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    Effect of lyophilization on the mechanical characteristics of a large particle and on the behavior of immobilized bacterial spores. Rodrigo F,Gasque F,Fiszman S M,Martínez A Journal of food protection The mechanical stability of the carrier and the behavior of the sensor element of a time-temperature integrator (TTI) after lyophilization and storage for 60 days at room temperature were studied. The results indicated that particles containing added starch at concentrations from 2 to 12% had good handling characteristics for use as TTI carriers, although mechanical resistance was lower by comparison with freshly prepared particles. Lyophilization reduced the number of viable microorganisms by 17 to 25%, depending on the length of the storage period. Variations were also observed in the count of surviving microorganisms after heating at 121 degrees C for 12 min. These variations, expressed as decimal reductions in the number of microorganisms, might reflect an effect of lyophilization on the thermal resistance of the immobilized spores.
    Conservative prediction of time to Clostridium botulinum toxin formation for use with time-temperature indicators to ensure the safety of foods. Skinner G E,Larkin J W Journal of food protection Integrating-type time-temperature indicators (TTIs) may be utilized to warn food processors and consumers about storage conditions that may have rendered a food potentially hazardous. As an example of how integrated TTIs could be manufactured to emulate an infinite set of time-temperature situations, a set of conditions which have supported C. botulinum growth and toxin production was compiled. The time-temperature curve representing conservative times required for toxin formation was constructed with data from literature relating to toxin formation as a function of temperature in any media or food product. This set of critical time-temperature data is fit by a conservative empirical relationship that can be used to predict combinations of incubation times and storage temperatures that represent a potential health risk from C. botulinum in foods. A TTI could be constructed to indicate deviation from such a given set of conditions to bring attention to foods that may have been exposed to potentially hazardous temperatures with respect to C. botulinum toxin formation.
    Use of time-temperature integrators and predictive modelling for shelf life control of chilled fish under dynamic storage conditions. Taoukis P S,Koutsoumanis K,Nychas G J International journal of food microbiology A systematic approach for fish shelf life modelling and Time Temperature Integrator (TTI) selection in order to plan and apply an effective quality monitoring scheme for the fish chill chain was developed. The temperature behaviour of the natural microflora of the Mediterranean fish boque (Boops boops) was studied and growth of the specific spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella putrefaciens was modelled and correlated to organoleptic shelf life. Arrhenius and square root functions were used to model temperature dependence of maximum growth rates. Bacterial growth and shelf life models were validated under dynamic storage conditions with independent variable temperature experiments. The response of several TTIs from similar storage experiments was also modelled. The reliability of the TTI monitoring was cumulatively expressed by the error in the TTI derived effective temperature (Teff) for different variable temperature distributions. Teff was directly translated to shelf life of the fish.
    Evaluation of Time-Temperature Integrators (TTIs) with Microorganism-Entrapped Microbeads Produced Using Homogenization and SPG Membrane Emulsification Techniques. Rahman A T M Mijanur,Lee Seung Ju,Jung Seung Won Journal of microbiology and biotechnology A comparative study was conducted to evaluate precision and accuracy in controlling the temperature dependence of encapsulated microbial time-temperature integrators (TTIs) developed using two different emulsification techniques. Weissela cibaria CIFP 009 cells, immobilized within 2% Na-alginate gel microbeads using homogenization (5,000, 7,000, and 10,000 rpm) and Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane technologies (10 μm), were applied to microbial TTIs. The prepared micobeads were characterized with respect to their size, size distribution, shape and morphology, entrapment efficiency, and bead production yield. Additionally, fermentation process parameters including growth rate were investigated. The TTI responses (changes in pH and titratable acidity (TA)) were evaluated as a function of temperature (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C). In comparison with conventional methods, SPG membrane technology was able not only to produce highly uniform, small-sized beads with the narrowest size distribution, but also the bead production yield was found to be nearly 3.0 to 4.5 times higher. However, among the TTIs produced using the homogenization technique, poor linearity (R(2)) in terms of TA was observed for the 5,000 and 7,000 rpm treatments. Consequently, microbeads produced by the SPG membrane and by homogenization at 10,000 rpm were selected for adjusting the temperature dependence. The Ea values of TTIs containing 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 g microbeads, prepared by SPG membrane and conventional methods, were estimated to be 86.0, 83.5, and 76.6 kJ/mol, and 85.5, 73.5, and 62.2 kJ/mol, respectively. Therefore, microbial TTIs developed using SPG membrane technology are much more efficient in controlling temperature dependence. 10.4014/jmb.1506.06057
    Konjac glucomannan as a carrier material for time--temperature integrator. Wang JinPeng,Deng Li,Li Yin,Xu X,Gao Yi,Hilaire Nahimana,Chen H,Jin Z,Kim Jin Moon,He LiFeng Food science and technology international = Ciencia y tecnologia de los alimentos internacional Hardness, springiness and water retention of konjac glucomannan gel (g-KGM) as a novel carrier material for time-temperature integrator (TTI) in aseptic processing were determined and compared with those of sodium alginate gel (g-SA). Hardness of both g-KGM and g-SA increased with temperature: values of g-SA were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of g-KGM at all temperatures. No significant difference in springiness between g-KGM and g-SA from 40 °C to 90 °C and significant differences (p < 0.05) between 100 °C and 140 °C were found. Water retention property of g-KGM was lower than that of g-SA between 60 °C and 100 °C, but much higher between 100 °C and 140 °C. Heat transfer tests performed on g-KGM alone as well as on g-KGM as a carrier, embedded with TTI, α-amylase as an integrator, indicated that g-KGM was suitable for industrial ultrahigh temperature sterilization test. 10.1177/1082013209353082
    Enzyme-electropolymer-based amperometric biosensors: an innovative platform for time-temperature integrators. Reyes-De-Corcuera José I,Cavalieri Ralph P,Powers Joseph R,Tang Juming,Kang Dong H Journal of agricultural and food chemistry A novel exogenous time-temperature integrator (TTI) based on an amperometric glucose oxidase biosensor is presented. The TTI consists of the enzyme entrapped within an electrochemically generated poly(o-phenylenediamine) (PoPD) thin film deposited on the interior wall of a platinum (Pt) or a platinized stainless steel (Pt-SS) capsule. After thermal treatment, the TTI is mounted in a continuous flow system and connected to a potentiostat for amperometric detection of residual enzyme activity. A measurement is completed within 10 min. Isothermal treatments were carried out between 70 and 79.7 degrees C. Thermal inactivation of the immobilized enzyme followed apparent first-order kinetics with z values of 6.2 +/- 0.6 and 6.6 +/- 0.8 degrees C for Pt and Pt-SS capsules, respectively. These z values suggest that the proposed TTIs have the potential to assess pasteurization processes that target microorganism such as Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7. 10.1021/jf051103+
    Combined use of two single-component enzymatic time-temperature integrators: application to industrial continuous rotary processing of canned ravioli. Guiavarch Yann,Zuber Franois,van Loey Ann,Hendrickx Marc Journal of food protection Two original, highly dehydrated, small single-component enzymatic time-temperature integrator (TTI) systems, TTIL and TTIs, were prepared. Their z-values were 13.9 and 16.4 degrees C, respectively, and they were based on Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase and Bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase, respectively. The isothermal calibration of these two TTIs revealed that (i) they can be used in the temperature range of 100 to 140 degrees C, (ii) results can be read within 5 min, and (iii) they can be used individually for the measurements of process values 13.9 degrees CF121.1 degrees C and 16.4 degrees CF121.1 degrees C up to 98 min and 85 min, respectively. Because these two TTIs have different z-values above 10 degrees C, they could be used in combination with the multicomponent TTI concept to estimate process values 10 degrees CF121.1 degrees C inside particles of a solid or liquid food submitted to rotary processing. Raviolis in tomato sauce sterilized in an industrial-scale reel and spiral continuous retort were examined in this study. Two methods, based on the combination of a one-dimensional explicit finite difference heat-transfer model with the experimental responses of the TTIs, were used to take into account the possible deviations in evaluation of 10 degrees CF121.1 degrees C values. A process value 10 degrees CF121.1 degrees C of 23.6 min with a standard deviation of 1.5 min was determined inside raviolis using the multicomponent TTI approach, and a process value 10 degrees CF121.1 degrees C of 33.6 min with a standard deviation of 1.5 min inside the sauce was calculated from the temperature recording data.
