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    Prepuce health and childhood circumcision: Choices in Canada. Abara Emmanuel O Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada INTRODUCTION:Worldwide, almost 100% of boys are born with penises with a "hood" called prepuce or foreskin. In the course of the boy's life, the prepuce can be circumcised, can become affected by diseased (e.g., phimosis), or a can become infected and hurt the neonate (and his sexual partner) in adulthood. The objectives of this report are to: 1) review the state, function, fate, and care of the prepuce in childhood, with focus on the neonate, in Canada; 2) understand the current practice of childhood male circumcision in terms of age, indications, performers, techniques, outcomes, and education; and 3) consider ways to sustain a good healthcare professional-parental dialogue for safe practices that are accessible, acceptable, and culturally sensitive in the care of the prepuce. METHODS:A literature review was carried out in the English language through the major databases: PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science (WOS) Core Collection, LILAC, WHO/UNAIDS, Clinical Trials (), Google Scholar, and grey literature. Search words included: prepuce, diseases of prepuce, prepuce in the neonate, prepuce in the neonate in Canada, male circumcision, childhood male circumcision, neonatal circumcision, neonatal circumcision in Canada, complications of neonatal circumcision in Canada, and circumcision adverse events. RESULTS:From 1970-1999, three of 10 Canadian newborn males were circumcised for religious, cultural, and medical reasons. The rest of the neonates, if alive, are living with their prepuce; <4% expected to require treatment for afflictions of the prepuce at some point. There are several providers of circumcision with different levels of training and competencies and using a diversity of devices and techniques. Neonatal and childhood circumcision in Canada is carried out to fulfill parental wishes, as well as for medical, religious, and cultural reasons. Appropriate informed consent and education regarding choices of care of the neonatal prepuce and genitals are vital. CONCLUSIONS:Going by current prevalent rate of circumcision in Canada, most Canadian newborn males are likely to live out their lives with an intact prepuce. Despite the age-old debate, childhood circumcision is likely to remain. There is need for careful and proper discussion of the potential risks and benefits, including alternatives, costs, and personal/psychological factors. Acceptance, access, and judicious choices in a culturally sensitive environment will offer the Canadian neonate desirable care of the prepuce for life. 10.5489/cuaj.4447
    Infant male circumcision: healthcare provider knowledge and associated factors. Starzyk Erin J,Kelley Michele A,Caskey Rachel N,Schwartz Alan,Kennelly Joan F,Bailey Robert C PloS one BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:The emerging science demonstrates various health benefits associated with infant male circumcision and adult male circumcision; yet rates are declining in the United States. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that healthcare providers present evidence-based risk and benefit information for infant male circumcision to parent(s) and guardian(s). The purpose of this study was to assess providers' level of infant male circumcision knowledge and to identify the associated characteristics. METHODS:An online survey was administered to healthcare providers in the family medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics medical specialties at an urban academic health center. To assess infant male circumcision knowledge, a 17 point summary score was constructed to identify level of provider knowledge within the survey. RESULTS:Ninety-two providers completed the survey. Providers scored high for the following knowledge items: adverse event rates, protects against phimosis and urinary tract infections, and does not prevent hypospadias. Providers scored lower for items related to more recent research: protection against cervical cancer, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and reduction in HIV acquisition. Two models were constructed looking at (1) overall knowledge about male circumcision, and (2) knowledge about male circumcision reduction in HIV acquisition. Pediatricians demonstrated greater overall infant male circumcision knowledge, while obstetricians exhibited significantly greater knowledge for the HIV acquisition item. CONCLUSION:Providers' knowledge levels regarding the risks and benefits of infant male circumcision are highly variable, indicating the need for system-based educational interventions. 10.1371/journal.pone.0115891
    Comparison of outcomes for pediatric paraphimosis reduction using topical anesthetic versus intravenous procedural sedation. Burstein Brett,Paquin Raphael The American journal of emergency medicine BACKGROUND:Paraphimosis is an acute urologic emergency requiring urgent manual reduction, frequently necessitating procedural sedation (PS) in the pediatric population. The present study sought to compare outcomes among pediatric patients undergoing paraphimosis reduction using a novel topical anesthetic (TA) technique versus PS. METHODS:We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients <18years old, presenting to a tertiary pediatric ED requiring analgesia for paraphimosis reduction between October 2013 and September 2016. The primary outcome was reduction first attempt success; secondary outcomes included Emergency Department length of stay (ED LOS), adverse events and return visits. Dichotomous outcomes were analyzed by Chi-square testing and multivariate linear regression was used to compare continuous variables. RESULTS:Forty-six patients were included; 35 underwent reduction using TA, 11 by PS. Patient age and duration of paraphimosis at ED presentation did not differ between groups. There was no difference in first attempt success between TA (32/35, 91.4%) and PS groups (9/11, 81.8%; p=0.37). Mean ED LOS was 209min shorter for TA patients (148min vs. 357min, p=0.001) and remained significantly shorter after controlling for age and duration of paraphimosis (adjusted mean difference -198min, p=0.003). There were no return visits or major adverse events in either group, however, among successful reduction attempts, PS patients more frequently experienced minor adverse events (7/9 vs. 0/32, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Paraphimosis reduction using TA was safe and effective. Compared to PS, TA was associated with a reduced ED LOS and fewer adverse events. TA could potentially allow more timely reduction with improved patient experience and resource utilization. 10.1016/j.ajem.2017.04.015
    Balanitis xerotica obliterans: an update for clinicians. Nguyen Alexander T M,Holland Andrew J A European journal of pediatrics Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a severe, chronic, dermatosis characterised by inflammatory, sclerotic, pruritic lesions that causes significant morbidity in patients of all genders and ages. In boys, the lesions typically affect the foreskin and glans (termed balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO)), leading to phimosis and potentially meatal stenosis. The incidence of the disease is not well reported but the average age of affected boys is 8 years (range 1-16). Diagnosis can often be made clinically, although histological study remains important to rule out important differential diagnoses. Complications include genital scarring, urinary and sexual dysfunction as well as the development of carcinomas in adult life. Circumcision has been regarded as definitive management of BXO in boys, but this may be supplemented with medical therapies such as topical steroids, immune modulators, intralesional triamcinolone and ozonated olive oil. Supportive measures including emollients, avoidance of irritants, surveillance of complications and recurrence as well as education and counselling remain important.Conclusion: BXO remains an important cause of phimosis in boys. The frequency of this condition appears unclear but seems likely to be less than 1% of males. Treatment generally involves circumcision, with some evidence that topical steroids or immunomodulators may decrease the incidence of recurrent meatal stenosis.What is Known:• Surgical circumcision is considered the definitive management of BXO• Many aspects of BXO are still in contention or require further study including the epidemiology and aetiology.What is New:• There is increasing awareness of non-surgical modalities that may be used in adjunct to surgery including topical corticosteroids, immune modulators, intralesional triamcinolone and ozonated olive oil• Awareness of meatal stenosis-related BXO has led to the development of surgical techniques such as preputioplasty as well as buccal mucosal inlay grafts. 10.1007/s00431-019-03516-3
    Spinal anesthesia in children: most pediatric urologists are not on board. Rehfuss A,Bogaert G,Kogan B A Journal of pediatric urology OBJECTIVE:In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration issued a warning on general anesthetic medications used for lengthy procedures (>3 h) in children younger than 3 years. Spinal anesthesia can be a safe alternative to general anesthesia for many pediatric urology procedures. It can shorten total operating room (OR) time, provide excellent pain control, and allow parents to reunite with their child immediately after surgery. However, use of spinal anesthesia can also directly affect the operating surgeon (awake patient, time constraints of spinal, and prolonged preoperative time). Members of the Societies for Pediatric Urology (SPU) and European Society of Pediatric Urology (ESPU) were surveyed to get their opinions on the use of spinal anesthesia for routine pediatric urology procedures. It was hypothesized that half of pediatric urologists would favor spinal anesthesia and that SPU members would be more likely to favor spinal anesthesia than their European colleagues. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A short survey with five clinical scenarios was created. Scenarios assessed physicians' recommendations regarding timing and the type of anesthesia (general or spinal) for common pediatric urology procedures: undescended testicle, inguinal hernia, hypospadias, phimosis, and phimosis with penoscrotal webbing. Surveys were emailed to members of the SPU and ESPU. Responses and demographic information were collected and analyzed. RESULTS:The survey was completed by 113 SPU members (46% response rate for members who opened the invitation) and 109 ESPU members. For all clinical scenarios, < 20% of pediatric urologists from the SPU and <25% from the ESPU favor doing any procedure with spinal anesthesia. The majority of respondents practice in children's hospitals with pediatric anesthesiologists, but roughly half of the responders (54% SPU and 43% ESPU) do not think their anesthesia colleagues would be comfortable performing spinal anesthesia. Furthermore, only 51% of SPU and 36% of ESPU members discuss the possible neurodevelopmental side-effects of anesthesia with parents; similarly, less than half of all respondents think their anesthesia colleagues address these potential side-effects when obtaining consent. The only significant difference between SPU and ESPU responses was that ESPU members tended to delay penile surgery more than SPU respondents. CONCLUSION:Whether general anesthesia has any effect on the developing brain of children undergoing routine pediatric urology procedures is unclear. Yet, few pediatric urologists, independent of their region of practice, prefer spinal to general anesthesia. Collaboration in the OR is the key to success, and it is important that pediatric urologists and pediatric anesthesiologists work together to balance the benefits and risks of general and spinal anesthesia. 10.1016/j.jpurol.2019.02.020
    Simplifying the ShangRing technique for circumcision in boys and men: use of the no-flip technique with randomization to removal at 7 days versus spontaneous detachment. Barone Mark A,Li Philip S,Lee Richard K,Ouma Daniel,Oundo Millicent,Barasa Mukhaye,Oketch Jairus,Otiende Patrick,Nyangweso Nixon,Maina Mary,Kiswi Nicholas,Chirchir Betty,Goldstein Marc,Awori Quentin D Asian journal of andrology To assess safety of the no-flip ShangRing male circumcision technique and to determine clinical course and safety of spontaneous detachment (i.e., allowing the device to fall off), we conducted a case series of no-flip ShangRing circumcision combined with a randomized controlled trial of removal 7 days postcircumcision versus spontaneous detachment at two health facilities in Kenya. The primary outcome was the safety of the no-flip technique based on moderate and severe adverse events (AEs) during the procedure and through 42-day follow-up. A main secondary outcome was clinical course and safety of spontaneous detachment. Two hundred and thirty males 10 years and older underwent no-flip circumcision; 114 randomized to 7-day removal and 116 to spontaneous detachment. All circumcisions were successfully completed. Overall 5.3% (6/114) of participants in the 7-day group and 1.7% (2/116) in the spontaneous group had an AE; with no differences when compared to the 3% AE rate in historical data from African studies using the original flip technique (P = 0.07 and P = 0.79, respectively). Overall 72.4% (84/116) of participants in the spontaneous group wore the ShangRing until it detached. Among the remaining (27.6%; 32/116), the ring was removed, primarily at the participants' request, due to pain or discomfort. There was no difference in AE rates (P = 0.169), visit day declared healed (P = 0.324), or satisfaction (P = 0.371) between randomization groups. The median time to detachment was 14.0 (IQR: 7-21, range: 5-35) days. The no-flip technique and spontaneous detachment are safe, effective, and acceptable to boys and men 10 years and older. Phimosis and penile adhesions do not limit successful ShangRing circumcision with the no-flip technique. 10.4103/aja.aja_91_18
    Balanitis xerotica obliterans in children and adolescents: a literature review and clinical series. Celis Soledad,Reed Francisco,Murphy Feilim,Adams Stephen,Gillick John,Abdelhafeez Abdelhafeez H,Lopez Pedro-Jose Journal of pediatric urology OBJECTIVE:Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is considered as male genital variant lichen sclerosis. The incidence varies greatly in different series; diagnosis is mostly clinical but histopathological confirmation is mandatory. Various treatments are described, but there is no consensus that one is the best. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A literature review was made of BXO and lichen sclerosis in boys under 18 years of age, between 1995 and 2013, analyzing demographic dates, treatments and outcomes. In addition to that, we reviewed BXO cases treated in our centers in the last 10 years. RESULTS:After literature review, only 13 articles matched the inclusion criteria. Analyzing those selected, the global incidence of BXO is nearly 35% among circumcised children. Described symptoms are diverse and the low index of clinical suspicion is highlighted. The main treatment is circumcision, with use of topical and intralesional steroids and immunosuppressive agents. CONCLUSION:BXO is a condition more common than we believe and we must be vigilant to find greater number of diagnoses to avoid future complications. The main treatment for BXO is circumcision, but as topical or intralesional treatments are now available with potentially good outcomes, they may be considered as coadjuvants. 10.1016/j.jpurol.2013.09.027
    About the Foreskin: Parents' Perceptions and Misconceptions. Cooblal A S,Rampersad B The West Indian medical journal OBJECTIVE:To determine parents' understanding of the foreskin, in an effort to improve parent education. METHODS:A questionnaire was administered to parents of patients attending outpatient clinics at the Wendy Fitzwilliam Paediatric Hospital (Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex), the San Fernando General Hospital and the Scarborough General Hospital during an eight-month period. It comprised 15 questions, 10 of which asked about the role of the foreskin, retraction and views on circumcision. RESULTS:There were 520 completed questionnaires. The majority of participants were mothers. Twelve per cent of parents had a child who was circumcised. The reasons for circumcision were mostly because of phimosis (31%), religious reasons (26% Islamic), personal reference (21%) and infection (20%). Regarding the need for circumcision, 31% of parents believed all boys should be circumcised and 36% did not agree. The majority of parents felt that by one year, full retraction should occur and 66% of parents felt that circumcision should be performed if the foreskin is not retractable. With respect to hygiene, 75% felt that circumcision made cleaning the penis easier and 43% believed the foreskin causes infections. Concerning HIV/AIDS, 67% did not believe that circumcision helps to prevent its transmission. When considering penile cancer and sexual function, more than 50% of parents did not know the role of the foreskin. Approximately 25% of parents answered 'do not know' to most of the questions. CONCLUSIONS:Despite foreskin pathology being a common paediatric problem, it is clear that there is a lot of misunderstanding and ignorance of the facts relating to the function of the foreskin in children. There is an obvious need for better parent education. 10.7727/wimj.2012.251
    The safety and acceptance of the PrePex device for non-surgical adult male circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. A non-randomized observational study. Kigozi Godfrey,Musoke Richard,Watya Stephen,Kighoma Nehemia,Nkale James,Nakafeero Mary,Namuguzi Dan,Serwada David,Nalugoda Fred,Sewankambo Nelson,Wawer Maria Joan,Gray Ronald Henry PloS one OBJECTIVES:To assess the safety and acceptance of the PrePex device for medical male circumcision (MMC) in rural Uganda. METHODS:In an observational study, HIV-uninfected, uncircumcised men aged 18 and older who requested elective MMC were informed about the PrePex and dorsal slit methods and offered a free choice of their preferred procedure. 100 men received PrePex to assess preliminary safety (aim 1). An additional 329 men, 250 chose PrePex and 79 chose Dorsal slit, were enrolled following approval by the Safety Monitoring Committee (aim 2). Men were followed up at 7 days to assess adverse events (AEs) and to remove the PrePex device. Wound healing was assessed at 4 weeks, with subsequent weekly follow up until completed healing. RESULTS:The PrePex device was contraindicated in 5.7% of men due to a tight prepuce or phimosis/adhesions. Among 429 enrolled men 350 (82.0%) got the PrePex device and 79 (18.0%) the dorsal slit procedure. 250 of 329 men (76.0%) who were invited to choose between the 2 procedures chose Prepex. There were 9 AEs (2.6%) with the PrePex, of which 5 (1.4%) were severe complications, 4 due to patient self-removal of the device leading to edema and urinary obstruction requiring emergency surgical circumcision, and one due to wound dehiscence following device removal. 71.8% of men reported an unpleasant odor prior to PrePex removal. Cumulative rates of completed wound healing with the PrePex were 56.7% at week 4, 84.8% week 5, 97.6% week 6 and 98.6% week 7, compared to 98.7% at week 4 with dorsal slit (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION:The PrePex device was well accepted, but healing was slower than with dorsal slit surgery. Severe complications, primarily following PrePex self-removal, required rapid access to emergency surgical facilities. The need to return for removal and delayed healing may increase Program cost and client burden. 10.1371/journal.pone.0100008
    Novel penile circumcision suturing devices versus the shang ring for adult male circumcision: a prospective study. Han Hu,Xie Da-Wei,Zhou Xiao-Guang,Zhang Xiao-Dong International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology INTRODUCTION:To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel penile circumcision suturing devices PCSD and Shang ring (SR) for circumcision in an adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 124 outpatients were randomly assigned to receive PCSD (n=62) or SR (n=62). Patient characteristics, operative time, blood loss, return to normal activities time (RNAT), visual analogue scale (VAS), scar width, wound healing time, cosmetic result, and complications were recorded. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in blood loss, RNAT, or complications between the two groups. There were no significant differences in the VAS scores at theduring operation, and 6 or 24 hours after surgery (P>0.05). The wound scar width was wider in the SR group than in the PCSD group (P<0.01). Patients in the SR group had significantly longer wound healing time compared with those in the PCSD group (P<0.01). Patients who underwent PCSD wereere significantly more satisfied with the cosmetic results (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS:SR and PCSD are safe and effective minimally invasive techniques for adult male circumcision. Compared with SRs, PCSDs have the advantages of faster postoperative incision healing and a good effect on wound cosmetics. 10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2016.0204
