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    Cognitive Reserve Profiles in Chronic Schizophrenia: Effects on Theory of Mind Performance and Improvement after Training. Buonocore Mariachiara,Bechi Margherita,Uberti Paola,Spangaro Marco,Cocchi Federica,Guglielmino Carmelo,Bianchi Laura,Mastromatteo Antonella Rita,Bosia Marta,Cavallaro Roberto Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS OBJECTIVES:Cognitive reserve (CR), defined as individual differences in the ability to cope with brain damage, seem to be associated to the several psychopathological features in psychiatric patients, such as the functional outcome. This study aims to identify different profiles of CR by combining intelligence quotient (IQ) and premorbid functioning, two measures independently associated to CR in previous works, as well as to explore CR effect on both Theory of Mind (ToM) baseline performance and improvement after socio-cognitive trainings. METHODS:Sixty patients with chronic schizophrenia underwent a socio-cognitive rehabilitation. All patients were assessed for psychopathology, neurocognition, and ToM at baseline and post-treatment. CR profiles were explored with K-means cluster analysis, while differences between clusters in both baseline assessments and post-treatment ToM improvement, were analyzed by means of analysis of variance and repeated measures analysis of covariance. RESULTS:The analysis revealed three CR profiles, respectively, characterized by low early premorbid functioning and mild intellectual impairment, average/high early premorbid functioning trend with moderate intellectual impairment and good early premorbid functioning associated to IQ within normal limits. Analyses showed a significant effect of CR on both baseline ToM performance and treatment outcome: patients with higher CR reached significantly better ToM scores. CONCLUSIONS:These results underline the clinical relevance of defining CR profiles of patients to customize trainings: subjects with a lower CR may benefit from more intensive programs. A deeper knowledge about CR may considerably increase our understanding of individual differences and thus potentiate treatment outcome. (JINS, 2018, 24, 563-571). 10.1017/S1355617718000012
    Successful implementation of a cognitive remediation program in everyday clinical practice for individuals living with schizophrenia. John Alexander Panickacheril,Yeak Kim,Ayres Helen,Dragovic Milan Psychiatric rehabilitation journal OBJECTIVE:This article evaluates the feasibility and benefits of implementing cognitive remediation interventions in everyday clinical practice among individuals living with schizophrenia. METHOD:We retrospectively assessed short-term cognitive and occupational outcomes of 89 consecutively admitted people with schizophrenia at a public mental health service. A computerized cognitive remediation program was offered at the facility as an integral component of psychosocial treatments. Data of service recipients who had completed the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS; Keefe et al., 2004) on admission and discharge were included for evaluating outcomes. RESULTS:Thirty-seven service recipients did not participate (nontrainee), 18 completed less than 20 hr (incomplete trainee), and 34 completed more than 20 hr of cognitive remediation (completed trainee). Whist a variety of factors affected involvement, lack of interest was the predominant reason voiced for nonparticipation. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not reveal significant Group × Time interaction. Exploratory contrasts showed statistically significant improvement within the completed trainee group from baseline to discharge on the BACS composite score, list learning, and token motor task. Logistic regression analysis indicated that although improved cognition predicted enhanced employment outcome, there was no significant difference among the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Cognitive remediation interventions were accepted by a sizable proportion of people with schizophrenia admitted to an inpatient clinical treatment and rehabilitation facility. Promising improvement in cognitive function among those who completed the training suggests the need for methodologically rigorous research exploring the feasibility and benefits of cognitive remediation programs at everyday clinical settings. (PsycINFO Database Record 10.1037/prj0000255