    Use of time-temperature integrators and predictive modeling to evaluate microbiological quality loss in poultry products. Moore Christina M,Sheldon Brian W Journal of food protection The purpose of this study was to characterize the kinetics of the spoilage process of chicken drumsticks in order to evaluate the application of an enzyme process-based time-temperature integrator (TTI) as a continuous quality monitor of poultry products. Shelf life studies were conducted at several temperatures (3 to 20 degrees C) to characterize (i) the poultry spoilage process as a function of total aerobic bacteria and Pseudomonas species populations and (ii) the TTI chroma response function. Two types of poultry products were examined: ice-packed and chill-packed drumsticks. An enzyme-based TTI with a color change response from green to yellow was used. Activation energies for each of the poultry products and each of the bacterial populations were as follows: 21.8 +/- 1.6 kcal/mol (ca. 91.2 +/- 6.7 kJ/mol) for ice-packed drumsticks and total aerobic population, 18.8 +/- 4.5 kcal/mol ca. 78.7 +/- 18.8 kJ/mol) for ice-packed drumsticks and Pseudomonas spp., 17.0 +/- 2.3 kcal/mol (ca. 71.1 +/- 9.6 kJ/mol) for chill-packed drumsticks and total aerobic population, and 14.1 +/- 3.6 kcal/mol (ca. 59.0 +/- 15.1 kJ/mol) for chill-packed drumsticks and Pseudomonas spp. The activation energy calculated for the TTI, 19.1 +/- 1.8 kcal/mol (ca. 79.9 +/- 7.5 kJ/mol), was determined to be adequately close to that of the poultry spoilage process to make effective quality predictions possible. Initial bacteria levels on the chicken drumsticks were uniform and not judged as important limiting factors in the application of TTIs to poultry products. Because the poultry spoilage process was reasonably characterized on the basis of Arrhenius kinetics, there is further need to conduct validation studies to determine the ability of TTIs to provide a continuous quality monitoring system.
    Development and assessment of an intelligent shelf life decision system for quality optimization of the food chill chain. Giannakourou M C,Koutsoumanis K,Nychas G J,Taoukis P S Journal of food protection The principles of application of a Shelf Life Decision System (SLDS) for the optimization of the distribution of chilled fresh and minimally processed food products are developed. The SLDS integrates predictive kinetic models of food spoilage, data on initial quality from rapid techniques, and the capacity to continuously monitor temperature history of the food product with Time Temperature Integrators (TTIs) into an effective chill chain management tool that leads to an improved narrow distribution of quality at consumption time, effectively reducing the probability of products consumed past shelf life end. The applicability and effectiveness of the SLDS is demonstrated and evaluated based on actual food spoilage and TTI kinetics and chill chain data employing the Monte Carlo simulation method.
    Validation and use of an enzymic time-temperature integrator to monitor thermal impacts inside a solid/liquid model food. Guiavarc'h Yann P,Dintwa Edward,Van Loey Ann M,Zuber François T,Hendrickx Marc E Biotechnology progress Heat denaturation kinetics of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase, equilibrated at 81% equilibrium relative humidity at 4 degrees C (BLA81), was studied with help of isothermal and nonisothermal conditions by monitoring the decrease in enthalpy associated with the heat denaturation of the enzyme. Due to its low water content, BLA81 denaturation could be studied in the range of 118-124 degrees C. Two batches of BLA81 were successfully validated under nonisothermal conditions allowing the determinations of process values (reference temperature of 121.1 degrees C) in the range of 1-15 min. In a second step, BLA81 was used as a time-temperature integrator (TTI) to investigate potential differences of process values received by freely moving spherical particles as compared to a centrally fixed particle (single-position impact) inside cans containing water as brine. Results showed that the process value received by freely moving particles can be from 5.6% (4 rpm) to 19.7% (8 rpm) smaller than the process value received by the centrally fixed sphere. This means that evaluating the process value by means of a particle fixed at the critical point in a package can lead to potentially overestimations of the actual process value with possible hazardous quality/safety implications. These results highlight the potentials of the TTI technology to monitor the safety of heat-processed agitated solid/liquid foodstuffs. 10.1021/bp010201m
    Use of smart photochromic indicator for dynamic monitoring of the shelf life of chilled chicken based products. Brizio Ana Paula Dutra Resem,Prentice Carlos Meat science This study evaluated the applicability of a photochromic time temperature indicator (TTI) to monitor the time-temperature history and shelf life of chilled boneless chicken breast. The results showed that the smart indicator showed good reproducibility during the discoloring process in all the conditions investigated. The response was not only visibly interpretable but also well adaptable to measurement using appropriate equipment. For an activation configuration of 4 s of ultraviolet light (UV) per label, the TTI's rate of discoloration was similar to the quality loss of the meat samples analyzed. Thus, the photochromic label (4 s UV/label) attached to the samples set out to be a dynamic shelf-life label, assuring consumers the final point of quality of chilled boneless chicken breast in an easy and precise form, providing a reliable tool to monitor the supply chain of this product. 10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.11.006
    [Time-Temperature indicators (TTI). A means of quality control of produce]. Durand M P Bulletin de l'Academie nationale de medecine The author, after having dwelt on the mediatic importance of bacterial food poisonings, analyses their reasons, insisting on the importance of the temperature as a factor of bacterial growth. Among the cures for the association temperature-bacterial growth, the author draws attention to the benefits of the use of the time temperature indicators (TTI). He describes the purposes, the required qualities, the principles of activity. The "Lifelines TTI" proves to be interesting. The author describes the principles of activity, the directions for reading the results, the practical application. Finally he describes the remarks following on its use in large scale in a group of chain-stores. In the conclusion, the author points that these TTI are an attractive technical innovation regarding to the fresh foods, for the control of coldness in the human nutrition.