    HPV prevalence in the foreskins of asymptomatic healthy infants and children: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Lee Bora,Lee Sang Wook,Kim Dae In,Kim Jae Heon Scientific reports The true HPV prevalence in the foreskins of infants and children has been little documented, but reporting on this prevalence is of great importance given its impact on the rationale for treating asymptomatic boys. We searched multiple databases from 1960 to 2016 for observational or prospective studies that reported on HPV prevalence in foreskins. We conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to pool for HPV prevalence in the foreskins of infants and children. Eight studies, with a total of 556 infants and children with phimosis, were eligible for the meta-analysis. The pooled overall prevalence of general HPV, high-risk HPV, low-risk HPV, HPV 16/18, HPV 16, and HPV 18 were 17.3 (95%CI: 0.8-46.3), 12.1 (95% CI: 0.9-31.5), 2.4 (95% CI: 0.0-11.2), 4.8 (95% CI: 0.0-16.8), 1.7 (95% CI: 0.0-5.1), and 0 (95% CI: 0-0.5), respectively. The estimated HPV prevalence in foreskins was not zero among infants and children, which implies HPV transmission other than by sexual contact. Considering that high-risk HPV is detected in asymptomatic infants and children, future studies are warranted to determine whether preventive treatments in asymptomatic infants and children could be effective in preventing persistence or transmission of high-risk HPV. 10.1038/s41598-017-07506-z
    Epidemiology of male genital abnormalities: a population study. Wan Shaw,Wang Yunchao,Gu Shuijun Pediatrics BACKGROUND:We conducted genital health wellness screens in male kindergarten children between the ages of 3 and 6 years to assess the incidence of congenital abnormalities and their treatment. METHODS:We performed genital examinations on 2241 male children in 8 kindergartens. We screened for 4 conditions: phimosis, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and hydrocele/hernia. We assessed the incidence of these conditions and the effectiveness or lack of their treatment. RESULTS:Among this sample, 55.5% children aged 3 to 4 years and 44.1% aged 5 to 6 years were found to have persistent phimosis. The circumcision rate, excluding those performed in conjunction with hypospadias repair, was 2.8%, but it carried a 3.2% complication rate. There was a lower incidence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism than reported in the literature at 0.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Our hypospadias repair rate was 60%, with a success rate of 66.7%. Our cryptorchidism repair rate was only 25%, and all repairs were performed above the age of 5 years. Incidence of hydrocele and hernias was 1.2%, and our treatment rate was 46.2%. Finally, we found high incidence of keloid formation, 73.3%, associated with inguinal incision. CONCLUSIONS:There was high prevalence of phimosis in Chinese boys, a natural physiologic condition, up to age 6. There appeared to be lower incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism in our screened population. However, there were opportunities for us to improve the diagnosis and treatment of these 2 conditions. Our hydrocele/hernia incidence was on par with literature, but we had a lower treatment rate. Finally, we found a high incidence of keloid formation associated with inguinal incision. 10.1542/peds.2013-2285
    Foreskin Morbidity in Uncircumcised Males. Sneppen Ida,Thorup Jørgen Pediatrics OBJECTIVE:As a consequence of the discussion on whether the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks and the discrepancies in reported figures of complications, we evaluated the incidence and morbidity of foreskin surgery due to medical indications in boys from the Capital Region of Denmark in 2014. METHODS:Medical records from all boys operated on the foreskin due to medical reasons in the Capital Region in 2014 were reviewed. Patients with hypospadias, ritual circumcision, and redo-surgery because of complications to nontherapeutic circumcision were excluded. RESULTS:A total of 181 patients were included. The cumulative risk of undergoing foreskin operation before 18 years of age was 1.7%. Forty patients had histologic verified balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) corresponding to a total risk of 0.37% of developing BXO. Mean age at surgery was 10.1 years (range 1-17). Phimosis was the most frequently reported indication (95.0%). The remaining 5.0% underwent surgery because of frenulum breve causing problems during erection. Before surgery, 27.1% had foreskin-related voiding problems and 17.1% had at least 1 episode of balanitis. Circumcision was initially performed in 44 cases. The remaining 137 patients had a foreskin-preserving operation performed. Nine boys had secondary circumcision after initially having foreskin-preserving operation. Fifty patients initially had preputial histology performed. BXO was verified in 37 patients. Of the 9 patients with redo-surgery due to recurrent phimosis, a further 3 had histologically verified BXO. CONCLUSIONS:Childhood foreskin-related problems in a region with no tradition of newborn male circumcision should not be neglected. 10.1542/peds.2015-4340
    Para Phimosis Leading to Glans Gangrene - A Devastating Preventable Complication. Sokhal Ashok Kumar,Saini Durgesh Kumar,Sankhwar Satyanarayan Balkan medical journal 10.4274/balkanmedj.2016.0677
    Phimosis in a 10-yr-old Boy Without Urinary Infection-How to Inform Parents: For Circumcision. Castagnetti Marco,Esposito Ciro European urology focus Circumcision can be a viable option for phimosis in a 10-yr-old boy, also if asymptomatic, in the presence of skin alterations or if the parents prefer avoid observation. Morbidity is minimal if the procedure is performed in a hospital setting. 10.1016/j.euf.2017.06.003
    Common urological problems in children: prepuce, phimosis, and buried penis. Chan I Hy,Wong K Ky Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi Parents often bring their children to the family doctor because of urological problems. Many general practitioners have received little training in this specialty. In this review, we aimed to provide a concise and informative review of common urological problems in children. This review will focus on the prepuce. 10.12809/hkmj154645
    Pathological Investigation of Childhood Foreskin: Are Lichen Sclerosus and Phimosis Common? Irkilata Lokman,Bakirtas Mustafa,Aydin Hasan Riza,Aydin Mustafa,Demirel H Uuml Seyin Cihan,Adanur Senol,Moral Caner,Atilla Mustafa Kemal Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP OBJECTIVE:To evaluate histopathological results of foreskin removed during circumcision in the pediatric age group and the relationship between these and the degree of phimosis. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY:Department of Urology, Samsun Training and Research Hospital, Samsun, Turkey, from June to December 2014. METHODOLOGY:Male children undergoing planned circumcision were examined for the presence and degree of phimosis which was recorded before the operation. After circumcision, the preputial skin was dermatopathologically investigated. Pathological investigation carefully evaluated findings such as acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, increased pigmentation and atrophy in addition to findings of Lichen Sclerosus (LS) in all specimens. The pathological findings obtained were classified by degree of phimosis and evaluated. RESULTS:The average age of the 140 children was 6.58 ±2.35 years. While 61 (43.6%) children did not have phimosis, 79 (56.4%) patients had different degrees of phimosis. Classic LS was not identified in any patient. In a total of 14 (10%) children, early period findings of LS were discovered. The frequency of LS with phimosis was 12.6%, without phimosis was 6.5% (p=0.39). The incidence of histopathologically normal skin in non-phimosis and phimosis groups was 37.7% and 22.7%, respectively. In total, 41 (29.3%) of the 140 cases had totally normal foreskin. CONCLUSION:Important dermatoses such as LS may be observed in foreskin with or without phimosis. The presence of phimosis may be an aggravating factor in the incidence of these dermatoses. 02.2016/JCPSP.134137
    Is steroids therapy effective in treating phimosis? A meta-analysis. Liu Jiaming,Yang Jin,Chen Yuntian,Cheng Sihang,Xia Chao,Deng Tuo International urology and nephrology PURPOSE:We evaluated a systematic review on the therapeutic efficacy of topical steroids in children with phimosis to provide data for the clinical options of pediatric phimosis. METHODS:We searched the related original studies on topical steroid therapy in pediatric phimosis before August 2014. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection, data extraction, risk of bias and reporting quality assessment with confirmation by cross-checking. The quality of eligible studies was appraised with the 'Cochrane handbook.' The meta-analysis was performed by REVMAN 5.2 software. RESULTS:Eleven studies were included with 1669 patients among which 1093 received topical steroids and 576 cases treated with placebo or only manual reduction. Significant difference of the treatment efficacy was detected among the three methods [OR 7.46, 95 % CI (4.42, 12.58), p < 0.00001]. In subgroup analysis, significant difference of the treatment efficacy was also detected whether with placebo or manual reduction only [respectively, OR 5.04, 95 % CI (3.19, 7.95), p < 0.00001; OR 16.28, 95 % CI (6.06, 43.69), p < 0.00001]. CONCLUSIONS:Compared to the placebo or manual reduction method, the topical steroid therapy is more effective in the treatment of phimosis in children. Although there is still controversy in the different type and dosage of steroid, this could be used against phimosis before circumcision. 10.1007/s11255-015-1184-9
    Preputial bacterial colonisation in uncircumcised male children: Is it related to phimosis? Irkilata Lokman,Aydin Hasan Riza,Aydin Mustafa,Gorgun Selim,Demirel Huseyin Cihan,Adanur Senol,Akgunes Ebubekir,Atilla Aynur,Atilla Mustafa Kemal JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the presence of uropathogens in the periurethral skin and the effect of phimosis on bacterial colonisation. METHODS:The observational cohort study was conducted in Samsun Research and Training Hospital, Samsun, Turkey from June to December, 2014, and comprised patients undergoing circumcision. Before circumcision, all children were examined in the operating room and the presence of phimosis was recorded. All patients had circumcision performed by the same surgical team under general anaesthesia. Before the procedure, samples were taken from preputial skin of all patients by swab before cleansing with polyvidone-iodine. The samples were inoculated on 5% sheep blood agar and eosin-methylene blue agar. RESULTS:The median age of the 117 children was 5 years (range: 1-12). Of the total, 19(16.2%) children had complete phimosis, and 72(61.5%) had partial phimosis. In all,91(77.7%) children had phimosis and 26(22.3%) had no phimosis. Of the 91 patients with different degrees of phimosis, 52(57.1%) had clinically significant uropathogenic bacterial colonisation >100,000 colony-forming units per millilitre [cfu/ml]). Of the 26 patients without phimosis, 13(50%) had clinically significant colonisation. Thus, there was no effect of the presence of phimosis on bacteria colonisation (p=0.655). CONCLUSIONS:Important uropathogens colonise the preputium in uncircumcised male children. There was no effect of phimosis on colonisation.
    Randomized open-label trial comparing topical prescription triamcinolone to over-the-counter hydrocortisone for the treatment of phimosis. Chamberlin J D,Dorgalli C,Abdelhalim A,Davis-Dao C A,Chalmers C L,Kelly M S,Wang Z T,Chuang K-W,McAleer I M,Stephany H A,Wehbi E J,Khoury A E Journal of pediatric urology BACKGROUND:Phimosis is a common condition affecting most infant boys and generally resolves over time without symptoms. Severe cases of phimosis can lead to balanoposthitis, urinary tract infections, and urinary retention. Medical treatment for symptomatic phimosis includes topical corticosteroids with manual foreskin retraction. OBJECTIVE:Over-the-counter hydrocortisone 1% cream was compared in a randomized controlled fashion with prescription triamcinolone 0.1% cream for the medical management of symptomatic phimosis. METHODS:The study institution conducted a randomized open-label trial for the treatment of grades 4-5 phimosis (phimosis grade scale 0-5). Boys aged 3-13 years were randomized to hydrocortisone 1% cream or triamcinolone 0.1% cream dosed at least twice daily for a course of 12 weeks. Instructions were provided for appropriate application and manual retraction of the foreskin. Evaluations were performed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Successful completion of the study was determined by reaching phimosis grade 2 or less or after completing 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS:A total of 52 boys enrolled in the trial, with a total of 32 boys completing the 12-week duration. Of the 13 boys in the hydrocortisone arm, there was a 30.8% success rate at 4 weeks, 53.8% success rate at 8 weeks, and 61.5% success rate at 12 weeks. Of the 19 boys in the triamcinolone arm, there was a 31.6% success rate at 4 weeks, 52.6% success rate at 8 weeks, and 68.4% success rate at 12 weeks. There was no statistical difference between the two arms at each interval. DISCUSSION:To the study authors' knowledge, this is the first open-label trial with direct comparison of hydrocortisone 1% cream with triamcinolone 0.1% cream. The study results support those reported in other studies when each topical steroid was compared with placebo. Limitations of the study include loss to follow-up, unblinded treatment allocation, and reduced power to detect differences by treatment frequency and duration. CONCLUSION:Over-the-counter hydrocortisone 1% cream is not inferior to triamcinolone 0.1% cream when paired with manual retraction for the treatment of grade 4-5 phimosis. Successful treatment response may be seen up to 12 weeks. 10.1016/j.jpurol.2019.04.021
    A Comparative Study on the Clinical Efficacy of Modified Circumcision and Two Other Types of Circumcision. Su Quanxin,Gao Shenglin,Chen Jiasheng,Lu Chao,Mao Weijiang,Wu Xingyu,Zhang Lifeng,Zuo Li Urology journal PURPOSE:To compare the clinical effects of three methods of circumcision: modified circumcision, traditional circumcision, and disposable suturing device circumcision. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Male patients (n = 241) with redundant prepuce and/or phimosis were included in a clinical trial from January 2019 to March 2020. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on the surgical method: group A, traditional circumcision (n = 79); group B, modified circumcision (n = 80); and group C, disposable suturing device circumcision (n = 82). RESULTS:The operation times in groups A, B, and C were 25.2 ± 3.3 min, 10.2 ± 2.7 min, and 6.7 ± 1.4 min, respectively. The volumes of intraoperative blood loss in groups A, B, and C were 12.7 ± 2.3 mL, 8.1 ± 3.4 mL, and 2.2 ± 0.8 mL, respectively (P < 0.05). Groups A and B were superior to group C in terms of the 6-h postoperative visual analog scale score and appearance satisfaction (P < 0.05). There were no obvious differences in the 7-day postoperative pain score and total healing time (P > 0.05). The operating expenses in groups A and B were lower than that in group C (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Modified circumcision, with its advantages of shorter operation time, less blood loss and pain, lower cost, and better postoperative penile appearance, is easily accepted by patients and deserves wide clinical application. 10.22037/uj.v16i7.6193
    Indications for adult circumcision: a contemporary analysis. Siev Michael,Keheila Mohamed,Motamedinia Piruz,Smith Arthur The Canadian journal of urology INTRODUCTION:Circumcision is the most common surgical procedure performed worldwide. However, there is a dearth of literature regarding medical indications for adult circumcisions. Here, we describe our experience with adult circumcision and contemporary demographics, indications and complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We reviewed all circumcisions performed in our institution between July 2008 and January 2015. Patient demographics, procedure indications and postoperative complications were recorded, and patients were grouped by age as either less than 50 years old or 50 years and older. RESULTS:A total of 202 charts were reviewed. The most common indications for circumcision were phimosis (46.5%), dyspareunia (17.8%), balanitis (14.4%), and concurrent phimosis and balanitis (8.9%). Older patients were more likely to undergo circumcision for concurrent phimosis and balanitis or cancer, whereas younger patients sought circumcision for dyspareunia. The complication rate was 3.5% and there was no significant difference in complication rates between the two age groups. CONCLUSION:Circumcision is performed in the adult population for a variety of reasons. Circumcision remains a safe surgical option for patient management with a low complication rate.
    Topical steroid therapy as an alternative to circumcision for phimosis in boys younger than 3 years. Elmore James M,Baker Linda A,Snodgrass Warren T The Journal of urology UNLABELLED:PURPOSE Topical steroids are an effective alternative to circumcision for the treatment of phimosis. However, their use has been reported primarily in older boys thought to have "pathological" or secondary phimosis. We report the effectiveness of topical steroids as an alternative to circumcision in infants and young children. MATERIAL AND METHODS:We evaluated 27 boys with phimosis for possible circumcision because of genitourinary anomalies (4), a history of urinary tract infection (11) or both (7), or balanoposthitis (5). Patient age ranged from 1 to 31 months (mean 11.3). In no case could the prepuce be retracted to visualize the meatus. Patients were treated with 0.05% betamethasone cream applied to the distal aspect of the prepuce twice daily for 1 month. RESULTS:Of the boys 20 (74%) had fully retractable foreskins after 1 month of treatment with betamethasone and 5 (18%) had a partial response at 1 month, with the prepuce becoming fully retractable during month 2 of therapy. No adverse side effects were noted. Of the 2 patients in whom treatment failed 1 subsequently underwent circumcision while the parents of the other refused further therapy. CONCLUSIONS:Topical steroids appear to resolve phimosis effectively in boys younger than 3 years. Given proven efficacy in children older than 3 years, topical steroid therapy represents a potential alternative to circumcision regardless of the age of the patient, type of phimosis or relative indication for treatment. 10.1097/01.ju.0000027260.18990.9b
    Circumcision for phimosis and other medical indications in Western Australian boys. Spilsbury Katrina,Semmens James B,Wisniewski Z Stan,Holman C D'Arcy J The Medical journal of Australia OBJECTIVE:To investigate the incidence rate of circumcision for phimosis and other medically indicated reasons in Western Australian boys from 1 January 1981 to 31 December 1999. DESIGN AND SETTING:A population-based incidence study using hospital discharge data of all circumcisions performed in all WA hospitals during the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Changes in the incidence rate of circumcision for medically indicated reasons. RESULTS:The rate of medically indicated circumcisions increased in boys aged less than 15 years during the study period. Phimosis was the most common medical indication for circumcision in all age groups. The rate of circumcision associated with phimosis was eight times that associated with balanoposthitis and 21 times that of balanitis xerotica obliterans. Boys aged less than five years had the highest rate of circumcision to treat phimosis, at 4.6 per 1000 person-years, representing about 300 circumcisions per year. Boys aged less than five years living in country areas were 1.5 times more likely to be circumcised for phimosis than boys living in metropolitan Perth. CONCLUSION:The rate of circumcision to treat phimosis in boys aged less than 15 years is seven times the expected incidence rate for phimosis. Many boys are circumcised before reaching five years of age, despite phimosis being rare in this age group.
    [Treatment of phimosis with locally applied 0.05% clobetasol propionate. Prospective study with 108 children]. Iken Ali,Ben Mouelli Sami,Fontaine Eric,Quenneville Vincent,Thomas Laurent,Beurton Daniel Progres en urologie : journal de l'Association francaise d'urologie et de la Societe francaise d'urologie OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of topical application of corticosteroid cream in the treatment of phimosis in children and to compare the results obtained with those reported in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In the context of a prospective study conducted between January 1997 and November 2001, 108 children with a mean age of 5.9 years, presenting with true phimosis preventing retraction of the foreskin, were treated by twice-daily application of 0.05% clobetasol propionate cream for 10 days. The results were evaluated at one month and then every six months by a urologist in the outpatients department. A second course of treatment identical to the first was proposed in the case of failure or partial efficacy. RESULTS:96 children were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 14 months (range: 6 to 24 months). Seventy nine children (82%) are cured after a first course of treatment. In the remaining 17 children, 2 were treated by circumcision and 15 received a second course of treatment resulting in cure in another 9 cases. The final cure rate was therefore 92%. Among the six failures, 4 children were circumcised, corresponding to a total of 6 circumcisions out of this series of 96 cases of phimosis (6%). No local or systemic adverse effects related to steroid therapy were observed and no recurrence of phimosis was observed during the study. CONCLUSION:This study confirms the efficacy and safety of local steroid therapy in the treatment of phimosis in children. Surgical treatment of phimosis should therefore be reserved for failures of medical treatment and has now become much less frequent.