    Using visual processing training to enhance standard cognitive remediation outcomes in schizophrenia: A pilot study. Contreras Natalia A,Tan Eric J,Lee Stuart J,Castle David J,Rossell Susan L Psychiatry research Approaches to cognitive remediation (CR) that address sensory perceptual skills before higher cognitive skills, have been found to be effective in enhancing cognitive performance in schizophrenia. To date, however, most of the conducted trials have concentrated on auditory processing. The aim of this study was to explore whether the addition of visual processing training could enhance standard cognitive remediation outcomes in a schizophrenia population. Twenty participants were randomised to either receive 20h of computer-assisted cognitive remediation alone or 20h of visual processing training modules and cognitive remediation training. All participants were assessed at baseline and at the end of cognitive remediation training on cognitive and psychosocial (i.e. self-esteem, quality of life) measures. At the end of the study participants across both groups improved significantly in overall cognition and psychosocial functioning. No significant differences were observed between groups on any of the measures. Of potential interest, however, was that the Cohen's d assessing the between group difference in the rates of change were moderate/large for a greater improvement in Visual Learning, Working Memory and Social Cognition for the visual training plus cognitive remediation group. On the basis of our effect sizes on three domains of cognition, we recommend replicating this intervention with a larger sample. 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.09.031
    Hemoencephalography self-regulation training and its impact on cognition: A study with schizophrenia and healthy participants. Gomes J S,Ducos D V,Gadelha A,Ortiz B B,Van Deusen A M,Akiba H T,Guimaraes L S P,Cordeiro Q,Trevizol A P,Lacerda A,Dias A M Schizophrenia research BACKGROUND:Cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are strongly correlated to functional outcome and recovery rates, with no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Neurofeedback has emerged as a non-pharmacological approach to enhance neuroplasticity, which consists in inducing voluntary control of brain responses through operant conditioning. METHOD:The effects of hemoencephalography neurofeedback (HEG-NFBK) in 4 brain sites (F7, Fp1, Fp2 and F8) was studied in 8 patients with schizophrenia (SCH, mean age 36.5±9.98) and 12 health controls (mean age 32.17±5.6). We analyzed groups' performance (10 sessions) and cognitive differences in 3 time points (baseline, after training and follow-up) with generalized estimated equations. For SCH we also evaluate the impact on psychopathology. RESULTS:We found a group∗time interaction for HEG-NFBK performance in the left hemisphere sites (F7 an Fp1) and a near-to-significant in the right frontotemporal region (F8), with no group differences and a significant time effect. Most of cognitive domains improved after intervention, including information processing speed, attention processing, working memory, executive functioning, verbal and visual learning. No group∗time interaction was found. Results suggest that both groups benefit from HEG-NFBK training regardless of cognitive differences at baseline. No significant time effects were found for Calgary and PANSS total scale and subscales (positive, negative neither general). CONCLUSION:To our knowledge, this is the first controlled trial showing effects of NFBK on cognitive performance improvement in schizophrenia. Further research investigating the effects of HEG-NFBK training in schizophrenia should be performed. 10.1016/j.schres.2017.08.044
    Assessment of the psychopathological effects of a horticultural therapy program in patients with schizophrenia. Oh Yun-Ah,Park Sin-Ae,Ahn Byung-Eun Complementary therapies in medicine OBJECTIVES:This study assessed the psychopathological effects of participation in a 10-session horticultural therapy program in patients with schizophrenia. DESIGN:The study design was pre and post test design of experimental and control groups. SETTING:Twenty-eight Korean patients with schizophrenia, recruited from a mental health clinic and two mental health rehabilitation centers in Suwon, South Korea, were voluntarily assigned to either a control group (average age: 33.4±9.4years) or a horticultural therapy group (average age: 42.1±13.0years). INTERVENTIONS:The participants in the horticultural therapy group participated in a 10-session horticultural therapy program designed around various plant cultivating activities. The horticultural therapy program involved sessions once a week from April 2017 to June 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:A psychiatrist evaluated the psychopathological symptoms of schizophrenic patients in both groups. To assess the clinical psychopathological effects, the Korean version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) were used. RESULTS:The horticultural therapy group significantly improved in terms of positive, negative, and general symptoms on the PANSS after the 10-session horticultural therapy program. Moreover, the horticultural therapy group significantly improved in terms of clinical symptoms of schizophrenia in BPRS after the 10-session horticultural therapy program. However, there was no change in the PANSS and BPRS scores in the control group. CONCLUSIONS:This study showed the potential of horticultural therapy in improving psychopathological symptoms in psychiatric patients. Future studies should investigate the effects of long-term horticultural therapy program on the chronic symptoms of patients with schizophrenia. 10.1016/j.ctim.2017.11.019