    Use of global sensitivity analysis in quantitative microbial risk assessment: application to the evaluation of a biological time temperature integrator as a quality and safety indicator for cold smoked salmon. Ellouze M,Gauchi J-P,Augustin J-C Food microbiology The aim of this study was to apply a global sensitivity analysis (SA) method in model simplification and to evaluate (eO)®, a biological Time Temperature Integrator (TTI) as a quality and safety indicator for cold smoked salmon (CSS). Models were thus developed to predict the evolutions of Listeria monocytogenes and the indigenous food flora in CSS and to predict TTIs endpoint. A global SA was then applied on the three models to identify the less important factors and simplify the models accordingly. Results showed that the subset of the most important factors of the three models was mainly composed of the durations and temperatures of two chill chain links, out of the control of the manufacturers: the domestic refrigerator and the retail/cabinet links. Then, the simplified versions of the three models were run with 10(4) time temperature profiles representing the variability associated to the microbial behavior, to the TTIs evolution and to the French chill chain characteristics. The results were used to assess the distributions of the microbial contaminations obtained at the TTI endpoint and at the end of the simulated profiles and proved that, in the case of poor storage conditions, the TTI use could reduce the number of unacceptable foods by 50%. 10.1016/j.fm.2010.05.022
    Time--temperature indicator for perishable products based on kinetically programmable Ag overgrowth on Au nanorods. Zhang Chao,Yin An-Xiang,Jiang Ruibin,Rong Jie,Dong Lu,Zhao Tian,Sun Ling-Dong,Wang Jianfang,Chen Xing,Yan Chun-Hua ACS nano Food safety is a constant concern for humans. Besides adulteration and contamination, another major threat comes from the spontaneous spoilage of perishable products, which is basically inevitable and highly dependent on the temperature history during the custody chain. For advanced quality control and assessment, time-temperature indicators (TTIs) can be deployed to document the temperature history. However, the use of TTIs is currently limited by either relatively high cost or poor programmability. Here we describe a general, kinetically programmable, and cost-efficient TTI protocol constructed from plasmonic nanocrystals. We present proof-of-principle demonstrations that our TTI can be specifically tailored and thus used to track perishables, dynamically mimic the deteriorative processes therein, and indicate product quality through sharp-contrast multicolor changes. The flexible programmability of our TTI, combined with its substantially low cost and low toxicity, promises a general applicability to each single packaged item of a plethora of perishable products. 10.1021/nn401266u
    Evaluation of time-temperature integrators for tracking poultry product quality throughout the chill chain. Moore Christina M,Sheldon Brian W Journal of food protection The goal of this study was to evaluate the application of one type of time-temperature integrator (TTI) to monitor the microbiological quality of ice-packed raw chicken drumsticks as a function of temperature exposure. A kinetics-based model was used to correlate the TTI chroma response to the number of bacteria on the drumstick surface under constant- and variable-temperature conditions. Two constant-temperature studies (4 and 15 degrees C) and one variable-temperature study (4 degrees C for 24 h, 15 degrees C for 24 h, 4 degrees C constant) were conducted to evaluate the applicability of the TTI under ideal and worst-case situations. During the constant-temperature studies, quality predictions made at the midpoint of the product shelf life were accurate within 15% for the observed bacterial populations. The accuracy of the TTI was marginal in the initial and final stages of the response period. During the variable-temperature study, the TTI response demonstrated positive history effects, whereby the observed rate constant is affected by previous temperature exposure. After the TTIs had been held at 15 degrees C for 24 h, the TTI response rate constant observed during subsequent storage at 4 degrees C was higher than what would be predicted for 4 degrees C. Further work will be needed to develop a continuous TTI-based quality monitoring system. However, because the microbiological quality of fresh poultry could be reliably predicted with kinetic models, fresh poultry products would be excellent candidates for a TTI-based quality monitoring system.
    Time-Temperature Indicator Based on Enzymatic Degradation of Dye-Loaded Polyhydroxybutyrate. Anbukarasu Preetam,Sauvageau Dominic,Elias Anastasia L Biotechnology journal An enzyme activated time-temperature indicator (TTI) which produces a direct colour change concomitant to variations in integrated time and temperature conditions is described. This direct colour change is realised by degrading a dye-loaded polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) film by a depolymerase enzyme. The degradation of the PHB film by the enzyme causes the release of the dye in solution, which in turn undergoes an optical transition from clear to coloured with elapsing time. Macroscopic and microscopic optical observations confirms the uniform distribution of the dye in the PHB film. The dye release kinetics, mediated by the enzymatic reaction, are tested at different temperatures ranging from 4 to 37 °C, and are used to determine the suitability of a dye-loaded PHB as a time-temperature indicator for fresh food products based on kinetic parameters previously reported. The kinetic analysis shows that the activation energy of the dye release process is 74 kJ mol , and that, at 37 °C, the dye would be totally released within 6 h. However, when incubated at 4 °C, the TTI requires in the range of 168 h (7 days) to release all the dye. These kinetics values highlight the potential of the TTI for monitoring fresh food products that have optimum shelf life around 4 °C. 10.1002/biot.201700050
    Field evaluation of the application of time temperature integrators for monitoring fish quality in the chill chain. Giannakourou M C,Koutsoumanis K,Nychas G J E,Taoukis P S International journal of food microbiology The applicability of time temperature integrators (TTI) as effective tools of chill chain monitoring was assessed. Validated kinetic models of pseudomonads growth of Mediterranean, marine-cultured chilled gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata) and full knowledge of the response of suitable enzymatic TTI are the basis of the TTI application algorithm. This scheme was evaluated through a controlled field test of exported fish, from harvest to final consumption. Response of TTI attached on different locations of packages was compared to actual temperature recording. Data that could not be obtained during the actual field test, such as microbiological or sensory tests of fish at intermediate points of the chain, were measured in a replicate laboratory study, simulating the handling of products and the real time-temperature profiles of the field test. The conducted field tests showed the applicability and usefulness of TTI monitoring of the fish chill chain, elucidating also the practical difficulties and limitations, that need to be addressed for expanding TTI use as a reliable management tool. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.11.037
    Modeling time to inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in response to high pressure, sodium chloride, and sodium lactate. Youart Alyssa M,Huang Yang,Stewart Cynthia M,Kalinowski Robin M,Legan J David Journal of food protection A mathematical model was developed to predict time to inactivation (TTI) by high pressure processing of Listeria monocytogenes in a broth system (pH 6.3) as a function of pressure (450 to 700 MPa), inoculum level (2 to 6 log CFU/ml), sodium chloride (1 or 2%), and sodium lactate (0 or 2.5%) from a 4°C initial temperature. Ten L. monocytogenes isolates from various sources, including processed meats, were evaluated for pressure resistance. The five most resistant strains were used as a cocktail to determine TTI and for model validation. Complete inactivation of L. monocytogenes in all treatments was demonstrated with an enrichment method. The TTI increased with increasing inoculum level and decreasing pressure magnitude, from 1.5 min at 700 MPa and 2 log CFU/ml, to 15 min at 450 MPa and 6 log CFU/ml. Neither NaCl nor sodium lactate significantly influenced TTI. The model was validated with ready-to-eat, uncured, Australian retail poultry products, and with product specially made at a U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)-inspected pilot plant in the United States. Data from the 210 individual product samples used for validation indicate that the model gives "fail-safe" predictions (58% with response as expected, 39% with no survivors where survivors expected, and only 3% with survivors where none were expected). This model can help manufacturers of refrigerated ready-to-eat meats establish effective processing criteria for the use of high pressure processing as a postlethality treatment for L. monocytogenes in accordance with FSIS regulations.