    [Nonretractable foreskin in boys without complaints : An indication for circumcision?] Eckert K,Janssen N,Franz M,Liedgens P Der Urologe. Ausg. A BACKGROUND:Removing boys' foreskins, even for medical reasons, is increasingly and critically discussed. The aim of this study is to retrospectively verify if the indication for the removal of boys' foreskins was justified. The study is based on the records of boys who underwent preputial operation in an outpatient medical office for pediatric surgery. METHODS:Preoperative clinical findings, complaints, applied conservative and/or surgical procedures and histological results of the resected foreskins of boys, who underwent preputial operation between 2013-2015, were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 176 boys (age 5 on average) underwent a preputial operation. In 85 % of the cases it was completely removed. Most frequent clinical findings (80 %) were that the prepuce was simply not retractable. 86 % of the boys were free of complaints. The most frequent histological findings were a discrete to moderately pronounced chronic fibrous posthitis (69 %) and subepithelial fibrosis (18 %), In the first case 78 % of the boys had been free of complaints, in the latter 72 %. CONCLUSION:The majority of the treated boys were free of complaints; however, most of them underwent a complete removal of their foreskin simply because it was nonretractable. The foreskin represents the most sensitive part of the male genital, preputiolysis is a natural process that can go on until early adolescence. Irreversible surgical procedures, such as a complete foreskin removal, should thus be restricted to a clear medical indication. 10.1007/s00120-016-0232-0
    Pathologically oriented descriptive study of male genital circumcisions across medical and surgical specialties. Mazzoni Daniel,Pool Louis,Muir Jim International journal of dermatology BACKGROUND:Circumcision is one of the most frequently performed procedure by clinicians, yet its role and indication in clinical practice lacks consensus and remains unclear. We sought to evaluate a collection of male circumcisions to determine the range of indications, histopathological diagnoses, and type of clinicians associated with circumcision. METHODS:We performed a retrospective descriptive cohort study of male patients who received a circumcision reported by one major dermatopathology laboratory between January 2017 and December 2018. Data were extracted from the histological report of the pathologist for each case. Patient age, type of clinician, clinical notes, and histopathological diagnosis were evaluated. RESULTS:"/> A total of 406 circumcisions were identified. The median age for circumcision was 36 (IQR 16-61). Boys less than 18 years of age made up 24% (98/406). Histological diagnoses included normal (43/406, 11%), nonspecific inflammation (82/406, 20%), inflammatory conditions (264/406, 65%), infections (9/406, 2.2%), benign neoplasms (5/406, 1.0%), and scar tissue (3/406, 0.7%). The most common diagnosis was balanitis xerotica obliterans (226/406, 56%). Rarely, genital infections and neoplastic lesions were identified. Circumcisions were performed by urologists (289/406, 71.2%), general practitioners (76/406, 18.7%), general surgeons (32/406, 8%), pediatric surgeons (5/406, 1%), and dermatologists (4/406, 1%). The main indications for circumcision were phimosis (110/202, 54%), suspected lichen sclerosus (28/202, 14%), and balanitis (15/202, 7%). CONCLUSION:Circumcision was performed for a broad range of genital dermatoses across various medical and surgical specialties. Few studies have described these observations. We discuss the common pathological conditions leading to circumcision and its role in diagnosis and treatment. 10.1111/ijd.15359
    Highly potent and moderately potent topical steroids are effective in treating phimosis: a prospective randomized study. Yang Stephen Shei Dei,Tsai Yao Chou,Wu Chia Chang,Liu Shih Ping,Wang Chung Cheng The Journal of urology PURPOSE:We report a prospective randomized study comparing the effects of highly potent and moderately potent topical steroids in treating pediatric phimosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 70 boys 1 to 12 years old with phimosis were randomly assigned to receive topical application of either betamethasone valerate 0.06% (a highly potent steroid) or clobetasone butyrate 0.05% (a moderately potent steroid). Parents of the boys were instructed to retract the foreskin gently without causing pain, and to apply the topical steroids over the stenotic opening of the prepuce twice daily for 4 weeks, then for another 4 weeks if no improvement was achieved. Retractibility of the prepuce was graded from 0 to 5. Response to treatment was arbitrarily defined as improvement in the retractibility score of more than 2 points. RESULTS:Mean treatment and followup periods were 4.3 and 19.1 weeks, respectively. The response rates in boys treated with betamethasone valerate and clobetasone butyrate were 81.3% and 77.4%, respectively (p = 0.63). Mean retractibility score decreased from 3.9 +/- 1.0 to 1.7 +/- 1.1, and 4.2 +/- 1.0 to 1.9 +/- 1.0 in the betamethasone and clobetasone groups, respectively. Both steroids were effective in all age groups. Pretreatment retractibility score did not affect treatment outcomes. No adverse effect was encountered. CONCLUSIONS:Highly potent and moderately potent topical steroids are of comparable effectiveness in treating phimosis. A less potent steroid may be considered first to decrease the risk of the potential adverse effects. 10.1097/01.ju.0000156556.11235.3f
    Treatment of phimosis with topical steroids in 194 children. Ashfield James E,Nickel Kyle R,Siemens D Robert,MacNeily Andrew E,Nickel J Curtis The Journal of urology PURPOSE:Topical steroids have been advocated as an effective economical alternative to circumcision in boys with phimosis. We evaluated the effectiveness of topical steroid therapy as primary treatment in 194 patients with phimosis. METHODS:Between January 1996 and November 2000, 228 boys 16 years old or younger were referred for consideration of circumcision. When intervention was determined to be necessary, a 6-week course of topical steroids was used as primary treatment. Efficacy of treatment was evaluated at 3 months from initiation of therapy. RESULTS:Of the 228 patients 15 had such a mild degree of phimosis that no intervention was believed to be necessary, 19 were scheduled directly for circumcision due to cosmetic reasons, parent wishes, or severe phimosis with associated voiding problems and the remaining 194 received topical steroids as primary treatment. Of these 194 patients 25 had coexisting balanitis and 4 had a history of urinary tract infection. Conservative treatment was successful in 87%, 88% and 75% of patients with phimosis alone, coexisting balanitis and history of urinary tract infection, respectively. Overall, circumcision was avoided in 87% of patients treated with topical steroids. CONCLUSION:Topical steroids are becoming the standard conservative measure for treating phimosis. Our study supports this trend, with an overall efficacy of 87%. 10.1097/01.ju.0000048973.26072.eb
    An 18-month follow-up study after randomized treatment of phimosis in boys with topical steroid versus placebo. Lund L,Wai K H,Mui L M,Yeung C K Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the treatment of phimosis using topical steroid. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This was a follow-up study after a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. A total of 137 boys with phimosis were randomly assigned to either betamethasone treatment or placebo for 4 weeks, with application of the cream twice daily. Non-responders to treatment were offered steroid treatment for a further 4 weeks. All patients were invited to a follow-up examination after 18 months. RESULTS:The mean pre-treatment phimosis grades in the steroid and control groups were 5.08+/-0.66 and 4.97+/-0.70, respectively. At the 4-week follow-up, 49 boys (74%) in the steroid group were cured, compared to only 31 (44%) in the control group. Fourteen boys were circumcised after another 4 weeks of treatment; 43 of the remaining 57 boys (17 in the steroid group; 40 in the control group) had been cured. After a total of 92 boys took part in the 18-month follow-up study: 79 had been cured and 13 had suffered a relapse. Twenty-six patients did not took part in the follow-up investigation. No side-effects were noted. CONCLUSIONS:When treatment is necessary for phimosis, we recommend application of topical steroid as first-line treatment because surgery can then be avoided in 85% of cases. This first randomized, double-blind, follow-up study shows that the treatment effect persists for at least 18 months. 10.1080/00365590410002519
    Phimosis: stretching methods with or without application of topical steroids? Zampieri Nicola,Corroppolo Michele,Camoglio Francesco Saverio,Giacomello Luca,Ottolenghi Alberto The Journal of pediatrics Phimosis has been defined as unretractable foreskin without adherences or a circular band of tight prepuce preventing full retraction. We suggested a new treatment protocol combining betamethasone with stretching exercises to reduce the number of patients requiring surgery for phimosis. Between January 2003 and September 2004, 247 boys aged 4 to 14 years (mean 7.6) were included in this consecutive, prospective, open study. Patients were treated with 0.05% betamethasone cream applied to the distal aspect of the prepuce twice daily for the first 15 days, then once daily for 15 more days. Preputial gymnastics started 1 week after topical application of betamethasone. Ninety-six percent of patients receiving 1 or more cycles of betamethasone showed complete resolution of phimosis. There was a significant difference (P < .001) in response rate between the study and control groups. Only 10 boys in the study group had no response to steroid and stretching. Treatment with topical steroids, combined with stretching exercises, is a suitable alternative to surgical correction (preputial plasty/circumcision). 10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.07.017
    Differential diagnosis of congenital megaprepuce: therapeutic and prognostic relevance. Arredondo Montero J,González Ruiz Y,Redondo Sedano J V,Hernández Martín S,Ayuso González L,Bardají Pascual C Cirugia pediatrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Cirugia Pediatrica Congenital megaprepuce is a urological pathology typical of childhood. It can be easily mistaken for other clinical entities such as physiological phimosis or buried penis. Owing to the risk of associated complications - primarily infectious and obstructive complications, with upper urinary tract involvement -, achieving an accurate diagnosis proves particularly significant for early treatment initiation. We present three cases of congenital megaprepuce diagnosed and operated on at our department from January 2019 to May 2020. Diagnosis, therapy, and clinical progression are described. 10.54847/cp.2022.01.20
    Ballooning of the foreskin and physiological phimosis: is there any objective evidence of obstructed voiding? Babu Ramesh,Harrison Sara K,Hutton Kim A R BJU international OBJECTIVES To determine whether physiological phimosis with or without ballooning of the prepuce is associated with noninvasive urodynamic or radiological evidence of bladder outlet obstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS From August 2001 to October 2002 all boys with a foreskin problem and referred to one paediatric surgeon were assessed in special clinics. Those with physiological phimosis were recruited for the study and had upper tract and bladder ultrasonography (US), followed by uroflowmetry and US-determined postvoid residual urine volumes (PVR). Data were compared between boys with and with no ballooning of the prepuce. The project was approved by the local research ethics committee and informed consent was obtained from all study participants. RESULTS In all, 54 patients were referred for circumcision; 32 boys with physiological phimosis completed the uroflow and US investigations. Ballooning of the foreskin was present in 18 boys (mean age 6.8 years, range 3-12); 14 had physiological phimosis with no ballooning (mean age 6.5 years, range 4-11). Upper tract US and bladder wall thickness were normal in all boys. The mean maximum urinary flow rate (Q(max)) was not significantly different in boys with ballooning and those without (mean 15.3 mL/s, sd 4.4, range 9-24, vs 15.4, sd 2.9, range 10.7-20, P = 0.96). In addition, all Q(max) values were within the normal range when correlated with voided volume and compared with age-related nomograms. Most boys had flow rate patterns showing a normal bell-shaped curve; a few (9%) had subtle changes in the flow-rate profile, with either a plateau-type curve or slow initial increase in flow and prolonged time to achieve Q(max). The two groups had comparable mean PVRs (3.5 mL, sd 5.1, range 0-18 with ballooning vs 6.1, sd 10.7, range 0-38 without, P = 0.37). Only one patient had a marginally abnormal PVR. CONCLUSIONS Physiological phimosis with or without ballooning of the prepuce is not associated with noninvasive objective measures of obstructed voiding. Minor abnormalities in the flow-rate pattern in this patient group deserve further study. 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2004.04935.x
    Circumcision with plastic Alisclamp technique in 4733 boys: our experiences to reduce complications Süzen Alev,Karakuş Süleyman Cüneyt,Ertürk Nazile Turkish journal of medical sciences Background/aim:We aim to report the outcomes of circumcisions performed with Alisclamp and our experiences to reduce thecomplications. Material and methods:Complications among circumcised males with Alisclamp between 2015 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 1429); patients circumcised in 2015–2016 and Group 2 (n = 3304); patients circumcised in 2017–2018. The different technical approaches in Group 2 are as follows:1) Prevention of bleeding: In Group 2, we didn’t pull the ventral prepuce to reduce the risk of frenulum injury and the foreskin was excised approximately 1–2 mm above the base.2) Prevention of secondary phimosis: In Group 2, regular manual pressure had been applied to mons pubis and we postponed some of the overweight children’s circumcision.3) Prevention of excessive foreskin: The clamp was placed carefully to prevent the glans from moving back and forth. Results:Secondary phimosis was significantly lower in Group 2 (p = 0.003). Total bleeding and bleeding requiring suturing were significantly lower in Group 2 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.026, respectively). Conclusion:Technique-specific complications of Alisclamp can reduce with technique-specific modifications. 10.3906/sag-2011-199
    High incidence of balanitis xerotica obliterans in boys with phimosis: prospective 10-year study. Kiss András,Király László,Kutasy Balázs,Merksz Miklós Pediatric dermatology This prospective study was designed to address the incidence and clinical and histologic characteristics of balanitis xerotica obliterans in a large random pediatric population with phimosis. We investigated 1178 boys who presented consecutively with phimosis between 1991 and 2001. All patients who underwent complete circumcision and surgical specimens were typed histologically as early, intermediate, or late forms of this disorder or as nonspecific chronic inflammation. Patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans were controlled at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, then yearly. Balanitis xerotica obliterans was found in 471 of the 1178 patients (40%), with the highest incidence in boys aged 9 to 11 years (76%). Secondary phimosis occurred in 93% of boys with balanitis xerotica obliterans and in 32% of those without the disorder. In six instances of balanitis xerotica obliterans, meatotomy and in one meatoplasty was performed, as well as circumcision. On histologic evaluation, we found 19% had early, 60% intermediate, and 21% late form of balanitis xerotica obliterans. Glanular lesions disappeared completely within 6 months in 229 out of 231 patients. Our data strongly suggest that the true incidence of childhood balanitis xerotica obliterans is higher than previously assumed. Its incidence peaks in the 9 to 11 years age group, in whom secondary phimosis was almost exclusively caused by balanitis xerotica obliterans. 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2005.22404.x
    [Preputioplasty in the treatment of phimosis in pediatric age. Indications and results]. Impellizzeri P,Turiaco N,Antonuccio P,Manganaro A,Romeo C Minerva pediatrica AIM:Phimosis is a common condition in the pediatric age. Circumcision has been the technique of choice for the surgical correction of this condition. As an alternative to circumcision different techniques of preputioplasty have been described in the last years. The aim of this paper was to report our experience with the preputioplasty technique in the treatment of phimosis in pediatric age. METHODS:A preputioplasty is performed for phimosis correction in 109 patients aged between 4 and 16 years. Patients with a sclerotic phimosis were not treated with preputioplasty. All the patients underwent frenulotomy with dorsal preputial plasty using a single dorsal incision. Only in 3 patients a double lateral incision was necessary. Patients were operated under general anesthesia with an average time of 8 min. RESULTS:Patients were followed-up at 8 days, 30 and 90 days postoperatively. The cosmetic result has been excellent in 90% of cases and good in 10%. The functional result has been excellent in all the patients. We observed 3 cases of infection and 8 cases of edema of the prepuce. These postoperative complications were all resolved with medical therapy. No recurrences have been observed. CONCLUSIONS:Preputioplasty is a safe and rapid technique that allows to obtain excellent cosmetic and functional results. In our opinion, preputioplasty should be the first choice technique for the treatment of phimosis in pediatric and adolescent age.
