The risk of inflammatory bowel disease flares after fecal microbiota transplantation: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Qazi Taha,Amaratunga Thelina,Barnes Edward L,Fischer Monika,Kassam Zain,Allegretti Jessica R
Several studies have suggested worsening in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity following fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We aimed to assess the risk of worsening in IBD activity following FMT. An electronic search was conducted using MEDLINE (1946-June 2016), EMBASE (1954-June 2016) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2016). Studies in which FMT was provided to IBD patients for IBD management or (Clostridium difficile infection) CDI treatment were included. The primary outcome was the rate of worsening in IBD activity. RESULTS:Twenty-nine studies with 514 FMT-treated IBD patients were included. Range of follow up was 4 weeks to 3 y. The pooled rate of IBD worsening was 14.9% (95% CI 10-21%). Heterogeneity was detected: I2 D 52.1%, Cochran Q test D 58.1, p D 0.01. A priori subgroup analyses were performed. Although not significant, the pooled rate of worsening in IBD activity following FMT for CDI (22.7% (95% CI: 13-36%)) was higher compared with FMT for IBD (11.1% (95% CI 7-17%)). Rates of worsening in IBD after lower GI FMT delivery revealed a higher rate of worsening in IBD activity (16.5% (95% CI: 11-24%)) compared with upper GI delivery (5.6% (95% CI: 2-16%)). Rates of worsening in high quality studies and randomized controls trials (RCTS) suggested a marginal risk of worsening in IBD activity (4.6%, (95% CI: 1.8-11%). Rates of IBD worsening are overall marginal across high quality RCTS. It is unknown if the FMT itself led to the worsening of IBD in this small fraction or if this represents alternative etiologies.
Upper Versus Lower Gastrointestinal Delivery for Transplantation of Fecal Microbiota in Recurrent or Refractory Clostridium difficile Infection: A Collaborative Analysis of Individual Patient Data From 14 Studies.
Furuya-Kanamori Luis,Doi Suhail A R,Paterson David L,Helms Stefan K,Yakob Laith,McKenzie Samantha J,Garborg Kjetil,Emanuelsson Frida,Stollman Neil,Kronman Matthew P,Clark Justin,Huber Charlotte A,Riley Thomas V,Clements Archie C A
Journal of clinical gastroenterology
GOALS:The aim of this study was to compare upper gastrointestinal (UGI) versus lower gastrointestinal (LGI) delivery routes of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for refractory or recurrent/relapsing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). BACKGROUND:FMT has been proven to be a safe and highly effective therapeutic option for CDI. Delivery, however, could be via the UGI or LGI routes, and it is unclear as to which route provides better clinical outcome. STUDY:A systematic search for studies that reported the use of FMT for CDI treatment was conducted. Individual patient data that included demographic (age and sex) and clinical (route of FMT delivery, CDI outcome after FMT, and follow-up time) information were obtained. Kaplan-Meier cumulative hazard curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess clinical failure after FMT by the route of delivery. RESULTS:Data from 305 patients treated with FMT (208 via LGI route and 97 via UGI route) for CDI were analyzed. At 30 and 90 days, the risk of clinical failure was 5.6% and 17.9% in the UGI group compared with 4.9% and 8.5% in the LGI delivery route group, respectively. A time-varying analysis suggested a 3-fold increase in hazard of clinical failure for UGI delivery (hazard ratio, 3.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-8.93) in the period after 30 days. CONCLUSIONS:FMT delivered via the LGI seems to be the most effective route for the prevention of recurrence/relapse of CDI. A randomized controlled trial is necessary to confirm whether FMT delivered via the LGI is indeed superior to that delivered via the UGI route.
Faecal microbiota transplantation for <em>Clostridium difficile</em>-associated diarrhoea: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.
Moayyedi Paul,Yuan Yuhong,Baharith Harith,Ford Alexander C
The Medical journal of Australia
OBJECTIVES:Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a useful approach for treating Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have recently evaluated its effectiveness, but systematic reviews have focused on evidence from case series. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of FMT for treating CDAD. STUDY DESIGN:We included RCTs that primarily recruited adults with CDAD and compared the effectiveness of FMT with that of placebo, antibiotic therapy, or autologous stool transplantation, or compared different preparations or modes of delivery of FMT. Dichotomous symptom data were pooled to calculate a relative risk (RR) of CDAD persisting after therapy, and the number needed to treat (NNT). DATA SOURCES:MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and Database of Systematic Reviews were searched to 6 February 2017. DATA SYNTHESIS:We identified ten RCTs that evaluated the treatment of a total of 657 patients with CDAD. Five RCTs compared FMT with placebo (including autologous FMT) or vancomycin treatment (total of 284 patients); FMT was statistically significantly more effective (RR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.22-0.74; NNT, 3; 95% CI, 2-7). Heterogeneity across studies was significant (I<sup>2</sup> = 61%); this heterogeneity was attributable to the mode of delivery of FMT, and to the therapy being more successful in European than in North American trials. The other five RCTs evaluated different approaches to FMT therapy. Frozen FMT preparations were as efficacious as fresh material in one RCT, but the numbers of patients in the remaining RCTs were too small to allow definitive conclusions. CONCLUSIONS:Moderate quality evidence from RCT trials indicates that FMT is more effective in patients with CDAD than vancomycin or placebo. Further investigations are needed to determine the best route of administration and FMT preparation.
Systematic review with meta-analysis: the efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of recurrent and refractory Clostridium difficile infection.
Quraishi M N,Widlak M,Bhala N,Moore D,Price M,Sharma N,Iqbal T H
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
BACKGROUND:Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the commonest nosocomial cause of diarrhoea. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an approved treatment for recurrent or refractory CDI but there is uncertainty about its use. AIM:To evaluate the efficacy of FMT in treating recurrent and refractory CDI and investigate outcomes from modes of delivery and preparation. METHODS:A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, trial registers and conference proceedings were searched. Studies on FMT in recurrent and refractory CDI were included. The primary outcome was clinical resolution with subgroup analyses of modes of delivery and preparation. Random effects meta-analyses were used to combine data. RESULTS:Thirty seven studies were included; seven randomised controlled trials and 30 case series. FMT was more effective than vancomycin (RR: 0.23 95%CI 0.07-0.80) in resolving recurrent and refractory CDI. Clinical resolution across all studies was 92% (95%CI 89%-94%). A significant difference was observed between lower GI and upper GI delivery of FMT 95% (95%CI 92%-97%) vs 88% (95%CI 82%-94%) respectively (P=.02). There was no difference between fresh and frozen FMT 92% (95%CI 89%-95%) vs 93% (95%CI 87%-97%) respectively (P=.84). Administering consecutive courses of FMT following failure of first FMT resulted in an incremental effect. Donor screening was consistent but variability existed in recipient preparation and volume of FMT. Serious adverse events were uncommon. CONCLUSION:Faecal microbiota transplantation is an effective treatment for recurrent and refractory Clostridium difficile infection, independent of preparation and route of delivery.
Comparison of Different Strategies for Providing Fecal Microbiota Transplantation to Treat Patients with Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in Two English Hospitals: A Review.
Goldenberg Simon D,Batra Rahul,Beales Ian,Digby-Bell Jonathan Leith,Irving Peter Miles,Kellingray Lee,Narbad Arjan,Franslem-Elumogo Ngozi
Infectious diseases and therapy
Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has emerged as a highly efficacious treatment for difficult cases of refractory and/or recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). There have been many well-conducted randomized controlled trials and thousands of patients reported in case series that describe success rates of approximately 90% following one or more FMT. Although the exact mechanisms of FMT have yet to be fully elucidated, replacement or restoration of a 'normal' microbiota (or at least a microbiota resembling those who have never had CDI) appears to have a positive effect on the gut dysbiosis that is thought to exist in these patients. Furthermore, despite being aesthetically unappealing, this 'ultimate probiotic' is a particularly attractive solution to a difficult problem that avoids repeated courses of antibiotics. The lack of clarity about the exact mechanism of action and the 'active ingredient' of FMT (e.g., individual or communities of bacteria, bacteriophage, or bioactive molecules such as bile acids) has hindered the ability to produce a standardized and well-characterized FMT product. There is no standard method to produce material for FMT, and there are a multitude of factors that can vary between institutions that offer this therapy. Only a few studies have directly compared clinical efficacy in groups of patients who have been treated with FMT prepared differently (e.g., fresh vs. frozen) or administered by different route (e.g., by nasojejunal tube, colonoscopy or by oral administration of encapsulated product). More of these studies should be undertaken to clarify the superiority or otherwise of these variables. This review describes the methods and protocols that two English NHS hospitals independently adopted over the same time period to provide FMT for patients with recurrent CDI. There are several fundamental differences in the methods used, including selection and testing of donors, procedures for preparation and storage of material, and route of administration. These methods are described in detail in this review highlighting differing practice. Despite these significant methodological variations, clinical outcomes in terms of cure rate appear to be remarkably similar for both FMT providers. Although both hospitals have treated only modest numbers of patients, these findings suggest that many of the described differences may not be critical factors in influencing the success of the procedure. As FMT is increasingly being proposed for a number of conditions other than CDI, harmonization of methods and techniques may be more critical to the success of FMT, and thus it will be important to standardize these as far as practically possible.
Protocol for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Fang Haiming,Fu Lian,Wang Jiajia
BioMed research international
BACKGROUND:Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment approach for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The donor selection, the separation of fecal bacteria, the frequency of FMT, the way of infusion, the long-term safety, and efficacy are still uncertain. AIM:To further study the efficacy and safety and protocol of FMT for IBD. METHODS:A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted until February, 2018. Clinical remission was established as the primary outcome. RESULTS:A total of 596 paediatric and adult IBD patients were enrolled, and 459 patients received FMT therapy. 28.8% (132/459) patients achieved clinical remission during follow-up. 53% (241/459) patients achieved clinical response. The pooled estimated clinical remission for ulcerative colitis (UC) was 21% (95% CI: 8%-37%) and 30% (95% CI: 11%-52%) for Crohn's disease (CD), both with a risk of heterogeneity; 10% (95% CI: 0%-43%) for paediatric UC; 26% (95% CI: 10%-48%) for adult UC; 45% for paediatric CD (95% CI: 24%-66%); 22% (95% CI: 3%-52%) for adult CD. Meta-analysis of cohort studies showed that moderate-severe IBD patients could achieve more significant remission from FMT than mild-moderate patients (=0.037). Delivery route has no impact on the efficacy of FMT in UC and CD. Based on current available evidence, a trend was observed towards higher clinical remission rate of frozen stool FMT than that of fresh stool for UC, while there was no significant difference between fresh and frozen FMT for CD. The optimal donor stool for FMT is still uncertain. Meta-analysis of RCTs showed that FMT treatment achieved significantly higher clinical remission rate than placebo for UC (28% versus 9%, =0.0003). CONCLUSION:FMT is an effective and safe therapy for both paediatric and adult IBD; fresh or frozen donor stool, delivery route, and antibiotic pretreatment or not have no impact on the efficacy of FMT in IBD. FMT might be a potential rescue therapy and even an initial standardized therapy for IBD. However, few data exist on long-term safety and efficacy and further validation is needed.
European consensus conference on faecal microbiota transplantation in clinical practice.
Cammarota Giovanni,Ianiro Gianluca,Tilg Herbert,Rajilić-Stojanović Mirjana,Kump Patrizia,Satokari Reetta,Sokol Harry,Arkkila Perttu,Pintus Cristina,Hart Ailsa,Segal Jonathan,Aloi Marina,Masucci Luca,Molinaro Antonio,Scaldaferri Franco,Gasbarrini Giovanni,Lopez-Sanroman Antonio,Link Alexander,de Groot Pieter,de Vos Willem M,Högenauer Christoph,Malfertheiner Peter,Mattila Eero,Milosavljević Tomica,Nieuwdorp Max,Sanguinetti Maurizio,Simren Magnus,Gasbarrini Antonio,
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an important therapeutic option for infection. Promising findings suggest that FMT may play a role also in the management of other disorders associated with the alteration of gut microbiota. Although the health community is assessing FMT with renewed interest and patients are becoming more aware, there are technical and logistical issues in establishing such a non-standardised treatment into the clinical practice with safety and proper governance. In view of this, an evidence-based recommendation is needed to drive the practical implementation of FMT. In this European Consensus Conference, 28 experts from 10 countries collaborated, in separate working groups and through an evidence-based process, to provide statements on the following key issues: FMT indications; donor selection; preparation of faecal material; clinical management and faecal delivery and basic requirements for implementing an FMT centre. Statements developed by each working group were evaluated and voted by all members, first through an electronic Delphi process, and then in a plenary consensus conference. The recommendations were released according to best available evidence, in order to act as guidance for physicians who plan to implement FMT, aiming at supporting the broad availability of the procedure, discussing other issues relevant to FMT and promoting future clinical research in the area of gut microbiota manipulation. This consensus report strongly recommends the implementation of FMT centres for the treatment of infection as well as traces the guidelines of technicality, regulatory, administrative and laboratory requirements.
Clinical Practice and Infrastructure Review of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridium difficile Infection.
Kelly Brendan J,Tebas Pablo
A substantial proportion of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) cases recur after completion of antibiotic therapy, and antibiotic cure rates diminish with each recurrence of CDI. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy for recurrent FMT, which otherwise requires prolonged or indefinite antibiotic treatment. FMT is performed by introducing the fecal microbial community obtained from a healthy donor or pool of donors into the stomach, small intestine, or colon of a patient with CDI. Multiple clinical trials support the usefulness of FMT in treating recurrent CDI, and CDI treatment guidelines now include consideration of FMT at the third CDI recurrence. However, there remain challenges to incorporating FMT into clinical practice. First, methods of fecal bacterial community processing vary, as do methods of FMT administration. Second, the optimal dosing strategy and expected benefit of FMT for refractory CDI, particularly for severe and severe complicated cases, are uncertain. Third, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers FMT an investigational treatment. Fourth, insurance reimbursement for FMT usually falls short of FMT administration costs. In the setting of rising C difficile incidence and growing evidence for FMT efficacy, the demand for FMT has increased. However, uncertainty surrounding optimal FMT preparation and administration methods, FDA oversight, and insurance reimbursement presently limits the clinical practice of FMT.
Current challenges in the treatment of severe infection: early treatment potential of fecal microbiota transplantation.
van Beurden Yvette H,Nieuwdorp Max,van de Berg Pablo J E J,Mulder Chris J J,Goorhuis Abraham
Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a very effective treatment for recurrent infection (CDI). Less is known about the application of FMT as a curative treatment of severe or complicated CDI. In this review, we present and discuss evidence supporting the curative use of FMT in severe or complicated CDI. We performed a literature search in PubMed and Embase for studies on the curative use of FMT in severe or complicated CDI. In addition, we describe a patient with severe CDI not responding to initial antibiotic treatment, who was successfully treated with curative FMT. We found 23 reports (12 case reports; 11 case series) about FMT as treatment for severe or complicated CDI. The patients described all had severe or complicated CDI, did not respond to conventional CDI antibiotic treatment and received FMT as last resort treatment. Patients were treated with (sequential) FMT, whether or not followed by additional antibiotic treatment for CDI. FMT, with or without additional antibiotic CDI treatment, appears to be a promising curative treatment option in patients with severe and complicated CDI, or only complicated CDI, who do not respond sufficiently to conventional antibiotic treatment. Treatment with FMT should be considered in these patients before proceeding to emergency bowel surgery.
The role of intestinal microbiota in the development and severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis.
van Vliet Michel J,Harmsen Hermie J M,de Bont Eveline S J M,Tissing Wim J E
Mucositis, also referred to as mucosal barrier injury, is one of the most debilitating side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment. Clinically, mucositis is associated with pain, bacteremia, and malnutrition. Furthermore, mucositis is a frequent reason to postpone chemotherapy treatment, ultimately leading towards a higher mortality in cancer patients. According to the model introduced by Sonis, both inflammation and apoptosis of the mucosal barrier result in its discontinuity, thereby promoting bacterial translocation. According to this five-phase model, the intestinal microbiota plays no role in the pathophysiology of mucositis. However, research has implicated a prominent role for the commensal intestinal microbiota in the development of several inflammatory diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, pouchitis, and radiotherapy-induced diarrhea. Furthermore, chemotherapeutics have a detrimental effect on the intestinal microbial composition (strongly decreasing the numbers of anaerobic bacteria), coinciding in time with the development of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. We hypothesize that the commensal intestinal microbiota might play a pivotal role in chemotherapy-induced mucositis. In this review, we propose and discuss five pathways in the development of mucositis that are potentially influenced by the commensal intestinal microbiota: 1) the inflammatory process and oxidative stress, 2) intestinal permeability, 3) the composition of the mucus layer, 4) the resistance to harmful stimuli and epithelial repair mechanisms, and 5) the activation and release of immune effector molecules. Via these pathways, the commensal intestinal microbiota might influence all phases in the Sonis model of the pathogenesis of mucositis. Further research is needed to show the clinical relevance of restoring dysbiosis, thereby possibly decreasing the degree of intestinal mucositis.
Periodic screening of donor faeces with a quarantine period to prevent transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms during faecal microbiota transplantation: a retrospective cohort study.
