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    Parathyroid hormone (1-34) promotes the effects of 3D printed scaffold-seeded bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on meniscus regeneration. Zhao Wen,Zou Tong,Cui Hao,Lv Yangou,Gao Dengke,Ruan Chenmei,Zhang Xia,Zhang Yihua Stem cell research & therapy BACKGROUND:Cell-based tissue engineering represents a promising management for meniscus repair and regeneration. The present study aimed to investigate whether the injection of parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1-34) could promote the regeneration and chondroprotection of 3D printed scaffold seeded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a canine total meniscal meniscectomy model. METHODS:3D printed poly(e-caprolactone) scaffold seeded with BMSCs was cultured in vitro, and the effects of in vitro culture time on cell growth and matrix synthesis of the BMSCs-scaffold construct were evaluated by microscopic observation and cartilage matrix content detection at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. After that, the tissue-engineered meniscus based on BMSCs-scaffold cultured for the appropriate culture time was selected for in vivo implantation. Sixteen dogs were randomly divided into four groups: PTH + BMSCs-scaffold, BMSCs-scaffold, total meniscectomy, and sham operation. The regeneration of the implanted tissue and the degeneration of articular cartilage were assessed by gross, histological, and immunohistochemical analysis at 12 weeks postoperatively. RESULTS:In vitro study showed that the glycosaminoglycan (GAG)/DNA ratio and the expression of collagen type II (Col2) were significantly higher on day 21 as compared to the other time points. In vivo study showed that, compared with the BMSCs-scaffold group, the PTH + BMSCs-scaffold group showed better regeneration of the implanted tissue and greater similarity to native meniscus concerning gross appearance, cell composition, and cartilage extracellular matrix deposition. This group also showed less expression of terminal differentiation markers of BMSC chondrogenesis as well as lower cartilage degeneration with less damage on the knee cartilage surface, higher expression of Col2, and lower expression of degeneration markers. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrated that PTH (1-34) promotes the regenerative and chondroprotective effects of the BMSCs-3D printed meniscal scaffold in a canine model, and thus, their combination could be a promising strategy for meniscus tissue engineering. 10.1186/s13287-020-01845-x
    Platelet-derived growth factor-coated decellularized meniscus scaffold for integrative healing of meniscus tears. Lee Kwang Il,Olmer Merissa,Baek Jihye,D'Lima Darryl D,Lotz Martin K Acta biomaterialia The aim of this study was to examine the potential of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-coated decellularized meniscus scaffold in mediating integrative healing of meniscus tears by inducing endogenous cell migration. Fresh bovine meniscus was chemically decellularized and covalently conjugated with heparin and PDGF-BB. In vitro PDGF release kinetics was measured. The scaffold was transplanted into experimental tears in avascular bovine meniscus explants and cultured for 2 and 4 weeks. The number migrating and proliferating cells at the borderline between the scaffold and injured explant and PDGF receptor-β (PDGFRβ) expressing cells were counted. The alignment of the newly produced ECM and collagen was analyzed by Safranin-O, picrosirius red staining, and differential interference contrast (DIC). Tensile testing of the explants was performed after culture for 2 and 4 weeks. Heparin conjugated scaffold showed immobilization of high levels of PDGF-BB, with sustained release over 2 weeks. Insertion of the PDGF-BB treated scaffold in defects in avascular meniscus led to increased PDGFRβ expression, cell migration and proliferation into the defect zone. Safranin-O, picrosirius red staining and DIC showed tissue integration between the scaffold and injured explants. Tensile properties of injured explants treated with PDGF-BB coated scaffold were significantly higher than in the scaffold without PDGF. In conclusion, PDGF-BB-coated scaffold increased PDGFRβ expression and promoted migration of endogenous meniscus cells to the defect area. New matrix was formed that bridged the space between the native meniscus and the scaffold and this was associated with improved biomechanical properties. The PDGF-BB-coated scaffold will be promising for clinical translation to healing of meniscus tears. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:Meniscus tears are the most common injury of the knee joint. The most prevalent forms that occur in the inner third typically do not spontaneously heal and represent a major risk factor for the development of knee osteoarthritis. The goal of this project was to develop an approach that is readily applicable for clinical use. We selected a natural and readily available decellularized meniscus scaffold and conjugated it with PDGF, which we had previously found to have strong chemotactic activity for chondrocytes and progenitor cells. The present results show that insertion of the PDGF-conjugated scaffold in defects in avascular meniscus led to endogenous cell migration and proliferation into the defect zone with tissue integration between the scaffold and injured explants and improved tensile properties. This PDGF-conjugated scaffold will be promising for a translational approach to healing of meniscus tears. 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.06.021