    Frenular grafting: an alternative to circumcision in men with a combination of tight frenulum and phimosis. Kayes Oliver,Li Chi-Ying,Spillings Amanda,Ralph David The journal of sexual medicine INTRODUCTION:Men suffering from frenular scarring and stricturing with associated phimosis are traditionally treated with circumcision. In men wishing to retain their foreskin, the treatment options are limited by this dual pathology. Frenuloplasty alone is contraindicated in this clinical setting. AIM:To demonstrate the utility of frenular grafting in patients with a tight frenulum and concomitant phimosis who wish to retain their foreskin. METHODS:Six men were included in the study. Presenting symptoms included bleeding (N = 2) and pain/phimosis (N = 6). Median age is 27 years (25-34 years). All men were healthy and sexually active. We describe a refined technique involving the excision of scarred and redundant frenular tissue and the insertion of a skin graft to the area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:All patients were assessed for graft viability, functional/symptom improvement, time to penetrative intercourse, and overall satisfaction. RESULTS:All men received an interposition skin graft with 100% viability, with no revision surgery required. Postoperatively, all men were sexually active and able to retract their foreskin. CONCLUSIONS:Cosmetic outcomes are encouraging and painless sexual intercourse is attainable in this difficult group of patients. 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00478.x
    Outcome and recurrence in treatment of phimosis using topical betamethasone in children in Hong Kong. Ku Wai-Hung,Chiu Becky S-K,Huen Kwai-Fun Journal of paediatrics and child health AIM:To study the efficacy of treating phimosis with topical steroid, and its long-term outcome and side effects. We also looked into the effect of daily retraction and cleansing of prepuce on preventing recurrence of phimsosis. METHODS:This prospective study comprised 138 boys who were prescribed 0.05% betamethasone ointment (Diprocel) during 1 August 2001-31 July 2004. Five boys were excluded because of non-compliance. Of the remaining 133 boys, 108 were followed-up and assessed. Age ranged from 0.03 to 12.9 years (mean=3.38, SD=2.79). The number of treatment course received, short-term and long-term outcome, side effects and the effect of daily foreskin retraction were studied. RESULTS:The success rate of first treatment course was 81.5%, and 60.2% of boys remained free from phimosis upon latest assessment. The follow-up period ranged from 0.4 to 4.4 years (mean=2.45, SD=0.90). There were no side effects noted. We found a significant and linear relationship between daily foreskin retraction and sustained resolution of phimosis. CONCLUSION:Topical steroid is an effective and safe treatment for phimosis, especially when combined with a good hygiene practice of the foreskin with daily cleansing and retraction. A trial of topical steroid treatment should be offered upon considering circumcision. 10.1111/j.1440-1754.2007.01006.x
    Topical triamcinolone for persistent phimosis. Letendre Julien,Barrieras Diego,Franc-Guimond Julie,Abdo Ala,Houle Anne-Marie The Journal of urology PURPOSE:Between 2% and 5% of uncircumcised boys have persistent or pathological phimosis. Traditional treatment is usually circumcision. Recently medical treatment with topical corticosteroids has become more popular. We evaluated the efficacy of the topical steroid triamcinolone compared to foreskin retraction with an emollient cream and verified the long-term success rate of these treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled study to compare 2-month twice daily treatment with emollient cream (placebo group 1) vs 0.1% triamcinolone (experimental group 2). Boys between ages 3 and 12 years with persistent or pathological phimosis were included in analysis. Study EXCLUSION criteria were previous treatment with topical corticosteroid, untreated balanitis and any known medical condition with immune system impairment. Patients were seen 2, 4 and 12 months after treatment initiation. Success was defined as complete, easy foreskin retraction at 4 and 12 months. Statistical analysis was done using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS:We enrolled 63 patients, of whom 43 completed the study. Despite multiple attempts 20 patients had incomplete followup and were excluded from study. Placebo group 1 included 25 patients and triamcinolone group 2 included 21. In group 1 the success rate was significantly lower than in group 2 (9 patients or 39% vs 16 or 76%, p = 0.0086). At 2 months 5 and 16 nonresponders in groups 2 and 1, respectively, were treated in nonblinded fashion with topical triamcinolone. In this subgroup 1 of 3 group 2 patients and 6 of 13 in group 1 achieved complete, easy retraction. Two and 1 patients were lost to followup in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Circumcision was required in only 5 patients (11.6%), including 4 (17.4%) initially in group 1. No complications were noted in either group. CONCLUSIONS:Triamcinolone is a highly effective and safe short-term treatment for persistent physiological or pathological phimosis. However, at long-term followup recurrence is frequent and not rare with triamcinolone and it may require re-treatment or circumcision. 10.1016/j.juro.2009.03.016
    Topical steroid application versus circumcision in pediatric patients with phimosis: a prospective randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. Esposito Ciro,Centonze Antonella,Alicchio Francesca,Savanelli Antonio,Settimi Alessandro World journal of urology OBJECTIVES:Topical steroids have been advocated as an effective alternative treatment to circumcision in boys with phimosis. We evaluated the effectiveness of topical steroid therapy compared to a placebo neutral cream in 240 patients with phimosis. METHODS:A prospective study was carried out over a 24-months period, on an out-patient basis on two groups of patients with phimosis. One-hundred twenty patients applied a steroid cream twice a day for 4 weeks, and another group of 120 pts used a placebo cream twice a day for 4 weeks. Patients were assigned to either group by a computer-generated random choice. RESULTS:All patients in our series completed the two treatment periods without interruption. At a median follow-up of 20 months (6-30 months) therapeutic success was obtained in 43.75% (99/240) of cases, independently of the protocol. In particular, therapeutic success was obtained in 65.8% (79/120) of cases in the steroids group and in 16.6% (20/120) of cases in the placebo group, the difference being statistically significant (P < 0.0001, Mann-Withney test). CONCLUSION:Our study shows that topical steroids represent a good alternative to surgery in case of phimosis. Steroid therapy using monometasone furoate 0.1% in our series gave better results that placebo with an overall efficacy of 65.8%. In patients where a phimotic ring persist after steroid therapy, circumcision is mandatory. 10.1007/s00345-007-0231-2
    Histology and immunohistochemical evaluation of phimotic prepuce: The role of steroid therapy. Zampieri Nicola,Frigo Irene,Caliò Anna,Camoglio Francesco Saverio Andrologia Phimosis is one of the most frequent andrological diseases in paediatric age. Steroids are useful to treat phimosis. Through a retrospective study of histological and immunohistochemical analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of topical steroid treatment in patients undergoing circumcision. Cases of patients treated for phimosis were selected during the two-year study period. All patients underwent circumcision and were divided into four groups: groups A (religiously circumcised patients), B (phimotic patients not undergoing steroid treatment), C (phimotic patients who do not respond to cortisone treatment) and D (hypospadic patients undergoing urethroplasty). An histological evaluation of the degree of fibrosis and an immunohistochemical evaluation of collagen IV and tenascin were carried out. Study results demonstrate that the grade of fibrosis is age-related. On histological and immunohistochemical evaluation, fibrosis was found to be lower in patients receiving steroids; higher degrees of fibrosis were found in older patients (p < .05). Different degrees of fibrosis have also been found in hypospadic patients. We can conclude that study results correlated with the clinical history of the patients. The success rate of medical therapy seems to be age-related. 10.1111/and.13967
    Analysis of related factors between the occurrence of secondary epidermoid cyst of penis and circumcision. Scientific reports Secondary epidermoid cyst of the penis is a very rare epidermoid cyst that occurs in the penis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the occurrence of secondary epidermoid cyst of penis and circumcision-related factors, and to provide possible reasonable and effective suggestions for circumcision. The data of all patients who visited the clinic for epidermoid cysts of the penis from September 2000 to September 2021 in Xiangya Hospital were collected. A retrospective study was carried out on whether the patients had been circumcised and the surgical method, anesthesia method, cyst location, surgical age, postoperative wound infection, whether they were phimosis patients, and the level of the surgeon. Among the 24 patients followed up, 95.8% had a history of circumcision, and only 4.2% had no history of circumcision, and the more traumatic surgical methods developed secondary epidermoid cyst of the penis after surgery the higher the probability. Injecting anesthesia at the base of the penis increases the chances of developing a secondary epidermoid cyst of the penis. Postoperative secondary epidermoid cyst of the penis were mainly located in the anterior segment and posterior segment, and the anterior segment had a higher proportion, followed by the posterior segment. Secondary epidermoid cyst of the penis occur mainly in adults. Postoperative wound infection accelerates the appearance of secondary epidermoid cyst of the penis. Patients with phimosis have an increased probability of developing secondary epidermoid cysts of the penis after surgery. The incidence of secondary epidermoid cysts and postoperative infection after manual circumcision by the attending physician was higher than that of the chief physician. Circumcision, injection of anesthesia at the base of the penis, ligation of the penis, and postoperative wound infection may be the etiologies and triggers of secondary epidermoid cysts of the penis. Adults and phimosis patients may be high-risk groups. Lower-level surgeons may increase the odds of postoperative secondary epidermoid cysts of the penis, and it is recommended that surgery be performed by a clinically-experienced, higher-level surgeon. The indications for circumcision should be strictly evaluated and the operation should be performed as soon as possible, and the less invasive surgical method and anesthesia method should be selected. Reduce irrelevant operations during surgery and avoid wound infection after surgery. 10.1038/s41598-022-16876-y
    Heineke-Mikulicz Preputioplasty: Surgical Technique and Outcomes. Urology OBJECTIVE:To provide a summary of surgical technique and outcomes for Heineke-Mikulicz preputioplasty (HMP), a foreskin-preserving surgical treatment for phimosis in the adult population. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed 7 patients who underwent HMP by a single surgeon from May 2017 to May 2021. Variables included patient demographics, intraoperative considerations, and post-operative course. HMP is performed using a 2-3 cm vertical incision over the phimotic band on the dorsal surface to just above Buck's fascia. Additional incisions are made on the ventral surface if phimosis remains persistent after dorsal release. The incision is closed horizontally in 2 layers. RESULTS:Seven patients underwent HMP. Median age was 47.3 and median BMI was 24.3. Five patients reported bothersome phimosis and 1 each reported paraphimosis and frenular tethering. Six patients requested foreskin sparing surgery as a personal preference and 1 patient was an intraoperative consult. Topical betamethasone was attempted in 3 of 7 patients. The median time from diagnosis to surgery was 2 months. Median operative time was 45.5 minutes and median estimated blood loss was 5 mL. Two patients required both dorsal and ventral incisions. No intraoperative complications were reported and all patients were discharged the same day. At median follow-up of 1.8 months, 1 patient reported bothersome phimosis secondary to scar formation treated successfully with triamcinolone. CONCLUSION:HMP is a safe and effective method of treating even very significant phimosis in patients trying to avoid circumcision or intraoperative consults where preferences may be unclear. Our method takes less time than traditional circumcision with a comparable recovery and complication profile. 10.1016/j.urology.2022.03.030
    [Assessment of topical steroid treatment for childhood phimosis: review of the literature]. Vorilhon P,Martin C,Pereira B,Clément G,Gerbaud L Archives de pediatrie : organe officiel de la Societe francaise de pediatrie OBJECTIVES:Questions concerning nonretractile foreskin are frequently asked by parents in infant consultations. Topical steroid treatment could be a less expensive and less traumatizing alternative to surgery. AIM:To assess the effectiveness of topical steroid therapy in boys with phimosis. METHODS:Literature review. All randomized controlled trials were selected, using the following research sources: Medline, Cochrane Library, Pascal, Embase, Blackwell Science, Google, Google scholar, SUDOC, international register of trials, and congress abstracts. Unpublished trials were also searched. The trials were analyzed using the ANAES guide from a therapeutic article. RESULTS:Seven randomized controlled trials (n=714 patients) were in accordance with the inclusion criteria. The patients were between 1 and 12 years old. The treatment lasted for 4-8 weeks. The success rate at the end of the study was higher with the steroid (53.8-95%) than with the placebo (6.25-52%), P<0.05 for 6 randomized control trials. DISCUSSION:According to the ANAES criteria, the level of scientific evidence is low (gradeC) because of the lack of power in clinical trials and numerous methodological shortcomings and biases, even when examining both randomized control trials and nonrandomized trials. Only a few local side effects were noted. CONCLUSION:The use of topical steroids can be recommended in first-intention treatment before surgery for the management of phimosis. 10.1016/j.arcped.2011.01.021
    Is suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis significant during clinical treatment of phimosis? Pileggi F O,Martinelli C E,Tazima M F G S,Daneluzzi J C,Vicente Y A M V A The Journal of urology PURPOSE:Corticoids have been an option for phimosis treatment since 1993. However, long-term use or repeated cycles pose a concern regarding drug absorption and consequent systemic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of topical corticoids used in treating phimosis on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 31 children were included in the study. Cortisol secretion was evaluated by the measurement of salivary cortisol in saliva samples collected at 9:00 a.m. before starting treatment and after 8 weeks of topical treatment with 0.05% clobetasol propionate. Salivary cortisol was determined by radioimmunoassay. To confirm that use of clobetasol propionate was not detected by the assay, the presence of cortisol circadian rhythm was checked by an extra saliva sample obtained at 11:00 p.m. from 10 children, and was observed to be maintained in all of them. RESULTS:No significant difference in salivary cortisol levels was observed between samples obtained at 9:00 a.m. before starting treatment and after completing treatment when the entire group was analyzed. However, in 2 children the salivary cortisol levels after treatment were lower than the cutoff value (358 ng/dl) assumed to be suggestive of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression. CONCLUSIONS:Topical clobetasol propionate used twice daily for clinical treatment of phimosis does not affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in most patients. However, salivary cortisol level should be considered as a laboratory marker in long-term treatment or during repeated cycles to detect possible hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression. 10.1016/j.juro.2010.02.2385
    Conservative treatment of phimosis with fluticasone proprionate 0.05%: a clinical study in 1185 boys. Zavras Nick,Christianakis Efstratios,Mpourikas Demetrios,Ereikat Khalil Journal of pediatric urology OBJECTIVE:Circumcision has been the traditional method of choice in the treatment of boys with phimosis. Recently, several published studies worldwide have focused their interest on more conservative approaches in management of this condition. These studies advocate the use of topical steroids in the phimotic foreskin. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of a medium potency corticosteroid in boys with different types of prepuce retractabilty. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A prospective study was performed involving boys referred to our hospital for possible phimosis between January 2004 and February 2008. All were treated initially with fluticasone proprionate 0.05% for a period of 4-8 weeks. Patients were reassessed after 6 months of follow up. RESULTS:A total of 1185 boys with a diagnosis of phimosis were treated with fluticasone proprionate 0.05%. Successful results were achieved in 1079 (91.1%) patients including boys with mild balanitis xerotica obliterans. No side effects were noticed. CONCLUSION:Our results show that fluticasone proprionate 0.05%, a mild potent corticosteroid, is effective and safe in the treatment of boys with different types of phimosis. 10.1016/j.jpurol.2008.11.006
    Topical betamethasone and hyaluronidase in the treatment of phimosis in boys: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Nascimento Fabio J,Pereira Rodrigo F,Silva Jarques L,Tavares Alessandro,Pompeo Antonio C L International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology PURPOSE:To compare the efficacy of three different formulations containing Betamethasone Valerate versus placebo in the topical treatment of phimosis. As a secondary goal, we compared the outcomes after 30 and 60 days of treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Two hundred twenty boys aged 3 to 10 years old with clinical diagnosis of phimosis were enrolled. Patients were randomized to one of the following groups: Group 1: Betamethasone Valerate 0.2% plus Hyaluronidase; Group 2: Betamethasone Valerate 0.2%; Group 3: Betamethasone Valerate 0.1% or Group 4: placebo. Parents were instructed to apply the formula twice a day for 60 days and follow-up evaluations were scheduled at 30, 60 and 240 days after the first consultation. Success was defined as complete and easy foreskin retraction. RESULTS:One hundred ninety-five patients were included at our final analysis. Group 1 (N = 54), 2 (N = 51) and 3 (N = 52) had similar success and improvement rates, all treatment groups had higher success rates than placebo (N = 38). After 60 days of treatment, total and partial response rates for Groups 1, 2 and 3 were 54.8% and 40.1%, respectively, while placebo had a success rate of 29%. Success and improvement rates were significantly better in 60 days when compared to 30 days. CONCLUSIONS:Betamethasone Valerate 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.2% in combination with Hyaluronidase had equally higher results than placebo in the treatment of phimosis in boys from three to ten years-old. Patients initially with partial or no response can reach complete response after 60 days of treatment. 10.1590/s1677-55382011000300004
    [Shang Ring circumcision versus conventional circumcision for redundant prepuce or phimosis: a meta analysis]. Xiao Er-Long,Ding Hui,Li Yong-Qian,Wang Zhi-Ping Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology OBJECTIVE:To compare the effect and safety of Shang Ring circumcision with those of conventional circumcision in the treatment of redundant prepuce or phimosis. METHODS:We retrieved the randomized controlled trials on Shang Ring circumcision and conventional circumcision for the treatment of redundant prepuce or phimosis published at home and abroad. Relevant data were selected according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews by two reviewers after quality evaluation of the included trials, and the statistical software RevMan 5.0 was used for meta analysis. RESULTS:Totally 8 randomized controlled trials with 2277 cases were included in this study. Compared with conventional circumcision, Shang Ring circumcision showed a shorter operation time (SMD = -5.82, 95% CI [ -7.39, -4.24], P<0.00001), less intraoperative blood loss (SMD = -3.28, 95% CI [ -3.47, -3.09], P<0.00001), lower rate of infection (OR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.26, 0.72], P=0.001), lower rate of postoperative bleeding (OR =0.05, 95% CI [0.02, 0.12], P<0.00001), higher rate of satisfaction with the postoperative penile appearance (OR=12.72, 95% CI [1.30, 124.56], P=0.03), lower intraoperative pain score (SMD = -3.32, 95% CI [ -3.50, -3.14], P<0.00001), and lower 24-hour-postoperative pain score (SMD = -3.28, 95% CI [ - 3.47, - 3.00], P<0.00001), but longer wound healing time (OR=1.46, 95% CI [1.03, 1.90], P<0.00001). CONCLUSION:In comparison with conventional circumcision, Shang Ring circumcision has the advantages of shorter operation time, fewer complications, mild pain, and higher rate of satisfaction with the postoperative penile appearance. However, more high-quality randomized controlled trials with large samples are required to lend further support to our findings.
    Acquired phimosis after plastibell circumcision: a preventable consequence. Kidger E A,Haider N,Qazi A Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England INTRODUCTION:The plastibell device is used successfully for religious and cultural circumcisions in the community. The aim of this article is to highlight the recognition and management of iatrogenic phimosis. METHODS:A retrospective study was performed of outcomes of plastibell circumcision in a community-based circumcision service provided by trained paediatric surgeons. The objective was to assess the complication of slipped plastibell rings and to ascertain the effectiveness of its management. RESULTS:A total of 5 patients with a slipped plastibell ring were indentified out of 560 plastibell circumcisions. Three patients presented with acquired phimosis. In two patients early diagnosis and management prevented any further complications and a second operation was avoided. CONCLUSIONS:Plastibell circumcision in the community is safe and effective. Detection of minor bleeding due to a slipped ring is important. Early management can avoid the risk of acquired phimosis due to cicatrix formation and can save parents of undue anxiety. 10.1308/003588412X13373405384774
    Incidence of balanitis xerotica obliterans in boys younger than 10 years presenting with phimosis. Kuehhas F E,Miernik A,Weibl P,Schoenthaler M,Sevcenco S,Schauer I,Tosev G,Oezsoy M,Lassmann J Urologia internationalis OBJECTIVE:Evaluation of the true incidence of balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) among boys younger than 10 years. METHODS:In a period of 13 months, 75 boys younger than 10 years were treated for phimosis. Suspicion of BXO was raised in phimosis grade 2 or 3 (classification by Kikiros). Patients were offered primarily either circumcision or conservative therapy and circumcision secondarily (if treatment failed in the conservative group). Each circumcision specimen was examined histopathologically. RESULTS:Circumcision was primarily performed in 29 and secondarily in 17 patients. The mean age was 3.7 years (range 1-10). BXO, chronic inflammation, and normal histological results were found in 8/26/12 (17.4/56.5/26.1%) cases, respectively. The mean follow-up was 8.1 months. No recurrences were reported. CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of BXO appears to be higher than previously reported. The clinical appearance in children may be confusing. The preoperative BXO suspicion did not correlate with the final histopathological results. 10.1159/000345442
    [Shang Ring versus disposable circumcision suture device in the treatment of phimosis or redundant prepuce]. Wang Shi-Xian,Zhang Zhen-Bao,Yang Shui-Fa,Yang En-Ming,Pan Dong-Shan,Xie Xiao-Qiang,Lin Xiao-Han,Yang Miao-Ying Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology OBJECTIVE:To compare the clinical efficiency of Shang Ring with that of the disposable circumcision suture device (DCSD) in the treatment of phimosis or redundant prepuce. METHODS:From June 2013 to March 2015, we treated 320 patients with phimosis or redundant prepuce using Shang Ring (n=158) or DCSD (n=162). We compared the operation time, intra-operative blood loss, incision healing time, postoperative complications, postoperative satisfaction, and treatment cost between the two groups of patients. RESULTS:Comparison between the Shang Ring and DCSD groups showed that the operation time was (5.6±1.3) vs (5.4±1.2) min, intra-operative blood loss (1.2±0.8) vs (1.3±0.9) ml, postoperative delayed hemorrhage 3.16% (5/158) vs 4.32% (7/162), incision healing time (16.1±7.2) vs (7.5±2.3) d, wound infection 15.82% (25/158) vs 7.41% (12/162), 1-month postoperative incision edema 29.11% (46/158) vs 9.26% (15/162), overall postoperative satisfaction rate 63.92% (101/158) vs 90.12% (146/162), and treatment cost (1121.2±15.6) vs (2142.6±10.8) RMB ¥. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups in the latter five parameters (P<0.05 ), but not in the first three (P>0.05 ). CONCLUSIONS:The DSCD has an obvious superiority over Shang Ring for its relatively lower complication rate, shorter incision healing time, and better cosmetic appearance.