Vendrik Karuna E W,Terveer Elisabeth M,Kuijper Ed J,Nooij Sam,Boeije-Koppenol Eline,Sanders Ingrid M J G,van Lingen Emilie,Verspaget Hein W,Berssenbrugge Eric K L,Keller Josbert J,van Prehn Joffrey,
The Lancet. Infectious diseases
BACKGROUND:On June 13, 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning after transfer of faeces containing an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli by faecal microbiota transplantation led to bacteraemia in two immunocompromised patients. Consequently, we evaluated the effectiveness of the faeces donor-screening protocol of the Netherlands Donor Faeces Bank, which consists of screening of donors for multidrug-resistant organisms every 3 months, combined with additional screening on indication (eg, after travelling abroad) and application of a quarantine period for all faecal suspensions delivered within those 3 months. METHODS:We did a retrospective cohort study of data collected between Jan 1, 2015, and Oct 14, 2019, on the multidrug-resistant organism testing results of donor faeces. Additionally, we tested previously quarantined faecal suspensions approved for faecal microbiota transplantation between Dec 12, 2016, and May 1, 2019, for the presence of multidrug-resistant organisms using both aselective and selective broth enrichment media. Whole-genome sequencing with core-genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) was done on all multidrug-resistant isolates. FINDINGS:Among initial screenings, six (9%) of 66 tested individuals were positive for multidrug-resistant organisms and 11 (17%) of 66 tested individuals were positive for multidrug-resistant organisms at any timepoint. Multidrug-resistant organisms were detected in four (25%) of 16 active donors, who had a median donation duration of 268 days (IQR 92 to 366). Among all screening results, 14 (74%) of 19 detected multidrug-resistant organisms were ESBL-producing E coli. 170 (49%) of 344 approved faecal suspensions had corresponding research faeces aliquots available and were tested (from 11 active donors with a median of eight [IQR five to 26] suspensions per donor). No multidrug-resistant organisms were detected in the 170 approved faecal suspensions (one-sided 95% CI 0 to 1·7). cgMLST revealed that all multidrug-resistant organisms were genetically different. INTERPRETATION:Healthy faeces donors can become colonised with multidrug-resistant organisms during donation activities. Our screening protocol did not result in approval of multidrug-resistant organism-positive faecal suspensions for microbiota transplantation. FUNDING:None.
International consensus conference on stool banking for faecal microbiota transplantation in clinical practice.
Cammarota Giovanni,Ianiro Gianluca,Kelly Colleen R,Mullish Benjamin H,Allegretti Jessica R,Kassam Zain,Putignani Lorenza,Fischer Monika,Keller Josbert J,Costello Samuel Paul,Sokol Harry,Kump Patrizia,Satokari Reetta,Kahn Stacy A,Kao Dina,Arkkila Perttu,Kuijper Ed J,Vehreschild Maria J Gt,Pintus Cristina,Lopetuso Loris,Masucci Luca,Scaldaferri Franco,Terveer E M,Nieuwdorp Max,López-Sanromán Antonio,Kupcinskas Juozas,Hart Ailsa,Tilg Herbert,Gasbarrini Antonio
Although faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has a well-established role in the treatment of recurrent infection (CDI), its widespread dissemination is limited by several obstacles, including lack of dedicated centres, difficulties with donor recruitment and complexities related to regulation and safety monitoring. Given the considerable burden of CDI on global healthcare systems, FMT should be widely available to most centres.Stool banks may guarantee reliable, timely and equitable access to FMT for patients and a traceable workflow that ensures safety and quality of procedures. In this consensus project, FMT experts from Europe, North America and Australia gathered and released statements on the following issues related to the stool banking: general principles, objectives and organisation of the stool bank; selection and screening of donors; collection, preparation and storage of faeces; services and clients; registries, monitoring of outcomes and ethical issues; and the evolving role of FMT in clinical practice,Consensus on each statement was achieved through a Delphi process and then in a plenary face-to-face meeting. For each key issue, the best available evidence was assessed, with the aim of providing guidance for the development of stool banks in order to promote accessibility to FMT in clinical practice.
Predictors of failure after single faecal microbiota transplantation in patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: results from a 3-year, single-centre cohort study.
Ianiro G,Valerio L,Masucci L,Pecere S,Bibbò S,Quaranta G,Posteraro B,Currò D,Sanguinetti M,Gasbarrini A,Cammarota G
Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
OBJECTIVES:Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Although a single faecal infusion is usually sufficient to eradicate CDI, a considerable number of patients need multiple infusions to be cured. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of failure after single faecal infusion in patients with recurrent CDI. METHODS:We included patients with recurrent CDI prospectively treated with FMT by colonoscopy. By means of univariate and multivariate analysis, variables including female gender, age, number of CDI recurrences, severity of CDI, hospitalization, inadequate bowel preparation, unrelated donor, and use of frozen faeces, were assessed to predict failure after single faecal infusion. RESULTS:Sixty-four patients (39 women; mean age 74 years) were included. Of them, 44 (69%) were cured by a single faecal infusion, whereas 20 (31%) needed repeat infusions. Overall, FMT cured 62 of 64 (97%) patients. In the subgroup of patients with severe CDI, only eight of 26 (30%) were cured with a single infusion. At multivariate analysis, severe CDI (OR 24.66; 95% CI 4.44-242.08; p 0.001) and inadequate bowel preparation (OR 11.53; 95% CI 1.71-115.51; p 0.019) were found to be independent predictors of failure after single faecal infusion. CONCLUSIONS:Severe CDI and inadequate bowel preparation appear to be independent predictors of failure after single faecal infusion in patients treated with FMT by colonoscopy for recurrent CDI. Our results may help to optimize protocols and outcomes of FMT in patients with recurrent CDI.
Washed preparation of faecal microbiota changes the transplantation related safety, quantitative method and delivery.
The safety, quantitative method and delivery of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) vary a lot from different countries in practice. Recently, the improved methodology of FMT based on the automatic filtration, washing process and the related delivery was named as washed microbiota transplantation (WMT). First, this study aimed to describe the methodology development of FMT from manual to washing preparation from 2012 to 2021 in China Microbiota Transplantation System (CMTS), a centralized stool bank for providing a national non-profit service. The secondary aim is to describe donor screenings, the correlation between faecal weight and treatment doses, incidence of adverse events and delivery decision. The retrospective analysis on the prospectively recorded data was performed. Results showed that the success rate of donor screening was 3.1% (32/1036). The incidence rate of fever decreased significantly from 19.4% (6/31) in manual FMT to 2.7% (24/902) in WMT in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), which made UC a considerable disease model to reflect the quality control of faecal microbiota preparation. We defined one treatment unit as 10 cm microbiota precipitation (1.0 × 10 bacteria) based on enriched microbiota instead of rough faecal weight. For delivering microbiota, colonic transendoscopic enteral tube is a promising way especially for multiple WMTs or frequent colonic administration of drugs combined with WMT. This study should help improve the better practice of FMT for helping more patients in the future.
Exploration of Potential Gut Microbiota-Derived Biomarkers to Predict the Success of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Ulcerative Colitis: A Prospective Cohort in Korea.
Gut and liver
Background/Aims:Although fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been proven as one of the promising treatments for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), potential prognostic markers regarding the clinical outcomes of FMT remain elusive. Methods:We collected fecal samples of 10 participants undergoing FMT to treat UC and those from the corresponding donors. We categorized them into two groups: responders and nonresponders. Sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was conducted on the samples to explore bacterial composition. Results:Analyzing the gut microbiota of patients who showed different outcomes in FMT presented a distinct microbial niche. Source tracking analysis showed the nonresponder group had a higher rate of preservation of donor microbiota, underscoring that engraftment degrees are not one of the major drivers for the success of FMT. At the phylum level, Bacteroidetes bacteria were significantly depleted (p<0.003), and three genera, including , , and , were enriched in the responder group before FMT (p=0.003, p=0.025, and p=0.048, respectively). Furthermore, we applied a machine learning algorithm to build a prediction model that might allow the prediction of FMT outcomes, which yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.844. Notably, the microbiota-based model was much better at predicting outcomes than the clinical features model (area under the ROC curve=0.531). Conclusions:This study is the first to suggest the significance of indigenous microbiota of recipients as a critical factor. The result highlights that bacterial composition should be evaluated before FMT to select suitable patients and achieve better efficiency.
Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Scoping Review.
AIDS research and human retroviruses
The aim of this scoping review was to determine the characteristics of studies evaluating fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), as well as its effects and safety as a therapeutic intervention for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We conducted a scoping review following the methodology of the Joanna Briggs Institute. We searched the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Medline until September 19, 2021. Studies that used FMT in people living with HIV and explored its effects on the health of these people were included. Two randomized and 2 uncontrolled clinical trials with a total of 55 participants were included. Participants were well-controlled HIV-infected people. Regarding microbiota changes, three studies found significant post-FMT increases in , , α-diversity, Chao index, and/or Shannon index, and/or decreases in . Regarding markers of intestinal damage, one study found a decrease in intestinal fatty acid binding protein post-FMT, and another study found an increase in zonulin. Other outcomes evaluated by the studies were as follows: markers of immune and inflammatory activation, markers of immunocompetence (CD4, and CD8 T lymphocytes), and HIV viral load; however, none showed significant changes. Clinical outcomes were not evaluated by these studies. Regarding the safety of FMT, only mild adverse events were appreciated. No serious adverse event was reported. The clinical evidence for FMT in people living with HIV is sparse. FMT appears to have good tolerability and, no serious adverse event has been reported so far. Further clinical trials and evaluation of clinically important biomedical outcomes for FMT in people living with HIV are needed.
Design and manufacture of a lyophilised faecal microbiota capsule formulation to GMP standards.
Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
Faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is an established and effective treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and has many other potential clinical applications. However, preparation and quality of FMT is poorly standardised and clinical studies are hampered by a lack of well-defined FMT formulations that meet regulatory standards for medicines. As an alternative to FMT suspensions for administration by nasojejunal tube or colonoscopy, which is invasive and disliked by many patients, this study aimed to develop a well-controlled, standardised method for manufacture of lyophilised FMT capsules and to provide stability data allowing storage for extended time periods. Faecal donations were collected from healthy, pre-screened individuals, homogenised, filtered and centrifuged to remove dietary matter. The suspension was centrifuged to pellet bacteria, which were resuspended with trehalose and lyophilised to produce a powder which was filled into 5 enteric-coated capsules (size 0). Live-dead bacterial cell quantitative PCR assay showed <10 fold viable bacterial load reduction through the manufacturing process. No significant loss of viable bacterial load was observed after storage at -80 °C for 36 weeks (p = 0.24, n = 5). Initial clinical experience demonstrated that the capsules produced clinical cure in patients with CDI with no adverse events reported (n = 7). We provide the first report of a detailed manufacturing protocol and specification for an encapsulated lyophilised formulation of FMT. As clinical trials into intestinal microbiota interventions proceed, it is important to use a well-controlled investigational medicinal product in the studies so that any beneficial results can be replicated in clinical practice.
Efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva
OBJECTIVES:the objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the outcomes of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. METHODS:electronic databases were searched for studies reporting on the efficacy and/or safety of FMT therapy for recurrent CDI in IBD. The meta-prop command of the meta package in R was used to assess efficacy and safety. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore heterogeneity regarding all outcomes. RESULTS:eleven trials were included in the study. A pooled analysis showed that the initial cure rate of recurrent CDI among IBD patients was 80 % (95 % CI, 0.76, 0.84), and the overall cure rate after two or more FMT procedures was 90 % (95 % CI, 0.84, 0.94). The recurrence rate post-FMT therapy was 25 % (95 % CI: 0.20, 0.32). Sub-analyses suggested that the initial cure rate of CDI in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients was higher than in Crohn's disease (CD) patients (85 % vs. 79 %), with no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). No serious adverse events were noted in any of the patients post-FMT. CONCLUSIONS:FMT is an effective and safe treatment for recurrent CDI in patients with IBD. FMT should be considered early in cases of recurrent or refractory CDI. Multiple FMT procedures can improve the cure rate of CDI.
[Chinese expert consensus on screening and management of fecal microbiota transplantation donors (2022 edition)].
Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been recommended by clinical practical guidelines and consensus for the treatment of a variety of intestinal diseases, but in more and more medical institutions trying to develop this technology in clinical practice, how to screen and manage donors has become an urgent need for regulation. In view of this, based on evidence-based medical evidence, Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition of Chinese Medical Association and Microecology Professional Committee of Shanghai Preventive Medicine Association jointly formulate an expert consensus on the screening and management of donors, including screening on the internet and in clinic, evaluation and selection during donation, establishment of the standard of donor management, the follow-up system and the professional support system, with a view to improving the quality of microbiota transplantation donors, reducing adverse events, and promoting the standardized clinical application of FMT.
Ethical Issues in Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Practice.
Ma Yonghui,Liu Jiayu,Rhodes Catherine,Nie Yongzhan,Zhang Faming
The American journal of bioethics : AJOB
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has demonstrated efficacy and is increasingly being used in the treatment of patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Despite a lack of high-quality trials to provide more information on the long-term effects of FMT, there has been great enthusiasm about the potential for expanding its applications. However, FMT presents many serious ethical and social challenges that must be addressed as part of a successful regulatory policy response. In this article, we draw on a sample of the scientific and bioethics literatures to examine clusters of ethical and social issues arising in five main areas: (1) informed consent and the vulnerability of patients; (2) determining what a "suitable healthy donor" is; (3) safety and risk; (4) commercialization and potential exploitation of vulnerable patients; and (5) public health implications. We find that these issues are complex and worthy of careful consideration by health care professionals. Desperation of a patient should not be the basis for selecting treatment with FMT, and the patient's interests should always be of paramount concern. Authorities must prioritize development of appropriate and effective regulation of FMT to safeguard patients and donors, promote further research into safety and efficacy, and avoid abuse of the treatment.
Efficacy of different faecal microbiota transplantation protocols for infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ianiro Gianluca,Maida Marcello,Burisch Johan,Simonelli Claudia,Hold Georgina,Ventimiglia Marco,Gasbarrini Antonio,Cammarota Giovanni
United European gastroenterology journal
BACKGROUND:Protocols for treating recurrent infection (rCDI) through faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) are still not standardised. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of different FMT protocols for rCDI according to routes, number of infusions and infused material. METHODS:MEDLINE, Embase, SCOPUS, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched through 31 May 2017. Studies offering multiple infusions if a single infusion failed to cure rCDI were included. Data were combined through a random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS:Fifteen studies (1150 subjects) were analysed. Multiple infusions increased efficacy rates overall (76% versus 93%) and in each route of delivery (duodenal delivery: 73% with single infusion versus 81% with multiple infusions; capsule: 80% versus 92%; colonoscopy: 78% versus 98% and enema: 56% versus 92%). Duodenal delivery and colonoscopy were associated, respectively, with lower efficacy rates ( = 0.039) and higher efficacy rates ( = 0.006) overall. Faecal amount ≤ 50 g ( = 0.006) and enema ( = 0.019) were associated with lower efficacy rates after a single infusion. The use of fresh or frozen faeces did not influence outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Routes, number of infusions and faecal dosage may influence efficacy rates of FMT for rCDI. These findings could help to optimise FMT protocols in clinical practice.
Improvement of Insulin Sensitivity after Lean Donor Feces in Metabolic Syndrome Is Driven by Baseline Intestinal Microbiota Composition.
Kootte Ruud S,Levin Evgeni,Salojärvi Jarkko,Smits Loek P,Hartstra Annick V,Udayappan Shanti D,Hermes Gerben,Bouter Kristien E,Koopen Annefleur M,Holst Jens J,Knop Filip K,Blaak Ellen E,Zhao Jing,Smidt Hauke,Harms Amy C,Hankemeijer Thomas,Bergman Jacques J G H M,Romijn Hans A,Schaap Frank G,Olde Damink Steven W M,Ackermans Mariette T,Dallinga-Thie Geesje M,Zoetendal Erwin,de Vos Willem M,Serlie Mireille J,Stroes Erik S G,Groen Albert K,Nieuwdorp Max
The intestinal microbiota has been implicated in insulin resistance, although evidence regarding causality in humans is scarce. We therefore studied the effect of lean donor (allogenic) versus own (autologous) fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to male recipients with the metabolic syndrome. Whereas we did not observe metabolic changes at 18 weeks after FMT, insulin sensitivity at 6 weeks after allogenic FMT was significantly improved, accompanied by altered microbiota composition. We also observed changes in plasma metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid and show that metabolic response upon allogenic FMT (defined as improved insulin sensitivity 6 weeks after FMT) is dependent on decreased fecal microbial diversity at baseline. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of lean donor FMT on glucose metabolism are associated with changes in intestinal microbiota and plasma metabolites and can be predicted based on baseline fecal microbiota composition.
Fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome: History, present and future.
de Groot P F,Frissen M N,de Clercq N C,Nieuwdorp M
The history of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) dates back even to ancient China. Recently, scientific studies have been looking into FMT as a promising treatment of various diseases, while in the process teaching us about the interaction between the human host and its resident microbial communities. Current research focuses mainly on Clostridium difficile infections, however interest is rising in other areas such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the metabolic syndrome. With regard to the latter, the intestinal microbiota might be causally related to the progression of insulin resistance and diabetes. FMT in metabolic syndrome has proven to be an intriguing method to study the role of the gut microbiota and open the way to new therapies by dissecting in whom insulin resistance is driven by microbiota. In this article we review the history of FMT, the present evidence on its role in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and its efficacy, limitations and future prospects.
Faecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent infection: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis.
Baunwall Simon Mark Dahl,Lee Mads Ming,Eriksen Marcel Kjærsgaard,Mullish Benjamin H,Marchesi Julian R,Dahlerup Jens Frederik,Hvas Christian Lodberg
Background:Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective for recurrent infection (CDI), but inconsistent effect rates and uncertain evidence levels have warranted caution. To clarify, we aimed to establish the evidence of FMT for recurrent CDI, updated across different delivery methods, treatment regimens, and in comparison with standard antibiotics. Methods:In this updated systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Clinical Key, and Svemed+ for FMT literature published in English until November 11, 2019. We included observational and clinical trials with or without antibiotic comparators and excluded studies with below 8 weeks follow-up and fewer than 15 patients. The primary outcome was clinical outcome by week 8. We comprehensively extracted patient and procedural data. In a random-effects meta-analysis, we estimated the clinical effect for repeat or single FMT, different delivery methods, and versus antibiotics. We rated the evidence according to the Cochrane and GRADE methods. The PROSPERO preregistration number is CRD42020158112. Findings:Of 1816 studies assessed, 45 studies were included. The overall clinical effect week 8 following repeat FMT (24 studies, 1855 patients) was 91% (95% CI: 89-94%, =53%) and 84% (80-88%, =86%) following single FMT (43 studies, 2937 patients). Delivery by lower gastrointestinal endoscopy was superior to all other delivery methods, and repeat FMT significantly increased the treatment effect week 8 (<0·001). Compared with vancomycin, the number needed to treat (NNT) for repeat FMT was 1·5 (1·3-1·9, <0·001) and 2.9 (1·5-37·1, =0·03) for single FMT. Repeat FMT had high quality of evidence. Interpretation:High-quality evidence supports FMT is effective for recurrent CDI, but its effect varies with the delivery method and the number of administrations. The superior NNT for FMT compared with antibiotics suggests that patients may benefit from advancing FMT to all instances of recurrent CDI. Funding:Innovation Fund Denmark (j.no. 8056-00006B).