    Protein-releasing polymeric scaffolds induce fibrochondrocytic differentiation of endogenous cells for knee meniscus regeneration in sheep. Lee Chang H,Rodeo Scott A,Fortier Lisa Ann,Lu Chuanyong,Erisken Cevat,Mao Jeremy J Science translational medicine Regeneration of complex tissues, such as kidney, liver, and cartilage, continues to be a scientific and translational challenge. Survival of ex vivo cultured, transplanted cells in tissue grafts is among one of the key barriers. Meniscus is a complex tissue consisting of collagen fibers and proteoglycans with gradient phenotypes of fibrocartilage and functions to provide congruence of the knee joint, without which the patient is likely to develop arthritis. Endogenous stem/progenitor cells regenerated the knee meniscus upon spatially released human connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor-β3 (TGFβ3) from a three-dimensional (3D)-printed biomaterial, enabling functional knee recovery. Sequentially applied CTGF and TGFβ3 were necessary and sufficient to propel mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells, as a heterogeneous population or as single-cell progenies, into fibrochondrocytes that concurrently synthesized procollagens I and IIα. When released from microchannels of 3D-printed, human meniscus scaffolds, CTGF and TGFβ3 induced endogenous stem/progenitor cells to differentiate and synthesize zone-specific type I and II collagens. We then replaced sheep meniscus with anatomically correct, 3D-printed scaffolds that incorporated spatially delivered CTGF and TGFβ3. Endogenous cells regenerated the meniscus with zone-specific matrix phenotypes: primarily type I collagen in the outer zone, and type II collagen in the inner zone, reminiscent of the native meniscus. Spatiotemporally delivered CTGF and TGFβ3 also restored inhomogeneous mechanical properties in the regenerated sheep meniscus. Survival and directed differentiation of endogenous cells in a tissue defect may have implications in the regeneration of complex (heterogeneous) tissues and organs. 10.1126/scitranslmed.3009696
    Biomechanically, structurally and functionally meticulously tailored polycaprolactone/silk fibroin scaffold for meniscus regeneration. Li Zong,Wu Nier,Cheng Jin,Sun Muyang,Yang Peng,Zhao Fengyuan,Zhang Jiahao,Duan Xiaoning,Fu Xin,Zhang Jiying,Hu Xiaoqing,Chen Haifeng,Ao Yingfang Theranostics Meniscus deficiency, the most common and refractory disease in human knee joints, often progresses to osteoarthritis (OA) due to abnormal biomechanical distribution and articular cartilage abrasion. However, due to its anisotropic spatial architecture, complex biomechanical microenvironment, and limited vascularity, meniscus repair remains a challenge for clinicians and researchers worldwide. In this study, we developed a 3D printing-based biomimetic and composite tissue-engineered meniscus scaffold consisting of polycaprolactone (PCL)/silk fibroin (SF) with extraordinary biomechanical properties and biocompatibility. We hypothesized that the meticulously tailored composite scaffold could enhance meniscus regeneration and cartilage protection. : The physical property of the scaffold was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, degradation test, frictional force of interface assessment, biomechanical testing, and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. To verify the biocompatibility of the scaffold, the viability, morphology, proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) production of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cell (SMSC) on the scaffolds were assessed by LIVE/DEAD staining, alamarBlue assay, ELISA analysis, and qRT-PCR. The recruitment ability of SMSC was tested by dual labeling with CD29 and CD90 by confocal microscope at 1 week after implantation. The functionalized hybrid scaffold was then implanted into the meniscus defects on rabbit knee joint for meniscus regeneration, comparing with the Blank group (no scaffold) and PS group. The regenerated meniscus tissue was evaluated by histological and immunohistochemistry staining, and biomechanical test. Macroscopic and histological scoring was performed to assess the outcome of meniscus regeneration and cartilage protection . : The combination of SF and PCL could greatly balance the biomechanical properties and degradation rate to match the native meniscus. SF sponge, characterized by fine elasticity and low interfacial shear force, enhanced energy absorption capacity of the meniscus and improved chondroprotection. The SMSC-specific affinity peptide (LTHPRWP; L7) was conjugated to the scaffold to further increase the recruitment and retention of endogenous SMSCs. This meticulously tailored scaffold displayed superior biomechanics, structure, and function, creating a favorable microenvironment for SMSC proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) production. After 24 weeks of implantation, the histological assessment, biochemical contents, and biomechanical properties demonstrated that the polycaprolactone/silk fibroin-L7 (PS-L7) group was close to the native meniscus group, showing significantly better cartilage protection than the PS group. : This tissue engineering scaffold could greatly strengthen meniscus regeneration and chondroprotection. Compared with traditional cell-based therapies, the meniscus tissue engineering approach with advantages of one-step operation and reduced cost has a promising potential for future clinical and translational studies. 10.7150/thno.44270