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    Canagliflozin alleviates LPS-induced acute lung injury by modulating alveolar macrophage polarization. Lin Fengyu,Song Chao,Zeng Yanjun,Li Yi,Li Haitao,Liu Ben,Dai Minhui,Pan Pinhua International immunopharmacology BACKGROUND:Canagliflozin (CANA), a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, is a novel therapeutic agent that exhibits multiple actions in type 2 diabetes. CANA can regulate intracellular glucose metabolism and exert anti-inflammatory effects in immune cells. Alveolar macrophage polarization balance is often associated with lower inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI). However, little is known about the anti-inflammatory effect of CANA on ALI. METHODS:This study aimed to determine the effect of CANA on ALI as well as its potential ability to modulate alveolar macrophage polarization in ALI mouse models and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). RESULTS:The histopathological changes indicated that CANA alleviated lung injury in lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI mice models and exerted anti-inflammatory effects in the presence of lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-ɑ, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis of mouse BALF cells and BMDMs demonstrated that CANA can modulate and reconstitute M1 and M2 macrophage balance, inhibiting macrophages with the M1 phenotype while promoting macrophages to shift to the M2 phenotype. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were also performed. CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that CANA alleviates lung injury and exerts anti-inflammatory effects by modulating alveolar macrophage polarization balance, suggesting that CANA might act as a novel anti-inflammatory drug for treating ALI. 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106969
    Extracellular CIRP-Impaired Rab26 Restrains EPOR-Mediated Macrophage Polarization in Acute Lung Injury. Zhang Wen,Wang Yao,Li Chuanwei,Xu Yu,Wang Xia,Wu Di,Gao Zhan,Qian Hang,You Zaichun,Zhang Zhiren,He Binfeng,Wang Guansong Frontiers in immunology Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a condition with an imbalanced inflammatory response and delayed resolution of inflammation. Macrophage polarization plays an important role in inflammation and resolution. However, the mechanism of macrophage polarization in ALI/ARDS is not fully understood. We found that mice with lipopolysaccharide administration developed lung injury with the accumulation of extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (eCIRP) in the lungs. eCIRP, as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), inhibited M2 macrophage polarization, thereby tipping the balance toward inflammation rather than resolution. Anti-CIRP antibodies reversed such phenotypes. The levels of macrophage erythropoietin (EPO) receptor (EPOR) were reduced after eCIRP treatment. Myeloid-specific EPOR-deficient mice displayed restrained M2 macrophage polarization and impaired inflammation resolution. Mechanistically, eCIRP impaired Rab26, a member of Ras superfamilies of small G proteins, and reduced the transportation of surface EPOR, which resulted in macrophage polarization toward the M1 phenotype. Moreover, EPO treatment hardly promotes M2 polarization in Rab26 knockout (KO) macrophages through EPOR. Collectively, macrophage EPOR signaling is impaired by eCIRP through Rab26 during ALI/ARDS, leading to the restrained M2 macrophage polarization and delayed inflammation resolution. These findings identify a mechanism of persistent inflammation and a potential therapy during ALI/ARDS. 10.3389/fimmu.2021.768435
    Polygonatum Polysaccharide Regulates Macrophage Polarization and Improves LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury through TLR4-MAPK/NF-B Pathway. Canadian respiratory journal Objective:To investigate the effects of polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharides (PSPs) on the polarization of macrophages to M1 and M2 phenotypes and their potential mechanism. Methods:PSPs samples were prepared through water extraction and alcohol precipitation assay. The properties of PSPs were identified and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, FT-IR, and NMR assay. Then, the effects of PSPs on mouse macrophage RAW264.7 viability were measured by CCK-8 assay. The cells were randomly divided into the control group, PSPs group, LPS group, and LPS + PSPs group. M1 phenotype polarization of RAW264.7 cells was induced by LPS treatment. The effects of various treatments on expression of M2 phenotype CD206, activation of TLR4-MAPK/NF-B signal pathway, and translocation of NF-B into the nucleus were determined by ELISA, western blot, and immunofluorescence assay, respectively. TLR4 inhibitor, TAK-242, and MAPK inhibitor, BIRB 796, were used to verify the effects of PSPs on the TLR4-MAPK/NF-B pathway. The mice model of acute lung injury (ALI) was established and randomly divided into control group, PSPs group, LPS group, and LPS + PSPs group. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were collected to measure protein, inflammatory cells, neutrophil and macrophage cells number, and the levels of IL-6 and TNF- in BALF. Flow cytometry and western blot assay measured the phenotypic changes of macrophages and the activation of the TLR4-MAPK/NF-B signaling pathway. Results:The concentrations of PSPs lower than 100 g/mL showed no toxicity to RAW264.7 cells. PSPs treatment could significantly reverse the reduction of CD206 protein expression ( < 0.05) and the increase of the expression of inflammatory factor TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6 (all < 0.05), TLR4-MAPK/NF-B signaling pathway activation (all < 0.05), and NF-B translocation into the nucleus induced by LPS. The effect of inhibitors TAK-242 and BIRB 796 was consistent with that of PSPs. In the mice model of ALI, PSPs treatment could reduce the total protein levels of BALF and the number of inflammatory cells level, reverse the number changes of neutrophils and macrophages, and downregulate the proinflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF- caused by LPS (all < 0.05). In addition, PSPs treatment could also significantly reverse the increase in the number of iNOS expressing macrophages in alveolar lavage fluid induced by LPS ( < 0.05). In contrast, CD206-expressed cells decreased ( < 0.05). PSPs could also reverse LPS-induced TLR4-MAPK/NF-B signal pathway protein activation (all < 0.05). Conclusion:PSPs could suppress TLR4-MAPK/NF-B activation induced by LPS, inhibit M1 phenotypic polarization of macrophages, and promote M2 phenotypic polarization, thus playing an anti-inflammatory role. 10.1155/2022/2686992
    Exosomal miR-30d-5p of neutrophils induces M1 macrophage polarization and primes macrophage pyroptosis in sepsis-related acute lung injury. Jiao Yang,Zhang Ti,Zhang Chengmi,Ji Haiying,Tong Xingyu,Xia Ran,Wang Wei,Ma Zhengliang,Shi Xueyin Critical care (London, England) BACKGROUND:Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) play an important role in sepsis-related acute lung injury (ALI). Accumulating evidence suggests PMN-derived exosomes as a new subcellular entity acting as a fundamental link between PMN-driven inflammation and tissue damage. However, the role of PMN-derived exosomes in sepsis-related ALI and the underlying mechanisms remains unclear. METHODS:Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a key regulator of innate immunity in sepsis-related ALI, was used to stimulate PMNs from healthy C57BL/6J mice in vitro. Exosomes isolated from the supernatant were injected to C57BL/6J wild-type mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) and then examined for lung inflammation, macrophage (Mϕ) polarization and pyroptosis. In vitro co-culture system was applied where the mouse Raw264.7 macrophages or bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were co-cultured with PMN-derived exosomes to further confirm the results of in vivo animal study and explore the potential mechanisms involved. RESULTS:Exosomes released by TNF-α-stimulated PMNs (TNF-Exo) promoted M1 macrophage activation after in vivo i.p. injection or in vitro co-culture. In addition, TNF-Exo primed macrophage for pyroptosis by upregulating NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome expression through nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that miR-30d-5p mediated the function of TNF-Exo by targeting suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS-1) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in macrophages. Furthermore, intravenous administration of miR-30d-5p inhibitors significantly decreased TNF-Exo or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced M1 macrophage activation and macrophage death in the lung, as well as the histological lesions. CONCLUSIONS:The present study demonstrated that exosomal miR-30d-5p from PMNs contributed to sepsis-related ALI by inducing M1 macrophage polarization and priming macrophage pyroptosis through activating NF-κB signaling. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of PMN-Mϕ interaction in sepsis-related ALI, which may provide new therapeutic strategies in sepsis patients. 10.1186/s13054-021-03775-3
    Tanshinone IIA prevents acute lung injury by regulating macrophage polarization. Journal of integrative medicine OBJECTIVE:Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious respiratory dysfunction caused by pathogen or physical invasion. The strong induced inflammation often causes death. Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA) is the major constituent of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and has been shown to display anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Tan-IIA on ALI. METHODS:A murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI was used. The lungs and serum samples of mice were extracted at 3 days after treatment. ALI-induced inflammatory damages were confirmed from cytokine detections and histomorphology observations. Effects of Tan-IIA were investigated using in vivo and in vitro ALI models. Tan-IIA mechanisms were investigated by performing Western blot and flow cytometry experiments. A wound-healing assay was performed to confirm the Tan-IIA function. RESULTS:The cytokine storm induced by LPS treatment was detected at 3 days after LPS treatment, and alveolar epithelial damage and lymphocyte aggregation were observed. Tan-IIA treatment attenuated the LPS-induced inflammation and reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines released not only by inhibiting neutrophils, but also by macrophage. Moreover, we found that macrophage activation and polarization after LPS treatment were abrogated after applying the Tan-IIA treatment. An in vitro assay also confirmed that including the Tan-IIA supplement increased the relative amount of the M2 subtype and decreased that of M1. Rebalanced macrophages and Tan-IIA inhibited activations of the nuclear factor-κB and hypoxia-inducible factor pathways. Including Tan-IIA and macrophages also improved alveolar epithelial repair by regulating macrophage polarization. CONCLUSION:This study found that while an LPS-induced cytokine storm exacerbated ALI, including Tan-IIA could prevent ALI-induced inflammation and improve the alveolar epithelial repair, and do so by regulating macrophage polarization. 10.1016/j.joim.2022.01.006
    Loganin alleviates sepsis-induced acute lung injury by regulating macrophage polarization and inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Zhang Jin,Wang Changsong,Wang Hongliang,Li Xueting,Xu Jingjing,Yu Kaijiang International immunopharmacology Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulted from severe infection. Excessive inflammation response plays an important role in sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Loganin is an iridoid glycoside isolated from Corni fructus and exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in multiple inflammatory diseases; however, the role of loganin in sepsis-induced ALI remains unknown. In the current study, the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced murine sepsis model was constructed to investigate the anti-inflammatory property of loganin in sepsis-induced ALI. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Raw 264.7 cells and primary murine peritoneal macrophages were established to further explore underlying mechanism of loganin. Results showed that intragastrical administration of loganin significantly increased murine survival, reduced the alveolar structure damage and inflammatory cell infiltration. Loganin suppressed the release of the M1 macrophage-associated pro-inflammatory cytokines and induced the activation of M2-type anti-inflammatory cytokines. Besides, loganin dramatically inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1β secretion. Further in vitro studies confirmed that loganin efficiently inhibited M1 macrophage polarization and NLRP3 inflammasome activation by blocking the extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Taken together, the anti-inflammatory effect of loganin in sepsis-induced ALI was associated with the ERK and NF-κB pathway-mediated macrophage polarization and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our study offers a favorable mechanistic basis to support the therapeutic potential of loganin in anti-inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis-induced ALI. 10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107529
    Depletion of NK cells attenuates paraquat-induced acute lung injury by manipulating macrophage polarization. Wu Mingyu,Zhou Chunyu,Li Mengyuan,Yu Haibo,Zhao Dake,Xue Wen,Qin Ling,Peng Ai International immunopharmacology Acute lung injury is the main causative factor in paraquat dichloride (PQ)-induced mortality. The innate immune system-triggered detrimental inflammatory cascade plays a vital role in PQ-induced acute lung injury. However, the role of natural killer (NK) cells, which are essential for innate response, in PQ-induced acute lung injury remains largely unknown. Here, we found that in an acute PQ poisoning model, depletion of NK cells attenuated PQ-induced lung injury by inhibiting macrophage polarization towards the M1 type. Specifically, the percentages of NK cells were reduced in the lung, spleen, and peripheral blood in a murine model of acute PQ poisoning. NK cells were aberrantly activated, evidenced by upregulation of the activating markers CD69, CD107a, and NKG2D and downregulation of the inhibitive marker KLRG1. Further, NK-specific depletion in mice greatly prolonged the survival time and ameliorated reactive oxygen species-induced damage following PQ treatment compared with the control group. Importantly, NK cell depletion alleviated macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the lung and reversed PQ induced-macrophage polarization towards the pro-inflammatory M1 type. Our study demonstrates a crucial role of NK cells and NK cell-to-macrophage interaction in PQ-induced acute lung injury. 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106698