    Social cognition intervention in schizophrenia: Description of the training of affect recognition program - Indian version. Thonse Umesh,Behere Rishikesh V,Frommann Nicole,Sharma Psvn Asian journal of psychiatry Social cognition refers to mental operations involved in processing of social cues and includes the domains of emotion processing, Theory of Mind (ToM), social perception, social knowledge and attributional bias. Significant deficits in ToM, emotion perception and social perception have been demonstrated in schizophrenia which can have an impact on socio-occupational functioning. Intervention modules for social cognition have demonstrated moderate effect sizes for improving emotion identification and discrimination. We describe the Indian version of the Training of Affect Recognition (TAR) program and a pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of administering this intervention program in the Indian population. We also discuss the cultural sensibilities in adopting an intervention program for the Indian setting. To the best of our knowledge this is the first intervention program for social cognition for use in persons with schizophrenia in India. 10.1016/j.ajp.2017.12.015
    Schizophrenia and prospective memory impairments: a review. Wang Ya,Chan Raymond C K,Shum David H K The Clinical neuropsychologist OBJECTIVE:Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to carry out intended actions in the future. Prospective forgetting has been shown to be one of the key cognitive impairments that contribute to medication non-adherence, reduced independence, and social dysfunction in individuals with schizophrenia. This review aimed to provide an up to date appraisal of the nature and extent of PM impairments in individuals with schizophrenia and those who are at risk and to discuss clinical applications in this area. METHOD:We searched and reviewed relevant studies in this area between 2013 and August 2017. RESULTS:Findings of studies conducted so far indicate that PM is severely impaired in schizophrenia. The most frequent type of PM errors in individuals with schizophrenia is no response, or failure to carry out the intended action. PM impairments in schizophrenia have been found to be related to everyday functioning. For individuals with schizophrenia, a number of assessment techniques have been developed to assess PM. These include: self-report questionnaires, computerized tasks, psychometric test batteries, and virtual reality tasks. So far, a few studies have used the compensatory approach to improve PM performance in individuals with schizophrenia and those who are at risk, and the results reported are promising. Based on findings of these studies, suggestions for the development of interventions for PM impairments in individuals with schizophrenia are provided. CONCLUSIONS:PM dysfunction is an important impairment in individuals with schizophrenia, and more rehabilitation studies to improve PM performance in these individuals are needed. 10.1080/13854046.2017.1406144
    A randomized controlled trial examining a cognitive behavioral therapy intervention enhanced with cognitive remediation to improve work and neurocognition outcomes among persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Kukla Marina,Bell Morris D,Lysaker Paul H Schizophrenia research This single blind, three-armed randomized controlled trial compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) enhanced with cognitive remediation (CBT+CR) to CBT alone and an active control condition on work and neurocognition outcomes for persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Seventy-five adult outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomized to three study conditions (N=25 per group). The CBT intervention was the Indianapolis Vocational Intervention program (IVIP), consisting of weekly group and individual sessions focused on work-related content. Participants in the CBT+CR group received IVIP and Posit Science computer-based cognitive training. The active control group consisted of weekly vocational support groups and individual vocational support sessions. All participants were placed into a noncompetitive work assignment and were followed for 26weeks. Data collection included hours worked, weekly work performance ratings, and neurocognition assessed at baseline and 6months. Neurocognition was also assessed at 12months. Data were analyzed using multilevel linear models to account for nested, repeated measures data. Results indicate that participants in the CBT+CR condition worked significantly more hours and had a more positive trajectory of improving global work performance and work quality across the study compared with the CBT alone and vocational support condition. Compared to the other conditions, CBT+CR also had a significant increase in overall neurocognition that continued to the 12month follow-up, particularly in the domains of verbal learning and social cognition. In conclusion, CBT+CR may be an effective intervention to improve work functioning and neurocognition in persons with schizophrenia. 10.1016/j.schres.2018.01.012