Incidence of Bloodstream Infections, Length of Hospital Stay, and Survival in Patients With Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection Treated With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation or Antibiotics: A Prospective Cohort Study.
Ianiro Gianluca,Murri Rita,Sciumè Giusi Desirè,Impagnatiello Michele,Masucci Luca,Ford Alexander C,Law Graham R,Tilg Herbert,Sanguinetti Maurizio,Cauda Roberto,Gasbarrini Antonio,Fantoni Massimo,Cammarota Giovanni
Annals of internal medicine
Background:Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a risk factor for bloodstream infection (BSI). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is more effective than antibiotics in treating recurrent CDI, but its efficacy in preventing CDI-related BSI is uncertain. Objective:To assess incidence of primary BSI in patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT versus antibiotics. Design:Prospective cohort study. Patients treated with FMT and those treated with antibiotics were matched on propensity score. Setting:Single academic medical center. Patients:290 inpatients with recurrent CDI (57 patients per treatment in matched cohort). Intervention:FMT or antibiotics. Measurements:The primary outcome was primary BSI within 90 days. Secondary outcomes were length of hospitalization and overall survival (OS) at 90 days. Results:Of the 290 patients, 109 were treated with FMT and 181 received antibiotics. Five patients in the FMT group and 40 in the antibiotic group developed BSI. Because of differences in the patients treated with FMT versus antibiotics in many baseline characteristics, including number of recurrences and CDI severity, comparative analyses were limited to the matched cohort. Risk for BSI was 23 percentage points (95% CI, 10 to 35 percentage points) lower in the FMT group; the FMT group also had 14 fewer days of hospitalization (CI, 9 to 20 fewer days) and a 32-percentage point increase in OS (CI, 16 to 47 percentage points) compared with the antibiotic group. Limitation:Nonrandomized study with potential for unmeasured or residual confounding; limited generalizability of the propensity score-matched cohort. Conclusion:In a propensity score-matched cohort, patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT were less likely to develop primary BSI. Primary Funding Source:None.
Fecal microbiota transplantation can improve cognition in patients with cognitive decline and infection.
After fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to treat infection (CDI), cognitive improvement is noticeable, suggesting an essential association between the gut microbiome and neural function. Although the gut microbiome has been associated with cognitive function, it remains to be elucidated whether fecal microbiota transplantation can improve cognition in patients with cognitive decline. The study included 10 patients (age range, 63-90 years; female, 80%) with dementia and severe CDI who were receiving FMT. Also, 10 patients (age range, 62-91; female, 80%) with dementia and severe CDI who were not receiving FMT. They were evaluated using cognitive function tests (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] and Clinical Dementia Rating scale Sum of Boxes [CDR-SB]) at 1 month before and after FMT or antibiotics treatment (control group). The patients' fecal samples were analyzed to compare the composition of their gut microbiota before and 3 weeks after FMT or antibiotics treatment. Ten patients receiving FMT showed significantly improvements in clinical symptoms and cognitive functions compared to control group. The MMSE and CDR-SB of FMT group were improved compare to antibiotics treatment (MMSE: 16.00, median, 13.00-18.00 [IQR] vs. 10.0, median, 9.8-15.3 [IQR]); CDR-SB: 5.50, median, 4.00-8.00 [IQR]) vs. 8.0, median, 7.9-12.5, [IQR]). FMT led to changes in the recipient's gut microbiota composition, with enrichment of and . Alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism pathways were also significantly different after FMT. This study revealed important interactions between the gut microbiome and cognitive function. Moreover, it suggested that FMT may effectively delay cognitive decline in patients with dementia.
Will fecal microbiota transplantation eventually be an effective therapeutic strategy for systemic lupus erythematosus?
Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.)
Gut microbiota dysbiosis serves as a potential trigger that may contribute to metabolic and immune dysregulation that underlies the development of autoimmune diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is restoration of disturbed microbiota by transplanting foreign gut microbiota from healthy individuals into the gastrointestinal tract of diseased individuals. In this issue of the Journal of Autoimmunity, Huang et al. conducted a 12-week, single-arm pilot clinical trial of oral FMT capsules in patients with active SLE. No serious adverse events (AEs) or deaths were observed and the rate of the primary endpoint (SLE Responder Index-4) was 42.12%. Alternations in bacteria, metabolites and immune parameters were linked to FMT treatment and clinical response in SLE patients. This is the first FMT trial in SLE patients and provides supportive evidence that FMT appears to be a safe, feasible and potentially effective treatment modality in SLE. We await future investigations conducting larger, randomized FMT clinical trials with a longer follow-up to confirm the long-term safety, effectiveness, and potential benefits of FMT-based intervention in SLE and to further demonstrate the underlying microbiological mechanisms.
Time series strain tracking analysis post fecal transplantation identifies individual specific patterns of fecal dominant donor, recipient, and unrelated microbial strains.
BACKGROUND:Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) has been used with the therapeutic intent to change the functions of the gut microbial community in metabolism and host immunity. For most of these therapies, the recipients are not given antibiotics to eliminate the microbial community prior to transplant with donor fecal microbes resulting in the initial gut microbial community following FMT consisting of a consortium of donor and recipient microbes. The detailed analysis of the fecal samples from these FMT over time provides a unique opportunity to study the changes in the gut microbial strain community that occurs following the introduction of new microbial strains (donor) into an established community (recipient). METHODS:In this study, we have metagenomic data set consisting of 5 FMT that contained donor, recipient and recipient post FMT taken multiple times for periods up to 535 days after the FMT. We used two established strain tracking methods, Window-based Single Nucleotide Variant (SNV) Similarity (WSS) and StrainPhlAn, to determine the presence of donor and recipient microbial strains following FMT. To assess recombination between donor and recipient strains of Bacteroides vulgatus post FMT, we used BLAST+ to analyze the data sets for Bacteroidales-specific antimicrobial proteins (BSAP-3) that have known functions to restrict species specific replication. RESULTS:We found that Alistipes onderdonkii, Alistipes shahii, Alistipes putredinis, and Parabacteroides merdae, all had patterns post FMT consisting of either dominant donor or recipient microbial strains in the feces. In contrast, the analysis of Bacteroides spp. in five FMT pairs revealed inter-individual oscillation over time with the appearance of either donor or recipient fecal strain dominance. In some instances, B. vulgatus and B. uniformis were also identified after FMT that were not related to either the donor or recipient. Finally, in one of the FMT, we identified a distinct B. vulgatus strain post-FMT that matched the pre-FMT strain but was BSAP-3 positive, suggesting a possible recombination event between the donor and recipient strains. CONCLUSION:The complex oscillating patterns of the appearance of fecal dominant donor, recipient or unrelated strains following extended times post FMT provide new insights into the dynamics of the microbial community interactions with the recipients following FMT. The result from our analysis has implications for the use of FMT to predictably change the biological functions of the gut community in metabolism and host immunity.
Variability of strain engraftment and predictability of microbiome composition after fecal microbiota transplantation across different diseases.
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is highly effective against recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection and is considered a promising treatment for other microbiome-related disorders, but a comprehensive understanding of microbial engraftment dynamics is lacking, which prevents informed applications of this therapeutic approach. Here, we performed an integrated shotgun metagenomic systematic meta-analysis of new and publicly available stool microbiomes collected from 226 triads of donors, pre-FMT recipients and post-FMT recipients across eight different disease types. By leveraging improved metagenomic strain-profiling to infer strain sharing, we found that recipients with higher donor strain engraftment were more likely to experience clinical success after FMT (P = 0.017) when evaluated across studies. Considering all cohorts, increased engraftment was noted in individuals receiving FMT from multiple routes (for example, both via capsules and colonoscopy during the same treatment) as well as in antibiotic-treated recipients with infectious diseases compared with antibiotic-naïve patients with noncommunicable diseases. Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria species (including Bifidobacteria) displayed higher engraftment than Firmicutes except for six under-characterized Firmicutes species. Cross-dataset machine learning predicted the presence or absence of species in the post-FMT recipient at 0.77 average AUROC in leave-one-dataset-out evaluation, and highlighted the relevance of microbial abundance, prevalence and taxonomy to infer post-FMT species presence. By exploring the dynamics of microbiome engraftment after FMT and their association with clinical variables, our study uncovered species-specific engraftment patterns and presented machine learning models able to predict donors that might optimize post-FMT specific microbiome characteristics for disease-targeted FMT protocols.
[Further improve the standardization construction and development level of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in China].
Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
In the past ten years, the clinical application of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases has attracted much attention. In China, there are more than 300 hospitals that have developed FMT, but the development of FMT is still in its early stage. The clinical practice of FMT needs to form a standardized system, including management of donors and acceptors, preparation of capsules containing certain gut bacteria, evaluation of effectiveness, and study of fecal microbiota and disease. In order to promote the establishment of the standard system of FMT and the healthy development of FMT, this paper expounds the establishment of the standardization of domestic flora transplantation according to the relevant literature, as well as the experience of 10000 cases and 95300 times of FMT in our center.
Encyclopedia of fecal microbiota transplantation: a review of effectiveness in the treatment of 85 diseases.
Chinese medical journal
ABSTRACT:Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used as a core therapy for treating dysbiosis-related diseases by remodeling gut microbiota. The methodology and technology for improving FMT are stepping forward, mainly including washed microbiota transplantation (WMT), colonic transendoscopic enteral tubing (TET) for microbiota delivery, and purified Firmicutes spores from fecal matter. To improve the understanding of the clinical applications of FMT, we performed a systematic literature review on FMT published from 2011 to 2021. Here, we provided an overview of the reported clinical benefits of FMT, the methodology of processing FMT, the strategy of using FMT, and the regulations on FMT in global. A total of 782 studies were included for the final analysis. The present review profiled the effectiveness from all clinical FMT uses in 85 specific diseases as eight categories, including infections, gut diseases, microbiota-gut-liver axis, microbiota-gut-brain axis, metabolic diseases, oncology, hematological diseases, and other diseases. Although many further controlled trials will be needed, the dramatic increasing reports have shown the promising future of FMT for dysbiosis-related diseases in the gut or beyond the gut.
The gut microbiome and metabolic syndrome.
Dabke Kruttika,Hendrick Gustaf,Devkota Suzanne
The Journal of clinical investigation
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors that, if left untreated, will often progress to greater metabolic defects such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. While these risk factors have been established for over 40 years, the definition of MetS warrants reconsideration in light of the substantial data that have emerged from studies of the gut microbiome. In this Review we present the existing recent literature that supports the gut microbiome's potential influence on the various risk factors of MetS. The interplay of the intestinal microbiota with host metabolism has been shown to be mediated by a myriad of factors, including a defective gut barrier, bile acid metabolism, antibiotic use, and the pleiotropic effects of microbially produced metabolites. These data show that events that start in the gut, often in response to external cues such as diet and circadian disruption, have far-reaching effects beyond the gut.
A necessary discussion after transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms through faecal microbiota transplantations.
Kuijper Ed J,Allegretii Jessica,Hawkey Peter,Sokol Harry,Goldenberg Simon,Ianiro Gianluca,Gasbarrini Antonio,Kump Patrizia,Costello Samuel P,Keller Josbert,Vehreschild Maria J G T
The Lancet. Infectious diseases
Epidemiology and risk factors of rectal colonization of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among high-risk patients from ICU and HSCT wards in a university hospital.
Yan Li,Sun Jide,Xu Xiuyu,Huang Shifeng
Antimicrobial resistance and infection control
BACKGROUND:Nosocomial carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterieceae (CPE) infections constitute a major global health concern and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Rectal colonization with CPE is a risk factor for bacterial translocation leading to subsequent endogenous CPE infections. This prospective observational study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and epidemiology of rectal colonization of CPE, the carbapenemase genotypes, and to identify the independent risk factors for the acquisition of CPE colonization in high-risk patients from ICU and HSCT wards in a university hospital in China. METHODS:In a prospective cohort study, 150 fecal samples from rectal swabs were consecutively obtained for inpatients from the intensive care unit (ICU) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) wards from November 2018 to May 2019, and screening test for CPE was conducted by using prepared in-house trypsin soybean broth (TSB) selective media and MacConkey agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the broth microdilution method and carbapenemase genes were characterized by both the GeneXpert Carba-R and PCR for bla, bla, bla, bla and bla. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was employed to characterize the genetic relationships among the carbapenemase-producing K. Pneumonia (CPKP) isolates. In order to further investigate the risk factors and clinical outcomes of CPE colonization, a prospective case-control study was also performed. RESULTS:Twenty-six suspected CPE strains, including 17 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 6 Escherichia coli, 1 Citrobacter freundii, 1 Enterobacter Kobe, and 1 Raoultella ornithinolytica, were identified in 25 non-duplicated rectal swab samples from 25 patients, with a carriage rate of 16.67% (25/150). Through GeneXpert Carba-R and subsequent PCR and sequencing, all the suspected CPE isolates were identified to be positive for the carbapenemase genes, of which 17 were bla-carriers, and another 9 were bla-producers. MLST designated all the CPKP isolates to be ST11 clone. Multivariate analysis indicated that urinary system diseases, operation of bronchoscopy, and combined use of antibiotics were independent risk factors for acquiring CPE colonization in high-risk patients from the ICU and HSCT wards. CONCLUSIONS:This study revealed a high prevalence of rectal CPE colonization in high-risk patients from ICU and HSCT wards, and a predominant colonization of the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae clone ST11. Stricter infection control measures are urgently needed to limit the dissemination of CPE strains, especially in patients who were afflicted by urinary system diseases, have underwent bronchoscopy, and were previously exposed to combined antibiotic use.
Pretreatment gut microbiome predicts chemotherapy-related bloodstream infection.
Montassier Emmanuel,Al-Ghalith Gabriel A,Ward Tonya,Corvec Stephane,Gastinne Thomas,Potel Gilles,Moreau Phillipe,de la Cochetiere Marie France,Batard Eric,Knights Dan
BACKGROUND:Bacteremia, or bloodstream infection (BSI), is a leading cause of death among patients with certain types of cancer. A previous study reported that intestinal domination, defined as occupation of at least 30 % of the microbiota by a single bacterial taxon, is associated with BSI in patients undergoing allo-HSCT. However, the impact of the intestinal microbiome before treatment initiation on the risk of subsequent BSI remains unclear. Our objective was to characterize the fecal microbiome collected before treatment to identify microbes that predict the risk of BSI. METHODS:We sampled 28 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) prior to administration of chemotherapy and characterized 16S ribosomal RNA genes using high-throughput DNA sequencing. We quantified bacterial taxa and used techniques from machine learning to identify microbial biomarkers that predicted subsequent BSI. RESULTS:We found that patients who developed subsequent BSI exhibited decreased overall diversity and decreased abundance of taxa including Barnesiellaceae, Coriobacteriaceae, Faecalibacterium, Christensenella, Dehalobacterium, Desulfovibrio, and Sutterella. Using machine-learning methods, we developed a BSI risk index capable of predicting BSI incidence with a sensitivity of 90 % at a specificity of 90 % based only on the pretreatment fecal microbiome. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that the gut microbiota can identify high-risk patients before HSCT and that manipulation of the gut microbiota for prevention of BSI in high-risk patients may be a useful direction for future research. This approach may inspire the development of similar microbiome-based diagnostic and prognostic models in other diseases.
Reconstitution of the gut microbiota of antibiotic-treated patients by autologous fecal microbiota transplant.
Taur Ying,Coyte Katharine,Schluter Jonas,Robilotti Elizabeth,Figueroa Cesar,Gjonbalaj Mergim,Littmann Eric R,Ling Lilan,Miller Liza,Gyaltshen Yangtsho,Fontana Emily,Morjaria Sejal,Gyurkocza Boglarka,Perales Miguel-Angel,Castro-Malaspina Hugo,Tamari Roni,Ponce Doris,Koehne Guenther,Barker Juliet,Jakubowski Ann,Papadopoulos Esperanza,Dahi Parastoo,Sauter Craig,Shaffer Brian,Young James W,Peled Jonathan,Meagher Richard C,Jenq Robert R,van den Brink Marcel R M,Giralt Sergio A,Pamer Eric G,Xavier Joao B
Science translational medicine
Antibiotic treatment can deplete the commensal bacteria of a patient's gut microbiota and, paradoxically, increase their risk of subsequent infections. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), antibiotic administration is essential for optimal clinical outcomes but significantly disrupts intestinal microbiota diversity, leading to loss of many beneficial microbes. Although gut microbiota diversity loss during allo-HSCT is associated with increased mortality, approaches to reestablish depleted commensal bacteria have yet to be developed. We have initiated a randomized, controlled clinical trial of autologous fecal microbiota transplantation (auto-FMT) versus no intervention and have analyzed the intestinal microbiota profiles of 25 allo-HSCT patients (14 who received auto-FMT treatment and 11 control patients who did not). Changes in gut microbiota diversity and composition revealed that the auto-FMT intervention boosted microbial diversity and reestablished the intestinal microbiota composition that the patient had before antibiotic treatment and allo-HSCT. These results demonstrate the potential for fecal sample banking and posttreatment remediation of a patient's gut microbiota after microbiota-depleting antibiotic treatment during allo-HSCT.
Drug-Resistant Bacteremia Transmitted by Fecal Microbiota Transplant.
DeFilipp Zachariah,Bloom Patricia P,Torres Soto Mariam,Mansour Michael K,Sater Mohamad R A,Huntley Miriam H,Turbett Sarah,Chung Raymond T,Chen Yi-Bin,Hohmann Elizabeth L
The New England journal of medicine
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging therapy for recurrent or refractory infection and is being actively investigated for other conditions. We describe two patients in whom extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteremia occurred after they had undergone FMT in two independent clinical trials; both cases were linked to the same stool donor by means of genomic sequencing. One of the patients died. Enhanced donor screening to limit the transmission of microorganisms that could lead to adverse infectious events and continued vigilance to define the benefits and risks of FMT across different patient populations are warranted.
Donor Screening for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.