    Development of Aa New Time Temperature Indicator for Enzymatic Validation of Pasteurization of Meat Products. Brizio Ana Paula Dutra Resem,Prentice Carlos Journal of food science This paper presents the development of a new smart time-temperature indicator (TTI) of pasteurization whose operating principle is based on the complexation reaction between starch and iodine, and the subsequent action of an amylase on this complex causing its discoloration at a rate dependent on time and temperature of the medium. Laboratory simulations and tests in a manufacturing plant evaluated different enzyme concentrations in the TTI prototypes when exposed to pasteurization conditions. The results showed that the color response of the indicators was visually interpreted as adaptive to measurement using appropriate equipment, with satisfactory reliability in all conditions studied. The TTI containing 6.5% amylase was one whose best results were suited for use in validating the cooking of hams. When attached to the primary packaging of the product, this TTI indicated the pasteurization process inexpensively, easily, accurately, and nondestructively. 10.1111/1750-3841.12889
    Applicability of biological time temperature integrators as quality and safety indicators for meat products. Ellouze M,Augustin J-C International journal of food microbiology The objective of this study was to evaluate (eO), a biological time temperature integrator (TTI) as a quality and safety indicator for ground beef packed under modified atmosphere and spiced cooked chicken slices packed under modified atmosphere. Storage trials and challenge tests were thus performed on several batches of the studied food to monitor and model the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and the indigenous food flora. Then, two different prototypes of the TTI (eO) were set and manufactured according to the studied products shelf lives. The TTI evolution with time at static and dynamic temperatures was monitored and modeled. Finally, exposure assessment models were set and used under several realistic storage profiles to assess the distributions of the concentration of the indigenous food flora and the distributions of the increase in the pathogens populations obtained at the end of the product shelf life or at the end point of the TTI, taking into account the TTIs batch variability. Results showed that in case of poor storage conditions, TTI can reduce the consumer exposure to altered or hazardous foods. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.12.012
    Development of a microbial time/temperature indicator prototype for monitoring the microbiological quality of chilled foods. Vaikousi Hariklia,Biliaderis Costas G,Koutsoumanis Konstantinos P Applied and environmental microbiology A time/temperature indicator (TTI) system based on the growth and metabolic activity of a Lactobacillus sakei strain was developed for monitoring food quality throughout the chilled-food chain. In the designed system, an irreversible color change of a chemical chromatic indicator (from red to yellow) progressively occurs due to the pH decline that results from microbial growth and metabolism in a selected medium. The relation of the TTI response (color change) to the growth and metabolic activity (glucose consumption, lactic acid production, pH decrease) of L. sakei was studied. In addition, the temperature dependence of the TTI kinetics was investigated isothermally in the range of 0 to 16 degrees C and modeled with a system of differential equations. At all temperatures tested, the pH and color changes of the TTI system followed closely the growth of L. sakei, with the endpoint (the time at which a distinct visual color change to the final yellow was observed) of the TTI coinciding with a population level of 10(7) to 10(8) CFU/ml. The endpoint decreased from 27 days at 0 degrees C to 2.5 days at 16 degrees C, yielding an activation energy of 97.7 kJ/mol, which was very close to the activation energy of the L. sakei growth rate in the TTI substrate (103.2 kJ/mol). Furthermore, experiments conducted on the effect of the inoculum level showed a negative linear relationship between the level of L. sakei inoculated in the system medium and the endpoint of the TTI. For example, the endpoint at 8 degrees C ranged from 6 to 2 days for inoculum levels of 10(1) and 10(6) CFU/ml, respectively. This relationship allows the easy adjustment of the TTI endpoint at a certain temperature according to the shelf life of the food product of concern by using an appropriate inoculum level of L. sakei. The microbial TTI prototype developed in the present study could be used as an effective tool for monitoring shelf life during the distribution and storage of food products that are spoiled primarily by lactic acid bacteria or other bacteria exhibiting similar kinetic responses and spoilage potentials. Apart from the low cost, the main advantage of the proposed TTI is that its response closely matches the loss of the quality of a food product by simulating the microbial spoilage process in particular environments. 10.1128/AEM.02717-07
    Modelling pH evolution and lactic acid production in the growth medium of a lactic acid bacterium: application to set a biological TTI. Ellouze M,Pichaud M,Bonaiti C,Coroller L,Couvert O,Thuault D,Vaillant R International journal of food microbiology Time temperature integrators or indicators (TTIs) are effective tools making the continuous monitoring of the time temperature history of chilled products possible throughout the cold chain. Their correct setting is of critical importance to ensure food quality. The objective of this study was to develop a model to facilitate accurate settings of the CRYOLOG biological TTI, TRACEO. Experimental designs were used to investigate and model the effects of the temperature, the TTI inoculum size, pH, and water activity on its response time. The modelling process went through several steps addressing growth, acidification and inhibition phenomena in dynamic conditions. The model showed satisfactory results and validations in industrial conditions gave clear evidence that such a model is a valuable tool, not only to predict accurate response times of TRACEO, but also to propose precise settings to manufacture the appropriate TTI to trace a particular food according to a given time temperature scenario. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.06.035
    Application and validation of the TTI based chill chain management system SMAS (Safety Monitoring and Assurance System) on shelf life optimization of vacuum packed chilled tuna. Tsironi Theofania,Gogou Eleni,Velliou Eirini,Taoukis Petros S International journal of food microbiology The objective of the study was to establish a validated kinetic model for growth of spoilage bacteria on vacuum packed tuna slices in the temperature range of 0 to 15 degrees C and to evaluate the applicability of the TTI (Time Temperature Integrators) based SMAS (Safety Monitoring and Assurance System) system to improve tuna product quality at the time of consumption in comparison to the conventional First In First Out (FIFO) approach. The overall measurements of total flora and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the tuna samples used in a laboratory simulated field test were in close agreement with the predictions of the developed kinetic model. The spoilage profile of the TTI bearing products, handled with SMAS, was improved. Three out of the thirty products that were handled randomly, according to the FIFO approach, were already spoiled at the time of consumption (logN(LAB)>6.5) compared to no spoiled products when handled with the SMAS approach. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.07.025