    Computerized cognitive training is associated with improved psychosocial treatment engagement in schizophrenia. Thomas Michael L,Treichler Emily B H,Bismark Andrew,Shiluk Alexandra L,Tarasenko Melissa,Zhang Wen,Joshi Yash B,Sprock Joyce,Cardoso Lauren,Tiernan Kristine,Light Gregory A Schizophrenia research Poor treatment engagement is an enduring problem in the care of patients with schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that targeted cognitive training (TCT) improves cognition and functional outcomes, but this time-consuming intervention might reduce patients' engagement in other treatment activities when implemented in real-world settings. This is especially true of residential care programs which encourage patients to engage in group therapies, self-care, and a wide variety of structured social, work, and other rehabilitation activities. This study aimed to determine whether TCT negatively impacts engagement in other psychosocial treatments. Patients with schizophrenia were recruited from a community-based residential care program and randomized to one of two intervention arms: treatment as usual (TAU; n = 22) or TAU augmented with TCT (n = 24). Psychosocial treatment engagement was tracked over 20 weeks. Treatment groups did not significantly differ on baseline variables or psychosocial treatment engagement in the 5 weeks prior to randomization. TCT had a positive effect on engagement (β = 0.112, p = 0.003), but there was no treatment-by-time interaction (β = -0.029, p = 0.672). Participants in TCT engaged in an average of 1.34 additional group therapies, 0.58 additional activities of daily living, and 0.84 additional rehabilitation activities per week in comparison to TAU participants. Baseline cognition was also a significant predictor of psychosocial treatment engagement. Overall, results suggest that TCT can be implemented in real-world settings without negatively impacting engagement in other psychosocial treatments. Additional studies are needed to determine what role nonspecific factors play in the positive impact of TCT. 10.1016/j.schres.2018.06.024
    Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire in people with schizophrenia: construct validity of the Portuguese versions. Costa Raquel,Probst Michel,Bastos Tânia,Vilhena Estela,Seabra André,Corredeira Rui Disability and rehabilitation PURPOSE:People with schizophrenia have low physical activity levels that can be explained by the restriction in motivation. The Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 is a 19-item scale commonly used to assess five different motivational subtypes for physical activity. However, there are limited psychometric analyses of this version in the schizophrenia context. Moreover, there is a lack of information related to the psychometric properties of version 3 of this questionnaire, with 24 items and six different motivational subtypes. The aim of this study was to examine the construct validity of both Portuguese versions in people with schizophrenia. METHODS:A total of 118 persons with schizophrenia were included (30 women). Cronbach's alpha was used for internal consistency, Pearson's correlation for the retained motivation-types, confirmatory factor analysis for the structural validity of version 2 and exploratory factor analysis for the factor structure of version 3. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:Analyses of version 2 provided an adequate fit index for the structure of the five factors. Exploratory analyses suggested retaining 2 factors of version 3. The results of this study suggest that version 3 was an appropriate measure to assess controlled and autonomous motivation for physical activity in people with schizophrenia and support its use in clinical practice and research. Implications for Rehabilitation This study supports the need to identify the reasons why people with schizophrenia practice physical activity. For that purpose, it is important to use valid and cost-effective instruments. The Portuguese version of BREQ-2 confirmed a 5-factor model and showed adequate fit for the application in people with schizophrenia. However, the incremental indices values were lower than expected. The Portuguese version of BREQ-3 showed acceptable psychometric properties to assess controlled and autonomous motivation for physical activity in people with schizophrenia. 10.1080/09638288.2017.1342277
