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    Landscape of Microsatellite Instability Across 39 Cancer Types. Bonneville Russell,Krook Melanie A,Kautto Esko A,Miya Jharna,Wing Michele R,Chen Hui-Zi,Reeser Julie W,Yu Lianbo,Roychowdhury Sameek JCO precision oncology PURPOSE:Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a pattern of hypermutation that occurs at genomic microsatellites and is caused by defects in the mismatch repair system. Mismatch repair deficiency that leads to MSI has been well described in several types of human cancer, most frequently in colorectal, endometrial, and gastric adenocarcinomas. MSI is known to be both predictive and prognostic, especially in colorectal cancer; however, current clinical guidelines only recommend MSI testing for colorectal and endometrial cancers. Therefore, less is known about the prevalence and extent of MSI among other types of cancer. METHODS:Using our recently published MSI-calling software, MANTIS, we analyzed whole-exome data from 11,139 tumor-normal pairs from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments projects and external data sources across 39 cancer types. Within a subset of these cancer types, we assessed mutation burden, mutational signatures, and somatic variants associated with MSI. RESULTS:We identified MSI in 3.8% of all cancers assessed-present in 27 of tumor types-most notably adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), cervical cancer (CESC), and mesothelioma, in which MSI has not yet been well described. In addition, MSI-high ACC and CESC tumors were observed to have a higher average mutational burden than microsatellite-stable ACC and CESC tumors. CONCLUSION:We provide evidence of as-yet-unappreciated MSI in several types of cancer. These findings support an expanded role for clinical MSI testing across multiple cancer types as patients with MSI-positive tumors are predicted to benefit from novel immunotherapies in clinical trials. 10.1200/PO.17.00073
    Pembrolizumab in soft-tissue sarcomas with tertiary lymphoid structures: a phase 2 PEMBROSARC trial cohort. Nature medicine Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) show limited clinical activity in patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs). Retrospective analysis suggests that intratumoral tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) are associated with improved outcome in these patients. PEMBROSARC is a multicohort phase 2 study of pembrolizumab combined with low-dose cyclophosphamide in patients with advanced STS (NCT02406781). The primary endpoint was the 6-month non-progression rate (NPR). Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and safety. The 6-month NPR and ORRs for cohorts in this trial enrolling all comers were previously reported; here, we report the results of a cohort enrolling patients selected based on the presence of TLSs (n = 30). The 6-month NPR was 40% (95% confidence interval (CI), 22.7-59.4), so the primary endpoint was met. The ORR was 30% (95% CI, 14.7-49.4). In comparison, the 6-month NPR and ORR were 4.9% (95% CI, 0.6-16.5) and 2.4% (95% CI, 0.1-12.9), respectively, in the all-comer cohorts. The most frequent toxicities were grade 1 or 2 fatigue, nausea, dysthyroidism, diarrhea and anemia. Exploratory analyses revealed that the abundance of intratumoral plasma cells (PCs) was significantly associated with improved outcome. These results suggest that TLS presence in advanced STS is a potential predictive biomarker to improve patients' selection for pembrolizumab treatment. 10.1038/s41591-022-01821-3
    Spatial immunophenotypes predict response to anti-PD1 treatment and capture distinct paths of T cell evasion in triple negative breast cancer. Hammerl Dora,Martens John W M,Timmermans Mieke,Smid Marcel,Trapman-Jansen Anita M,Foekens Renée,Isaeva Olga I,Voorwerk Leonie,Balcioglu Hayri E,Wijers Rebecca,Nederlof Iris,Salgado Roberto,Horlings Hugo,Kok Marleen,Debets Reno Nature communications Only a subgroup of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) responds to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). To better understand lack of response to ICI, we analyze 681 TNBCs for spatial immune cell contextures in relation to clinical outcomes and pathways of T cell evasion. Excluded, ignored and inflamed phenotypes can be captured by a gene classifier that predicts prognosis of various cancers as well as anti-PD1 response of metastatic TNBC patients in a phase II trial. The excluded phenotype, which is associated with resistance to anti-PD1, demonstrates deposits of collagen-10, enhanced glycolysis, and activation of TGFβ/VEGF pathways; the ignored phenotype, also associated with resistance to anti-PD1, shows either high density of CD163+ myeloid cells or activation of WNT/PPARγ pathways; whereas the inflamed phenotype, which is associated with response to anti-PD1, revealed necrosis, high density of CLEC9A+ dendritic cells, high TCR clonality independent of neo-antigens, and enhanced expression of T cell co-inhibitory receptors. 10.1038/s41467-021-25962-0