    [Clinical effect of circumcision stapler in the treatment of phimosis and redundant prepuce]. Huo Zhong-chao,Liu Gang,Wang Wei,He Da-guang,Yu Hai,Fan Wen-ju,Zhong Zheng Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology OBJECTIVE:To observe the clinical effect and safety of circumcision stapler in the treatment of phimosis and redundant prepuce. METHODS:We treated 120 patients with redundant prepuce or phimosis using circumcision stapler and another 60 by conventional dorsal-incision circumcision. We observed intraoperative blood loss, operation time, postoperative pain, wound healing time, cosmetic appearance of the penis, and postoperative complications and compared them between the two groups of patients. RESULTS:Stapler circumcision showed obvious advantages over the conventional method in intraoperative blood loss ([2. 3 ± 1. 3] vs [15.6 ± 2.9] ml), operation time ([7.1 ± 1.4] vs [22.6 ± 4.6] min), wound healing time ([12.0 ± 2.9] as [16.3 ± 3. 1] d), postoperative pain score (1. 9 ± 1. 3 vs 5. 2 ± 1. 7), incision edema, and cosmetic appearance of the penis (all P <0. 05). Besides, stapler circumcision exempted the patients from stitch-removal pain. However, the incidence rate of postoperative local ecchymosis was significantly higher in the circumcision stapler group than in the conventional circumcision group (20. 8% vs 8. 3% , P <0. 05). CONCLUSION:Circumcision stapler, with its advantages of easier manipulation, shorter operation time, better cosmetic penile appearance, less pain, and fewer complications, is superior to conventional circumcision in the treatment of phimosis and redundant prepuce.
    Predictive power of objectivation of phimosis grade on outcomes of topical 0.1% betamethasone treatment of phimosis. Kuehhas Franklin Emmanuel,Miernik Arkadiusz,Sevcenco Sabina,Tosev Georgi,Weibl Peter,Schoenthaler Martin,Lassmann Jenny Urology OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the predictive power of the objectivation of the phimosis grade according to the classification defined by Kikiros and Woodward, with regard to the expected efficacy of 0.1% betamethasone cream as a treatment option. METHODS:From October 2010 to May 2011, a total of 55 boys (aged <10 years) were treated for phimosis at our department. An assessment of the category of phimosis and the retractability of the foreskin, according to the classification of Kikiros and Woodward, was performed. The proposed treatment options included complete circumcision or topical treatment with steroid cream (0.1% betamethasone-17-valerate). RESULTS:Of the 55 patients, 19 (34.5%) underwent conventional circumcision, and 36 (65.5%) were treated with an 8-week course of topical steroid cream. The mean age was 3.9 years (range 0.6-10). Grade 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 phimosis was seen in 1 (2.8%), 4 (11.1%), 8 (22.2%), 16 (44.4%), and 7 (19.4%) of the cases in the topical steroid cream group, respectively. The success rate for the topical steroid cream was 69.4% and 63.9% at 3 and 8.3 months, respectively. The objectivation of the phimosis grade did not predict the outcome (P > .05). No side effects were associated with the topical steroid treatment. CONCLUSION:The pretreatment classification of phimosis did not allow the prediction of success with the topical steroid treatment. We believe that topical steroid therapy with foreskin retraction and daily cleansing is a valid therapy modality that should be offered before any surgical intervention, regardless of the degree of phimosis. 10.1016/j.urology.2012.04.047
    Phimosis in a 10-yr-old Boy Without Urinary Infection-How to Inform Parents: Against Circumcision. Ebert Anne-Karoline,Stehr Maximilian European urology focus In a 10-yr-old boy with no abnormalities or symptoms other than nonretractability of the foreskin, the foreskin should be preserved. If treatment is needed, local corticoid application should be used as first-line therapy, as it gives excellent results in up to 90% of cases, before removing this sensitive part of the body. 10.1016/j.euf.2017.06.006
    Local steroid therapy as the first-line treatment for boys with symptomatic phimosis - a long-term prospective study. Reddy Srinath,Jain Viral,Dubey Manish,Deshpande Pankaj,Singal Arbinder K Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) AIM:Phimosis is a common paediatric urological disorder and often necessitates circumcision. We prospectively evaluated local steroid therapy (LST) as the first choice therapy for such children. METHODS:Two hundred and sixty symptomatic boys up to 15 years of age (mean 34 months) with phimosis were started on betamethasone dipropionate (0.05%) application on gently stretched prepuce twice a day. Follow-up visits were arranged at the end of weeks 1, 2 and 4 and 6 months. Grade of phimosis was objectively graded. RESULTS:Ninety one percent of the boys showed a successful outcome at the end of 4 weeks; 72% responded in first week, further 16% responded in week 2, and only 2.6% achieved alleviation of phimosis on further application of LST beyond 2 weeks. Fourty two (17.8%) boys had a recurrence of phimosis on a long-term follow-up (mean - 25.4 months, range 6-48 months); thus, the long-term success rate was 77%, while 60 (23%) boys underwent surgery. CONCLUSION:Local steroid therapy is safe and successful in alleviating symptomatic tight foreskin in a large majority of children. The response can be seen as early as 1 week; most of the children respond by week 2 and continuing therapy further may not be very effective. 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02534.x
    Is half strength of 0.05 % betamethasone valerate cream still effective in the treatment of phimosis in young children? Sookpotarom Paiboon,Asawutmangkul Chanchuree,Srinithiwat Benjaporn,Leethochawalit Sucheera,Vejchapipat Paisarn Pediatric surgery international INTRODUCTION:0.05 % betamethasone valerate cream is generally used as an alternative to circumcision for the treatment of phimosis in boys. The aim of this study is to determine whether the half-strength formula (0.025 %) of betamethasone is as effective as 0.05 % betamethasone. METHOD:All boys with phimosis seen at our institution between 2010 and 2012, whose parents complained that their children had problems of micturition, i.e., crying and ballooning, and sought for some instructions or treatments, were instructed to apply betamethasone valerate cream. Two strengths, 0.05 and 0.025 %, were randomly applied to each patient twice a day for 2 months. The patients whose parents were not willing to the conservative treatment underwent circumcision. RESULTS:Of the 47 patients, 23 boys with an average age of 16.65 ± 4.052 months (range 11-24 months) were given 0.025 % betamethasone cream, whereas the remaining 24 boys in control group with an average age of 18.42 ± 5.030 months (range 10-24 months) were instructed to apply with 0.05 % betamethasone valerate cream. Using unpaired t test, the age in both groups were comparable (p = 0.1932). There was a decrease in phimosis grade by the end of the therapeutic course in both groups. Further analysis using Mann-Whitney test revealed that the phimosis grade in the half-strength group (0.025 % strength) was significantly lower to the phimosis grade in the control (0.05 % betamethasone) group (p = 0.0003). There was no diversion from steroid application to circumcision or any side effects in the both groups. CONCLUSIONS:0.025 % betamethasone valerate cream produced a clinical improvement. However, the half-strength formula was not effective as the conventional formula of 0.05 % betamethasone valerate cream. 10.1007/s00383-012-3253-9
    Male Circumcision Due to Phimosis as the Procedure That Is Not Only Relieving Clinical Symptoms of Phimosis But Also Improves the Quality of Sexual Life. Czajkowski Mateusz,Czajkowska Katarzyna,Zarańska Karolina,Giemza Alicja,Kłącz Jakub,Sokołowska-Wojdyło Małgorzata,Matuszewski Marcin Sexual medicine INTRODUCTION:Male circumcision is recognized as the most effective method of phimosis treatment. Analyzing the literature, the information about the influence of male circumcision due to phimosis for patients' subjective symptoms such as itching, burning, penile pain, pain during intercourse, and quality of sexual life is insufficient. AIM:To investigate the effect of male circumcision due to phimosis to patients' subjective symptoms, including erectile function and satisfaction with their genitals. METHODS:The single-center prospective study began in January 2018 and ended in January 2020. Sixty-nine male, adult patients, who were qualified for circumcision due to phimosis, were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES:The study outcomes were obtained using questionnaires such as visual analog scale 0-10 for itching, burning, penile pain, and penile pain during intercourse; International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and Male Genital Self Image Scale 7 (MGSIS-7) to assess the changes in patients sexual functioning. RESULTS:Before the circumcision of the 69 patients included in the study, 59 patients (86%) reported some subjective symptoms of phimosis. The most frequent and most severe complaint was pain during intercourse, then itching and burning of the penis. Penile pain at rest was the least frequent. After 3 months from circumcision, subjective symptoms almost completely disappeared. All of 69 patients declared to have a sexual partner. 3 months after circumcision, all patients achieved significant improvement in both obtaining and maintaining an erection based on IIEF-5 score. Their sexual intercourse was more satisfying for them. All patients suffering from phimosis were embarrassed about their genitals before surgery. 3 months after circumcision, satisfaction with genital self-image increased significantly. CONCLUSION:Male circumcision due to phimosis is not only relieving the clinical symptoms of phimosis, but it also improves the quality of sexual life. Czajkowski M, Czajkowska K, Zarańska K, et al. Male Circumcision Due to Phimosis as the Procedure That Is Not Only Relieving Clinical Symptoms of Phimosis But Also Improves the Quality of Sexual Life. Sex Med 2021;9:100315. 10.1016/j.esxm.2020.100315
    Prevalence of Phimosis in Males of All Ages: Systematic Review. Morris Brian J,Matthews Jim G,Krieger John N Urology CONTEXT:Phimosis is considered virtually universal in newborn males and likely to resolve within a few years. Persistent phimosis can result in pain, sexual dysfunctions, increased risk of penile inflammatory conditions and penile cancer. There are two forms - primary phimosis and secondary phimosis - the latter often representing a consequence of lichen sclerosis, diabetes and obesity. OBJECTIVES:To conduct a systematic review to determine the prevalence of phimosis at different ages. DATA SOURCES:PubMed, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library, and bibliographies of original studies were searched using the keyword phimosis. STUDY SELECTION:Studies containing original data on phimosis at any age. DATA EXTRACTION:Two reviewers independently verified study design, extracted data and rated studies for quality. RESULTS:Forty-three eligible studies were included: 27 from PubMed, 4 from Google Scholar, and 12 from bibliography searches. Phimosis was reported in most newborns, then gradually decreased in prevalence. Most studies did not differentiate primary from secondary phimosis, so values reported were net phimosis prevalence. There were 13 studies with data for males age ≥18 years. In all, 962 of 17,136 men had been diagnosed with phimosis (range 0.5%-13%). A random effects model found risk of phimosis in men was 3.4% (95% CI 1.8-6.6). CONCLUSION:Phimosis takes many years to resolve. Apart from spontaneous resolution, clinical interventions also contribute to the gradual reduction in prevalence among uncircumcised boys. The wide range of phimosis prevalence reported in adulthood may reflect variability in the extent of foreskin-preserving treatment of phimosis in different study cohorts. 10.1016/j.urology.2019.10.003
    Factors Associated with Knowledge of and Willingness for Adult Male Circumcision in Changsha, China. Zeng Mingqiang,Wang Ling,Chen Caifang,Zeng Fanchang,Huang Liang,Xue Ruizhi,Chen Junjie,Gao Benmin,Tang Zhengyan PloS one BACKGROUND:Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the risk of male genital diseases. MC is not commonly practiced among Chinese males and little is known about the factors associated with their knowledge of and willingness for MC. This study was to explore the knowledge regarding the foreskin among Chinese males and to identify factors associated with their willingness to undergo circumcision. METHODS:A total of 237 patients with redundant prepuce/phimosis were interviewed through face-to-face interviews. The items on the questionnaire included: demographics, an objective scale assessing knowledge about the foreskin, willingness to have MC, the attitudes of sexual partners and doctors toward redundant prepuce/phimosis, and the approaches that patients used to acquire knowledge regarding the prepuce. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify factors that are associated with willingness to be circumcised (WTC). RESULTS:A total of 212 patients completed the interview. Multivariable logistic regression showed that three factors were significantly associated with WTC: being married (OR = 0.43), perceiving redundant prepuce/phimosis as a disease (OR = 1.93), and if a patient's partner supported MC (OR = 1.39). 58% (n = 122) had received information about the foreskin from another party: 18% (n = 37) from school, 8% (n = 17) from family, 17% (n = 36) from friends, 27% (n = 57) from health care providers. About 4% (n = 8) believed that their partners disliked their redundant prepuce/phimosis. 20% (n = 42) had received doctors' advice to undergo circumcision. CONCLUSION:Knowledge about the foreskin was low among Chinese males. Our study elucidates the factors associated with WTC and suggests that more education of the population about the foreskin can help improve the recognition of a correctible abnormality and help patients assess the potential role of MC in their health. 10.1371/journal.pone.0148832
    [Review of clinical experience for a new preputioplasty technique as circumcision alternative]. Binet A,François-Fiquet C,Bouche-Pillon M A Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthetique Surgery is required for phimosis with a contracted fibrous ring or when the medical treatment with steroids has been unsuccessful. Surgical teams often opt for circumcision when a conservative technique can be used. This surgery could have some psychologic consequences, and when the circumcision in not according to religious convictions, it cannot be live well for the patient and his family. Furthermore, some surgery procedures for prepuce conservation seem to give some unaesthesics aspects with cutaneous excess. The objective of this study was to evaluate our new preputioplasty technique according to the initial diagnosis (phimosis with scarred foreskin or long and narrow foreskin), in situation where circumcision is required currently. Outcome evaluated was: easy and painless foreskin retraction, absence of postoperative phimosis as well as cosmetic aspects of the penis. In this study, 90 children benefited from this technique and subsequent follow-up. The mean age was 7.9 years for the 32 children in the sclerotic phimosis group and 6.8 years for the 58 children in the long and narrow foreskin group. We observed complete foreskin retraction without any recurrence in 100% of children with a phimosis resistant to medical treatment which consisted of progressive foreskin retraction and application of topical steroids, with a mean postoperative follow-up of 1.4 years. Results showed an excellent cosmetic aspect of the penis with absence of enlarged foreskin in all our subjects. This study underlines the relevance of this surgical technique. 10.1016/j.anplas.2015.01.003
    Structural analysis of the phimotic prepuce in patients with failed topical treatment compared with untreated phimosis. Favorito Luciano Alves,Balassiano Carlos M,Rosado João Pedro,Cardoso Luiz Eduardo M,Costa Waldemar Silva,Sampaio Francisco José Barcellos International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology OBJECTIVES:To evaluate histological alterations in prepuce of patients with phimosis submitted to topic treatment with betamethasone in association with hyaluronidase. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We studied sixty patients (mean age 4.5), presenting true phimosis and treated with a topical treatment with betamethasone cream (0.2%) + hyaluronidase. The parents of seven of these patients opted for circumcision (control group). The other fifty-three patients were submitted to clinical treatment. The samples were stained with Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin (analysis of the elastic fibers) and Picro-Sirius Red, for analysis of the collagen. The volumetric density of the elastic fibers was determined by stereological methods. RESULTS:Only eight (15 %) of the fifty-three patients submitted to topical treatment presented failure, being indicated for circumcision (histological analysis). We observed an increase of the collagen type III of the patients submitted to topical treatment. The quantification showed a reduction of the volumetric density of the prepuce's elastic fibers of the patients submitted to the cream treatment, when compared to the control group (p = 0.056). The volumetric density of the elastic fibers of the prepuce at the group not submitted to topical treatment showed an average of 14.60% (11.06 to 21.64%); in the group submitted to the cream treatment, the volumetric density of the elastic fibers of the prepuce showed an average of 10.34% (3.45 to 17.9%). CONCLUSION:The topical treatment of phimosis with betamethasone 0.2 % + hyaluronidase had a success rate of 85 %. Patients with failure of the topical treatment with steroid had histological alterations in the prepuce. 10.1590/1677-553820133806802
    "Trident" preputial plasty for phimosis in childhood. Pedersini Pierluigi,Parolini Filippo,Bulotta Anna Lavinia,Alberti Daniele Journal of pediatric urology OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the functional and cosmetic result of modified-triple incision preputial plasty for surgical management of phimosis in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This prospective study involved all consecutive children (age 3-15) with phimosis, managed at our Institution in a one-year period. All patients unable to retract the foreskin and symptomatic with episodes of posthitis or balanoposthitis or ballooning of the foreskin with voiding were initially included. After a two-month trial of topic corticosteroids treatment, for patients refractory to conservative ointment treatment, "trident" preputial plasty was offered. This procedure combines two lateral Z-plasty and one middle Y-V plasty. All the procedures were performed as a day care, in general anaesthesia by two senior surgeons. Outpatient follow-up controls were scheduled at 1 and 2 week, 1, 6 and 12 months after surgery, respectively. RESULTS:A total of 41 patient were enrolled. Mean operative time was 24 minutes (range 15-43). At 12-month follow-up, all but one patients (97.6%) was able to retract the prepuce. Cosmetic and functional results were satisfactory. CONCLUSION:In selected group of children with phimosis, the "trident" preputial plasty provided excellent cosmetic and functional result. Adequate retraction of the prepuce by the patients soon after surgery is mandatory. 10.1016/j.jpurol.2017.01.024
    Ultrastructural Analysis of the Foreskin in Patients With True Phimosis Treated or Not Treated With Topical Betamethasone and Hyaluronidase Ointment. Favorito Luciano Alves,Gallo Carla B M,Costa Waldemar S,Sampaio Francisco J B Urology OBJECTIVE:To evaluate, by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the possible alterations of the foreskin connective tissue in patients with true phimosis submitted to topical treatment with betamethasone and hyaluronidase ointment. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We studied 15 patients (mean 5.3 years old) submitted or not to topical application of betamethasone 0.2% and hyaluronidase cream. For qualitative analysis of the connective tissue, we studied 5 samples from each foreskin, with 2 mm length. The samples were submitted to fixation for SEM by immersing tissue fragments in a modified Karnovsky solution for 48 hours at 4°C. The obtained acellular preparations were then processed for high-vacuum SEM, and observations were performed on a LEO 435 (Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) scanning electron microscope with an acceleration voltage of 15 to 20 kV. RESULTS:Parents of 7 children did not agree with the clinical treatment and opted for circumcision directly. These patients served as the control group (nontreated). Eight patients submitted to topical treatment could not expose the glans and were referred for circumcision. In SEM, with a magnification of 5000×, we observed important differences in the organization of the collagen and elastic system fibers when comparing treated and nontreated patients with betamethasone and hyaluronidase. Treated patients presented a different organization of collagen with a clear decrease in the elastic system fibers. CONCLUSION:The treatment of phimosis with betamethasone + hyaluronidase showed changes in the structure of the foreskin with a decrease of elastic system fibers, which is characteristic of the healing processes. 10.1016/j.urology.2016.07.007
    Efficacy of topical steroid treatment in children with severe phimosis in China: A long-term single centre prospective study. Journal of paediatrics and child health AIM:To evaluate the efficacy of topical steroid (0.1% mometasone furoate) therapy and factors affecting long-term outcome of paediatric severe phimosis in China. METHODS:A total of 1550 patients with severe phimosis classified by Kikiros system were prospectively enrolled in the study from January 2016 to February 2020. They were prescribed with 0.1% mometasone furoate twice a day for 4 weeks. Patients were re-evaluated at the end of weeks 2, 4, 8 and 6 months follow-up. RESULTS:A total of 1499 patients completed the treatment, 71.1% responded at the end of week 4. The long-term success rate was 66.0% over a mean follow-up of 26.9 months. The success rate of grade 4 phimosis was significantly higher than that of grade 5 at 4, 8 weeks and 6 months (P = 0.005, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Patients with balanoposthitis had a poorer outcome compared with patients without symptoms and patients symptoms by prepuce ballooning or urinary tract infections (P < 0.001). Initial grade of 5 phimosis and symptom with balanoposthitis were independent risk factors for recurrence. All patients had no systemic side effects, 23 cases developed local erythema or burning sensation. CONCLUSION:Topical steroid (0.1% mometasone furoate) is an effective treatment for severe phimosis in children. The recurrence was related to the grade or symptoms of severe phimosis. 10.1111/jpc.15628
    High Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection of the Foreskin in Asymptomatic Men and Patients with Phimosis. Afonso Larissa A,Cordeiro Thaissa I,Carestiato Fernanda N,Ornellas Antonio Augusto,Alves Gilda,Cavalcanti Sílvia M B The Journal of urology PURPOSE:There has been increasing interest in understanding the natural history of HPV and the diseases that it causes in men. HPV infection is strongly associated with penile cancer, lack of neonatal circumcision and phimosis. We investigated the incidence of HPV infection in asymptomatic men and patients with phimosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We assessed 110 asymptomatic men and 30 patients who underwent circumcision due to phimosis. DNA was extracted from swabbed samples collected from asymptomatic men and from foreskin samples collected at circumcision. Polymerase chain reaction using consensus primers for detecting HPV-MY09/11 was performed to detect generic HPV DNA. HPV genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers for the E6 gene DNA sequences HPV6, HPV11, HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV45 and HPV58. RESULTS:HPV was present in 46.66% of patients with phimosis, of whom 50% had high risk HPV genotypes. Of asymptomatic cases 16.36% were HPV positive but only 1 sample showed high risk HPV. We detected a significantly high rate of HPV genital infection in patients presenting with phimosis compared with asymptomatic men (p = 0.00167). The prevalence of high risk HPV genotypes in patients with phimosis was also statistically significant (p = 0.0004). CONCLUSIONS:We found a robust association between phimosis and the genital HPV prevalence in men and a significant frequency of high risk HPV. Other studies are needed to investigate the occurrence of factors that can increase the incidence of penile carcinoma and determine its impact on female genital infection in cervical cancer. 10.1016/j.juro.2015.12.096
    [Surgical plane positioning with a disposable circumcision suture device for the treatment of phimosis and redundant prepuce]. Han You-Feng,Jiang He-Song,Wang Jiu-Lin,Chong Wu,Chen Hai,Xu Zhi-Peng,Chen Yun Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology OBJECTIVE:To investigate the clinical effects of circumcision by surgical plane positioning with a disposable circumcision suture device in the treatment of phimosis and redundant prepuce. METHODS:From September 2016 to June 2017, we treated 250 patients with phimosis or redundant prepuce, 127 by conventional circumcision (the control group) and the other 123 by surgical plane positioning with a disposable circumcision suture device (the observation group). We compared the operation time, intra-operative bleeding, preputial frenulum alignment, postoperative ecchymosis, and postoperative penile appearance between the two groups of patients. RESULTS:Compared with the controls, the patients in the observation group showed significantly longer operation time ([4.48 ± 1.18] vs [7.17 ± 1.42] min, P<0.05), lower rates of intra-operative frenulum bleeding (15.0% [19/127] vs 4.1% [5/123], P<0.05) and frenulum misalignment (26.8% [34/127] vs 0.8% [1/123], P<0.05), higher incidence of postoperative ecchymosis (41.7% [53/127] vs 21.1% [26/123], P<0.05), and higher satisfaction of the patients with the postoperative penile appearance (92.9% [18/127] vs 98.4% [121/123], P<0.05). However, no statistically significant difference was found between the control and observation groups in intra-operative non-frenulum bleeding (4.7% [6/127] vs 1.6% [2/123], P = 0.164). CONCLUSIONS:Circumcision by surgical plane positioning with a disposable circumcision suture device can effectively avoid preputial frenulum misalignment, reduce intra-operative bleeding, and improve postoperative penile appearance.