    Modelling spoilage of fresh turbot and evaluation of a time-temperature integrator (TTI) label under fluctuating temperature. Nuin Maider,Alfaro Begoña,Cruz Ziortza,Argarate Nerea,George Susie,Le Marc Yvan,Olley June,Pin Carmen International journal of food microbiology Kinetic models were developed to predict the microbial spoilage and the sensory quality of fresh fish and to evaluate the efficiency of a commercial time-temperature integrator (TTI) label, Fresh Check(R), to monitor shelf life. Farmed turbot (Psetta maxima) samples were packaged in PVC film and stored at 0, 5, 10 and 15 degrees C. Microbial growth and sensory attributes were monitored at regular time intervals. The response of the Fresh Check device was measured at the same temperatures during the storage period. The sensory perception was quantified according to a global sensory indicator obtained by principal component analysis as well as to the Quality Index Method, QIM, as described by Rahman and Olley [Rahman, H.A., Olley, J., 1984. Assessment of sensory techniques for quality assessment of Australian fish. CSIRO Tasmanian Regional Laboratory. Occasional paper n. 8. Available from the Australian Maritime College library. Newnham. Tasmania]. Both methods were found equally valid to monitor the loss of sensory quality. The maximum specific growth rate of spoilage bacteria, the rate of change of the sensory indicators and the rate of change of the colour measurements of the TTI label were modelled as a function of temperature. The temperature had a similar effect on the bacteria, sensory and Fresh Check kinetics. At the time of sensory rejection, the bacterial load was ca. 10(5)-10(6) cfu/g. The end of shelf life indicated by the Fresh Check label was close to the sensory rejection time. The performance of the models was validated under fluctuating temperature conditions by comparing the predicted and measured values for all microbial, sensory and TTI responses. The models have been implemented in a Visual Basic add-in for Excel called "Fish Shelf Life Prediction (FSLP)". This program predicts sensory acceptability and growth of spoilage bacteria in fish and the response of the TTI at constant and fluctuating temperature conditions. The program is freely available at http://www.azti.es/muestracontenido.asp?idcontenido=980&content=15&nodo1=30&nodo2=0. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.04.010
    Preliminary Study on Biosensor-Type Time-Temperature Integrator for Intelligent Food Packaging. Mijanur Rahman A T M,Kim Do Hyeon,Jang Han Dong,Yang Jung Hwa,Lee Seung Ju Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) A glucose biosensor was utilized as a platform for the time-temperature integrator (TTI), a device for intelligent food packaging. The TTI system is composed of glucose oxidase, glucose, a pH indicator, and a three-electrode potentiostat, which produces an electrical signal as well as color development. The reaction kinetics of these response variables were analyzed under isothermal conditions. The reaction rates of the electrical current and color changes were 0.0360 ± 0.0020 (95% confidence limit), 0.0566 ± 0.0026, 0.0716 ± 0.0024, 0.1073 ± 0.0028 &micro;A/min, and 0.0187 ± 0.0005, 0.0293 ± 0.0018, 0.0363 ± 0.0012, 0.0540 ± 0.0019 1/min, at 5, 15, 25, and 35 &deg;C, respectively. The Arrhenius activation energy of the current reaction (a) was 25.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol and the a of the color reactions was 24.2 ± 0.6 kJ/mol. The similarity of these a shows agreement in the prediction of food qualities between the electrical signal and color development. Consequently, the function of the new time-temperature integrator system could be extended to that of a biosensor compatible with any electrical utilization equipment. 10.3390/s18061949
    Applicability of a microbial Time Temperature Indicator (TTI) for monitoring spoilage of modified atmosphere packed minced meat. Vaikousi Hariklia,Biliaderis Costas G,Koutsoumanis Konstantinos P International journal of food microbiology The applicability of a microbial Time Temperature Indicator (TTI) prototype, based on the growth and metabolic activity of a Lactobacillus sakei strain developed in a previous study, in monitoring quality of modified atmosphere packed (MAP) minced beef was evaluated at conditions simulating the chill chain. At all storage temperatures examined (0, 5, 10, 15 degrees C), the results showed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were the dominant bacteria and can be used as a good spoilage index of MAP minced beef. The end of product's shelf life as revealed by the sensory evaluation coincided with a LAB population level of 7 log(10) CFU/g. For all temperatures tested, the growth of L. sakei in the TTI resembled closely the growth of LAB in the meat product, with similar temperature dependence of the micro(max) and thus similar activation energy values calculated as 111.90 and 106.90 kJ/mol, for the two systems, respectively. In addition, the end point of TTI colour change coincided with the time of sensory rejection point of the beef product during its storage under isothermal chilled temperature conditions. The estimated activation energy, E(alpha), values obtained for parameters related to the response of DeltaE (total colour change of the TTI) describing the kinetics of colour change of the TTI during isothermal storage (i.e. the maximum specific rate of DeltaEpsilon evolution curve, micro(DeltaEpsilon), and also the reciprocal of t(i), time at which half of the maximum DeltaEpsilon is reached), were 112.77 and 127.28 kJ/mol, respectively. Finally, the application of the microbial TTI in monitoring the quality deterioration of MAP minced beef due to spoilage was further evaluated under dynamic conditions of storage, using two separate low temperature periodic changing scenarios, resembling the actual conditions occurring in the distribution chill chain. The results showed that the end point of TTI, after storage at those fluctuating temperature conditions, was noted very close to the end of product's sensorial shelf life. This finding points to the applicability of the developed microbial TTI as a valuable tool for monitoring the quality status during distribution and storage of chilled meat products, which are spoiled by lactic acid bacteria or other bacteria exhibiting similar kinetic responses and spoilage potential. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.05.030
    Calibrations between the variables of microbial TTI response and ground pork qualities. Kim Eunji,Choi Dong Yeol,Kim Hyun Chul,Kim Keehyuk,Lee Seung Ju Meat science A time-temperature indicator (TTI) based on a lactic acid bacterium, Weissella cibaria CIFP009, was applied to ground pork packaging. Calibration curves between TTI response and pork qualities were obtained from storage tests at 2°C, 10°C, and 13°C. The curves of the TTI vs. total cell number at different temperatures coincided to the greatest extent, indicating the highest representativeness of calibration, by showing the least coefficient of variance (CV=11%) of the quality variables at a given TTI response (titratable acidity) on the curves, followed by pH (23%), volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) (25%), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) (47%). Similarity of Arrhenius activation energy (Ea) could also reflect the representativeness of calibration. The total cell number (104.9 kJ/mol) was found to be the most similar to that of the TTI response (106.2 kJ/mol), followed by pH (113.6 kJ/mol), VBN (77.4 kJ/mol), and TBARS (55.0 kJ/mol). 10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.04.050