Kassam Zain,Dubois Nancy,Ramakrishna Bharat,Ling Kelly,Qazi Taha,Smith Mark,Kelly Colleen R,Fischer Monika,Allegretti Jessica R,Budree Shrish,Panchal Pratik,Kelly Ciarán P,Osman Majdi
The New England journal of medicine
The Super-Donor Phenomenon in Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.
Wilson Brooke C,Vatanen Tommi,Cutfield Wayne S,O'Sullivan Justin M
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become a highly effective bacteriotherapy for recurrent infection. Meanwhile the efficacy of FMT for treating chronic diseases associated with microbial dysbiosis has so far been modest with a much higher variability in patient response. Notably, a number of studies suggest that FMT success is dependent on the microbial diversity and composition of the stool donor, leading to the proposition of the existence of FMT super-donors. The identification and subsequent characterization of super-donor gut microbiomes will inevitably advance our understanding of the microbial component of chronic diseases and allow for more targeted bacteriotherapy approaches in the future. Here, we review the evidence for super-donors in FMT and explore the concept of keystone species as predictors of FMT success. Possible effects of host-genetics and diet on FMT engraftment and maintenance are also considered. Finally, we discuss the potential long-term applicability of FMT for chronic disease and highlight how super-donors could provide the basis for dysbiosis-matched FMTs.
Complete Microbiota Engraftment Is Not Essential for Recovery from Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection following Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.
Staley Christopher,Kelly Colleen R,Brandt Lawrence J,Khoruts Alexander,Sadowsky Michael J
Bacterial communities from subjects treated for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), using either heterologous donor stool samples or autologous stool samples, were characterized by Illumina next-generation sequencing. As previously reported, the success of heterologous FMT (90%) was superior to that of autologous FMT (43%) (P = 0.019), and post-FMT intestinal bacterial communities differed significantly between treatment arms (P < 0.001). Subjects cured by autologous FMT typically had greater abundances of the Clostridium XIVa clade and Holdemania bacteria prior to treatment, and the relative abundances of these groups increased significantly after FMT compared to heterologous FMT and pre-FMT samples. The typical shift to post-FMT, donor-like assemblages, featuring high relative abundances of genera within the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla, was not observed in the autologous FMT subjects. Autologous FMT patient bacterial communities were significantly different in composition than those for heterologous FMT patients and donors (P < 0.001). The SourceTracker program, which employs a Bayesian algorithm to determine source contributions to sink communities, showed that patients initially treated by heterologous FMT had significantly higher percentages of engraftment (i.e., similarity to donor communities, mean value of 74%) compared to those who suffered recurrence following autologous FMT (1%) (P ≤ 0.013). The findings of this study suggest that complete donor engraftment may be not necessary if functionally critical taxa are present in subjects following antibiotic therapy. IMPORTANCE:This study provides a detailed characterization of fecal bacterial communities in subjects who participated in a previously published randomized clinical trial to treat recurrent C. difficile infection (rCDI). Bacterial communities were characterized to determine differences between subjects who received fecal bacteria either from healthy donor stool samples or their own stool samples as "placebo" in order to determine which groups of bacteria were most important in achieving a cure. The results of this study suggested that bacteria associated with secondary bile acid metabolism could potentially provide resistance to infection and that complete transfer of healthy donor microorganisms was not necessary to resolve CDI following unsuccessful antibiotic treatment.
Strain Tracking Reveals the Determinants of Bacterial Engraftment in the Human Gut Following Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.
Smillie Christopher S,Sauk Jenny,Gevers Dirk,Friedman Jonathan,Sung Jaeyun,Youngster Ilan,Hohmann Elizabeth L,Staley Christopher,Khoruts Alexander,Sadowsky Michael J,Allegretti Jessica R,Smith Mark B,Xavier Ramnik J,Alm Eric J
Cell host & microbe
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy donor to patient is a treatment for microbiome-associated diseases. Although the success of FMT requires donor bacteria to engraft in the patient's gut, the forces governing engraftment in humans are unknown. Here we use an ongoing clinical experiment, the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, to uncover the rules of engraftment in humans. We built a statistical model that predicts which bacterial species will engraft in a given host, and developed Strain Finder, a method to infer strain genotypes and track them over time. We find that engraftment can be predicted largely from the abundance and phylogeny of bacteria in the donor and the pre-FMT patient. Furthermore, donor strains within a species engraft in an all-or-nothing manner and previously undetected strains frequently colonize patients receiving FMT. We validated these findings for metabolic syndrome, suggesting that the same principles of engraftment extend to other indications.
Durable coexistence of donor and recipient strains after fecal microbiota transplantation.
Li Simone S,Zhu Ana,Benes Vladimir,Costea Paul I,Hercog Rajna,Hildebrand Falk,Huerta-Cepas Jaime,Nieuwdorp Max,Salojärvi Jarkko,Voigt Anita Y,Zeller Georg,Sunagawa Shinichi,de Vos Willem M,Bork Peer
Science (New York, N.Y.)
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has shown efficacy in treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and is increasingly being applied to other gastrointestinal disorders, yet the fate of native and introduced microbial strains remains largely unknown. To quantify the extent of donor microbiota colonization, we monitored strain populations in fecal samples from a recent FMT study on metabolic syndrome patients using single-nucleotide variants in metagenomes. We found extensive coexistence of donor and recipient strains, persisting 3 months after treatment. Colonization success was greater for conspecific strains than for new species, the latter falling within fluctuation levels observed in healthy individuals over a similar time frame. Furthermore, same-donor recipients displayed varying degrees of microbiota transfer, indicating individual patterns of microbiome resistance and donor-recipient compatibilities.
Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile.
van Nood Els,Vrieze Anne,Nieuwdorp Max,Fuentes Susana,Zoetendal Erwin G,de Vos Willem M,Visser Caroline E,Kuijper Ed J,Bartelsman Joep F W M,Tijssen Jan G P,Speelman Peter,Dijkgraaf Marcel G W,Keller Josbert J
The New England journal of medicine
BACKGROUND:Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is difficult to treat, and failure rates for antibiotic therapy are high. We studied the effect of duodenal infusion of donor feces in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection. METHODS:We randomly assigned patients to receive one of three therapies: an initial vancomycin regimen (500 mg orally four times per day for 4 days), followed by bowel lavage and subsequent infusion of a solution of donor feces through a nasoduodenal tube; a standard vancomycin regimen (500 mg orally four times per day for 14 days); or a standard vancomycin regimen with bowel lavage. The primary end point was the resolution of diarrhea associated with C. difficile infection without relapse after 10 weeks. RESULTS:The study was stopped after an interim analysis. Of 16 patients in the infusion group, 13 (81%) had resolution of C. difficile-associated diarrhea after the first infusion. The 3 remaining patients received a second infusion with feces from a different donor, with resolution in 2 patients. Resolution of C. difficile infection occurred in 4 of 13 patients (31%) receiving vancomycin alone and in 3 of 13 patients (23%) receiving vancomycin with bowel lavage (P<0.001 for both comparisons with the infusion group). No significant differences in adverse events among the three study groups were observed except for mild diarrhea and abdominal cramping in the infusion group on the infusion day. After donor-feces infusion, patients showed increased fecal bacterial diversity, similar to that in healthy donors, with an increase in Bacteroidetes species and clostridium clusters IV and XIVa and a decrease in Proteobacteria species. CONCLUSIONS:The infusion of donor feces was significantly more effective for the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection than the use of vancomycin. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research; Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR1177.).
Microbiota transplantation restores normal fecal bile acid composition in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.
Weingarden Alexa R,Chen Chi,Bobr Aleh,Yao Dan,Lu Yuwei,Nelson Valerie M,Sadowsky Michael J,Khoruts Alexander
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a highly effective therapy for refractory, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), which develops following antibiotic treatments. Intestinal microbiota play a critical role in the metabolism of bile acids in the colon, which in turn have major effects on the lifecycle of C. difficile bacteria. We hypothesized that fecal bile acid composition is altered in patients with recurrent CDI and that FMT results in its normalization. General metabolomics and targeted bile acid analyses were performed on fecal extracts from patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT and their donors. In addition, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to determine the bacterial composition of pre- and post-FMT fecal samples. Taxonomic bacterial composition of fecal samples from FMT recipients showed rapid change and became similar to the donor after the procedure. Pre-FMT fecal samples contained high concentrations of primary bile acids and bile salts, while secondary bile acids were nearly undetectable. In contrast, post-FMT fecal samples contained mostly secondary bile acids, as did non-CDI donor samples. Therefore, our analysis showed that FMT resulted in normalization of fecal bacterial community structure and metabolic composition. Importantly, metabolism of bile salts and primary bile acids to secondary bile acids is disrupted in patients with recurrent CDI, and FMT corrects this abnormality. Since individual bile salts and bile acids have pro-germinant and inhibitory activities, the changes suggest that correction of bile acid metabolism is likely a major mechanism by which FMT results in a cure and prevents recurrence of CDI.
The impact of the gut microbiome on extra-intestinal autoimmune diseases.
Nature reviews. Immunology
The prevalence of autoimmune diseases (ADs) worldwide has rapidly increased over the past few decades. Thus, in addition to the classical risk factors for ADs, such as genetic polymorphisms, infections and smoking, environmental triggers have been considered. Recent sequencing-based approaches have revealed that patients with extra-intestinal ADs, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus, have distinct gut microbiota compositions compared to healthy controls. Faecal microbiota transplantation or inoculation with specific microbes in animal models of ADs support the hypothesis that alterations of gut microbiota influence autoimmune responses and disease outcome. Here, we describe the compositional and functional changes in the gut microbiota in patients with extra-intestinal AD and discuss how the gut microbiota affects immunity. Moreover, we examine how the gut microbiota might be modulated in patients with ADs as a potential preventive or therapeutic approach.
Resveratrol suppresses microglial activation and promotes functional recovery of traumatic spinal cord via improving intestinal microbiota.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) can change the intestinal microbiota pattern and corresponding metabolites, which in turn affect the prognosis of SCI. Among many metabolites, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are critical for neurological recovery after SCI. Recent research has shown that resveratrol exerts anti-inflammatory properties. But it is unknown if the anti-inflammatory properties of resveratrol are associated with intestinal microbiota and metabolites. We thus investigate the alteration in gut microbiota and the consequent change of SCFAs following resveratrol treatment. The SCI mouse models with retention of gut microbiota (donor) and depletion of gut microbiota (recipient) were established. Fecal microbiota transplantation from donors to recipients was performed with intragastrical administration. Spinal cord tissues of mice were examined by H&E, Nissl, and immunofluorescence stainings. The expressions of the inflammatory profile were examined by qPCR and cytometric bead array. Fecal samples of mice were collected and analyzed with 16S rRNA sequencing. The results showed that resveratrol inhibited the microglial activation and promoted the functional recovery of SCI. The analysis of intestinal microbiota and metabolites indicated that SCI caused dysbiosis and the decrease in butyrate, while resveratrol restored microbiota pattern, reversed intestinal dysbiosis, and increased the concentration of butyrate. Both fecal supernatants from resveratrol-treated donors and butyrate suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in BV2 microglia. Our result demonstrated that fecal microbiota transplantation from resveratrol-treated donors had beneficial effects on the functional recovery of SCI. One mechanism of resveratrol effects was to restore the disrupted gut microbiota and butyrate.
The gut microbiome: what the oncologist ought to know.
British journal of cancer
The gut microbiome (GM) has been implicated in a vast number of human pathologies and has become a focus of oncology research over the past 5 years. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation and protection against pathogens. Strong evidence is emerging to support the effects of the GM on the development of some malignancies but also on responses to cancer therapies, most notably, immune checkpoint inhibition. Tools for manipulating the GM including dietary modification, probiotics and faecal microbiota transfer (FMT) are in development. Current understandings of the many complex interrelationships between the GM, cancer, the immune system, nutrition and medication are ultimately based on a combination of short-term clinical trials and observational studies, paired with an ever-evolving understanding of cancer biology. The next generation of personalised cancer therapies focusses on molecular and phenotypic heterogeneity, tumour evolution and immune status; it is distinctly possible that the GM will become an increasingly central focus amongst them. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians with an overview of microbiome science and our current understanding of the role the GM plays in cancer.
The evolution of the use of faecal microbiota transplantation and emerging therapeutic indications.
Allegretti Jessica R,Mullish Benjamin H,Kelly Colleen,Fischer Monika
Lancet (London, England)
Developments in high-throughput microbial genomic sequencing and other systems biology techniques have given novel insight into the potential contribution of the gut microbiota to health and disease. As a result, an increasing number of diseases have been characterised by distinctive changes in the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota; however, whether such changes are cause, consequence, or incidental to the disease in question remains largely uncertain. Restoration of the gut microbiota to a premorbid state is a key novel therapeutic approach of interest, and faecal microbiota transplantation-the transfer of prescreened stool from healthy donors into the gastrointestinal tract of patients-is gaining increasing importance in both the clinical and research settings. At present, faecal microbiota transplantation is only recommended in the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection, although a large number of trials are ongoing worldwide exploring other potential therapeutic indications.
Microbiota restoration reduces antibiotic-resistant bacteria gut colonization in patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection from the open-label PUNCH CD study.
Langdon Amy,Schwartz Drew J,Bulow Christopher,Sun Xiaoqing,Hink Tiffany,Reske Kimberly A,Jones Courtney,Burnham Carey-Ann D,Dubberke Erik R,Dantas Gautam,
BACKGROUND:Once antibiotic-resistant bacteria become established within the gut microbiota, they can cause infections in the host and be transmitted to other people and the environment. Currently, there are no effective modalities for decreasing or preventing colonization by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Intestinal microbiota restoration can prevent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) recurrences. Another potential application of microbiota restoration is suppression of non-C. difficile multidrug-resistant bacteria and overall decrease in the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (the resistome) within the gut microbiota. This study characterizes the effects of RBX2660, a microbiota-based investigational therapeutic, on the composition and abundance of the gut microbiota and resistome, as well as multidrug-resistant organism carriage, after delivery to patients suffering from recurrent CDI. METHODS:An open-label, multi-center clinical trial in 11 centers in the USA for the safety and efficacy of RBX2660 on recurrent CDI was conducted. Fecal specimens from 29 of these subjects with recurrent CDI who received either one (N = 16) or two doses of RBX2660 (N = 13) were analyzed secondarily. Stool samples were collected prior to and at intervals up to 6 months post-therapy and analyzed in three ways: (1) 16S rRNA gene sequencing for microbiota taxonomic composition, (2) whole metagenome shotgun sequencing for functional pathways and antibiotic resistome content, and (3) selective and differential bacterial culturing followed by isolate genome sequencing to longitudinally track multidrug-resistant organisms. RESULTS:Successful prevention of CDI recurrence with RBX2660 correlated with taxonomic convergence of patient microbiota to the donor microbiota as measured by weighted UniFrac distance. RBX2660 dramatically reduced the abundance of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the 2 months after administration. Fecal antibiotic resistance gene carriage decreased in direct relationship to the degree to which donor microbiota engrafted. CONCLUSIONS:Microbiota-based therapeutics reduce resistance gene abundance and resistant organisms in the recipient gut microbiome. This approach could potentially reduce the risk of infections caused by resistant organisms within the patient and the transfer of resistance genes or pathogens to others. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01925417 ; registered on August 19, 2013.
Donor fecal microbiota transplantation ameliorates intestinal graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.
van Lier Yannouck F,Davids Mark,Haverkate Nienke J E,de Groot Pieter F,Donker Marjolein L,Meijer Ellen,Heubel-Moenen Floor C J I,Nur Erfan,Zeerleder Sacha S,Nieuwdorp Max,Blom Bianca,Hazenberg Mette D
Science translational medicine
Disruption of the intestinal microbiota occurs frequently in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients and predisposes them to development of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). In a prospective, single-center, single-arm study, we investigated the effect of donor fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on symptoms of steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent, acute or late-onset acute intestinal GvHD in 15 individuals who had undergone allo-HCT. Study participants received a fecal suspension from an unrelated healthy donor via nasoduodenal infusion. Donor FMT was well tolerated, and infection-related adverse events did not seem to be related to the FMT procedure. In 10 of 15 study participants, a complete clinical response was observed within 1 month after FMT, without additional interventions to alleviate GvHD symptoms. This response was accompanied by an increase in gut microbial α-diversity, a partial engraftment of donor bacterial species, and increased abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria, including Clostridiales and species. In 6 of the 10 responding donor FMT recipients, immunosuppressant drug therapy was successfully tapered. Durable remission of steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent GvHD after donor FMT was associated with improved survival at 24 weeks after donor FMT. This study highlights the potential of donor FMT as a treatment for steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent GvHD, but larger clinical trials are needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of this procedure.
Construction of a Risk Prediction Model for Subsequent Bloodstream Infection in Intestinal Carriers of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: A Retrospective Study in Hematology Department and Intensive Care Unit.
Wang Yue,Lin Qun,Chen Zhongju,Hou Hongyan,Shen Na,Wang Zhen,Wang Feng,Sun Ziyong
Infection and drug resistance
Background:To establish a risk prediction model for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) bloodstream infection (BSI) in intestinal carriers. Methods:CRE screenings were performed every two weeks in hematology department and intensive care unit (ICU). Patients with positive CRE rectal swab screening were identified using electronic medical records from 15 May 2018 to 31 December 2019. Intestinal carriers who developed CRE BSI were compared with those who did not develop CRE infection. A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted. The control group was selected by stratified random sampling based on the department to ensure that all the departments were represented. Univariate logistic analysis, multivariate logistic analysis and stepwise regression analysis were carried on a variety of patient factors and microbial factors. Results:A total of 42 cases were included. Multivariate analysis showed that gastrointestinal injury (OR 86.819, 95% CI 2.584-2916.592, =0.013), tigecycline exposure (OR 14.991, 95% CI 1.816-123.737, =0.012) and carbapenem resistance score (OR 11.236, 95% CI 1.811-69.700, =0.009) were independent risk factors for CRE BSI in intestinal carriers (<0.050). They were included in the Logistic regression model to predict BSI. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the cut-off value of the model was 0.722, and the sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) were 90.5%, 85.7% and 0.921, respectively. Conclusion:The risk prediction model based on gastrointestinal injury, tigecycline exposure and carbapenem resistance score of colonizing strain can effectively predict CRE BSI in patients with CRE colonization. Early CRE screening and detection for inpatients in key departments may promote early warning and reduce the risk of nosocomial infection of CRE.