    [Preventing violence in schizophrenia with cognitive remediation]. Darmedru C,Demily C,Franck N L'Encephale OBJECTIVES:The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior. METHODS:Using recent data from the international literature and the main databases, we first clarify the role played by cognitive deficits in the violence of patients with schizophrenia. We then evaluate the place of psychosocial interventions such as cognitive remediation and social cognitive training in managing the violent and aggressive behavior of these patients. RESULTS:Executive functions and working memory are the most studied neurocognitive functions in the field of violence in schizophrenia. Impulsivity, lack of cognitive flexibility, lack of adaptation and inhibition of automatic motor responses, and altered anger regulation may explain this relationship. Three main components of social cognition are associated with violent behaviors in schizophrenia: (1) the recognition of facial emotions through the inoperability of systems of "emotional monitoring", violent inhibition and recognition of informative facial zones; (2) the theory of the mind through the erroneous interpretation of the intentions of others; (3) the attributional style through the preferentially aggressive over interpretation of social situations and weak capacities of introspection. Overall, cognitive biases inhibit response in a socially acceptable manner and increase the risk of responding impulsively and aggressively to a stressful or provocative situation. In this context, we studied the place held by psychosocial interventions in the management of the violent and aggressive behaviors of these patients. Various cognitive remediation programs have shown their feasibility in people with schizophrenia and neurocognitive deficits with a history of violence as well as their effectiveness in reducing violence, mainly by reducing impulsivity. Similarly, specific programs dedicated to social cognitive training such as Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), Reasoning and Rehabilitation Mental Health Program (R&R2 MHP) and Metacognitive Training (MCT) have shown their positive impact on the control and reduction of global aggressive attitudes and on the numbers of physical and verbal aggressive incidents in schizophrenia. The improvement of social cognition would be achieved through the amendment of interpersonal relationships and social functioning. These interventions are effective at different stages of disease progression, in patients with varied profiles, on violent attitudes in general and on the number of verbal and physical attacks, whether for in-patients or out-patients. Beneficial effects can last up to 12months after termination of the study program. The interest of these interventions is preventive if the subject never entered in a violent register or curative in case of a personal history of violence. This type of care can be considered from a symptomatic point of view by limiting downstream the heavy consequences of such acts, but also etiologically by acting on one of the causes of violent behavior. Compliance with the eligibility criteria, carrying out a prior functional analysis and confirmation of the major impulsive part of the patient's violence are prerequisites for the use of these programs. Similarly, the early introduction of such therapies, their repetition over time and the integration of the patient into a comprehensive process of psychosocial rehabilitation will ensure the best chance of success. CONCLUSIONS:Some cognitive impairments appear to have their place in the genesis, progression and maintenance of violent acts of individuals with schizophrenia. Their management thus opens new therapeutic perspectives such as cognitive remediation, still rarely used in this aim, to complement the action of the traditional care tools. However, further therapeutic trials are needed before considering cognitive remediation and social cognitive training as central care modalities in the therapeutic control of violence in schizophrenia. 10.1016/j.encep.2017.05.001
    An interactive sports video game as an intervention for rehabilitation of community-living patients with schizophrenia: A controlled, single-blind, crossover study. Shimizu Nobuko,Umemura Tomohiro,Matsunaga Masahiro,Hirai Takayoshi PloS one Hypofrontality is a state of decreased cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex during executive function performance; it is commonly observed in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive dysfunction, as well as the psychological symptoms of schizophrenia, influences the ability of patients to reintegrate into society. The current study investigated the effects of an interactive sports video game (IVG; Nintendo Wii™ Sports Resort) on frontal lobe function of patients with schizophrenia. A sample of eight patients (6 male and 2 female; mean age = 46.7 years, standard deviation (SD) = 13.7) engaged in an IVG every week for 3 months in a controlled, single-blind, crossover study. Before and after the intervention we