    Practicability of TTI application to yogurt quality prediction in plausible scenarios of a distribution system with temperature variations. Meng Jing Jing,Qian Jing,Jung Seung Won,Lee Seung Ju Food science and biotechnology Yogurt has high temperature sensitivity, resulting in the temperature variations from production to consumption. Cooling capacity of cold chain facilities and product storage height are regarded as factors contributing to temperature variations in this study. To find an effective method to monitor temperature history of every yogurt product, three measurements were used: the set point of a cold chamber, a data logger, and a time-temperature integrator (TTI). The mean measured yogurt quality factor (acidity, °T) of 30 samples was 92.1 °T, and predicted values were 91.8 °T from the set point, 93.3 °T from the data logger, and 92.4 °T from the TTI. In terms of individual prediction, the of the TTI showed the smallest difference (5.76) followed by 81.5 of the set point and 118.9 of the data logger. Thus, the TTI showed the best performance and can be used to monitor the time-temperature history of yogurt in the cold chain system. 10.1007/s10068-018-0371-8
    Guideline for proper usage of time temperature integrator (TTI) avoiding underestimation of food deterioration in terms of temperature dependency: A case with a microbial TTI and milk. Kim Min Jung,Park Hye Ri,Lee Seung Ju Food science and biotechnology Time-temperature integrators (TTIs) can be used to predict food deterioration. However, underestimation of the magnitude of deterioration is not desirable. This study aims to establish guidelines in terms of temperature dependency (Arrhenius activation energy, Ea) to avoid such underestimation by proper use of TTIs. A case study was executed with a microbial TTI and milk. The Ea of the TTI color change was 106 kJ/mol and those of milk deterioration factors aerobic mesophilic bacteria count, lactic acid bacteria count, ln lactic acid %, and pH were 101, 107, 122, and 145 kJ/mol, respectively. The deterioration factors with values of Ea larger than that of TTI, ln lactic acid %, LAB, and pH, were found to be underestimated as compared to their actual levels by prediction from TTI color change, leading to potential consumption of deteriorated milk. 10.1007/s10068-016-0124-5
    Past, current and potential utilisation of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and muscle-based products: A review. Kerry J P,O'Grady M N,Hogan S A Meat science Interest in the use of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and meat products has increased in recent years. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additives into packaging systems with the aim of maintaining or extending meat product quality and shelf-life. Active packaging systems discussed include oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and emitters, moisture control agents and anti-microbial packaging technologies. Intelligent packaging systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged foods to give information regarding the quality of the packaged food during transport and storage. The potential of sensor technologies, indicators (including integrity, freshness and time-temperature (TTI) indicators) and radio frequency identification (RFID) are evaluated for potential use in meat and meat products. Recognition of the benefits of active and intelligent packaging technologies by the food industry, development of economically viable packaging systems and increased consumer acceptance is necessary for commercial realisation of these packaging technologies. 10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.04.024
    Cellulose Fibers Enable Near-Zero-Cost Electrical Sensing of Water-Soluble Gases. Barandun Giandrin,Soprani Matteo,Naficy Sina,Grell Max,Kasimatis Michael,Chiu Kwan Lun,Ponzoni Andrea,Güder Firat ACS sensors We report an entirely new class of printed electrical gas sensors that are produced at near "zero cost". This technology exploits the intrinsic hygroscopic properties of cellulose fibers within paper; although it feels and looks dry, paper contains substantial amount of moisture, adsorbed from the environment, enabling the use of wet chemical methods for sensing without manually adding water to the substrate. The sensors exhibit high sensitivity to water-soluble gases (e.g., lower limit of detection for NH < 200 parts-per-billion) with a fast and reversible response. The sensors show comparable or better performance (especially at high relative humidity) than most commercial ammonia sensors at a fraction of their price (<$0.02 per sensor). We demonstrate that the sensors proposed can be integrated into food packaging to monitor freshness (to reduce food waste and plastic pollution) or implemented into near-field-communication tags to function as wireless, battery-less gas sensors that can be interrogated with smartphones. 10.1021/acssensors.9b00555
    Recent developments in intelligent packaging for enhancing food quality and safety. Sohail Muhammad,Sun Da-Wen,Zhu Zhiwei Critical reviews in food science and nutrition The role of packaging cannot be denied in the life cycle of any food product. Intelligent packaging is an emerging technology in the food packaging sector. Although it still needs its full emergence in the market, its importance has been proved for the maintenance of food quality and safety. The present review describes several aspects of intelligent packaging. It first highlights different tools used in intelligent packaging and elucidates the role of these packaging devices for maintaining the quality of different food items in terms of controlling microbial growth and gas concentration, and for providing convenience and easiness to its users in the form of time temperature indication. This review also discusses other intelligent packaging solutions in supply chain management of food products to control theft and counterfeiting conducts and broaden the image of the food companies in terms of branding and marketing. Overall, intelligent packaging can ensure food quality and safety in the food industry, however there are still some concerns over this emerging technology including high cost and legal aspects, and thus future work should be performed to overcome these problems for further promoting its applications in the food industry. Moreover, work should also be carried out to combine several single intelligent packaging devices into a single one, so that most of the benefits from this emerging technology can be achieved. 10.1080/10408398.2018.1449731
    Traceability information carriers. The technology backgrounds and consumers' perceptions of the technological solutions. Chrysochou Polymeros,Chryssochoidis George,Kehagia Olga Appetite The implementation of traceability in the food supply chain has reinforced adoption of technologies with the ability to track forward and trace back product-related information. Based on the premise that these technologies can be used as a means to provide product-related information to consumers, this paper explores the perceived benefits and drawbacks of such technologies. The aim is to identify factors that influence consumers' perceptions of such technologies, and furthermore to advise the agri-food business on issues that they should consider prior to the implementation of such technologies in their production lines. For the purposes of the study, a focus group study was conducted across 12 European countries, while a set of four different technologies used as a means to provide traceability information to consumers was the focal point of the discussions in each focus group. Results show that the amount of and confidence in the information provided, perceived levels of convenience, impact on product quality and safety, impact on consumers' health and the environment, and potential consequences on ethical and privacy liberties constitute important factors influencing consumers' perceptions of technologies that provide traceability. 10.1016/j.appet.2009.07.011