Integrative metagenomic and metabolomic analyses reveal severity-specific signatures of gut microbiota in chronic kidney disease.
Wu I-Wen,Gao Sheng-Siang,Chou Hsin-Cheng,Yang Huang-Yu,Chang Lun-Ching,Kuo Yu-Lun,Dinh Michael Cong Vinh,Chung Wen-Hung,Yang Chi-Wei,Lai Hsin-Chih,Hsieh Wen-Ping,Su Shih-Chi
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious healthcare dilemma, associated with specific changes in gut microbiota and circulating metabolome. Yet, the functional capacity of CKD microbiome and its intricate relationship with the host metabolism at different stages of disease are less understood. METHODS:Here, shotgun sequencing of fecal samples and targeted metabolomics profiling of serum bile acids, short- and medium-chain fatty acids, and uremic solutes were performed in a cohort of CKD patients with different severities and non-CKD controls. RESULTS:We identified that levels of 13 microbial species and 6 circulating metabolites were significantly altered across early to advanced stages or only in particular stage(s). Among these, Prevotella sp. 885 (decreased) was associated with urea excretion, while caproic acid (decreased) and p-cresyl sulfate (elevated) were positively and negatively correlated with the glomerular filtration rate, respectively. In addition, we identified gut microbial species linked to changes in circulating metabolites. Microbial genes related to secondary bile acid biosynthesis were differentially abundant at the early stage, while pathway modules related to lipid metabolism and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis were enriched in the CKD microbiome at the advanced stage, suggesting that changes in microbial metabolism and host inflammation may contribute to renal health. Further, we identified metagenomic and metabolomic markers to discriminate cases of different severities from the controls, among which Bacteroides eggerthii individually was of particular value in early diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS:Our dual-omics data reveal the connections between intestinal microbes and circulating metabolites perturbed in CKD, which may be of etiological and diagnostic importance.
Effect of Oral Capsule- vs Colonoscopy-Delivered Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Kao Dina,Roach Brandi,Silva Marisela,Beck Paul,Rioux Kevin,Kaplan Gilaad G,Chang Hsiu-Ju,Coward Stephanie,Goodman Karen J,Xu Huiping,Madsen Karen,Mason Andrew,Wong Gane Ka-Shu,Jovel Juan,Patterson Jordan,Louie Thomas
Importance:Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective in preventing recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). However, it is not known whether clinical efficacy differs by route of delivery. Objective:To determine whether FMT by oral capsule is noninferior to colonoscopy delivery in efficacy. Design, Setting, and Participants:Noninferiority, unblinded, randomized trial conducted in 3 academic centers in Alberta, Canada. A total of 116 adult patients with RCDI were enrolled between October 2014 and September 2016, with follow-up to December 2016. The noninferiority margin was 15%. Interventions:Participants were randomly assigned to FMT by capsule or by colonoscopy at a 1:1 ratio. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was the proportion of patients without RCDI 12 weeks after FMT. Secondary outcomes included (1) serious and minor adverse events, (2) changes in quality of life by the 36-Item Short Form Survey on a scale of 0 (worst possible quality of life) to 100 (best quality of life), and (3) patient perception on a scale of 1 (not at all unpleasant) to 10 (extremely unpleasant) and satisfaction on a scale of 1 (best) to 10 (worst). Results:Among 116 patients randomized (mean [SD] age, 58  years; 79 women [68%]), 105 (91%) completed the trial, with 57 patients randomized to the capsule group and 59 to the colonoscopy group. In per-protocol analysis, prevention of RCDI after a single treatment was achieved in 96.2% in both the capsule group (51/53) and the colonoscopy group (50/52) (difference, 0%; 1-sided 95% CI, -6.1% to infinity; P < .001), meeting the criterion for noninferiority. One patient in each group died of underlying cardiopulmonary illness unrelated to FMT. Rates of minor adverse events were 5.4% for the capsule group vs 12.5% for the colonoscopy group. There was no significant between-group difference in improvement in quality of life. A significantly greater proportion of participants receiving capsules rated their experience as "not at all unpleasant" (66% vs 44%; difference, 22% [95% CI, 3%-40%]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance:Among adults with RCDI, FMT via oral capsules was not inferior to delivery by colonoscopy for preventing recurrent infection over 12 weeks. Treatment with oral capsules may be an effective approach to treating RCDI. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02254811.
High prevalence of MDR gram-negative bacteria in feces of healthy blood donors in Mexico.
Tamez-Torres Karla M,Ponce-de-Leon Alfredo,Torres-Gonzalez Pedro,Perez-Garcia Esteban,Torres-Veintimilla Estefania,Valle Miriam Bobadilla-Del,Sifuentes-Osornio Jose
European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology
During the initial stage of a study to recruit universal intestinal microbiota donors in Mexico City, we found multiple "healthy" subjects that colonized with MDRO (Multidrug-resistant organisms). We aimed to describe clinical and demographic characteristics of these individuals. This was a prospective observational study. Participants were consecutively recruited among blood donors. A fecal sample was collected from each subject and analyzed at the same day in search of MDRO through chromographic culture media and, if growth observed, later confirmed by MALDI-TOF and susceptibility testing in Vitek 2 system. From July 2018 to March 2019, 85 individuals were screened for fecal colonization. Median age was 35 years (IQR 27-46 years), and 48/85 (56.4%) were males. Seventy-two (84.7%) subjects harbored at least one MDRO. ESBL-producing microorganisms were found in 72/85 (84.3%) subjects, and E. coli was the most frequent (63/85, 74.1%). Four samples (2 E. coli, 2 P. aeruginosa, 2.4% each) harbored carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), together with an ESBL-producing microorganism. Antibiotic use (p = 0.06) and PPIs or H2-blockers intake (p = 0.03) were more common in the colonized subjects during the previous 6-month period. We report a high incidence of enteric colonization of healthy subjects with MDRO, a condition that may be related to antibiotics or PPIs/H2-blockers consumption. This surprisingly high MDRO colonization rate in potential FMT donors emphasizes the need for careful screening of donors to avoid possible transmission to FMT recipients.
Is faecal microbiota transplantation an option to eradicate highly drug-resistant enteric bacteria carriage?
Davido B,Batista R,Michelon H,Lepainteur M,Bouchand F,Lepeule R,Salomon J,Vittecoq D,Duran C,Escaut L,Sobhani I,Paul M,Lawrence C,Perronne C,Chast F,Dinh A
The Journal of hospital infection
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) carriage present a major public health challenge. Decolonization strategies are lacking. We aimed to evaluate the impact of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on a cohort of patients with digestive tract colonization by CRE or VRE. Eight patients were included: six carrying CRE and two colonized by VRE. One month after FMT, two patients were free from CRE carriage, and another patient was free from VRE after three months. In our experience, this strategy is safe.
Emerging superbugs: The threat of Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.
Dong Le Thanh,Espinoza Helen V,Espinoza J Luis
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to carbapenems, a group of antibiotics considered as the last-resource for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. CRE constitutes a major threat to health care systems because infections caused by these pathogens are difficult to treat and are commonly associated with high mortality due to the limited availability of effective antibiotics. While infection prevention and timely detection are of vital importance to control CRE infections, developing new and effective anti-CRE therapies is also crucial. Accumulating evidence indicates that gut microbiota alteration (dysbiosis) is associated with an increased intestinal colonization with CRE and consequently with higher risk of developing CRE infections. Importantly, therapeutic interventions aimed to modify the gut microbiota composition via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) have been explored in various clinical settings with some of them showing promising results, although larger clinical trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of this strategy. Here, we highlight the challenges associated with the emergence of CRE infections.
Tandem fecal microbiota transplantation cycles in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient targeting carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization: a case report and literature review.
Su Fengqin,Luo Yi,Yu Jian,Shi Jimin,Zhao Yanmin,Yan Mengni,Huang He,Tan Yamin
European journal of medical research
BACKGROUND:Due to limited antibiotic options, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections are associated with high non-relapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Also, intestinal CRE colonization is a risk factor for subsequent CRE infection. Several clinical studies have reported successful fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for the gut decontamination of a variety of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB), even in immunosuppressed patients. Similarly, other studies have also indicated that multiple FMTs may increase or lead to successful therapeutic outcomes. CASE PRESENTATION:We report CRE colonization in an allo-HSCT patient with recurrent CRE infections, and its successful eradication using tandem FMT cycles at 488 days after allo-HSCT. We also performed a comprehensive microbiota analysis. No acute or delayed adverse events (AEs) were observed. The patient remained clinically stable with CRE-negative stool culture at 26-month follow-up. Our analyses also showed some gut microbiota reconstruction. We also reviewed the current literature on decolonization strategies for CRE. CONCLUSIONS:CRE colonization led to a high no-relapse mortality after allo-HSCT; however, well-established decolonization strategies are currently lacking. The successful decolonization of this patient suggests that multiple FMT cycles may be potential options for CRE decolonization.
Fecal microbiota transplantation: A promising treatment for radiation enteritis?
Ding Xiao,Li Qianqian,Li Pan,Chen Xiong,Xiang Liyuan,Bi Liangwen,Zhu Jianguo,Huang Xiujiang,Cui Bota,Zhang Faming
Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
BACKGROUND:Increasing evidence has indicated that gut microbiota is closely associated with radiation-induced bowel injury. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with chronic radiation enteritis (CRE). METHODS:A pilot study of FMT for CRE was performed. The primary outcomes were safety and response to FMT which was defined as a ≥1-grade reduction in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG/EORTC) late toxicity grade from baseline, by 8 weeks post-FMT. The secondary outcomes included a decrease in the severity of four common symptoms (diarrhea, rectal hemorrhage, abdominal/rectal pain and fecal incontinence) in CRE and changes in Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score. Microbial analyses were performed by 16S rRNA sequencing. RESULTS:Five female patients underwent FMT from January to November 2018 with a median age of 58 (range 45-81) years. The median baseline RTOG/EORTC grade was 2 (range 2-4). Three patients responded to FMT and experienced improvement in diarrhea, rectal hemorrhage, abdominal/rectal pain and fecal incontinence as well as a decrease in KPS score. No FMT-related death and infectious complications occurred. One mild FMT-related AE was observed during a follow-up ranged from 8 to 18 months. 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that FMT altered the composition of gut microbiota of patients. CONCLUSION:The present case series first demonstrated that FMT might be safe and effective to improve intestinal symptoms and mucosal injury in patients with CRE for a period of time. Trial registration ID: NCT03516461.
Clearance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae vs vancomycin-resistant enterococci carriage after faecal microbiota transplant: a prospective comparative study.
Dinh A,Fessi H,Duran C,Batista R,Michelon H,Bouchand F,Lepeule R,Vittecoq D,Escaut L,Sobhani I,Lawrence C,Chast F,Ronco P,Davido B
The Journal of hospital infection
BACKGROUND:Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) carriage are increasing worldwide. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) appears to be an attractive option for decolonization. This study aimed to evaluate CRE vs VRE clearance by FMT among carriers. METHODS:A multi-centre trial was undertaken on patients with CRE or VRE digestive tract colonization who received FMT between January 2015 and April 2017. Adult patients with CRE or VRE colonization, confirmed by three consecutive rectal swabs at weekly intervals, including one in the week prior to FMT, were included in the study. Patients with immunosuppression or concomitant antibiotic prescription at the time of FMT were excluded. Successful decolonization was determined by at least two consecutive negative rectal swabs [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture] on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28, and monthly for three months following FMT. RESULTS:Seventeen patients were included, with a median age of 73 years [interquartile range (IQR) 64.3-79.0]. Median duration of carriage of CRE or VRE before FMT was 62.5 days (IQR 57.0-77.5). One week after FMT, three of eight patients were free of CRE colonization and three of nine patients were free of VRE colonization. After three months, four of eight patients were free of CRE colonization and seven of eight patients were free of VRE colonization. Qualitative PCR results were concordant with culture. Six patients received antibiotics during follow-up, three in each group. No adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION:CRE and VRE clearance rates were not significantly different in this study, possibly due to the small sample size, but a trend was observed. These data should be confirmed by larger cohorts and randomized trials.
Longitudinal Evaluation of Gut Bacteriomes and Viromes after Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Eradication of Carbapenem-Resistant .
Understanding the role of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the decolonization of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) is critical. Specifically, little is known about virome changes in MDRO-infected subjects treated with FMT. Using shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we characterized longitudinal dynamics of the gut virome and bacteriome in three recipients who successfully decolonized carbapenem-resistant (CRE), including Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli, after FMT. We observed large shifts of the fecal bacterial microbiota resembling a donor-like community after transfer of a fecal microbiota dominated by the genus . We found a substantial expansion of Klebsiella phages after FMT with a concordant decrease of Klebsiella spp. and striking increase of Escherichia phages in CRE E. coli carriers after FMT. We also observed the CRE elimination and similar evolution of Klebsiella phage in mice, which may play a role in the collapse of the Klebsiella population after FMT. In summary, our pilot study documented bacteriome and virome alterations after FMT which mediate many of the effects of FMT on the gut microbiome community. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for multidrug-resistant organisms; however, introducing a complex mixture of microbes also has unknown consequences for landscape features of gut microbiome. We sought to understand bacteriome and virome alterations in patients undergoing FMT to treat infection with carbapenem-resistant . This finding indicates that transkingdom interactions between the virome and bacteriome communities may have evolved in part to support efficient FMT for treating CRE.
Alteration of Gut Microbiota in Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Carriers during Fecal Microbiota Transplantation According to Decolonization Periods.
Lee Jin-Jae,Yong Dongeun,Suk Ki Tae,Kim Dong Joon,Woo Heung-Jeong,Lee Seung Soon,Kim Bong-Soo
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been suggested as an alternative therapeutic option to decolonize carbapenem-resistant (CRE). However, the analysis of gut microbiota alteration in CRE carriers during FMT is still limited. Here, gut microbiota changes in CRE carriers were evaluated during FMT according to decolonization periods. The decolonization of 10 CRE carriers was evaluated after FMT, using serial consecutive rectal swab cultures. Alterations of gut microbiota before and after FMT (56 serial samples) were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing. The decolonization rates of CRE carriers were 40%, 50%, and 90% within 1, 3 and 5 months after initial FMT, respectively. Gut microbiota significantly changed after FMT ( = 0.003). Microbiota alteration was different between the early decolonization carriers (EDC) and late decolonization carriers (LDC). Microbiota convergence in carriers to donors was detected in EDC within 4 weeks, and keystone genera within the Bacteroidetes were found in the gut microbiota of EDC before FMT. The relative abundance of was lower in EDC than in LDC, before and after FMT. Our results indicate that FMT is a potential option for CRE decolonization. The gut microbiota of CRE carriers could be used to predict decolonization timing after FMT, and determine repeated FMT necessity.
Fecal microbiota transplantation for Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae: A systematic review.
The Journal of infection
The prevalence of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has increased dramatically in recent years and has become a global public health issue. Since carbapenems are considered the last drugs of choice, infections caused by these pathogens are difficult to treat and carry a high risk of mortality. Several antibiotic combination regimens have been utilized for the management of CRE infections or to eradicate colonization in CRE carriers with variable clinical responses. In addition, recent studies have explored the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to eradicate CRE infections. Here, we conducted a systematic review of publications in which FMT was used to eliminate CRE colonization in infected individuals. We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, and Medline databases up to November 30, 2021. Ten studies (209 patients) met the inclusion criteria for this review with three articles describing retrospective cohorts (n = 53 patients) and seven reporting prospective data (n = 156 patients), including one randomized open-label clinical trial. All studies were published between 2017 and 2021 with eight studies from Europe and two from South Korea. There were substantial variations in terms of outcome measurements and study endpoint among these studies. Among the 112 FMT recipients with confirmed CRE colonization, CRE decolonization was reported in 55/90 cases at one month after FMT and at the end of the study follow-up (6-12 months), decolonization was documented in 74/94 (78.7%) patients. The predominant CRE strains reported were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli and the most frequently documented carbapenemases were KPC, OXA-48, and NDM. In general, FMT was well tolerated, with no severe complications reported even in immunosuppressed patients and in those with multiple underlying conditions. In conclusion, FMT appears to be safe and effective in eradicating CRE colonization, however, more studies, especially randomized trials, are needed to validate the safety and clinical utility of FMT for CRE eradication.
Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation.
Smits Loek P,Bouter Kristien E C,de Vos Willem M,Borody Thomas J,Nieuwdorp Max
There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal conditions that were not previously considered to be associated with the intestinal microbiota. Although it is not clear if changes in the microbiota cause these conditions, we review the most current and best methods for performing fecal microbiota transplantation and summarize clinical observations that have implicated the intestinal microbiota in various diseases. We also discuss case reports of fecal microbiota transplantations for different disorders, including Clostridium difficile infection, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases, insulin resistance, multiple sclerosis, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. There has been increasing focus on the interaction between the intestinal microbiome, obesity, and cardiometabolic diseases, and we explore these relationships and the potential roles of different microbial strains. We might someday be able to mine for intestinal bacterial strains that can be used in the diagnosis or treatment of these diseases.
The trans-kingdom battle between donor and recipient gut microbiome influences fecal microbiota transplantation outcome.
Kazemian Negin,Ramezankhani Milad,Sehgal Aarushi,Khalid Faizan Muhammad,Kalkhoran Amir Hossein Zeinali,Narayan Apurva,Wong Gane Ka-Shu,Kao Dina,Pakpour Sepideh
Fundamental restoration ecology and community ecology theories can help us better understand the underlying mechanisms of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and to better design future microbial therapeutics for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (rCDI) and other dysbiosis-related conditions. In this study, stool samples were collected from donors and rCDI patients one week prior to FMT (pre-FMT), as well as from patients one week following FMT (post-FMT). Using metagenomic sequencing and machine learning, our results suggested that FMT outcome is not only dependent on the ecological structure of the recipients, but also the interactions between the donor and recipient microbiomes at the taxonomical and functional levels. We observed that the presence of specific bacteria in donors (Clostridioides spp., Desulfovibrio spp., Odoribacter spp. and Oscillibacter spp.) and the absence of fungi (Yarrowia spp.) and bacteria (Wigglesworthia spp.) in recipients prior to FMT could predict FMT success. Our results also suggested a series of interlocked mechanisms for FMT success, including the repair of the disturbed gut ecosystem by transient colonization of nexus species followed by secondary succession of bile acid metabolizers, sporulators, and short chain fatty acid producers.