    Comparative efficacy and safety of different circumcisions for patients with redundant prepuce or phimosis: A network meta-analysis. Huang Chuiguo,Song Pan,Xu Changbao,Wang Ruofan,Wei Lei,Zhao Xinghua International journal of surgery (London, England) BACKGROUND:Phimosis and redundant prepuce are defined as the inability of the foreskin to be retracted behind the glans penis in uncircumcised males. To synthesize the evidence and provide the hierarchies of different circumcisions for phimosis and redundant prepuce, we performed an overall network meta-analysis (NMA) based on their comparative efficacy and safety. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Wan Fang, VIP, CNKI and CBM database were researched from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for redundant prepuce or phimosis. We conducted the direct and indirect comparisons by aggregate data drug information system (ADDIS) software. Moreover, consistency models were applied to assess the differences among the male circumcision practices, and the ranks based on probabilities of intervention for the different endpoints were performed. Node-splitting analysis was used to test inconsistency. RESULTS:Eighteen RCTs were included with 6179 participants. Compared with the conventional circumcision(CC), two new styles of circumcisions, the disposable circumcision suture device(DCSD) and Shang Ring circumcision(SRC), provided significantly shorter operation time[DCSD: standardized mean difference (SMD) = -20.60, 95% credible interval(CI) (-23.38, -17.82); SRC: SMD = -19.16, 95%CI (-21.86, -16.52)], shorter wound healing time [DCSD:SMD = -4.19, 95%CI (-8.24,-0.04); SRC: SMD = 4.55, 95%CI (1.62, 7.57); ] and better postoperative penile appearance [DCSD: odds ratios odds ratios (OR) = 11.42, 95%CI (3.60, 37.68); SRC: OR = 3.85,95%CI (1.29, 12.79)]. Additionally, DCSD showed a lower adverse events rate than other two treatments. However, no significant difference was shown in all surgeries for 24 h postoperative pain score. Node-splitting analysis showed that no significant inconsistency was existed (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Based on the results of NMA, DCSD may be a most effective and safest choice for phimosis and redundant prepuce. DCSD has the advantages of a shorter operation time, better postoperative penile appearance, fewer complication and shorter wound healing time. However, with the limitations of our study, additional multi-center RCTs are needed to evaluate the outcomes. 10.1016/j.ijsu.2017.04.060
    Save the foreskin: Outcomes of preputioplasty in the treatment of childhood phimosis. Hotonu Sesi,Mohamed Ahmed,Rajimwale Ashok,Gopal Milan The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland BACKGROUND:Symptomatic phimosis is a common childhood urology complaint. Circumcision was traditionally the treatment of choice, but its popularity in cases of non-scarred phimosis has been superseded by more conservative methods like preputioplasty. We sought to examine outcomes of preputioplasty for the treatment of non-scarred pathological phimosis in two UK paediatric surgery tertiary centres. METHODS:Retrospective case series selecting cases performed in both departments over a 4 year period (January 2012-December 2015). INCLUSION CRITERIA:non-scarred pathological phimosis treated with preputioplasty. EXCLUSION CRITERIA:diffuse scarring of foreskin or presence of balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO), preputioplasty performed as part of hypospadias repair. Outcome measure was treatment success as evidenced by fully retractile prepuce at follow up. Follow up occurred between 3 and 24 months. RESULTS:We identified 126 patients, 6 were excluded due to the above criteria. Median age was 13.4 years (range 10 months-18 years). Median follow up was 13 months (range 3-24 months). 115 patients (96%) had successful treatment as evidenced by satisfactory post-operative cosmesis and complete resolution of phimosis at follow up. Recurrence of phimosis occurred in 5 patients (4%). Mean time of recurrence was 6 months, with a median age of recurrence of 15.3 years (range 10.7-16.7 years). All patients with recurrence were successfully treated with circumcision. CONCLUSION:Foreskin conserving methods like preputioplasty are a valid option in the treatment of non-scarred pathological phimosis. 10.1016/j.surge.2019.08.004
    [A comparative study of three different circumcision devices for redundant prepuce and phimosis]. Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology OBJECTIVE:To compare the clinical effects of disposable titanium nail circumcision stapler (TNCS), one-off circumcision stapler (Shang Ring) and disposable double-handle circumcision suture device (DHCSD) in the treatment of redundant prepuce and phimosis. METHODS:We reviewed the clinical data on 150 cases of redundant prepuce or phimosis treated with the TNCS (n = 50), DHCSD (n = 50) or Shang Ring (n = 50) from September 2018 to July 2020. We compared the operation time, intraoperative blood loss, wound healing time, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores during and at 1 hour and 7 days after operation, postoperative complications and the patients' satisfaction with postoperative penile appearance among the three groups. RESULTS:The operation time was significantly longer (P < 0.05) but the wound healing time remarkably shorter (P < 0.05) in the TNCS and DHCSD groups than in the Shang Ring group. The intraoperative blood loss was markedly less in the TNCS and Shang Ring groups than in the DHCSD group (P < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was observed in the patients' satisfaction with postoperative penile appearance among the three groups (P > 0.05). The VAS scores during and at 1 hour and 7 days after operation and the incidence rate of postoperative complications were significantly higher in the Shang Ring and DHCSD groups than in the TNCS group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The disposable titanium nail circumcision stapler is superior to disposable double-handle circumcision suture device and Shang Ring in the treatment of redundant prepuce and phimosis and deserves clinical promotion and application.?
    Retractable foreskin reduces urinary tract infections in infant boys with vesicoureteral reflux. Holzman Sarah A,Chamberlin Joshua D,Davis-Dao Carol A,Le Dao T,Delgado Vincent A,Macaraeg Amanda M,Dorgalli Crystal,Chuang Kai-Wen,Stephany Heidi A,Wehbi Elias J,Khoury Antoine E Journal of pediatric urology BACKGROUND:Uncircumcised males are at higher risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the first year of life and circumcision is recommended as an option for males with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Uncircumcised males treated successfully with topical corticosteroid cream have decreased risk of UTI but the role of preputial management has not been explored previously in males with VUR. OBJECTIVE:We hypothesized that among uncircumcised boys with VUR, those with retractable foreskin would be at reduced risk of UTI compared to those with non-retractable foreskin. STUDY DESIGN:Males less than one year of age with primary VUR were prospectively enrolled. Patients with concomitant urologic diagnoses or less than one month of follow-up were excluded. Phimosis severity was graded on a 0-5 scale. Primary outcome was UTI during follow-up. Patients were divided into three groups for analysis: circumcised, low grade phimosis (grades 0-3) and high grade phimosis (grades 4-5). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate UTI risk adjusting for risk factors. RESULTS:One-hundred and five boys (24 circumcised and 81 uncircumcised) with VUR were included. Median age at enrollment was 4.4 months (IQR 2.2-6.6) and median follow-up was 1.1 years (IQR 0.53-2.9). Males with phimosis grades 4-5 had a higher UTI rate (29%) compared to phimosis grade 0-3 (4%). Based on Kaplan-Meier curves, boys with initial phimosis grades 4-5 were significantly more likely to develop a UTI than boys who were circumcised or had phimosis grades 0-3 (p = 0.005). On multivariable analysis, boys with phimosis grades 4-5 were significantly more likely to develop UTI when compared to boys with grades 0-3 phimosis (HR = 8.4, 95% CI: 1.1-64, p = 0.04). DISCUSSION:Males with a retractable prepuce had a lower UTI risk compared to males with non-retractable prepuce (high grade phimosis) and this remained significant on multivariable analysis. This is concordant with prior studies demonstrating that a retractable prepuce is associated with decreased UTI risk. Limitations of our study include using phimosis grade at time of study enrollment and heterogenous prophylactic antibiotic use in our population. CONCLUSIONS:Retractable foreskin reduces UTI risk in uncircumcised boys less than one year of age with VUR. Medical phimosis treatment to achieve a retractable prepuce offers an alternative and less invasive modality to reduce UTI risk in males with VUR. 10.1016/j.jpurol.2021.01.007
    Prevalence of phimosis and foreskin sliding abnormalities in male adolescents and their correlation with later onset of first sexual intercourse. La Pera Giuseppe,De Luca Francesco,Guerani Attilio,Palmieri Alessandro,Franco Giorgio Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES:The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of andrological abnormalities, such as phimosis and foreskin sliding abnormalities among male adolescents, and if these might interfere with sexuality, leading to a later onset of sexual experiences. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Between April and May 2015 a prevention campaign in andrology was conducted in an area surrounding Rome, Ostia and the Ladispoli area, among 15-19 year-old students. The screening consisted of a frontal lesson with the students in order to explain and raise the awareness of the most common andrological abnormalities and diseases. Among the routine anamnestic questions, three additional questions were submitted to 18-year-old boys: "Have you ever had sexual intercourse?", "How old were you when you had your first sexual intercourse?" and "Have you consulted a health professional about your genitals?" Finally a detailed clinical examination was performed and the outcome sent to the family and to the General Practitioner (GP). RESULTS:A total of 552 high school students were evaluated. Out of them 131 (23.7%) were at least 18 years old. Among these, 79 (60.3%) said that they had already had full sexual intercourse. The phimosis and foreskin sliding abnormalities had a prevalence of 12.9% within the 18-year-old students, with a significant prevalence among those who hadn't had any sexual intercourse at all, 21.1% vs 7.5% p = 0.023. The age of the complete first sexual experience in the circumcised young men was the same as those without phimosis; 89% of the boys with phimosis hadn't had an andrological examination in the previous years. CONCLUSIONS:Male adolescents with phimosis or preputial sliding abnormalities tend to have a late onset of sexual experiences compared to same aged boys without phimosis. These data support the urgent need of an andrological consultation for all boys at the beginning of, and during, their adolescent period because genital abnormalities may interfere with sexuality. Finally, in order not to confuse effects with causes, we suggest matching a routine genital physical examination in all studies dealing with sexual psychological aspects of male adolescents. 10.4081/aiua.2017.4.310
    [Circumcision versus the foreskin-deglove plus shaft-fix procedure for phimosis or redundant prepuce in obese adult patients]. Chen Xing-yi,Wen Xiao-fei,Li Rong-bing,Zhou Lan,Sun Xu,Wang Yue-min Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology OBJECTIVE:To compare the clinical effects of circumcision and the foreskin-deglove plus shaft-fix (FDSF) procedure in the treatment of phimosis or redundant prepuce in obese adult males (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 28 kg/m²). METHODS:Forty-four obese adult men with phimosis or redundant prepuce underwent circumcision (n = 24) or FDSF (n = 20) according to their own wishes. The patients in the circumcision and FDSF groups were aged (26.38 ± 4.24) and (26.90 ± 3.14) years, with BMIs of (27.77 ± 0.77) and (28.07 ± 2.28) kg/m² and penis lengths of (3.51 ± 0.46) and (3.50 ± 0.59) cm, respectively. The operations were performed under local anesthesia with lidocaine plus ropivacaine mesylate. RESULTS:The operation time of circumcision was (28.04 ± 2.65) min and that of FDSF was (45.45 ± 3.49) min. At 6 months after surgery, normal penile erection was found in all the patients, the penis length was significantly longer in the FDSF than in the circumcision group ([5.01 ± 0.73] vs [3.70 ± 0.47] cm) , and the rate of satisfaction with penile appearance was markedly higher in the former than in the latter group (3.25 ± 0.71 vs 2.83 ± 0.56). CONCLUSION:The foreskin-deglove plus shaft-fix procedure under local anesthesia with lidocaine and ropivacaine mesylate may achieve desirable penile erection and appearance in the treatment of phimosis or redundant prepuce in obese adult patients.
    Prepuce sparing: Use of Z-plasty for treatment of phimosis and scarred foreskin. Benson Michael,Hanna Moneer K Journal of pediatric urology INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES:The desire to preserve the prepuce is often based on cultural norms. Recently, the concept of "genital autonomy" has been invoked to delay circumcision (or any genital altering procedure) until the individual reaches maturity and can make his or her own decision. However, some uncircumcised boys develop one or more episodes of balanitis resulting in scarring of the prepuce and pathologic phimosis which is difficult to treat. Herein we report on the management of severe phimosis and preputial scarring using preputial Z-plasties. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We reviewed the records of 28 patients, aged 3-12 years who underwent prepuce-sparing surgery within the previous 5 years with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. All patients were uncircumcised, with severe phimosis defined as a tight, pinpoint opening. All patients failed to respond to 6-10 weeks of betamethasone treatment. All parents requested preservation of as much of the foreskin as possible. RESULTS:All patients healed satisfactorily, without infection, hematoma, or flap necrosis. One child developed mild scarring which responded to local steroid application. At follow-up evaluation, ranging from 6 to 24 months, the prepuce was fully retractable in all patients (Fig.). CONCLUSIONS:Excision of the scarred preputial ring results in a circular suture line, which is in essence a straight line, curved and connected at each end, and this is likely to contract over time. The principle of Z-plasty can be exploited to elongate and interrupt the straight line, preventing contracture thus widening and sparing the prepuce. 10.1016/j.jpurol.2018.04.031
    Acute obstructive uropathy--a rare complication of circumcision. Craig J C,Grigor W G,Knight J F European journal of pediatrics We report a rare complication of ritual circumcision in an 8-week-old boy. He presented 1 week after the procedure with reduced urine output, a grossly distended bladder and marked bilateral hydroureteronephrosis on ultrasonography. The acute partial urinary obstruction was due to the dressing which was applied after surgical removal of the foreskin and to oedema of the glans. He had abnormal renal function (creatinine 85 mumol/l, urea 8.5 mmol/l) and a hyperkalaemic metabolic acidosis with hyponatraemia (Na 127 mmol/l, K 6.9 mmol/l, HCO3 16 mmol/l), which were attributed to obstructive uropathy. Because of prolonged secondary bladder dysfunction he required urinary catheterisation for 1 week. There was significant post obstructive diuresis and parenteral fluid therapy was given for 7 days. Whilst urinary retention is a well recognized complication of circumcision, this is the first report of significant obstructive uropathy and renal impairment due to surgical excision of the foreskin.
