Sjögren's syndrome initially presented as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in a male patient: a case report and literature review.
Xu Xiaohan,Zhu Tienan,Wu Di,Zhang Lu
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a potentially lethal multisystem disorder which could be caused by autoimmune diseases. However, the concomitant occurrence of TTP and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an extremely uncommon scenario, especially in male patients. A 56-year-old Chinese male was admitted for the appearance of diffuse ecchymosis. Then he gradually developed transient slurred speech, progressive confusion, agitation, extremity weakness, and fever. Laboratory investigations suggested anemia, thrombocytopenia, significantly increased lactic dehydrogenase, schistocytes in peripheral blood smear, and a disintegrin-like metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif type 1 member 13 (ADAMTS13) activity deficiency with high inhibitor titers. TTP was thus diagnosed. The patient also had positive anti-nuclear antibody, anti-SSA, and anti-SSB; however, anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) was negative. These drove us to perform ocular and dental sicca evaluation and the finial diagnosis was TTP secondary to SS. Plasma exchange and corticosteroid therapy were effective to control TTP. Cyclophosphamide was subsequently added when the platelet count was stable. The total duration of corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide was 8 and 6 months, respectively. The patient recovered without relapse at 1-year follow-up. To our knowledge, this was the first case of SS initially presented as TTP in a male patient. The case also elucidated the importance of autoantibody screen in the workup of TTP and the benefits of adjunctive immunosuppressive therapy in relapse prevention.