Predictors of failure after fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Tariq Raseen,Hayat Maham,Pardi Darrell,Khanna Sahil
European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapy for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), with ~15% 1-year recurrence rate. Small studies have identified variable risk factors associated with FMT failure. We, therefore, performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the predictors of FMT failure. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, and Web of Science was performed from January 2013 up to June 2020. Meta-analyses were performed using random-effects models and pooled adjusted odds ratios for risk factors reported in ≥2 studies were calculated. Overall, 2671 patients with recurrent CDI who underwent FMT in 12 studies were included. FMT failure occurred in 454 patients (16.9%) with median follow-up of 3 months (range 2-7.7 months). A total of 9 risk factors were identified in ≥2 studies. Meta-analysis showed that use of non- CDI antibiotics, presence of inflammatory bowel disease, poor quality of bowel preparation, CDI-related hospitalization before FMT, inpatient FMT, and severe CDI were associated with statistically significant increased risk of failure after FMT. Increasing age, female gender, and immunocompromised status were not associated with increased risk for FMT failure. Several risk factors (both modifiable and non-modifiable) are associated with FMT failure. Lower use of antibiotics in the post-FMT period and good bowel preparation at the time of FMT are associated with lower risk of failure after FMT. Additionally, patients with non-modifiable risk factors should be counseled to be particularly alert about recurrent symptoms after FMT.
Washed microbiota transplantation vs. manual fecal microbiota transplantation: clinical findings, animal studies and in vitro screening.
Zhang Ting,Lu Gaochen,Zhao Zhe,Liu Yafei,Shen Quan,Li Pan,Chen Yaoyao,Yin Haoran,Wang Huiquan,Marcella Cicilia,Cui Bota,Cheng Lei,Ji Guozhong,Zhang Faming
Protein & cell
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) by manual preparation has been applied to treat diseases for thousands of years. However, this method still endures safety risks and challenges the psychological endurance and acceptance of doctors, patients and donors. Population evidence showed the washed microbiota preparation with microfiltration based on an automatic purification system followed by repeated centrifugation plus suspension for three times significantly reduced FMT-related adverse events. This washing preparation makes delivering a precise dose of the enriched microbiota feasible, instead of using the weight of stool. Intraperitoneal injection in mice with the fecal microbiota supernatant obtained after repeated centrifugation plus suspension for three times induced less toxic reaction than that by the first centrifugation following the microfiltration. The toxic reactions that include death, the change in the level of peripheral white blood cells, and the proliferation of germinal center in secondary lymphoid follicles in spleen were noted. The metagenomic next-generation sequencing (NGS) indicated the increasing types and amount of viruses could be washed out during the washing process. Metabolomics analysis indicated metabolites with pro-inflammatory effects in the fecal microbiota supernatant such as leukotriene B4, corticosterone, and prostaglandin G2 could be removed by repeated washing. Near-infrared absorption spectroscopy could be served as a rapid detection method to control the quality of the washing-process. In conclusion, this study for the first time provides evidence linking clinical findings and animal experiments to support that washed microbiota transplantation (WMT) is safer, more precise and more quality-controllable than the crude FMT by manual.
Murine Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Alleviates Intestinal and Systemic Immune Responses in Infected Mice Harboring a Human Gut Microbiota.
Heimesaat Markus M,Mrazek Katharina,Bereswill Stefan
Frontiers in immunology
Human campylobacteriosis constitutes a zoonotic food-borne disease and a progressively rising health burden of significant socioeconomic impact. We have recently shown that conventional mice are protected from infection, which was not the case for human microbiota associated (hma) mice indicating that the host-specific gut microbiota composition primarily determines susceptibility to or resistance against infection. In our present preclinical intervention study we addressed whether gut microbiota changes in stably infected hma mice following murine fecal microbiota transplantation (mFMT) could alleviate pathogen-induced immune responses. To accomplish this, secondary abiotic C57BL/6 mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, perorally reassociated with a complex human gut microbiota and challenged with by gavage. Seven days later infected hma mice were subjected to peroral mFMT on 3 consecutive days. Within a week post-mFMT fecal pathogenic burdens had decreased by two orders of magnitude, whereas distinct changes in the gut microbiota composition with elevated numbers of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria could be assessed. In addition, mFMT resulted in less induced apoptotic responses in colonic epithelia, reduced numbers of macrophages and monocytes as well as of T lymphocytes in the large intestinal mucosa and lamina propria and in less distinct intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion as compared to mock challenge. Strikingly, inflammation dampening effects of mFMT were not restricted to the intestinal tract, but could also be observed systemically as indicated by elevated serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-12p70, and IL-6 in infected hma mice of the mock, but not the mFMT cohort. In conclusion, our preclinical mFMT intervention study provides evidence that changes in the gut microbiota composition which might be achieved by pre- or probiotic formulations may effectively lower intestinal loads, dampen both, pathogen-induced intestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae and may represent a useful tool to treat continuous shedding of by asymptomatic carriers which is critical in the context of food production, hospitalization and immunosuppression.
Fecal Microbial Transplantation impact on gut microbiota composition and metabolome, microbial translocation and T-lymphocyte immune activation in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection patients.
Bruno Giovanni,Gagliardi Antonella,Oliva Alessandra,Trancassini Maria,Macone Alberto,Cicerone Clelia,D'Abramo Alessandra,Iebba Valerio,Auria Stefania,Bonfiglio Giulia,Zingaropoli Maria Antonella,D'Ettorre Gabriella,Badiali Danilo,Vullo Vincenzo,Corazziari Enrico S,Schippa Serena
The new microbiologica
This short communication reports the preliminary results of Fecal Microbial Transplantation (FMT) impact on microbiota, microbial translocation (MT), and immune activation in four recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI) patients. After FMT a restore of gut microbiota composition with a significant increase of fecal acetyl-putrescine and spermidine and fecal acetate and butyrate, a decrease of immune activation of T cells CD4+ and CD8+levels, and of LPS binding protein (LBP) level, were observed. Preliminary results indicate that FMT seems to be helpful not only as a CDI radical cure, with an impact on fecal microbiota and metabolome profiles, but also on MT and immune activation.
Current applications of fecal microbiota transplantation in intestinal disorders.
Hsu Wen-Hung,Wang Jaw-Yuan,Kuo Chao-Hung
The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) had been an ancient remedy for severe illness several centuries ago. Under modern medical analysis and evidence-based research, it has been proved as an alternative treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and recent randomized control study also showed that FMT could be an adjuvant treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. As we get a better understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and systemic disease, FMT became a potential treatment to explore. This article summarized procedures such as donor selection, fecal material preparation, transplantation delivery methods, and adverse events. We also review the present evidence about FMT in clinical practice.
The success of fecal microbial transplantation in infection correlates with bacteriophage relative abundance in the donor: a retrospective cohort study.
Park Heekuk,Laffin Michael R,Jovel Juan,Millan Braden,Hyun Jae E,Hotte Naomi,Kao Dina,Madsen Karen L
: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is used in the treatment of relapsing infection (rCDI). Failure rate for FMT is as high as 10% but the mechanisms contributing to a failed FMT are not understood. We utilized metagenomic data to identify the role of bacteria and bacteriophages on FMT success.: Subjects with rCDI (n = 19) received FMT from volunteer donors (n = 7) via colonoscopy. Twelve patients fully recovered after a single FMT, while seven patients required a subsequent FMT. DNA was extracted from patient and donor stool samples for shotgun metagenomic analysis. Metagenomics libraries were analyzed focusing on bacterial taxonomy and bacteriophage sequences. Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in rCDI patients prior to FMT largely due to elevated levels of and . A successful FMT led to increased levels of Clostridia and Bacteroidia and a reduction in Gammaproteobacteria. In contrast, a failed FMT led to no significant changes in bacterial composition. Bacteriophages were classified during whole metagenomic analysis of each sample and were markedly different between rCDI patients, donors, and a healthy control cohort (n = 96). Bacteriophage sequence reads were increased in CDI patients compared with donors and healthy controls. Successful FMT donors had higher bacteriophage α-diversity and lower relative abundance compared to the donors of a failed initial FMT.: In this retrospective analysis, FMTs with increased bacteriophage α-diversity were more likely to successfully treat rCDI. In addition, the relative number of bacteriophage reads was lower in donations leading to a successful FMT. These results suggest that bacteriophage abundance may have some role in determining the relative success of FMT.
Profiling Living Bacteria Informs Preparation of Fecal Microbiota Transplantations.
Chu Nathaniel D,Smith Mark B,Perrotta Allison R,Kassam Zain,Alm Eric J
Fecal microbiota transplantation is a compelling treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, with potential applications against other diseases associated with changes in gut microbiota. But variability in fecal bacterial communities-believed to be the therapeutic agent-can complicate or undermine treatment efficacy. To understand the effects of transplant preparation methods on living fecal microbial communities, we applied a DNA-sequencing method (PMA-seq) that uses propidium monoazide (PMA) to differentiate between living and dead fecal microbes, and we created an analysis pipeline to identify individual bacteria that change in abundance between samples. We found that oxygen exposure degraded fecal bacterial communities, whereas freeze-thaw cycles and lag time between donor defecation and transplant preparation had much smaller effects. Notably, the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii-an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium whose absence is linked to inflammatory bowel disease-decreased with oxygen exposure. Our results indicate that some current practices for preparing microbiota transplant material adversely affect living fecal microbial content and highlight PMA-seq as a valuable tool to inform best practices and evaluate the suitability of clinical fecal material.
Challenges in fecal donor selection and screening for fecal microbiota transplantation: A review.
Woodworth Michael H,Carpentieri Cynthia,Sitchenko Kaitlin L,Kraft Colleen S
Fecal microbiota transplantation is best understood as an effective and inexpensive therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection but fecal donor selection and screening should be periodically revised. Here, we review current recommendations for selection and screening of fecal donors for fecal microbiota transplantation. We recommend considering diabetes mellitus, prior cardiovascular events, and clinical healthcare exposure as fecal donor exclusion criteria until more is known about the association of these conditions with the human gut microbiome. We review the non-bacterial members of the human gut microbiome, associations of the gut microbiome with colorectal malignancies, the human gut resistome and how these may impact future donor screening recommendations. Collaboration between clinicians, clinical laboratory scientists, industry and regulatory agencies will be critically important for continued improvement in donor selection and screening.
Laboratory Testing of Donors and Stool Samples for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.
Woodworth Michael H,Neish Emma M,Miller Nancy S,Dhere Tanvi,Burd Eileen M,Carpentieri Cynthia,Sitchenko Kaitlin L,Kraft Colleen S
Journal of clinical microbiology
Fecal microbiota transplantation is an efficacious and inexpensive therapy for recurrent infection, yet its safety is thought to depend on appropriate fecal donor screening. FDA guidance for regulation of this procedure is in flux, but screening and manufacture of fecal material from asymptomatic donors present many challenges to clinical laboratories. This minireview summarizes FDA regulatory changes, principles of donor selection, and recommended laboratory screening practices for fecal microbiota transplantation.
A compilation of fecal microbiome shotgun metagenomics from hematopoietic cell transplantation patients.
Hospitalized patients receiving hematopoietic cell transplants provide a unique opportunity to study the human gut microbiome. We previously compiled a large-scale longitudinal dataset of fecal microbiota and associated metadata, but we had limited that analysis to taxonomic composition of bacteria from 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Here we augment those data with shotgun metagenomics. The compilation amounts to a nested subset of 395 samples compiled from different studies at Memorial Sloan Kettering. Shotgun metagenomics describes the microbiome at the functional level, particularly in antimicrobial resistances and virulence factors. We provide accession numbers that link each sample to the paired-end sequencing files deposited in a public repository, which can be directly accessed by the online services of PATRIC to be analyzed without the users having to download or transfer the files. Then, we show how shotgun sequencing enables the assembly of genomes from metagenomic data. The new data, combined with the metadata published previously, enables new functional studies of the microbiomes of patients with cancer receiving bone marrow transplantation.
Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Decolonization in Immunocompromised Patients: A Focus on Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.
Alagna Laura,Palomba Emanuele,Mangioni Davide,Bozzi Giorgio,Lombardi Andrea,Ungaro Riccardo,Castelli Valeria,Prati Daniele,Vecchi Maurizio,Muscatello Antonio,Bandera Alessandra,Gori Andrea
International journal of molecular sciences
Antimicrobial resistance is an important issue for global health; in immunocompromised patients, such as solid organ and hematological transplant recipients, it poses an even bigger threat. Colonization by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria was acknowledged as a strong risk factor to subsequent infections, especially in individuals with a compromised immune system. A growing pile of studies has linked the imbalance caused by the dominance of certain taxa populating the gut, also known as intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, to an increased risk of MDR bacteria colonization. Several attempts were proposed to modulate the gut microbiota. Particularly, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was successfully applied to treat conditions like infection and other diseases linked to gut microbiota dysbiosis. In this review we aimed to provide a look at the data gathered so far on FMT, focusing on its possible role in treating MDR colonization in the setting of immunocompromised patients and analyzing its efficacy and safety.
Fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Webb B J,Brunner A,Ford C D,Gazdik M A,Petersen F B,Hoda D
Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society
Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a consequence of intestinal dysbiosis and is particularly common following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective method of treating CDI by correcting intestinal dysbiosis by passive transfer of healthy donor microflora. FMT has not been widely used in immunocompromised patients, including HSCT recipients, owing to concern for donor-derived infection. Here, we describe initial results of an FMT program for CDI at a US HSCT center. Seven HSCT recipients underwent FMT between February 2015 and February 2016. Mean time post HSCT was 635 days (25-75 interquartile range [IQR] 38-791). Five of the patients (71.4%) were on immunosuppressive therapy at FMT; 4 had required long-term suppressive oral vancomycin therapy because of immediate recurrence after antibiotic cessation. Stool donors underwent comprehensive health and behavioral screening and laboratory testing of serum and stool for 32 potential pathogens. FMT was administered via the naso-jejunal route in 6 of the 7 patients. Mean follow-up was 265 days (IQR 51-288). Minor post-FMT adverse effects included self-limited bloating and urgency. One patient was suspected of having post-FMT small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. No serious adverse events were noted and all-cause mortality was 0%. Six of 7 (85.7%) patients had no recurrence; 1 patient recurred at day 156 post FMT after taking an oral antibiotic and required repeat FMT, after which no recurrence has occurred. Diarrhea was improved in all patients and 1 patient with gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease was able to taper off systemic immunosuppression after FMT. With careful donor selection and laboratory screening, FMT appears to be a safe and effective therapy for CDI in HSCT patients and may confer additional benefits. Larger studies are necessary to confirm safety and efficacy and explore other possible effects.
Maternal Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Cesarean-Born Infants Rapidly Restores Normal Gut Microbial Development: A Proof-of-Concept Study.
Korpela Katri,Helve Otto,Kolho Kaija-Leena,Saisto Terhi,Skogberg Kirsi,Dikareva Evgenia,Stefanovic Vedran,Salonen Anne,Andersson Sture,de Vos Willem M
Infants born by vaginal delivery are colonized with maternal fecal microbes. Cesarean section (CS) birth disturbs mother-to-neonate transmission. In this study (NCT03568734), we evaluated whether disturbed intestinal microbiota development could be restored in term CS-born infants by postnatal, orally delivered fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We recruited 17 mothers, of whom seven were selected after careful screening. Their infants received a diluted fecal sample from their own mothers, taken 3 weeks prior to delivery. All seven infants had an uneventful clinical course during the 3-month follow-up and showed no adverse effects. The temporal development of the fecal microbiota composition of FMT-treated CS-born infants no longer resembled that of untreated CS-born infants but showed significant similarity to that of vaginally born infants. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that the intestinal microbiota of CS-born infants can be restored postnatally by maternal FMT. However, this should only be done after careful clinical and microbiological screening.
Fecal microbiota transplantation as tool to study the interrelation between microbiota composition and miRNA expression.
Wortelboer Koen,Bakker Guido J,Winkelmeijer Maaike,van Riel Natal,Levin Evgeni,Nieuwdorp Max,Herrema Hilde,Davids Mark
The intestinal gut microbiota is important for human metabolism and immunity and can be influenced by many host factors. A recently emerged host factor is secreted microRNA (miRNA). Previously, it has been shown that secreted miRNAs can influence the growth of certain bacteria and conversely, that shifts in the microbiota can alter the composition of secreted miRNAs. Here, we sought to further investigate the interaction between the gut microbiota and secreted miRNAs by the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Subjects with the metabolic syndrome received either an autologous (n = 4) or allogenic (n = 14) FMT. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and 6 weeks after FMT, from which the microbiome and miRNA composition were determined via 16S rRNA sequencing and miRNA sequencing, respectively. We observed a significant correlation between the fecal miRNA expression and microbiota composition, both before and after FMT. Our results suggest that the FMT-induced shift in microbiota altered the fecal miRNA profile, indicated by correlations between differentially abundant microbes and miRNAs. This idea of a shift in miRNA composition driven by changes in the microbiota was further strengthened by the absence of a direct effect of specific miRNAs on the growth of specific bacterial strains.
[Association between the clinical efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation in recipients and the choice of donor].
