Bile acid coordinates microbiota homeostasis and systemic immunometabolism in cardiometabolic diseases.
Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Cardiometabolic disease (CMD), characterized with metabolic disorder triggered cardiovascular events, is a leading cause of death and disability. Metabolic disorders trigger chronic low-grade inflammation, and actually, a new concept of metaflammation has been proposed to define the state of metabolism connected with immunological adaptations. Amongst the continuously increased list of systemic metabolites in regulation of immune system, bile acids (BAs) represent a distinct class of metabolites implicated in the whole process of CMD development because of its multifaceted roles in shaping systemic immunometabolism. BAs can directly modulate the immune system by either boosting or inhibiting inflammatory responses diverse mechanisms. Moreover, BAs are key determinants in maintaining the dynamic communication between the host and microbiota. Importantly, BAs targeting Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and diverse other nuclear receptors play key roles in regulating metabolic homeostasis of lipids, glucose, and amino acids. Moreover, BAs axis is susceptible to inflammatory and metabolic intervention, and thereby BAs axis may constitute a reciprocal regulatory loop in metaflammation. We thus propose that BAs axis represents a core coordinator in integrating systemic immunometabolism implicated in the process of CMD. We provide an updated summary and an intensive discussion about how BAs shape both the innate and adaptive immune system, and how BAs axis function as a core coordinator in integrating metabolic disorder to chronic inflammation in conditions of CMD.