    Color Measurement and Analysis of Fruit with a Battery-Less NFC Sensor. Lazaro Antonio,Boada Marti,Villarino Ramon,Girbau David Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) This paper presents a color-based classification system for grading the ripeness of fruit using a battery-less Near Field Communication (NFC) tag. The tag consists of a color sensor connected to a low-power microcontroller that is connected to an NFC chip. The tag is powered by the energy harvested from the magnetic field generated by a commercial smartphone used as a reader. The raw RGB color data measured by the colorimeter is converted to HSV (hue, saturation, value) color space. The hue angle and saturation are used as features for classification. Different classification algorithms are compared for classifying the ripeness of different fruits in order to show the robustness of the system. The low cost of NFC chips means that tags with sensing capability can be manufactured economically. In addition, nowadays, most commercial smartphones have NFC capability and thus a specific reader is not necessary. The measurement of different samples obtained on different days is used to train the classification algorithms. The results of training the classifiers have been saved to the cloud. A mobile application has been developed for the prediction based on a table-based method, where the boundary decision is downloaded from a cloud service for each product. High accuracy, between 80 and 93%, is obtained depending on the kind of fruit and the algorithm used. 10.3390/s19071741
    AuNP-RF sensor: An innovative application of RF technology for sensing pathogens electrically in liquids (SPEL) within the food supply chain. Matta Leann Lerie,Karuppuswami Saranraj,Chahal Premjeet,Alocilja Evangelyn C Biosensors & bioelectronics Rapid detection techniques of pathogenic bacteria in the liquid food supply chain are of significant research interest due to their pivotal role in preventing foodborne outbreaks, and in maintaining high standards of public health and safety. Milk and dairy products are of particular interest due to their widespread consumption across the globe. In this paper, a biosensor for detecting pathogenic bacteria in milk using dextrin-capped gold nanoparticles (d-AuNP) as labels decoded at microwave frequencies is presented. The SPEL (sensing pathogens electrically in liquids) biosensor consists of a 3D printed vial and uses an RF reader and an RFID (radio-frequency identification) compatible Split Ring Resonator (SRR) based tag. The SPEL biosensor is capable of detecting bacteria at 5 log CFU/mL within 75 min, with the possibility of testing multiple concurrent samples. Detection is based on impedance loading of SRR by d-AuNP bound to pathogenic bacteria. Spectrophotometry, along with carbohydrate-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) cell capture, is used to verify the sensitivity of the SPEL biosensor with respect to d-AuNP presence. The proof-of-concept device, along with challenges and opportunities for commercialization, are also outlined. 10.1016/j.bios.2018.04.010
    Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China. Liang Wanjie,Cao Jing,Fan Yan,Zhu Kefeng,Dai Qiwei PloS one In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain. 10.1371/journal.pone.0139558
    Overview of RFID technology and its applications in the food industry. Kumar P,Reinitz H W,Simunovic J,Sandeep K P,Franzon P D Journal of food science Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an alternative technology with a potential to replace traditional universal product code (UPC) barcodes. RFID enables identification of an object from a distance without requiring a line of sight. RFID tags can also incorporate additional data such as details of product and manufacturer and can transmit measured environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity. This article presents key concepts and terminology related to RFID technology and its applications in the food industry. Components and working principles of an RFID system are described. Numerous applications of RFID technology in the food industry (supply chain management, temperature monitoring of foods, and ensuring food safety) are discussed. Challenges in implementation of RFID technology are also discussed in terms of read range, read accuracy, nonuniform standards, cost, recycling issues, privacy, and security concerns. 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01323.x
    Enhanced Radio Frequency Biosensor for Food Quality Detection Using Functionalized Carbon Nanofillers. Tanguy Nicolas R,Fiddes Lindsey K,Yan Ning ACS applied materials & interfaces This paper outlines an improved design of inexpensive, wireless and battery free biosensors for in situ monitoring of food quality. This type of device has an additional advantage of being operated remotely. To make the device, a portion of an antenna of a passive 13.56 MHz radio frequency identification (RFID) tag was altered with a sensing element composed of conductive nanofillers/particles, a binding agent, and a polymer matrix. These novel RFID tags were exposed to biogenic amine putrescine, commonly used as a marker for food spoilage, and their response was monitored over time using a general-purpose network analyzer. The effect of conductive filler properties, including conductivity and morphology, and filler functionalization was investigated by preparing sensing composites containing carbon particles (CPs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and binding agent grafted-multiwall carbon nanotubes (g-MWCNTs), respectively. During exposure to putrescine, the amount of reflected waves, frequency at resonance, and quality factor of the novel RFID tags decreased in response. The use of MWCNTs reduced tag cutoff time (i.e., faster response time) as compared with the use of CPs, which highlighted the effectiveness of the conductive nanofiller morphology, while the addition of g-MWCNTs further accelerated the sensor response time as a result of localized binding on the conductive nanofiller surface. Microstructural investigation of the film morphology indicated a better dispersion of g-MWCNTs in the sensing composite as compared to MWCNTs and CPs, as well as a smoother texture of the surface of the resulting coating. These results demonstrated that grafting of the binding agent onto the conductive particles in the sensing composite is an effective way to further enhance the detection sensitivity of the RFID tag based sensor. 10.1021/acsami.5b01876
    Battery-free radio frequency identification (RFID) sensors for food quality and safety. Potyrailo Radislav A,Nagraj Nandini,Tang Zhexiong,Mondello Frank J,Surman Cheryl,Morris William Journal of agricultural and food chemistry Market demands for new sensors for food quality and safety stimulate the development of new sensing technologies that can provide an unobtrusive sensor form, battery-free operation, and minimal sensor cost. Intelligent labeling of food products to indicate and report their freshness and other conditions is one important possible application of such new sensors. This study applied passive (battery-free) radio frequency identification (RFID) sensors for the highly sensitive and selective detection of food freshness and bacterial growth. In these sensors, the electric field generated in the RFID sensor antenna extends from the plane of the RFID sensor and is affected by the ambient environment, providing the opportunity for sensing. This environment may be in the form of a food sample within the electric field of the sensing region or a sensing film deposited onto the sensor antenna. Examples of applications include monitoring of milk freshness, fish freshness, and bacterial growth in a solution. Unlike other food freshness monitoring approaches that require a thin film battery for operation of an RFID sensor and fabrication of custom-made sensors, the passive RFID sensing approach developed here combines the advantages of both battery-free and cost-effective sensor design and offers response selectivity that is impossible to achieve with other individual sensors. 10.1021/jf302416y