Chen Q Y,Yang B,Tian H L,Lin Z L,Zhao D,Ye C,Zhang X Y,Qin H L,Li N
Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
To examine the association between the clinical efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in recipients and the choice of donor, and to observe the characteristics of intestinal flora and metabolites among different donors. A retrospective case-control study was conducted. Donor whose feces was administrated for more than 30 recipients was enrolled. Data of 20 FMT donors and corresponding recipients at Intestinal Microecology Diagnosis and Treatment Center of the Tenth People's Hospital from October 2018 to December 2019 were collected retrospectively. During follow-up, the efficacy of each recipient 8-week after FMT treatment was recorded and analyzed. Based on the efficacy of each donor, the donors were divided into three groups: high efficacy group (effective rate >60%, 10 donors), moderate efficacy group (effective rate 30%-60%, 6 donors) and low efficacy group (effective rate <30%, 4 donors). The structure of the bacterial flora and the content of fecal short-chain fatty acids in each group of donors were detected and compared among groups. Association of the efficacy of each donor group with the morbidity of complications, and association of efficacy of recipients with donors were analyzed. The evaluation indicators of FMT efficacy included objective clinical effectiveness and/or subjective effectiveness. Objective effectiveness indicated clinical cure plus clinical improvement, and subjective effectiveness indicated marked effectiveness plus medium effectiveness through questionnaire during follow-up. A total of 1387 recipients were treated by 20 donors, including 749 cases of chronic constipation, 141 cases of chronic diarrhea, 107 cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 121 cases of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 83 cases of autism, and 186 cases of other diseases, such as radiation bowel injury, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, paralytic intestinal obstruction, functional bloating and allergic diseases. There were 829 cases, 403 cases, and 155 cases in high efficacy group, moderate efficacy group and low efficacy group respectively. Baseline data among 3 groups were not significantly different (all > 0.05). In comparison of bacterial abundance (operational taxonomic unit, OTU) among different effective donor groups, the high efficacy group was the highest (330.68±57.28), the moderate efficacy group was the second (237.79±41.89), and the low efficacy group was the lowest (160.60±49.61), whose difference was statistically significant (=16.910, <0.001). In comparison of bacterial diversity (Shannon index), the high efficacy group and the moderate efficacy group were higher (2.96±0.36 and 2.67±0.54, respectively), and the low efficacy group was lower (2.09±0.55), whose difference was statistically significant (=5.255, =0.017). In comparison of butyric acid content among three groups, the high efficacy group had the highest [(59.20±9.00) μmol/g], followed by middle efficacy group [(46.92±9.48) μmol/g], and the low efficacy group had the lowest [(37.23±5.03) μmol/g], whose difference was statistically significant (=10.383, =0.001). The differences of acetic acid and propionic acid among three groups were not statistically significant (all >0.05). A total of 418 cases developed complications (30.1%). Morbidity of complication in low efficacy group, moderate efficacy group and high efficacy group was 40.6% (63/155), 30.0% (121/403) and 28.2% (243/829) respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=9.568, =0.008). The incidence of diarrhea in low efficacy group, moderate efficacy group and high efficacy group was 7.1% (11/155), 4.0% (16/403) and 2.8% (23/829) respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=7.239, =0.027). Comparing the incidences of other types of complications, no statistically significant differences were found (all >0.05). Follow up began 8 weeks after the FMT treatment. The total follow-up rate was 83.6% (1160/1387). The overall effective rate 58.3% (676/1160). Effective rates of various diseases were as follows: chronic constipation 54.3% (328/604), chronic diarrhea 88.5% (115/130), IBD 56.1% (55/98), IBS 55.1% (59/107), autism 61.6% (45/73), and other diseases 50.0% (74/148). Comparing the effective rate of three groups of donors for different diseases, there was no statistically significant difference in chronic diarrhea (>0.05); there was a positive correlation trend in IBD, IBS and autism, but the differences were not statistically significant (all >0.05). For chronic constipation and other diseases, high efficacy group had the highest effective rate [65.0% (243/374) and 63.2% (55/87)], followed by moderate efficacy group [49.4% (86/174) and 38.1% (16/42)], and low efficacy group had the lowest [16.1% (9/56) and 15.8% (3/19)], whose differences were significant (all <0.05). Different donors have different efficacy in different diseases. Chronic constipation, radiation bowel injury, etc. need to choose donors with high efficacy. IBD, IBS and autism may also be related to the effectiveness of donors, while chronic diarrhea is not associated to the donor. The efficiency of the donor is negatively correlated to the morbidity of complications. The abundance and diversity of intestinal flora and the content of butyric acid may affect the efficacy of the donor.
Fecal Microbial Transplantation in Critically Ill Patients-Structured Review and Perspectives.
Cibulková Ivana,Řehořová Veronika,Hajer Jan,Duška František
The human gut microbiota consists of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses. It is a dynamic ecosystem shaped by several factors that play an essential role in both healthy and diseased states of humans. A disturbance of the gut microbiota, also termed "dysbiosis", is associated with increased host susceptibility to a range of diseases. Because of splanchnic ischemia, exposure to antibiotics, and/or the underlying disease, critically ill patients loose 90% of the commensal organisms in their gut within hours after the insult. This is followed by a rapid overgrowth of potentially pathogenic and pro-inflammatory bacteria that alter metabolic, immune, and even neurocognitive functions and that turn the gut into the driver of systemic inflammation and multiorgan failure. Indeed, restoring healthy microbiota by means of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the critically ill is an attractive and plausible concept in intensive care. Nonetheless, available data from controlled studies are limited to probiotics and FMT for severe infection or severe inflammatory bowel disease. Case series and observational trials have generated hypotheses that FMT might be feasible and safe in immunocompromised patients, refractory sepsis, or severe antibiotic-associated diarrhea in ICU. There is a burning need to test these hypotheses in randomized controlled trials powered for the determination of patient-centered outcomes.
Stool processing speed and storage duration do not impact the clinical effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation.
Allegretti Jessica R,Elliott Ryan J,Ladha Alim,Njenga Mary,Warren Kurt,O'Brien Kelsey,Budree Shrish,Osman Majdi,Fischer Monika,Kelly Colleen R,Kassam Zain
Predicting recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection following encapsulated fecal microbiota transplantation.
Staley Christopher,Kaiser Thomas,Vaughn Byron P,Graiziger Carolyn T,Hamilton Matthew J,Rehman Tauseef Ur,Song Kevin,Khoruts Alexander,Sadowsky Michael J
BACKGROUND:Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). The use of freeze-dried, encapsulated donor material for FMT (cap-FMT) allows for an easy route of administration and remains clinically effective in the majority of rCDI patients. We hypothesized that specific shifts in the microbiota in response to cap-FMT could predict clinical outcome. We further evaluated the degree of donor microbiota engraftment to determine the extent that donor transfer contributed to recovery. RESULTS:In total, 89 patients were treated with 100 separate cap-FMTs, with a success rate (no rCDI 60 days post cap-FMT) of 80%. Among responders, the lower alpha diversity (ANOVA P < 0.05) observed among patient's pre-FMT samples was restored following cap-FMT. At 1 week post-FMT, community composition varied by clinical outcome (ANOSIM P < 0.001), with similar abundances among families (Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Bacteroidaceae) in responder and donor samples. Families that showed differential abundances by outcome (response vs. recurrence) from samples collected 7 days following cap-FMT were used to construct a regression tree-based model to predict recurrence. Results showed a training accuracy of 100% to predict recurrence and the model was 97% accurate against a test data set of samples collected 8-20 days following cap-FMT. Evaluation of the extent of engraftment using the Bayesian algorithm SourceTracker revealed that approximately 50% of the post-FMT communities of responders were attributable to donor microbiota, while an additional 20-30% of the communities were similar to a composite healthy microbiota consisting of all donor samples. CONCLUSIONS:Regression tree-based analyses of microbial communities identified taxa significantly related to clinical response after 7 days, which can be targeted to improve microbial therapeutics. Furthermore, reinstatement of a healthy assemblage following cap-FMT was only partially attributable to explicit donor engraftment and continued to develop towards an overall healthy assemblage, independent of donor.
Antibiotic-Induced Shifts in Fecal Microbiota Density and Composition during Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.
Morjaria Sejal,Schluter Jonas,Taylor Bradford P,Littmann Eric R,Carter Rebecca A,Fontana Emily,Peled Jonathan U,van den Brink Marcel R M,Xavier Joao B,Taur Ying
Infection and immunity
Dramatic microbiota changes and loss of commensal anaerobic bacteria are associated with adverse outcomes in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. In this study, we demonstrate these dynamic changes at high resolution through daily stool sampling and assess the impact of individual antibiotics on those changes. We collected 272 longitudinal stool samples (with mostly daily frequency) from 18 patients undergoing HCT and determined their composition by multiparallel 16S rRNA gene sequencing as well as the density of bacteria in stool by quantitative PCR (qPCR). We calculated microbiota volatility to quantify rapid shifts and developed a new dynamic systems inference method to assess the specific impact of antibiotics. The greatest shifts in microbiota composition occurred between stem cell infusion and reconstitution of healthy immune cells. Piperacillin-tazobactam caused the most severe declines among obligate anaerobes. Our approach of daily sampling, bacterial density determination, and dynamic systems modeling allowed us to infer the independent effects of specific antibiotics on the microbiota of HCT patients.
Systems biology evaluation of refractory Clostridioides difficile infection including multiple failures of fecal microbiota transplantation.
BACKGROUND:Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) aims to cure Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) through reestablishing a healthy microbiome and restoring colonization resistance. Although often effective after one infusion, patients with continued microbiome disruptions may require multiple FMTs. In this N-of-1 study, we use a systems biology approach to evaluate CDI in a patient receiving chronic suppressive antibiotics with four failed FMTs over two years. METHODS:Seven stool samples were obtained between 2016-18 while the patient underwent five FMTs. Stool samples were cultured for C. difficile and underwent microbial characterization and functional gene analysis using shotgun metagenomics. C. difficile isolates were characterized through ribotyping, whole genome sequencing, metabolic pathway analysis, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations. RESULTS:Growing ten strains from each sample, the index and first four recurrent cultures were single strain ribotype F078-126, the fifth was a mixed culture of ribotypes F002 and F054, and the final culture was ribotype F002. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant was identified in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) β-subunit RpoB in the final isolated F078-126 strain when compared to previous F078-126 isolates. This SNV was associated with metabolic shifts but phenotypic differences in fidaxomicin MIC were not observed. Microbiome differences were observed over time during vancomycin therapy and after failed FMTs. CONCLUSION:This study highlights the importance of antimicrobial stewardship in patients receiving FMT. Continued antibiotics play a destructive role on a transplanted microbiome and applies selection pressure for resistance to the few antibiotics available to treat CDI.
Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Increases Colonic IL-25 and Dampens Tissue Inflammation in Patients with Recurrent Clostridioides difficile.
Jan N,Hays R A,Oakland D N,Kumar P,Ramakrishnan G,Behm B W,Petri W A,Marie C
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the most common hospital-acquired infection in the United States. Antibiotic-induced dysbiosis is the primary cause of susceptibility, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as an effective therapy for recurrence. We previously demonstrated in the mouse model of CDI that antibiotic-induced dysbiosis reduced colonic expression of interleukin 25 (IL-25) and that FMT protected in part by restoring IL-25 signaling. Here, we conducted a prospective study in humans to test if FMT induced IL-25 expression in the colons of patients with recurrent CDI (rCDI). Colonic biopsy specimens and blood were collected at the time of FMT and 60 days later. Colon biopsy specimens were analyzed for IL-25 protein levels, total tissue transcriptome, and epithelium-associated microbiota before and after FMT, and peripheral immune cells were immunophenotyped. FMT increased alpha diversity of the colonic microbiota and levels of IL-25 in colonic tissue. In addition, FMT increased expression of homeostatic genes and repressed inflammatory genes. Finally, circulating Th17 cells were decreased post-FMT. The increase in levels of the cytokine IL-25 accompanied by decreased inflammation is consistent with FMT acting in part to protect from recurrent CDI via restoration of commensal activation of type 2 immunity. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for C. difficile infection for most patients; however, introducing a complex mixture of microbes also has had unintended consequences for some patients. Attempts to create a standardized probiotic therapeutic that recapitulates the efficacy of FMT have been unsuccessful to date. We sought to understand what immune markers are changed in patients undergoing FMT to treat recurrent C. difficile infection and identified an immune signaling molecule, IL-25, that was restored by FMT. This finding indicates that adjunctive therapy with IL-25 could be useful in treating C. difficile infection.
Effect of fecal microbiota transplantation route of administration on gut colonization and host response in preterm pigs.
Brunse Anders,Martin Lena,Rasmussen Torben Sølbeck,Christensen Lars,Skovsted Cilieborg Malene,Wiese Maria,Khakimov Bekzod,Pieper Robert,Nielsen Dennis Sandris,Sangild Per Torp,Thymann Thomas
The ISME journal
This study examined gut colonization patterns and host responses to fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) by different administration routes after preterm birth. In two separate experiments, cesarean-delivered, preterm pigs were administered combined oral + rectal, or exclusively rectal donor feces, and compared with saline controls. After 5 days, stomach and colon bacterial compositions were determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and organic acid metabolites measured. Further, gut pathology, mucosa bacterial adherence, and goblet cell density were assessed. FMT increased the relative abundance of obligate anaerobes in the colon without affecting total bacterial load. Bacteroides colonized recipients despite low abundance in the donor feces, whereas highly abundant Prevotella and Ruminococcaceae did not. Further, FMT changed carbohydrate metabolism from lactate to propionate production thereby increasing colonic pH. Besides, FMT preserved goblet cell mucin stores and reduced necrotizing enterocolitis incidence. Only rectal FMT increased the stomach-to-colon pH gradient and resistance to mucosa bacterial adhesion. Conversely, oral + rectal FMT increased bacterial adhesion, internal organ colonization, and overall mortality. Our results uncovered distinctions in bacterial colonization patterns along the gastrointestinal tract, as well as host tolerability between oral and rectal FMT administration in preterm newborns. Besides, FMT showed the potential to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis.
Fecal microbiota transplantation for COVID-19; a potential emerging treatment strategy.
At the end of 2019, an emerging outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that first reported from Wuhan, China. The first manifestations of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 was flu-like symptoms, while other type of manifestations, especially gastrointestinal manifestations were discovered recently. As of June 2020, there is no specific drug or treatment strategy for COVID-19, a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, so different combination of antiviral drugs is currently being used. Gut microbiota mostly consists of four phyla, including Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. The interaction between gut microbiota and immune system through releasing some cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ that play roles in the severity of COVID-19. In this article, a new potential treatment for COVID-19 by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is described. FMT revealed promising results in different diseases, especially recurrent clostridium difficile infection, and it might reduce length of hospital admission and severity of the disease by modification of gut microbiota composition.
Simultaneous Daily Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Fails to Prevent Metronidazole-Induced Dysbiosis of Equine Gut Microbiota.
Journal of equine veterinary science
Antimicrobial administration can lead to imbalances of gastrointestinal microbiota, called dysbiosis. Dysbiosis sometimes results in diarrhea and enteritis in horses. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is used to treat affected horses, but whether it is effective as a prophylactic approach for dysbiosis in horses receiving antimicrobials remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of simultaneous FMT against metronidazole-induced dysbiosis in horses. Changes in the ratios of bacterial families, determined by metagenomic analysis, were similar between the metronidazole-treated group and the simultaneous metronidazole- and FMT-treated group, notably in the Clostridiaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae. Differences in fecal bacterial compositions were due mainly to metronidazole administration (P = .0003), but not to FMT (P = .3136). Simultaneous FMT at 500 g of donor feces in 1 L of suspension once a day did not inhibit metronidazole-induced dysbiosis. The results show that the FMT protocol needs to be improved to prevent metronidazole-induced gut dysbiosis in horses.
[Indication selection and clinical application strategies of fecal microbiota transplantation].
Zhang X Y,Chen Q Y,Li N,Qin H L
Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has become an effective method for the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection. In addition, it has shown certain effects in other diseases inside and outside the intestine. A large number of clinical trials have been carried out. However, there is still lack of uniform standard for strategies of FMT. In this paper, we discussed the current hot and controversial issues of FMT from the aspects of indication, donor screening, fecal suspension quality control, methodology, follow-up and efficacy judgment, treatment of adverse reaction and ethical supervision based on our team's clinical experience.
High prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase organisms and the COVID-19 pandemic impact on donor recruitment for fecal microbiota transplantation in Hong Kong.
Yau Yuk Kam,Mak Wing Yan Joyce,Lui Nok Shun Rashid,Ng Wai Yin Rita,Cheung Choi Yan Kitty,Li Ying Lee Amy,Ching Yuet Ling Jessica,Chin Miu Ling,Lau Ho Shing Louis,Chan Ka Leung Francis,Chan Kay Sheung Paul,Ng Siew Chien
United European gastroenterology journal
BACKGROUND:With increasing number of clinical trials relating to fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), it is crucial to identify and recruit long-term, healthy, and regular fecal donors. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to report the outcomes of screening and recruitment of fecal donors for FMT. METHODS:Potential donors were recruited via advertisement through internal mass emails at a university. They were required to undergo a pre-screening telephone interview, a detailed questionnaire, followed by blood and stool investigations. RESULTS:From January 2017 to December 2020, 119 potential donors were assessed with 75 failed pre-screening. Reasons for failure included: inability to come back for regular and long-term donation (n = 19), high body mass index (n = 17), underlying chronic illness or on long-term medications (n = 11), being healthcare professionals (n = 10), use of antibiotics within 3 months (n = 5) and others (n = 13). Forty-four donors completed questionnaires and 11 did not fulfill the clinical criteria. Of the remaining 33 potential donors who had stool and blood tests, 21 failed stool investigations (19 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL] organisms, one Clostridioides difficile, one C. difficile plus Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus), one failed blood tests (high serum alkaline phosphatase level), one required long-term medication and nine withdrew consent and/or lost to follow-up. In total, only one out of 119 (0.8%) potential donors was successfully recruited as a regular donor. CONCLUSION:There was a high failure rate in donor screening for FMT. Main reasons for screening failure included high prevalence of positive ESBL organisms in stool and failed commitment to regular stool donation.
[Pharmaceutical system of fecal microbiota transplantation: Heterogeneous practices].
Martel B,Saint-Lorant G
Annales pharmaceutiques francaises
OBJECTIVE:To describe current pharmaceutical practice in French hospitals regarding fecal microbiota transplantation in terms of prescription, preparation and compounding, as well as local legislation. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A national survey was conducted at 28 French university hospital centers followed by the sending of a GoogleForm questionnaire from June to August 2018 in the 16 respondent centers either performing or subcontracting fecal microbiota transplant. RESULTS:All hospitals performing or subcontracting fecal transplant (n=16,%57) report prescription indication of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection treatment, and 6 of them also as part of a clinical trial protocol. In hospitals performing fecal transplant themselves (n=11), the number of pre-donation consultations with donors varies from one (n=6) to two (n=5). Fecal sample is collected at the donor's home in 45% of cases. Route of administration for transplant is either naso-gastric administration (n=4), rectal (n=4) or both (n=5). Fecal samples for transplant are compounded either in the hospital pharmacy (n=73%) or in the laboratory (27%). Thawing methods include refrigeration between 2-8°C (50%), room temperature (25%) and water bath (25%). Billing system and reporting to health authorities are highly heterogeneous from one hospital to another. CONCLUSION:This survey shows significant pharmaceutical practice heterogeneity within French hospitals regarding fecal microbiota transplantation despite the existence of national and European recommendations.
