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    Transplantation of mouse iPSCs into testis of azoospermic mouse model: in vivo and in vitro study. Rahmani Forouzan,Movahedin Mansoureh,Mazaheri Zohreh,Soleimani Masoud Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology This study aimed to induce spermatogenesis in azoospermic testis through induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived spermatogonial stem cell-like cells (SSCLCs) after iPSCs in vivo and in vitro transplantation and three-dimensional organ culture. DiI-labelled mouse iPSCs were transplanted to azoospermic testis mouse model (pretreated by busulfan 40 mg/kg). This study was designed based on two experimental groups. In experimental group 1(in vivo) labelled iPSCs were transplanted to azoospermic host testis. In experimental group 2 (in vitro) after cell transplantation, fragments of host testes were set as 3D organ culture and testis without cells transplantation served as the control group by the same method. The samples were evaluated by tracing DiI, cell homing, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative RT PCR assays. 2 weeks after iPSCs transplantation, the molecular assessment showed that Plzf, Thy1, Vasa and Gfra1 expression were increased significantly (p ≤ .05) in host testis and labelled iPSCs co-localized by the Plzf and Thy1 markers expression in the base of seminiferous tubules. These findings suggest the ability of iPSCs to achieve homing in the testis niche and indicate the critical inductive role of microenvironment signals in the differentiation of iPSCs to spermatogonial stem cell-like cells. 10.1080/21691401.2019.1594854