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    Loss of slc39a14 causes simultaneous manganese hypersensitivity and deficiency in zebrafish. Disease models & mechanisms Manganese neurotoxicity is a hallmark of hypermanganesemia with dystonia 2, an inherited manganese transporter defect caused by mutations in SLC39A14. To identify novel potential targets of manganese neurotoxicity, we performed transcriptome analysis of slc39a14-/- mutant zebrafish that were exposed to MnCl2. Differentially expressed genes mapped to the central nervous system and eye, and pathway analysis suggested that Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and activation of the unfolded protein response are key features of manganese neurotoxicity. Consistent with this interpretation, MnCl2 exposure led to decreased whole-animal Ca2+ levels, locomotor defects and changes in neuronal activity within the telencephalon and optic tectum. In accordance with reduced tectal activity, slc39a14-/- zebrafish showed changes in visual phototransduction gene expression, absence of visual background adaptation and a diminished optokinetic reflex. Finally, numerous differentially expressed genes in mutant larvae normalised upon MnCl2 treatment indicating that, in addition to neurotoxicity, manganese deficiency is present either subcellularly or in specific cells or tissues. Overall, we assembled a comprehensive set of genes that mediate manganese-systemic responses and found a highly correlated and modulated network associated with Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and cellular stress. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper. 10.1242/dmm.044594
    Functional abnormalities in the cerebello-thalamic pathways in a mouse model of DYT25 dystonia. eLife Dystonia is often associated with functional alterations in the cerebello-thalamic pathways, which have been proposed to contribute to the disorder by propagating pathological firing patterns to the forebrain. Here, we examined the function of the cerebello-thalamic pathways in a model of DYT25 dystonia. DYT25 () mice carry a heterozygous knockout mutation of the gene, which notably disrupts striatal function, and systemic or striatal administration of oxotremorine to these mice triggers dystonic symptoms. Our results reveal an increased cerebello-thalamic excitability in the presymptomatic state. Following the first dystonic episode, mice in the asymptomatic state exhibit a further increase of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical excitability, which is maintained after θ-burst stimulations of the cerebellum. When administered in the symptomatic state induced by a cholinergic activation, these stimulations decreased the cerebello-thalamic excitability and reduced dystonic symptoms. In agreement with dystonia being a multiregional circuit disorder, our results suggest that the increased cerebello-thalamic excitability constitutes an early endophenotype, and that the cerebellum is a gateway for corrective therapies via the depression of cerebello-thalamic pathways. 10.7554/eLife.79135
    CA8 mutations cause a novel syndrome characterized by ataxia and mild mental retardation with predisposition to quadrupedal gait. PLoS genetics We describe a consanguineous Iraqi family in which affected siblings had mild mental retardation and congenital ataxia characterized by quadrupedal gait. Genome-wide linkage analysis identified a 5.8 Mb interval on chromosome 8q with shared homozygosity among the affected persons. Sequencing of genes contained in the interval revealed a homozygous mutation, S100P, in carbonic anhydrase related protein 8 (CA8), which is highly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells and influences inositol triphosphate (ITP) binding to its receptor ITPR1 on the endoplasmatic reticulum and thereby modulates calcium signaling. We demonstrate that the mutation S100P is associated with proteasome-mediated degradation, and thus presumably represents a null mutation comparable to the Ca8 mutation underlying the previously described waddles mouse, which exhibits ataxia and appendicular dystonia. CA8 thus represents the third locus that has been associated with quadrupedal gait in humans, in addition to the VLDLR locus and a locus at chromosome 17p. Our findings underline the importance of ITP-mediated signaling in cerebellar function and provide suggestive evidence that congenital ataxia paired with cerebral dysfunction may, together with unknown contextual factors during development, predispose to quadrupedal gait in humans. 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000487