examined frontal lobe blood-flow volume using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), and assessed functional changes using the Frontal Assessment Battery, Health-Related Quality of Life scale, and behaviorally-assessed physical function tests. fNIRS revealed that prefrontal activity during IVG performance significantly increased in the IVG period compared with the control period. Furthermore, significant correlations between cerebral blood flow changes in different channels were observed during IVG performance. In addition, we observed intervention-related improvement in health-related quality of life following IVG. IVG intervention was associated with increased prefrontal cortex activation and improved health-related quality of life performance in patients with schizophrenia. Patients with chronic schizophrenia are characterized by withdrawal and a lack of social responsiveness or interest in others. Interventions using IVG may provide a useful low-cost rehabilitation method for such patients, without the need for specialized equipment. 10.1371/journal.pone.0187480
    Models of Care of Schizophrenia in the Community-An International Perspective. Current psychiatry reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:We reviewed the existing and recent community models of care in schizophrenia. We examine characteristics, recent updates, evidence, cost-effectiveness, and patients' acceptance for existing and new community-based care models in high-income (HI) and low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. RECENT FINDINGS:Assertive Community Treatment (ACT), Intensive Case Management (ICM), and Crisis Intervention are cost-effective interventions for schizophrenia and time tested in the last few decades in HI countries. The growing evidence suggests that tailor-made ACTs and ICM can effectively reduce substance use, homelessness, and criminal activity in persons with schizophrenia who live in the community. Similarly, in LAMI Countries, a few community-based care models for schizophrenia have been developed and tested based on community-based rehabilitation principles. The modality of a community model of care and interventions for a person with schizophrenia should be chosen based on the person's co-existing psychosocial difficulties and challenges such as homelessness, criminal behaviour, and substance use. 10.1007/s11920-022-01329-0
    An update on clinical insight, cognitive insight, and introspective accuracy in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: symptoms, cognition, and treatment. Expert review of neurotherapeutics INTRODUCTION:Poor insight, or unawareness of morbid changes in cognition, emotional states, or behavior, is commonly observed among people with schizophrenia. Poor insight represents a persistent barrier to wellness because it interferes with treatment and self-direction. Paradoxically, good insight may also be a barrier to health when awareness of these changes leads to depression or self-stigma. AREAS COVERED:This paper builds upon this previous work by exploring these issues in schizophrenia separately as they have appeared in published research over the last three years in three different kinds of insight: clinical, cognition, and introspective accuracy. Specifically, studies are reviewed that address: the adverse effects of poor insight, the paradoxical effects of good insight, correlates with other forms of cognition, and emerging treatments. EXPERT OPINION:The evidence continues to offer a nuanced picture of the complex effects of good insight in schizophrenia. Incremental improvements were also found in the development of novel integrative treatment approaches. This work also highlights the intricacy of the concept of insight, the need for further exploration of the effects of culture, and conceptual work that distinguishes the points of convergence and divergence of these forms of insight. 10.1080/14737175.2022.2049757
    Gut permeability and its clinical relevance in schizophrenia. Ishida Ikki,Ogura Jun,Aizawa Emiko,Ota Miho,Hidese Shinsuke,Yomogida Yukihito,Matsuo Junko,Yoshida Sumiko,Kunugi Hiroshi Neuropsychopharmacology reports AIM:We aimed to examine the gut permeability in patients with schizophrenia and its relevance to schizophrenia symptoms, medication, cognitive functions, and blood immune markers. METHODS:We selected 22 patients with schizophrenia (mean age: 37.9 ± 10.5 years) comprising 9 men and 13 women. Furthermore, we included 86 healthy controls (mean age: 43.5 ± 11.0 years) comprising 41 men and 45 women. All participants were biologically unrelated and of Japanese descent. We used the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) to measure the severity of schizophrenia symptoms and cognitive functions, respectively. The lactulose-mannitol loading test was used to measure the permeability of the small intestine. Furthermore, we used the lactulose to mannitol ratio (LMR) as an index of gut permeability. We measured the C-reactive protein and natural killer (NK) cell activity in the blood as highly sensitive immune markers. RESULTS:The patients had a significantly higher rate of "leaky gut" (defined as LMR ≥ 0.1) compared to the control group (22.7% vs. 5.8%, odds ratio: 4.8 [95% confidence interval, 1.2-18.3], Fisher's exact test, P = 0.03). There was no significant correlation between the LMR and PANSS scores or in the daily antipsychotic dose. In addition, the LMR was negatively correlated with the total Z-score of the BACS and NK cell activity in the patients. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest a higher rate of abnormally increased gut permeability in patients with schizophrenia than in controls. Moreover, gut permeability may be related to the cognitive and cellular immunity function of patients with schizophrenia. 10.1002/npr2.12227
    Identifying strategies to improve PANSS based dimensional models in schizophrenia: Accounting for multilevel structure, Bayesian model and clinical staging. Schizophrenia research BACKGROUND:Dimensional approaches can decompose a construct in a set of continuous variables, improving the characterization of complex phenotypes, such as schizophrenia. However, the five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the most used instrument in schizophrenia research, yielded poor fits in most confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) studies, raising concerns about its applications. Thus, we aimed to identify dimensional PANSS CFA models with good psychometric properties by comparing the traditional CFA with three methodological approaches: Bayesian CFA, multilevel modeling, and Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) modeling. METHODS:Clinical data of 700 schizophrenia patients from four centers were analyzed. We first performed a traditional CFA. Next, we tested the three techniques: 1) a Bayesian CFA; 2) a multilevel analysis using the centers as level; and 3) a MIMIC modeling to evaluate the impact of clinical staging on PANSS factors and items. RESULTS:CFA and Bayesian CFA produced poor fit models. However, when adding a multilevel structure to the CFA model, a good fit model emerged. MIMIC modeling yielded significant differences in the factor structure between the clinical stages of schizophrenia. Sex, age, age of onset, and duration of illness did not significantly affect the model fit. CONCLUSION:Our comparison of different CFA methods highlights the need for multilevel structure to achieve a good fit model and the potential utility of staging models (rather than the duration of illness) to deal with clinical heterogeneity in schizophrenia. Large prospective samples with biological data should help to understand the interplay between psychometrics concerns and neurobiology research. 10.1016/j.schres.2021.06.034
    Development of a suspicion index for secondary schizophrenia using the Delphi method. The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry AIM:The aim of this study was to develop a suspicion index that aids diagnosis of secondary schizophrenia spectrum disorders in regular clinical practice. METHOD:We used the Delphi method to rate and refine questionnaire items in consecutive rounds. Differences in mean expert responses for schizophrenia spectrum disorders and secondary schizophrenia spectrum disorders populations allowed to define low/middle/high predictive items, which received different weights. Algorithm performance was tested in 198 disease profiles by means of sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS:Twelve experts completed the Delphi process, and consensus was reached in 19/24 (79.2%) items for schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 17/24 (70.8%) for secondary schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We assigned rounded values to each item category according to their predictive potential. A differential distribution of scores was observed between schizophrenia spectrum disorders and secondary schizophrenia spectrum disorders when applying the suspicion index for validation to 198 disease profiles. Sensitivity and specificity analyses allowed to set a >8/10/16 risk prediction score as a threshold to consider medium/high/very high suspicion of secondary schizophrenia spectrum disorders. CONCLUSION:Our final outcome was the Secondary Schizophrenia Suspicion Index, the first paper-based and reliable algorithm to discriminate secondary schizophrenia spectrum disorders from schizophrenia spectrum disorders with the potential to help improve the detection of secondary schizophrenia spectrum disorder cases in clinical practice. 10.1177/00048674211025715