    Safety and efficacy of the PrePex device for rapid scale-up of male circumcision for HIV prevention in resource-limited settings. Bitega Jean Paul,Ngeruka Muyenzi Leon,Hategekimana Theobald,Asiimwe Anita,Binagwaho Agnes Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) OBJECTIVE:To assess the safety and efficacy of the PrePex device for nonsurgical circumcision in adult males as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention program in Rwanda. METHODS:Single-center 6-week noncontrolled study in which healthy men underwent circumcision using the PrePex device, which employs fitted rings to clamp the foreskin, leading to distal necrosis. In the first phase of the study, the feasibility of the procedure was tested on 5 subjects in a sterile environment; in the main phase, an additional 50 subjects were circumcised in a nonsterile setting by physicians or a nurse. Outcome measures included the rate of successful circumcision, time to complete healing, pain, and adverse events. RESULTS:In the feasibility phase, all 5 subjects achieved complete circumcision without adverse events. In the main phase, all 50 subjects achieved circumcision with 1 case of diffuse edema after device removal, which resolved with minimal intervention. Pain was minimal except briefly during device removal (day 7 after placement in most cases). The entire procedure was bloodless, requiring no anesthesia, no suturing, and no sterile settings. Subjects had no sick/absent days associated with the procedure. Median time for complete healing was 21 days after device removal. There were no instances of erroneous placement and no mechanical problems with the device. CONCLUSION:The PrePex device was safe and effective for nonsurgical adult male circumcision without anesthesia or sterile settings and may be useful in mass circumcision programs to reduce the risk of HIV infection, particularly in resource-limited settings. 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182354e65
    A New Technique to Map the Lymphatic Distribution and Alignment of the Penis. Long Liu Yan,Qiang Pan Fu,Ling Tao,Wei Zhang Yan,Long Zhang Yu,Shan Meng,Rong Li Shi,Li Li Hong Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) The present study was to examine the distribution of lymphatic vessels in the penis of normal adult males, which could provide an anatomical basis for improvement of incisions in penile lengthening surgery, and may also help to prevent postoperative refractory edema. Thirteen normal adult male volunteers were recruited for this study. Contrast agent was injected subcutaneously in the foreskin of the penis, and after two minutes magnetic resonance lymphangiography (MRL) was performed. The acquired magnetic resonance images were analyzed to determine the changes in the number and diameter of lymphatic vessels in different parts of the penis. Maximum intensity projections (MIP) and materializes interactive medical image control system (MIMICS) were applied to analyze the overall distribution of lymphatic vessels in the penis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the lymphatic vessels were in conspicuous contrast with surrounding tissues and could be clearly identified. Penile lymphatic vessels were clearly visible in the root of the penis. At the junction of the penis and the abdominal wall, all lymphatic vessels were found to be concentrated in the dorsal part of the penis. MIP two-dimensional reconstruction showed that the overall distribution of relatively large lymphatic vessels in the dorsal and ventral parts of the penis could be seen clearly on bilateral 45° position, but not inside the abdominal wall because some of lymphatic vessels were overlapped by other tissues in the abdomen. MIMICS three-dimensional reconstruction was able to reveal the overall spatial distribution of lymphatic vessels in the penis from any angle. The reconstruction results showed that there were 1-2 main lymphatic vessels on the root of dorsal penis, which coursed along the cavernous to the first physiological curvature of the penis. Lymphatic vessels merged on both sides of the ventral penis. At the root of the penis, lymphatic vessels gradually coursed to the dorsal surface of the penis and folded at the abdominal wall to the outside, and finally merged into the inguinal lymph nodes. The changes in distribution, number and diameter of the lymphatic vessels in the penis were observed by MRI. MIP and MIMICS reconstructions directly revealed the anatomical features of penile lymphatic vessels such as spatial distribution, overall alignment, and the relations to adjacent structures, drainage and reflux. The study will provide the anatomical basis for penile surgery, penile lymphatic reflux disorders caused by trauma or lymphatic vessels obstruction, and lymph node metastasis in penile cancer. 10.1002/ar.23094
    A prospective evaluation of plastibell® circumcision in older children. Bastos Netto José Murillo,Gonçalves de Araújo José,Noronha Marcos Flávio de Almeida,Passos Bruno Rezende,Lopes Humberto Elias,Bessa José de,Figueiredo André Avarese International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE:Circumcision is one of the oldest surgical procedures and one of the most frequently performed worldwide. It can be done by many different techniques. This prospective series presents the results of Plastibell® circumcision in children older than 2 years of age, evaluating surgical duration, immediate and late complications, time for plastic device separation and factors associated with it. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We prospectively analyzed 119 children submitted to Plastic Device Circumcision with Plastibell® by only one surgeon from December 2009 to June 2011. In all cases the surgery was done under general anesthesia associated with dorsal penile nerve block. Before surgery length of the penis and latero-lateral diameter of the glans were measured. Surgical duration, time of Plastibell® separation and use of analgesic medication in the post-operative period were evaluated. Patients were followed on days 15, 45, 90 and 120 after surgery. RESULTS:Age at surgery varied from 2 to 12.5 (5.9 ± 2.9) years old. Mean surgical time was 3.7 ± 2.0 minutes (1.9 to 9 minutes). Time for plastic device separation ranged from 6 to 26 days (mean: 16 ± 4.2 days), being 14.8 days for children younger than 5 years of age and 17.4 days for those older than 5 years of age (p < 0.0001). The diameter of the Plastibell® does not interfered in separations time (p = 0,484). Late complications occurred in 32 (26.8%) subjects, being the great majority of low clinical significance, especially prepucial adherences, edema of the mucosa and discrete hypertrophy of the scar, all resolving with clinical treatment. One patient still using diaper had meatus stenosis and in one case the Plastibell® device stayed between the glans and the prepuce and needed to be removed manually. CONCLUSIONS:Circumcision using a plastic device is a safe, quick and an easy technique with low complications, that when occur are of low clinical importance and of easy resolution. The mean time for the device to fall is shorter in children under 6 years of age and it is not influenced by the diameter of the device. 10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2013.04.14
    Clinical application of a new device for minimally invasive circumcision. Peng Yi-Feng,Cheng Yue,Wang Guo-Yao,Wang Suo-Qun,Jia Chao,Yang Ben-Hai,Zhu Ru,Jian Shu-Chuan,Li Qing-Wen,Geng Da-Wei Asian journal of andrology AIM:To study the clinical effects of a disposable circumcision device in treatment of male patients of different ages with either phimosis or excess foreskin. METHODS:One thousand two hundred patients between the age of 5 and 95 years underwent circumcision using this procedure in the 2-year period between October 2005 and September 2007. Of these cases, 904 had excess foreskin and 296 were cases of phimosis. RESULTS:In 96.33% of the cases the incision healed, leaving a minimal amount of the inner foreskin with no scarring and producing good cosmetic results. There were no incidents of device dislocation or damage to the frenulum. The average operative time was 2.5 min for excess foreskin, and 3.5 min for phimosis. During the 7 days of wearing the device, mild to moderate edema occurred in 10.08% of cases with excess foreskin and in 2.58% of those with phimosis. Edema in the frenulum was seen in 1.67% of patients, and only 0.67% had an infection of the incision. A total of 86.25% of patients reported pain due to penile erection. After removal of the device, 0.58% of the cases had minimal bleeding around the incision, and 2.42% had wound dehiscence. CONCLUSION:The new device can be applied to an overwhelming majority of patients with phimosis and excess foreskin. This technique is relatively simple to perform, and patients who underwent this surgery had very few complications. Antibiotics were not required and patients reported less pain than those who were circumcised using conventional methods. Circumcision with this device requires minimal tissue manipulation, and is quicker and safer than circumcision using conventional techniques. 10.1111/j.1745-7262.2008.00411.x
    A Comparative Study on the Clinical Efficacy of Two Different Disposable Circumcision Suture Devices in Adult Males. Shen Junwen,Shi Jihan,Gao Jianguo,Wang Ning,Tang Jianer,Yu Bin,Wang Weigao,Wang Rongjiang Urology journal PURPOSE:We evaluated the safety and efficacy of two different kinds of disposable circumcision suture devices in adult men. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Adult male patients (n = 179; mean age: 23.7 years) with redundant prepuce and/or phimosis were included in a clinical trial from July 2015 to August 2016. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group A using the Langhe disposable circumcision suture device (n = 89), and group B using the Daming disposable circumcision suture device (n = 94). RESULTS:Intraoperative and postoperative bleeding were more serious in the group A of disposable circumcision suture device compared with the group B of disposable circumcision suture device (4.21 ± 1.31 ml) versus (2.56 ± 1.45 ml). Patients in the group B of disposable circumcision suture device had a longer swelling time (group A versus group B: 11.7 ± 0.9 days versus 14.5 ± 1.4 days), the postoperative pain score in the 7 days after surgery (group A versus group B: 2.9 ± 0.9 versus 3.8 ± 1.5), and higher postoperative infection rate (group A versus group B: 4.7% versus 13.8%), the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:postoperative complications of the two kinds of disposable circumcision suture devices are different. We should pay attention to the risk of postoperative bleeding when the patients use the Langhe disposable circumcision suture device, while the patients who use the Langhe disposable circumcision suture device will have a longer healing time, and postoperative pain and the risk of infection cannot be ignored after the surgery.
    The prepuce and circumcision: dual application as a graft. Aslan Gürcan,Sarifakioglu Nedim,Tuncali Doğan,Terzioglu Ahmet,Bingul Ferruh Annals of plastic surgery Circumcision is probably one of the first plastic surgery operations that has been used for centuries. The aim of this study was to apply the bilamellar tissue (skin and mucosa) obtained from circumcision to various defects and to evaluate the clinical results. During the last 2 years, 19 patients have been operated, and the skin and mucosal grafts were applied individually or simultaneously. The etiology was trauma for the whole series of patients (12 burns and 7 strap injuries). In 15 patients the defect was localized to the hand whereas in 4 patients it was located on the dorsum of the foot. In 10 patients, mucosa and skin graft were applied to the same defect as a single, compact layer. In 9 patients, skin and mucosa were applied separately to multiple defects. Using these methods, comparative evaluation of the consequences of prepuce mucosal and skin graft applications could be made. Four obvious differences were observed: (1) in mucosal grafts, early graft edema that resolves spontaneously after 48 hours; (2) better adaptation of the mucosal grafts to the recipient bed; (3) hyperpigmentation in both graft types, but the skin part was slightly darker than the mucosa; and (4) less secondary contraction was seen in mucosal grafts. The results were evaluated in light of the authors' knowledge of the prepuce as an alternative full-thickness donor site. The relative differences in the dual anatomic structure of mucosa and skin, and the role of circumcision as a medical, cultural, and religious application in some societies are discussed. 10.1097/01.sap.0000100897.95264.d3
    Histologic characteristics of the human prepuce pertaining to its clinical behavior as a dual graft. Tuncali Dogan,Bingul Ferruh,Talim Beril,Surucu Selcuk,Sahin Firdevs,Aslan Gurcan Annals of plastic surgery The aim of this study was to investigate the unique histologic structure of the normal human prepuce, paying particular attention to the resemblance and dissimilarities between the inner (ie, mucosa) and outer (ie, skin) layers. Histologic sections were stained using hematoxylin-eosin and Van Gieson stains. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate the ultrastructure. Dense capillary networks can be observed in both the upper and lower dermal zones. The dermis lacks a dense collagenous zone. Melanocytes could not be observed in the mucosa. Elastin fibers and bundles were very abundant and dense. Early edema formation can be explained by the loose character of the dermal structure. Better graft "take" in mucosal grafts may be the result of the dense vascular dermal network. Mild hyperpigmentation can be explained by the limited number of melanocytes. However, this can also be observed in mucosal grafts, despite the absence of melanocytes. This may be solely the result of inflammatory hyperpigmentation, which can be seen in skin grafts. The abundance of elastin fibers in the prepuce may be the reason behind the superior wound contraction inhibition.
    A report of 918 cases of circumcision with the Shang Ring: comparison between children and adults. Wu XiaoJun,Wang Yongquan,Zheng Ji,Shen Wenhao,Yan Jun-an,Ji Huixiang,Li Xin,Zhang Heng,Zhou Zhansong Urology OBJECTIVE:To compare the clinical outcome and surgical complications in circumcision using the Shang Ring between children and adults. METHODS:Circumcision using the Shang Ring was performed on 702 adults and 216 children. Comparative analysis on indices including operative time, healing time, postoperative edema, postoperative bleeding, postoperative pain, and postoperative infection was conducted. RESULTS:When the ring was removed after surgery, the pain was tolerable in the adult group, but more substantial in the child group. The optimal time for removing the ring was 2 weeks after surgery. CONCLUSION:Special attention to the pain management is needed when using the Shang Ring to treat redundant foreskin or phimosis in children. The timing of the ring removal is critical to avoiding complications. Surgeons' knowledge in urology is also critical to the clinical outcome. 10.1016/j.urology.2012.11.046
    A Modified Disposable Circumcision Suture Device with Application of Plastic Sheet to Avoid Severe Bleeding After Circumcision. Urology journal PURPOSE:To evaluate the effectiveness of a modified disposable circumcision suture device (DCSD) with application of plastic sheet to avoid severe bleeding after circumcision and compare the surgical effects and other postoperative complications of two DCSDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 943 excess foreskin patients from January 2018 to January 2020 who underwent circumcision using two different DCSDs were recruited. Preoperative characteristics (patient age, height and weight), main surgical outcomes (surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, incision healing time) and postoperative complications (postoperative hemorrhage and hematoma rate, edema rate, incision infection rate, residual staples rate) were collected and analyzed. Patients' "satisfaction" or "dissatisfaction" was also investigated. RESULTS:Preoperative characteristics showed no significant statistical difference. The modified DCSD group has a lower intraoperative bleeding, postoperative hemorrhage or hematoma rate and residual staples rate compared with the conventional group. Incision healing time and incision infection rate between the two groups were similar. Nevertheless, conventional group has a shorter surgical time, a lower edema rate and a higher satisfaction rate. CONCLUSION:The modified DCSD with application of plastic sheet can avoid severe bleeding after circumcision effectively and can be served as a new choice for circumcision. 10.22037/uj.v19i.6977
    Nerve-sparing circumcision: Myth or reality? Cakici Ozer Ural,Pulular Ayse Gul,Canakli Fatih Journal of pediatric urology BACKGROUND:Circumcision is a common procedure. Recently, tissue-sparing approaches have become a matter of interest, and a nerve-sparing approach is described in adults. Although circumcision is common in the practice, the nerve-sparing approach has not been evaluated in the pediatric age group. OBJECTIVE:To give a contemporary evaluation of the preputium histology, challenge the phenomenon of a genuine nerve-sparing approach, and report the results of a prospective cohort contrasting the tissue-sparing fine dissection technique to the regular sleeve circumcision in the pediatric age group. STUDY DESIGN:A total of 20 healthy children between 7 and 12 years of age were enrolled in the study. All circumcisions were carried out for religious purposes, and children with any anatomical anomaly, skin lesions, or Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans were not included in the study. The first 10 children underwent regular sleeve circumcision, while the latter 10 children underwent tissue-sparing fine dissection modification of the sleeve technique. All materials obtained from the circumcision were examined by a single pathologist, and relevant tissue structures were counted and compared between the groups. RESULTS:Both techniques were satisfactory in terms of final cosmetic results, without significant complications, such as bleeding, massive edema, iatrogenic chordee, or unacceptable cosmetics. None of the children required readmission or medical intervention other than analgesics and topical moisturizing creams. Preservation of all nervous system structures, including the receptors, appeared to be not possible with macroscopic dissection techniques due to micrometer scale depth of the touch receptors. Nerve trunks were also located in less than 1-mm depth. The tissue-sparing technique could preserve significantly more vascular structures, nerve trunks, and Pacinian Corpuscles, which can be a matter of further long-term research. CONCLUSION:We propose the term "tissue-sparing" instead of "nerve-sparing" for the available techniques. The tissue-sparing technique did not affect the clinical outcomes and the postoperative course in our study. However, it showed to be superior in terms of preserving the vascular structures, nerve trunks, and Pacinian Corpuscles. 10.1016/j.jpurol.2020.11.040
    [A novel disposable ring versus the suture device in circumcision]. Zhao Yong-Jiu,Zhan Peng-Cheng,Chen Qiang,Cheng Wei,Ye Fu-Zeng,Wang Yi-Shui,Wang Jun-Jun,Tang Zhong-Mu Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology OBJECTIVE:To investigate the clinical effect of a novel disposable ring versus that of the suture device in circumcision for redundant prepuce and phimosis. METHODS:We randomly assigned 470 male patients with redundant prepuce or phimosis to receive circumcision with a novel disposable ring (the DR group, n = 235) or the suture device (the SD group, n = 235) and compared the operation time, intraoperative blood loss, pain scores, wound healing time, and postoperative complications and penile appearance between the two groups of patients. RESULTS:All the operations were completed smoothly. Compared with the SD group, the DR group showed significantly shorter operation time ([7.49 ± 1.84] vs [3.83 ± 0.42] min, P <0. 05), less intraoperative blood loss ([3.34 ± 2.59] vs [2.41 ± 1.01] ml, P <0.05), lower intraoperative pain score (0.57 ± 0.76 vs 0.20 ± 0.47, P <0.05) and 6-hour postoperative pain score (3.42 ± 1.12 vs 0.48 ± 0.94, P <0.05), shorter wound healing time ([12.05 ± 2.80] vs [7.79 ± 1.65] d, P <0.05), lower incidence rates of postoperative glans congestion or edema (36.17% [85/235] vs 2.56% [6/235], P <0.05), dysuria or strenuous urination (34.04% [80/235] vs 2.13% [5/235], P <0.05) and bleeding or hematoma (5.11% [12/235] vs 1.28% [3/235], P <0.05), and higher satisfaction with postoperative penile appearance (90.6% [213/235] vs 95.8% [228/235], P <0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the SD and DR groups in the pain scores at the sixth night after operation (1.31 ± 0.96 vs 1.34 ± 1.07, P >0.05) or while the staples scraping the underpants or at the ring removal (3.49 ± 1.22 vs 3.36 ± 1.41, P >0.05). No obvious postoperative infection or delayed healing was observed except for 3 cases of wound dehiscence (1 in the DR and 2 in the SD group) and 8 cases of delayed removal of the staples in the SD group. CONCLUSIONS:The novel disposable ring, with its advantages of short operation time, less bleeding and pain, good penile appearance, high safety, and simple operation, is obviously superior to the suture device in circumcision and deserves to be applied and popularized clinically. .
