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    Cerebellar Structural Abnormalities Associated With Cognitive Function in Patients With First-Episode Psychosis. Kim Taekwan,Lee Kwang-Hyuk,Oh Hyerim,Lee Tae Young,Cho Kang Ik K,Lee Junhee,Kwon Jun Soo Frontiers in psychiatry The fundamental role of the cerebellum in higher cognitive processing has recently been highlighted. However, inconsistent findings exist in schizophrenia with respect to the exact nature of cerebellar structural abnormalities and their associations with cognitive and clinical features. We undertook a detailed investigation of cerebellar lobular volumes in 40 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 40 healthy controls (HCs) using the spatially unbiased atlas template of the cerebellum (SUIT). We examined the functional significance of cerebellar structural abnormalities in relation to cognitive and clinical outcomes in patients. We found that left cerebellar lobules VI and X volumes were lower in FEP patients, compared to HCs. Smaller left lobules VI and X volumes were associated with fewer number of categories completed on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in patients. In addition, smaller left lobule X volume was related to performance delay on the Trail Making Test (TMT) Part B in patients. Our results demonstrate that cerebellar structural abnormalities are present at the early stage of schizophrenia. We suggest functional associations of cerebellar structural changes with non-verbal executive dysfunctions in FEP. 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00286
    A simple saccadic reading test to assess ocular motor function in cerebellar ataxia. Oh Angela Jinsook,Chen Tiffany,Shariati Mohammad Ali,Jehangir Naz,Hwang Thomas N,Liao Yaping Joyce PloS one Cerebellar ataxia is a neurological disorder due to dysfunction of the cerebellum that affects coordination of fine movement, gait, and balance. Although ataxic patients commonly exhibit abnormal eye movement and have difficulties with saccadic reading, quantification of ocular motor abilities during reading in the clinical setting is rarely done. In this study, we assess visual performance with simple reading tests that can be used in the clinical setting and performed video infrared oculography in 11 patients with hereditary or acquired cerebellar ataxia and 11 age-matched controls. We found that compared with controls, ataxic patients read significantly slower on regularly and irregularly spaced 120 single-digit number reading tasks (read aloud) (p = 0.02 for both) but not on a word reading task (read silently), although there was large variability on the word reading task. Among the 3 reading tasks, the regularly spaced number reading task had the greatest difference (44%) between ataxic patients and controls. Analysis of oculography revealed that ataxic patients had slower reading speeds on the regularly spaced number reading task because of significantly higher saccade and fixation counts, impairment of small amplitude progressive saccades as well as large amplitude, line-changing saccades, greater fixation dispersion, and irregularity of scan paths and staircase gaze patterns. Our findings show that infrared oculography remains the gold standard in assessment of ocular motor difficulties during reading in ataxic patients. In the absence of this capability in the clinical setting, a simple 120 regularly spaced single-digit saccadic number reading test, which most patients can perform in less than 2 minutes, can be a possible biomarker for ocular motor abilities necessary for reading. 10.1371/journal.pone.0203924
    Executive Function Deficits in Patients after Cerebellar Neurosurgery. Mak Monika,Tyburski Ernest,Madany Łukasz,Sokołowski Andrzej,Samochowiec Agnieszka Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS The cerebellum has long been perceived as a structure responsible for the human motor function. According to the contemporary approach, however, it plays a significant role in complex behavior regulatory processes. The aim of this study was to describe executive functions in patients after cerebellar surgery. The study involved 30 patients with cerebellar pathology. The control group comprised 30 neurologically and mentally healthy individuals, matched for sex, age, and number of years of education. Executive functions were measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT), Trail Making Test (TMT), and working memory by the Digit Span. Compared to healthy controls, patients made more Errors and Perseverative errors in the WCST, gave more Perseverative responses, and had a lower Number of categories completed. The patients exhibited higher response times in all three parts of the SCWT and TMT A and B. No significant differences between the two groups were reported in their performance of the SCWT and TMT with regard to the measures of absolute or relative interference. The patients had lower score on the backward Digit Span. Patients with cerebellar pathology may exhibit some impairment within problem solving and working memory. Their worse performance on the SCWT and TMT could, in turn, stem from their poor motor-somatosensory control, and not necessarily executive deficits. Our results thus support the hypothesis of the cerebellum's mediating role in the regulation of the activity of the superordinate cognitive control network in the brain. (JINS, 2016, 22, 47-57). 10.1017/S1355617715001174
    Regional cerebellar volumetric correlates of manual motor and cognitive function. Koppelmans Vincent,Hoogendam Yoo Young,Hirsiger Sarah,Mérillat Susan,Jäncke Lutz,Seidler Rachael D Brain structure & function Cerebellar volume declines with aging. Few studies have investigated age differences in regional cerebellar volume (RCV) and their association with motor and cognitive function. In 213 healthy older adults, we investigated the association of age with motor skills, cognition and RCV. Subsequently, we studied the association of RCV with motor skills and cognition. RCVs were derived from T1-weighted MRI scans using the automated SUIT segmentation method and clustered using principal component analysis (PCA). Motor skill (manual dexterity, tapping speed, bimanual visuomotor coordination, grip force) and cognition (mental rotation, verbal memory, inhibition, mental flexibility) were assessed. Behavioral measures were clustered into compounds using PCA: left hand motor skill, right hand motor skill, verbal memory and mental flexibility, and mental rotation & inhibition. Volume of the rostral middle frontal gyri (rMFG) and premotor areas (PMA) were related to performance for reference. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and education. Volume of the cerebellar anterior lobe and top of the superior posterior lobe were positively associated with motor skill. Volume of the bottom part of the posterior superior lobe and the inferior posterior lobe was positively associated with cognition. PMA volume was associated with cognition and motor skill and rMFG volume with motor skill. Although these results did not survive FDR correction, their effect sizes suggest that regional cerebellar volume selectively contributes to cognitive and motor skill. Effect sizes of cerebellar associations with performance were similar to those of rMFG/PMA and performance suggesting parallel contributions to performance. 10.1007/s00429-016-1317-7