13629