    Neuropathways of theory of mind in schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews BACKGROUND:Social cognition is significantly associated with daily functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Its neural basis remains unknown. METHODS:A systematic literature search was performed. Studies using imaging to measure theory of mind (ToM) in schizophrenia were identified. Imaging data were synthesized using the seed-based d mapping approach. Potential neuropathways were hypothesized based on the identified brain regions activated during ToM tasks. RESULTS:A total of 25 studies were included in the present study. Compared with healthy people, patients with schizophrenia showed hyperactivations in superior longitudinal fasciculus II and hypoactivations in superior frontal gyrus, precuneus and cuneus, and precentral gyrus during ToM tasks. The primary brain regions involved in the potential neuropathways in schizophrenia were the middle temporal gyrus, superior and inferior frontal gyrus, and supplementary motor areas. CONCLUSION:Deactivated brain regions in schizophrenia overlapped with the default mode and salience networks. Our findings shed light on how to develop a diagnostic tool for deficits in social cognition using neuroimaging techniques and effective therapeutic interventions to rectify dysfunction in schizophrenia. 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2022.104625
    Childhood trauma is associated with onset of symptoms, functioning and cognition in patients with schizophrenia. Trends in psychiatry and psychotherapy INTRODUCTION:Childhood trauma (CT) is known to be a vulnerability factor for schizophrenia, but the specific impacts of different trauma subtypes on the prognosis of these patients remains unclear. OBJECTIVE:To assess the relationships between the occurrence of overall CT and its subtypes with factors with known prognostic impact on schizophrenia, such as age at onset of symptoms, global functioning, and cognitive impairment in a sample of Brazilian patients. METHODS:One hundred and five stable patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-5 criteria were evaluated using the Independent Living Skills Survey (ILSS; self-report global functioning), Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS; subjective cognitive impairment), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire scales (CTQ; perceived overall CT, emotional neglect, physical neglect, physical abuse, and emotional and sexual abuse). Statistical analysis was performed with multivariate linear regression. RESULTS:After controlling for educational level and age, subjective cognitive impairment was directly correlated with overall perceived CT occurrence, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse. Self-report global functioning was inversely correlated with perceived overall CT occurrence, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse. Emotional abuse and physical abuse were also inversely correlated with age at onset of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:CT can be related to more severe prognoses in schizophrenia, impacting on early onset of symptoms, lower global functioning, and greater cognitive impairment. Subtypes of trauma can be associated with different prognostic risks. 10.47626/2237-6089-2019-0081
    Efficacy of metacognitive training on symptom severity, neurocognition and social cognition in patients with schizophrenia: A single-blind randomized controlled trial. Scandinavian journal of psychology Over the past decades, a number of complementary treatments for schizophrenia have emerged. One of these is metacognitive training (MCT), which combines the principles of cognitive-behavioral therapies, cognitive remediation, and psychoeducation into a hybrid approach placing emphasis on increasing metacognitive awareness. The aim of our study was to investigate the efficacy of MCT on symptom severity, and neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning in schizophrenia; also, attention was paid to the assessment of subjective acceptability. Forty-six patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were included in our single-blind randomized controlled trial, who were assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group was provided standard MCT, while the control group received treatment as usual. We assessed symptom severity and cognitive functions before and after the training, as well as after a 6-month follow-up period. Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed improvement in overall symptom severity, and positive and disorganized symptoms. Training participans showed further improvement at the follow-up assessment. Regarding neurocognitive functions, improvement in visuospatial functions was observed between pre- and post-intervention assessments compared to the control group. Patients showed excellent adherence, and evaluated the training as useful and interesting. In line with the results of previous studies, our results demonstrate the efficacy of MCT on symptom severity in schizophrenia. Improvements in cognitive functions that are closely related to the onset and prevalence of symptoms of schizophrenia were also found. 10.1111/sjop.12811