    Megaprepuce: presentation of a modified surgical technique with excellent cosmetic and functional results. Hirsch K,Schwaiger B,Kraske S,Wullich B Journal of pediatric urology OBJECTIVE:Congenital megaprepuce is a malformation consisting of a great redundancy of the inner preputial skin over a penis with normal shaft and glans and is combined with a severe phimosis. Patients suffer from difficulties in voiding because the urine is trapped in the large dome-shaped megaprepuce. We describe a modification of the surgical technique of reconstructing a megaprepuce initially presented by Leao et al. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed 7 patients aged 6-53 months (mean age 17 months, 6 were younger than 18 months) who underwent congenital megaprepuce repair between 02/2014 and 05/2018 in our institution. All these otherwise healthy children suffering from difficulties in voiding and reporting genital ballooning during micturition and urinary retention were referred to our hospital. In all cases, parents needed to express the trapped urine. Four of these patients additionally showed a glanular hypospadias, another one a distal penile hypospadias. In addition to the repair of the megaprepuce, six patients needed correction of a penile curvature, five of whom needed correction of the chordee and one a corporoplasty (Schröder-Essed). The patient showing the distal penile hypospadias additionally underwent hypospadias repair. During the follow-up, we evaluated the cosmetic result and complications such as secondary concealed penis, difficulties in voiding, urinary retention, and urinary infections. RESULTS:Mean follow-up was 18 months. All patients following surgery showed normal voiding without urinary retention or urinary infections and good cosmetic results resembling a circumcised penis in appearance without reconcealment. No intraoperative complications occurred. One patient had a scrotal hematoma postoperatively. Mild transient edema of the penis was seen in all patients, which disappeared spontaneously within one week after surgery. CONCLUSION:Our surgical approach is a safe and relatively simple procedure with a low rate of complications, good cosmetic results, and functional outcome. Whether the hypospadias associated with ventral curvature was a coincidence or part of the disease pattern remains unclear but will probably be the object of further investigations. 10.1016/j.jpurol.2019.05.018
    Circumcision devices versus standard surgical techniques in adolescent and adult male circumcisions. Hohlfeld Ameer,Ebrahim Sumayyah,Shaik Muhammed Zaki,Kredo Tamara The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:Medical circumcisions are among the most common surgical procedures performed in males. The usual indications are phimosis (inability to completely retract the foreskin and expose the glans due to a congenital or acquired constriction of the prepuce), paraphimosis (when the foreskin is not pulled back over the glans after retraction resulting in a tight constricting band which causes swelling of the distal penis and acute discomfort), balanoposthitis (erythema and edema of the prepuce and glans) and balanitis (inflammation is confined to the glans; the foreskin is usually non-retractile). Circumcision devices have been developed to shorten the operative time, simplify techniques, and improve safety and cosmetic outcomes. The devices generally aim to crush the foreskin while simultaneously creating hemostasis, the foreskin is then excised or allowed to slough off. Their use is supposedly safer and easier to replicate than the standard dissection techniques. There are at least 20 devices for male circumcision on the market, yet their effectiveness has not been reviewed to date. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of device-based circumcisions compared with standard surgical techniques in adolescent and adult males (10 years old and above). SEARCH METHODS:We performed a comprehensive search with no restrictions to the language of publication or publication status. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, trials registries, grey literature sources and conference proceedings up to 16 April 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA:We included randomized controlled trials of device-based circumcisions (crush or ligature circumcision devices) compared to standard surgical dissection-based circumcision conducted by health professionals in a medical setting. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:At least two review authors independently assessed study eligibility and extracted data from the included studies. We classified adverse events into serious, moderate or mild. We reported study results as risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD) using 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a random-effects model. We used the GRADE approach to evaluate the overall certainty of the evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS:Eighteen trials met the inclusion criteria. Trials were conducted in China, South Africa, Kenya and Zambia, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Primary outcomes Serious adverse events: there were no serious adverse events in either treatment arm (11 trials, 3472 participants). Moderate adverse events: there may be a slight increase in moderate adverse events when devices are used compared to standard surgical techniques (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.55 to 3.10; I²= 68%; 10 trials, 3370 participants; low-certainty evidence); this corresponds to 8 more (ranging from 15 fewer to 84 more) moderate adverse events per 1000 participants. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for study limitations and imprecision. Secondary outcomes Mild adverse events: we are uncertain about the difference in mild adverse events between groups when devices are used compared to standard surgical techniques (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.44 to 2.72; I² = 91%; 10 trials, 3370 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for study limitations, imprecision and unexplained inconsistency. Operative time: operative time is probably about 17 minutes shorter when using a device rather than standard surgical techniques, which constitutes a clinically meaningful decrease in a procedure (MD -17.26 minutes, 95% CI -19.96 to -14.57; I² = 99%; 14 trials, 4812 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for serious study limitations. The standard surgical technique generally takes about 24 minutes. There may be less postoperative pain during the first 24 hours when circumcision devices are used compared to standard surgical techniques (measured using a visual analog scale [VAS]; MD 1.30 cm lower, 95% CI 2.37 lower to 0.22 lower; I² = 99%; 9 trials, 3022 participants; low-certainty evidence). We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for study limitations and unexplained heterogeneity. There may be little or no difference in postoperative pain experienced during the first seven days when compared with standard surgical techniques (measured using a VAS; MD 0.11 cm higher, 95% CI 0.89 lower to 1.11 higher; I² = 94%; 4 trials, 1430 participants; low-certainty evidence). We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for study limitations and unexplained inconsistency. A higher score on the VAS indicates greater pain. Participants may slightly prefer circumcision devices compared to standard surgical techniques (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.37; I² = 97%; 15 trials, 4501 participants; low-certainty evidence). We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for study limitations and unexplained inconsistency. We recorded satisfaction as a dichotomous outcome. Higher rates reflected greater satisfaction. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:We found that there were no serious adverse events reported when using a circumcision device compared to standard surgical techniques, but they may slightly increase moderate adverse effects, and it is unclear whether there is a difference in mild adverse effects. Use of circumcision devices probably reduces the time of the procedure by about 17 minutes, a clinically meaningful time saving. For patients, use of the circumcision device may result in lower pain scores during the first 24 hours and patients may be slightly more satisfied with it compared with standard surgical techniques. Clinicians, patients and policymakers can use these results in conjunction with their own contextual factors to inform the approach that best suits their healthcare settings. High-quality trials evaluating this intervention are needed to provide further certainty regarding the rates of adverse effects and postoperative pain of using devices compared to standard approaches. 10.1002/14651858.CD012250.pub2
    Use of a disposable circumcision suture device versus conventional circumcision: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Huo Zhong-Chao,Liu Gang,Li Xiao-Yan,Liu Fei,Fan Wen-Ju,Guan Ru-Hua,Li Pei-Feng,Mo De-Yang,He Yong-Zhi Asian journal of andrology This systematic review assessed the safety and efficacy of the disposable circumcision suture device (DCSD) and conventional circumcision (CC) in the treatment of redundant prepuce and phimosis. Two independent reviewers conducted a literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using the DCSD and CC for the treatment of redundant prepuce or phimosis in China and abroad. Nine RCTs (1898 cases) were included. Compared with the CC group, the DCSD group had a shorter operative time (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -21.44; 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs] [-25.08, -17.79]; P < 0.00001), shorter wound healing time (SMD = -3.66; 95% CI [-5.46, -1.85]; P < 0.0001), less intraoperative blood loss (SMD = -9.64; 95% CI [-11.37, -7.90]; P < 0.00001), better cosmetic penile appearance (odds ratio [OR] =8.77; 95% CI [5.90, 13.02]; P < 0.00001), lower intraoperative pain score, lower 24-h postoperative pain score, lower incidence of infection, less incision edema, and fewer adverse events. There were no differences between the CC and DCSD groups in the incidences of dehiscence, or hematoma. The results of this meta-analysis indicate that the DCSD appears to be safer and more effective than CC. However, additional high-quality RCTs with larger study populations are needed. 10.4103/1008-682X.174855
    Choosing the appropriate ShangRing size for paediatric circumcision using the no-flip technique. Fang Li,Zhu Weichao,Xie Zhongfei,Wu Kerong,Wang Guoyao,Yan Zejun,Zheng Zhong,Ma Qi,Cheng Yue Journal of paediatrics and child health AIM:To determine the correct ShangRing size for paediatric circumcision using the no-flip technique. METHODS:A cohort of 104 boys (from 6 to 14 years) underwent ShangRing circumcision at Ningbo First Hospital, China. The patients were randomly divided into three groups according to the different methods used for choosing the ring size. For Group A, the ring size was chosen using the ShangRing measuring tape; for Group B, ring size was chosen based on the diameter of penis measured using a self-designed scale plate; and for Group C, ring size was chosen based on the diameter of the glans measured using the self-designed scale plate. The surgery duration, foreskin dorsal slit rate, intra-operative and post-surgery pain score, pain duration, post-surgery ring detachment duration, pain score for ring detachment, complication rate and satisfaction rate were compared. RESULTS:Group A had the highest dorsal slit rate and the longest surgical period. There were no significant differences in intra-/post-surgery pain or ring detachment duration among the three groups. The post-surgery oedema rate and foreskin asymmetry occurrence rate was the highest in Group A at 40.62 and 21.88%, respectively. Group C had the highest satisfaction rate (97.14%), with a significant difference from Group A (75.00%). Oedema and asymmetry of the foreskin increased, while the satisfaction rate simultaneously decreased when a larger ShangRing was chosen. CONCLUSIONS:The size of the ShangRing should be chosen in accordance with the diameter of the glans in paediatric ShangRing circumcision using the no-flip technique. 10.1111/jpc.13660
    Application of a novel disposable suture device in circumcision: a prospective non-randomized controlled study. Zhang Zheng,Yang Baibing,Yu Wen,Han Youfeng,Xu Zhipeng,Chen Hai,Chen Yun,Dai Yutian International urology and nephrology PURPOSE:To compare the surgical effects and postoperative complications and patient experience of two circumcision methods (novel disposable suture device and conventional suture approach) in Chinese excess foreskin or phimosis patients performed in our Andrology centre in a prospective non-randomized controlled study. METHODS:A total of 520 cases of excess foreskin and 62 phimosis patients that underwent circumcision between June 2014 and June 2015 in a single center using novel disposable device (n = 295; mean age 30.4 years, range 18-44 years) and conventional suture approach (n = 287; mean age 28.6 years, range 16-41 years) were documented. The main surgical outcomes (surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, incision healing time) and postoperative complications and patient experience (postoperative pain score, satisfaction rate of postoperative penile cosmetic appearance, recovery duration) were collected and analyzed. A multivariate logistic regression with likelihood ratio test was also used to observe the possible determinants of edema occurrence postoperatively. RESULTS:The novel disposable suture device group had shorter operation time, lower pain score and rapid recovery and a higher satisfaction rate of penile cosmetic appearance when compared to the conventional circumcision group. Besides, the incidence of complications (hematoma and incision bleeding and infection) was significantly lower in the novel disposable suture device group. A multivariate logistic regression with likelihood ratio test revealed that phimosis was the significant predictor of edema occurrence postoperatively (Chi square of likelihood ratio = 9.88, df = 1, p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS:Circumcision using this novel disposable suture device is associated with short operative time, rapid recovery, less pain experience, less complications (hematoma and incision bleeding and infection) and high satisfaction rate of penile appearance. This new approach should be of value for future application. Phimosis patients should be notified that they had a great possibility to develop edema postoperatively regardless of the surgical options. 10.1007/s11255-016-1213-3
    [A novel disposable circumcision device versus conventional surgery in the treatment of redundant prepuce and phimosis]. Zhao Yong-Jiu,Zhan Peng-Cheng,Chen Qiang,Cheng Wei,Ye Fu-Zeng,Wang Yi-Shui,Wang Jun-Jun,Li Jian-Hua,Tang Zhong-Mu Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology OBJECTIVE:To compare the clinical effect of a novel disposable circumcision device Ring with that of conventional circumcision in the treatment of redundant prepuce and phimosis. METHODS:Totally, 750 patients with redundant prepuce or phimosis underwent Ring circumcision (group A, n = 450) or conventional circumcision (group B, n = 300). We recorded the operation time, intraoperative blood loss, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) intraoperative pain scores, postoperative complications, wound healing time, and patients' satisfaction with postoperative penile appearance, followed by comparison of the collected data between the two groups of patients. RESULTS:All the operations were successfully completed. Group A, as compared with B, showed significantly shorter operation time ([3.78 ± 0.42] vs [26.24 ± 3.99] min, P <0.05), less intraoperative blood loss ([2.39 ± 1.01] vs [10.80 ± 3.57] ml, P <0.05), lower pain scores intraoperatively (0.14 ± 0.36 vs 2.30 ± 1.46, P <0.05), 6 hours postoperatively (0.32 ± 0.78 vs 3.03 ± 1.56, P <0.05) and at the ring removal (3.35 ± 1.42 vs 2.78 ± 1.43, P <0.05), shorter wound healing time ([7.61 ± 1.60] vs [8.57 ± 1.37] d, P <0.05), higher satisfaction with postoperative penile appearance (97.8% [440/450] vs 86% [258/300], P <0.05), and lower incidence of postoperative bleeding or hematoma (0.89% [4/450] vs 3% [9/300], P <0.05). No statistically significant differences were observed between groups A and B in the nocturnal pain score before the ring removal (1.45±1.02 vs 1.38 ± 0.92, P >0.05) or the postoperative incidence rate of edema (0.89% [4/450] vs 2.33% [7/300], P >0.05). There were no significant postoperative infections or delayed incision healing except for 1 case of wound dehiscence in each group. CONCLUSIONS:Ring circumcision, with its advantages of shorter operation time, less blood loss and pain, higher safety, and better postoperative penile appearance, is easily accepted by the patients and deserves wide clinical application.
    [Shang Ring scissor circumcision versus electrotome circumcision for redundant prepuce]. Tang Xiao-Hu,Zhang Peng,Ding Hua,Zhao Jun-Hua,Tang Lan-Lan,Fang Qian Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology OBJECTIVE:To compare the clinical effects of Shang Ring scissor circumcision (SC) and electrotome circumcision (EC) in the treatment of redundant prepuce or phimosis.Methods: Results: Conclusion. METHODS:This retrospective study included 524 patients with redundant prepuce or phimosis, 422 treated by SC and 120 by EC. We made comparisons between the two groups of patients in the operation time, intra- and post-operative pain scores, pain scores before, at and after ring removal, wound healing time, and incidence rates of postoperative edema and incision dehiscence. RESULTS:The operation time was longer in the SC than in the EC group ([59.99±5.39] vs [39.94±4.94] sec, P<0.05), but there were no significant differences between the two groups in the intraoperative pain scores (1.02±0.74 vs 1.08±0.59, P>0.05) or the pain scores within 24 h after operation (6.74±1.01 vs 6.56±1.06, P>0.05), 24 h prior to ring removal (1.14±0.69 vs 1.10±0.64, P>0.05), and after ring removal (2.73±0.74 vs 2.85±0.75, P>0.05) except at ring removal, which was remarkably lower in the SC than in the EC group (3.56±0.47 vs 4.77±0.58, P<0.05). The wound healing time was markedly shorter in the former than in the latter ([14.11±1.26] vs [39.78±7.55] d, P<0.05), but the incidence rate of incision dehiscence showed no significant difference between the two groups (4.03% [17/422] vs 9.17% [11/120], P>0.05). The rate of postoperative satisfaction with the external penile appearance was 100% in both of the two groups. CONCLUSIONS:Shang Ring scissor circumcision is preferred to electrotome circumcision for its advantages of less pain at ring removal and shorter healing time despite its longer operation time.
    Histopathological examination of the prepuce after circumcision: Is it a waste of resources? Naji Hussein,Jawad Esraa,Ahmed Husam A,Mustafa Rajaa African journal of paediatric surgery : AJPS BACKGROUND:The aim of this article is to evaluate the histopathological findings of foreskin after circumcision for medical indications and to find out if analyzing the biopsy is a waste of resources. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This retrospective analysis was carried out of the medical records and histopathological findings of 112 boys who underwent circumcision from June 2002 to June 2005. The study group consisted of 52 boys that were circumcised for medical indications, while the control group consisted of 60 boys who underwent circumcision for religious belief. RESULTS:The mean (range) age of children in the study group was six (2-12) years. 36 boys had phimosis, 15 had recurrent balanoposthitis and one had paraphimosis as an indication for circumcision. Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) was diagnosed in eight out of 52 biopsies (15%). In five of the eight BXO, the histopathological examination revealed focal lichenoid infiltrate which was considered as early form of BXO. There was no suspicion of BXO in the physical examination of those five patients. Chronic inflammation was reported in seven patients, while minor changes in the form of minimal inflammation and oedema were found in another 15 patients. The rest of the biopsies (22 patients) showed normal preputial pathology. The histopathological examinations of the control group revealed chronic inflammation in three patients and acute inflammation with cellular oedema in another three patients. CONCLUSIONS:There is a place for routine biopsy after circumcision for medical indications. The clinical examination failed to suspect 5 of the 8 cases of BXO that were diagnosed by histopathology. 10.4103/0189-6725.115045
    [Comparison of the disposable circumcision stapler, disposable prepuce ligator and traditional surgical method in circumcision]. Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology OBJECTIVE:To compare the effects and complications of the disposable circumcision stapler, disposable prepuce ligator and traditional surgical method in circumcision. METHODS:This retrospective study included 327 cases of phimosis or redundant prepuce treated by circumcision with the disposable circumcision stapler (the DCS group, n = 133), disposable prepuce ligator (the DPL group, n = 105) or traditional surgical method (the TS group, n = 89) in our hospital from June 2019 to June 2020. We compared the three surgical methods in terms of operation time, intraoperative blood loss, pain score, satisfaction of the patients with the penile appearance and incidence rates of incision edema, hematoma, infection and dehiscence. RESULTS:The DCS and DPL groups, compared with the TS group, showed significantly shorter operation time ([9.72 ± 2.17] and [10.57 ± 2.31] vs [36.13 ± 6.85] min, P < 0.01), less intraoperative blood loss ([2.07 ± 0.96] and [2.53 ± 1.46] vs [14.33 ± 4.92] ml, P < 0.01) and higher appearance satisfaction score (4.07 ± 0.80 and 3.93 ± 0.96 vs 3.13 ± 1.06, P < 0.05). The DCS and TS groups, in comparison with the DPL group, exhibited markedly lower pain score (1.87 ± 0.99 and 2.27 ± 1.16 vs 3.87 ± 1.30, P < 0.01) and the rates of postoperative incision hematoma (3.01% and 2.25% vs 9.52%, P < 0.05), and infection and dehiscence (2.45% and 2.04% vs 8.07%, P < 0.05). The postoperative rate of incision edema was remarkably lower in the DCS than in the DPL and CS groups (10.2% vs 20.2% and 23.5%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Circumcision with the disposable circumcision stapler, with the advantages of simple operation, short operation time, less bleeding, less pain, satisfactory appearance, and lower incidence of complications, deserves clinical application and promotion.
    [Pathogenesis, prevention and management of edema after prepuce surgery]. Kong Fan-Yang,Liu Xiao-Long Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology Prepuce diseases are very common conditions in urology and andrology, and quite a few cases need to be treated by surgery. Preputial edema is a common complication after prepuce surgery, with a higher incidence rate in children than in adults. Although preputial edema is just moderate symptom and does not affect urination, it worries or even distresses the patient both physically and psychologically. In recent years, rapid achievements have been made in prepuce surgery, as in prepuce circumcision, preputial neoplasm excision, and penile degloving repair, which can now be accomplished with shorter time and higher efficiency. Despite constant improvement in the methods and techniques for prepuce surgery, postoperative edema remains difficult to be totally prevented. Pathogenic factors for postoperative preputial edema vary from disturbance of blood circulation to inflammatory factor-induced change in capillary permeability, lymphatic circulation disorders, and neurogenic edema. Elimination of the pathogenic factors and precautionary measures after surgery count significantly to the prevention and management of postoperative preputial edema. This review focuses on the pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of edema after prepuce surgery.