    Are the Innovative Electronic Labels for Extra Virgin Olive Oil Sustainable, Traceable, and Accepted by Consumers? Violino Simona,Pallottino Federico,Sperandio Giulio,Figorilli Simone,Antonucci Francesca,Ioannoni Vanessa,Fappiano Daniele,Costa Corrado Foods (Basel, Switzerland) Traceability is the ability to follow the displacement of food through its entire chain. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) represents Italian excellence, with consumers' increased awareness for traceability. The aim of this work is to propose and analyze the economic sustainability and consumers' preference of three technological systems supporting traceability: Near Field Communication (NFC) based; tamper-proof device plus Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and app; QR code tag plus "scratch and win" system and blockchain. An anonymous questionnaire to Italian consumers ( = 1120) was made to acquire consumers' acceptability of the systems and estimating their willingness to pay additional premium prices for these. An economic analysis estimated and compared the technology costs at different production levels. Results show that 94% of the consumer respondents are interested in the implementation of such technologies, and among them 45% chose QR-code protected by a "scratch-and-win" system with a blockchain infotracing-platform (QR-B). The consumers interested are willing to pay a mean premium price of 17.8% and economic analysis reported evidenced an incidence always lower than mid-/high-production levels. The success of the QR-B could be ascribed to different aspects: the cutting-edge fashion trend of blockchain in the food sector, the use of incentives, the easy-to-use QR-code, and the gamification strategy. 10.3390/foods8110529
    Consumer acceptance of a quick response (QR) code for the food traceability system: Application of an extended technology acceptance model (TAM). Kim Yeong Gug,Woo Eunju Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.) The objectives of this study are to apply the TAM using the addition of perceived information to individuals' behavioral intention to use the QR code for the food traceability system; and to determine the moderating effects of food involvement on the relationship between perceived information and perceived usefulness. Results from a survey of 420 respondents are analyzed using structural equation modeling. The study findings reveal that the extended TAM has a satisfactory fit to the data and that the underlying dimensions have a significant effect on consumers' intention to use the QR code for the food traceability system. In addition, food involvement plays a significant moderating function in the relationship between perceived information and perceived usefulness. The implications of this study for future research are discussed. 10.1016/j.foodres.2016.05.002
    Identification of food and beverage spoilage yeasts from DNA sequence analyses. Kurtzman Cletus P International journal of food microbiology Detection, identification and classification of yeasts have undergone major changes in the last decade and a half following application of gene sequence analyses and genome comparisons. Development of a database (barcode) of easily determined DNA sequences from domains 1 and 2 (D1/D2) of the nuclear large subunit rRNA gene and from ITS now permits many laboratories to identify species quickly and accurately, thus replacing the laborious and often inaccurate phenotypic tests previously used. Phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences has resulted in a major revision of yeast systematics resulting in redefinition of nearly all genera. This new understanding of species relationships has prompted a change of rules for naming and classifying yeasts and other fungi, and these new rules are presented in the recently implemented International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code). The use of molecular methods for species identification and the impact of Code changes on classification will be discussed, especially in the context of food and beverage spoilage yeasts. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2015.05.023
    Big data in food safety: An overview. Marvin Hans J P,Janssen Esmée M,Bouzembrak Yamine,Hendriksen Peter J M,Staats Martijn Critical reviews in food science and nutrition Technology is now being developed that is able to handle vast amounts of structured and unstructured data from diverse sources and origins. These technologies are often referred to as big data, and open new areas of research and applications that will have an increasing impact in all sectors of our society. In this paper we assessed to which extent big data is being applied in the food safety domain and identified several promising trends. In several parts of the world, governments stimulate the publication on internet of all data generated in public funded research projects. This policy opens new opportunities for stakeholders dealing with food safety to address issues which were not possible before. Application of mobile phones as detection devices for food safety and the use of social media as early warning of food safety problems are a few examples of the new developments that are possible due to big data. 10.1080/10408398.2016.1257481
    Applying COI Barcode to Identify Animal Origin of Food. Wu Yajun,Yang Yange,Liu Minchang,Wang Bin,Wang Yingchun,Wang Hongyue Journal of food science DNA barcoding possesses advantages of high resolution, high sensitivity, and capability in capturing as much identity information as possible. However, highly varying sources of food materials and a complicated supply chain bring about challenge to the application of barcoding methods. In this study, different barcode systems were compared to establish a robust method for tracing animal species in food. Experiments on food samples from mammal, poultry, and fish proved that a mini barcode system targeting a 192 bp COI gene fragment was able to accurately identify both raw and highly processed animal food. In order to distinguish species in a mixed food sample, cloning technique was used by which as low as 10% target animal ingredient could be detected. Testing of marketed food products verified the capability of the mini barcoding method in identifying illegally claimed product. 10.1111/1750-3841.14627
    Chemical Barcoding: A Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance-Based Approach To Ensure the Quality and Safety of Natural Ingredients. Martinez-Farina Camilo F,Driscoll Stephen,Wicks Chelsi,Burton Ian,Wentzell Peter D,Berrué Fabrice Journal of agricultural and food chemistry One of the greatest challenges facing the functional food and natural health product (NHP) industries is sourcing high-quality, functional, natural ingredients for their finished products. Unfortunately, the lack of ingredient standards, modernized analytical methodologies, and industry oversight creates the potential for low quality and, in some cases, deliberate adulteration of ingredients. By exploring a diverse library of NHPs provided by the independent certification organization ISURA, we demonstrated that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy provides an innovative solution to authenticate botanicals and warrant the quality and safety of processed foods and manufactured functional ingredients. Two-dimensional NMR experiments were shown to be a robust and reproducible approach to capture the content of complex chemical mixtures, while a binary normalization step allows for emphasizing the chemical diversity in each sample, and unsupervised statistical methodologies provide key advantages to classify, authenticate, and highlight the potential presence of additives and adulterants. 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b01066