Fecal microbiota transplantation in cancer management: Current status and perspectives.
Chen Danfeng,Wu Jingyi,Jin Duochen,Wang Bangmao,Cao Hailong
International journal of cancer
The human gut is home to a large and diverse microbial community, comprising about 1,000 bacterial species. The gut microbiota exists in a symbiotic relationship with its host, playing a decisive role in the host's nutrition, immunity and metabolism. Accumulating studies have revealed the associations between gut dysbiosis or some special bacteria and various cancers. Emerging data suggest that gut microbiota can modulate the effectiveness of cancer therapies, especially immunotherapy. Manipulating the microbial populations with therapeutic intent has become a hot topic of cancer research, and the most dramatic manipulation of gut microbiota refers to fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy individuals to patients. FMT has demonstrated remarkable clinical efficacy against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and it is highly recommended for the treatment of recurrent or refractory CDI. Lately, interest is growing in the therapeutic potential of FMT for other diseases, including cancers. We briefly reviewed the current researches about gut microbiota and its link to cancer, and then summarized the recent preclinical and clinical evidence to indicate the potential of FMT in cancer management as well as cancer-treatment associated complications. We also presented the rationale of FMT for cancer management such as reconstruction of intestinal microbiota, amelioration of bile acid metabolism, and modulation of immunotherapy efficacy. This article would help to better understand this new therapeutic approach for cancer patients by targeting gut microbiota.
Critical roles of sepsis-reshaped fecal virota in attenuating sepsis severity.
Frontiers in immunology
Because studies on all fecal organisms (bacteria, fungi, and viruses) in sepsis are rare and bacteriophages during sepsis might have adapted against gut bacteria with possible pathogenicity, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP; a sepsis mouse model) was evaluated. In fecal bacteriome, sepsis increased and Proteobacteria but decreased Firmicutes, while fecal virome demonstrated increased when compared with sham feces. There was no difference in the fungal microbiome (predominant Ascomycota in both sham and CLP mice) and the abundance of all organisms between sepsis and control groups. Interestingly, the transfers of feces from CLP mice worsened sepsis severity when compared with sham fecal transplantation, as evaluated by mortality, renal injury (serum creatinine and histology), liver damage (liver enzyme and histology), spleen apoptosis, serum cytokines, endotoxemia, and bacteremia. In contrast, the transfers of fecal viral particles from sepsis mice, but not from sham mice, attenuated inflammation in CLP sepsis possibly through the decrease in several fecal pathogenic bacteria (such as Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Prevotellaceae) as evaluated by fecal microbiome analysis. Perhaps the isolation of favorable bacteriophages in sepsis feces and increased abundance before oral treatment in a high concentration are beneficial.
Fecal microbiota transplantation in the metabolic diseases: Current status and perspectives.
World journal of gastroenterology
With the development of microbiology and metabolomics, the relationship between the intestinal microbiome and intestinal diseases has been revealed. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), as a new treatment method, can affect the course of many chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, malignant tumor, autoimmune disease and nervous system disease. Although the mechanism of action of FMT is now well understood, there is some controversy in metabolic diseases, so its clinical application may be limited. Microflora transplantation is recommended by clinical medical guidelines and consensus for the treatment of recurrent or refractory infection, and has been gradually promoted for the treatment of other intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. However, the initial results are varied, suggesting that the heterogeneity of the donor stools may affect the efficacy of FMT. The success of FMT depends on the microbial diversity and composition of donor feces. Therefore, clinical trials may fail due to the selection of ineffective donors, and not to faulty indication selection for FMT. A new understanding is that FMT not only improves insulin sensitivity, but may also alter the natural course of type 1 diabetes by modulating autoimmunity. In this review, we focus on the main mechanisms and deficiencies of FMT, and explore the optimal design of FMT research, especially in the field of cardiometabolic diseases.
Fecal microbiota transplantation before or after allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation in patients with hematologic malignancies carrying multidrug-resistance bacteria.
Battipaglia Giorgia,Malard Florent,Rubio Marie Therèse,Ruggeri Annalisa,Mamez Anne Claire,Brissot Eolia,Giannotti Federica,Dulery Remy,Joly Anne Christine,Baylatry Minh Tam,Kossmann Marie Jeanne,Tankovic Jacques,Beaugerie Laurent,Sokol Harry,Mohty Mohamad
Fecal microbiota transplantation is an effective treatment in recurrent infection. Promising results to eradicate multidrug-resistant bacteria have also been reported with this procedure, but there are safety concerns in immunocompromised patients. We report results in ten adult patients colonized with multidrug-resistant bacteria, undergoing fecal microbiota transplantation before (n=4) or after (n=6) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies. were obtained from healthy related or unrelated donors. Fecal material was delivered either by enema or nasogastric tube. Patients were colonized or had infections from either carbapenemase-producing bacteria (n=8) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (n=2). Median age at fecal microbiota transplantation was 48 (range, 16-64) years. Three patients needed a second transplant from the same donor due to initial failure of the procedure. With a median follow up of 13 (range, 4-40) months, decolonization was achieved in seven of ten patients. In all patients, fecal micro-biota transplantation was safe: one patient presented with constipation during the first five days after FMT and two patients had grade I diarrhea. One case of gut grade III acute graft--host disease occurred after fecal microbiota transplantation. In patients carrying or infected by multidrug-resistant bacteria, fecal microbiota transplantation is an effective and safe decolonization strategy, even in those with hematologic malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Reducing Cost and Complexity of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Using Universal Donors for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.
Kim Kyeong Ok,Schwartz Margot A,Lin Otto S T,Chiorean Michael V,Gluck Michael
Advances in therapy
INTRODUCTION:Fecal microbiota transplantation resolves recurrent Clostridium difficile infections in greater than 82% of patients. Highly screened, processed universal donor fecal material is available. We compared cost and scheduling efficiency of fecal microbiota transplantation by universal donors to patient-directed donors. METHODS:Medical records from a prospectively maintained database of recurrent C. difficile patients who underwent fecal microbiota transplantation between 2012 and 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Patient-directed donor stool was prepared in our microbiology laboratory using protocol-based screening. We transitioned to purchasing and using universal donor fecal material in 2015. Clinical outcomes, adverse events, time between consult to infusion, consultation fees, and material costs were compared. This was a retrospective comparison of two historical cohorts. RESULTS:A total of 111 fecal microbiota transplantations were performed on 105 patients (56 from patient-directed donors and 55 from universal donors). Median recipient age was 66 years (18-96) with male to female ratio of 1:2.7, equivalent in both cohorts. Total consultation fees were significantly lower in the universal donor group owing to fewer infectious disease consultations. Costs for donor screening and stool preparation were lower in the universal donor cohort ($485.0 vs. $1189.90 ± 541.4, p < 0.001, 95% CI 559.9-849.9). Time from consultations to infusion was shorter in the universal donor cohort (18.9 ± 19.1 vs. 36.4 ± 23.3 days, p < 0.001, 95% CI 9.521-25.591). Recurrences within 8 weeks after fecal microbiota transplantation were equivalent (p = 0.354). Adverse events were equivalent. CONCLUSIONS:Fecal microbiota transplantation using universal donors versus patient-directed donors for recurrent C. difficile showed comparable efficacy and short-term complications. The use of universal donors resulted in significant cost savings and scheduling efficiency.
Drug-resistant organisms are common in fecal surveillance cultures, predict bacteremia and correlate with poorer outcomes in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplants.
Korula Anu,Perumalla Susmitha,Devasia Anup J,Abubacker Fouzia N,Lakshmi Kavitha M,Abraham Aby,Mathews Vikram,Srivastava Alok,Anandan Shalini,Veeraraghavan Balaji,George Biju
Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society
BACKGROUND:With the increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms and high mortality rates associated with these infections, we describe the spectrum of the major drug-resistant pathogens identified in fecal surveillance, and re-visit the use of fecal surveillance in predicting infection with these organisms post-allogeneic stem cell transplant. METHODS:Data from allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients with common drug-resistant strains of bacteria in fecal surveillance (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Enterococcus spp.) were compared with recipients who did not have the same in fecal surveillance cultures. Baseline characteristics and post-transplant outcomes including similar drug resistance in blood cultures, severe sepsis, and 100-day transplant-related mortality were compared. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression model was used to determine independent predictors of outcome. RESULTS:In 232 transplants, the prevalence of common drug-resistant isolates in fecal surveillance cultures was 57.7% (134 out of 232 patients-with a single isolate in 115 and ≥2 isolates in the remaining 19 patients. A total of 164 drug-resistant isolates were obtained from 134 patients. Of the 164 isolates, 133 (81%) were positive for ESBL screening, 19 (11.5%) for carbapenem-resistant organisms (CRO) screening, 12 (7.3%) for VRE screening. Patients who had common drug-resistant pathogens detected in fecal surveillance have significantly higher subsequent blood culture positivity with drug resistance, as well as higher 100-day mortality. Factors influencing 100-day mortality included patient's age (P = .001), drug resistance positivity in blood (P < .001), drug resistance in fecal surveillance (P = .011), use of an alternate donor (other than fully matched sibling) (P < .001), GVHD grade 3-4 (P < .001), and severe sepsis (P < .001). On multivariate analysis, only use of an alternate donor (0.024), severe sepsis (P < .001), and grade 3-4 GVHD (P < .001) retained significance in predicting 100-day mortality. CONCLUSION:Organisms resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins are frequently seen on fecal surveillance in the pre-transplant setting and are associated with a higher incidence of drug-resistant organisms in subsequent blood cultures (not limited to the same drug resistance pattern as seen in fecal surveillance). Drug-resistant organisms in fecal surveillance are associated with poorer outcomes following allogeneic stem cell transplant and may be used as a guide to identify patients at risk of subsequently developing a drug-resistant organism in blood.
Durable Long-Term Bacterial Engraftment following Encapsulated Fecal Microbiota Transplantation To Treat Clostridium difficile Infection.
Staley Christopher,Kaiser Thomas,Vaughn Byron P,Graiziger Carolyn,Hamilton Matthew J,Kabage Amanda J,Khoruts Alexander,Sadowsky Michael J
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become a common rescue therapy for recurrent infection, and encapsulated delivery (cFMT) of healthy donor microbiota shows similar clinical efficacy as more traditional routes of administration. In this study, we characterized long-term patterns of bacterial engraftment in a cohort of 18 patients, who received capsules from one of three donors, up to 409 days post-FMT. Bacterial communities were characterized using Illumina sequencing of the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene, and engraftment was determined by using the Bayesian algorithm SourceTracker. All patients recovered clinically and were free of infection following cFMT. The majority of patients (61%) showed high levels of engraftment after the first week following FMT, which were sustained throughout the year. A small subset, 22%, experienced a decline in donor engraftment after approximately 1 month, and a few patients (17%), two of whom were taking metformin, showed delayed and low levels of donor engraftment. Members of the genera , , and were significantly and positively correlated with donor similarity (ρ = 0.237 to 0.373, ≤ 0.017). Furthermore, throughout the year, patient fecal communities showed significant separation based on the donor fecal microbiota that they received ( < 0.001). Results of this study, which characterize long-term engraftment following cFMT, suggest that numerical donor similarity is not strictly related to clinical outcome and identify a persistent donor-specific effect on patient fecal microbial communities. Furthermore, results suggest that members of the may be important targets to improve engraftment via cFMT. Recurrent infection (rCDI) is the most common cause of hospital- and community-acquired diarrheal infection associated with antibiotic use. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a treatment that involves administration of fecal bacteria from a healthy donor to a recipient patient, is a highly effective rescue therapy for rCDI that is increasingly being incorporated into standard clinical practice. Encapsulated, freeze-dried preparations of fecal microbiota, administered orally, offer the simplest and most convenient route of FMT delivery for patients (cFMT). In this study, we evaluated the extent of bacterial engraftment following cFMT and the duration of donor bacterial persistence. All patients studied recovered clinically but showed differing patterns in long-term microbial community similarity to the donor that were associated with members of the bacterial group , previously shown to be prominent contributors to rCDI resistance. Results highlight long-lasting, donor-specific effects on recipient patient microbiota and reveal potential bacterial targets to improve cFMT engraftment.
[Chinese experts consensus on standardized methodology and clinical application of fecal microbiota transplantation].
, , ,
Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is to transplant the functional bacteria in the feces of healthy people into the patients' intestines, rebuild the new balance of intestinal flora, and achieve the treatment goals of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. In the past 10 years, FMT has made a breakthrough in the treatment of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases, which is highly expected to treat difficult diseases. However, due to the complexity of FMT methodology and the lack of a unified standard, there is a high heterogeneity in FMT efficacy among various researches, greatly affected its clinical application. Under the initiative of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Branch of Chinese Medical Association, Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Branch of China International Health Care Promotion Exchange Association, China Microecological Treatment Innovation Alliance, and Microecology Committee of Shanghai Preventive Medicine Association, the first expert consensus on standardized methodology and clinical application of FMT was established in China, with a view to improving the efficacy of FMT, reducing the incidence of adverse reactions and promoting the clinical application of FMT.
Gram-Negative Taxa and Antimicrobial Susceptibility after Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection.
Steed Danielle Barrios,Wang Tiffany,Raheja Divyanshu,Waldman Alex D,Babiker Ahmed,Dhere Tanvi,Kraft Colleen S,Woodworth Michael H
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has promising applications in reducing multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) colonization and antibiotic resistance (AR) gene abundance. However, data on clinical microbiology results after FMT are limited. We examined the changes in antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in patients with Gram-negative infections in the year before and the year after treatment with FMT for recurrent infection (RCDI). We also examined whether a history of FMT changed health care provider behavior with respect to culture ordering and antibiotic prescription. Medical records for RCDI patients who underwent FMT at Emory University between July 2012 and March 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. FMT-treated patients with Gram-negative culture data in the 1-year period preceding and the 1-year period following FMT were included. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted, including CDI history, frequency of Gram-negative cultures, microbiological results, and antibiotic prescription in response to positive cultures in the period following FMT. Twelve patients were included in this case series. We pooled data from infections at all body sites and found a decrease in the number of total and Gram-negative cultures post-FMT. We compared susceptibility profiles across taxa given the potential for horizontal transmission of AR elements and observed increased susceptibility to nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and the aminoglycosides. FMT did not drastically influence health care provider ordering of bacterial cultures or antibiotic prescribing practices. We observed a reduction in Gram-negative cultures and a trend toward increased antimicrobial susceptibility. This study supports further investigation of FMT as a means of improving antimicrobial susceptibility. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which is highly efficacious in treating recurrent infection (RCDI), has a promising application in decolonization of multidrug-resistant organisms, reduction of antibiotic resistance gene abundance, and restoration of healthy intestinal microbiota. However, data representing clinical microbiology results after FMT are limited. We sought to characterize the differences in culture positivity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in patients with Gram-negative infections in the year before and the year after FMT for RCDI. Drawing on prior studies that had demonstrated the success of FMT in eradicating extraintestinal infections and the occurrence of patient-level interspecies transfer of resistance elements, we employed an agnostic analytic approach of reviewing the data irrespective of body site or species. In a small RCDI population, we observed an improvement in the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Gram-negative bacteria following FMT, which supports further study of FMT as a strategy to combat antibiotic resistance.
Functional Restoration of Bacteriomes and Viromes by Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). However, the overall mechanisms underlying FMT success await comprehensive elucidation, and the safety of FMT has recently become a serious concern because of the occurrence of drug-resistant bacteremia transmitted by FMT. We investigated whether functional restoration of the bacteriomes and viromes by FMT could be an indicator of successful FMT. METHODS:The human intestinal bacteriomes and viromes from 9 patients with rCDI who had undergone successful FMT and their donors were analyzed. Prophage-based and CRISPR spacer-based host bacteria-phage associations in samples from recipients before and after FMT and in donor samples were examined. The gene functions of intestinal microorganisms affected by FMT were evaluated. RESULTS:Metagenomic sequencing of both the viromes and bacteriomes revealed that FMT does change the characteristics of intestinal bacteriomes and viromes in recipients after FMT compared with those before FMT. In particular, many Proteobacteria, the fecal abundance of which was high before FMT, were eliminated, and the proportion of Microviridae increased in recipients. Most temperate phages also behaved in parallel with the host bacteria that were altered by FMT. Furthermore, the identification of bacterial and viral gene functions before and after FMT revealed that some distinctive pathways, including fluorobenzoate degradation and secondary bile acid biosynthesis, were significantly represented. CONCLUSIONS:The coordinated action of phages and their host bacteria restored the recipients' intestinal flora. These findings show that the restoration of intestinal microflora functions reflects the success of FMT.
Fecal microbiota transplantation for treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection: An updated randomized controlled trial meta-analysis.
Hui Wenjia,Li Ting,Liu Weidong,Zhou Chunyan,Gao Feng
OBJECTIVES:Although systematic evaluation has confirmed the efficacy of fresh fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for treatment of recurrent and/or refractory and/or relapse C. difficile infection (RCDI), it lacks the support of well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and the latest guidelines do not optimize the management of FMT. In this paper, we focus on an in-depth study of fresh FMT and fecal infusion times to guide clinical practice. METHODS:We reviewed studies in PubMed, Medline, Embase, the Cochrane library and Cochrane Central written in English. The retrieval period was from the establishment of the databases to September 20th, 2018. The retrieval objects were published RCTs of RCDI treated by fresh FMT. The intervention group was fresh FMT group, while the control group included antibiotic therapy or placebo or frozen FMT or capsule. The primary and secondary outcomes were the clinical remission of diarrhea without relapse after 8-17 weeks and the occurrence of severe adverse events, respectively. Subgroup analysis analyzed the effect of single and multiple fecal infusions. Two authors independently completed the information extraction and assessed risk of bias and overall quality of the evidence. RESULTS:8 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria, involving 537 patients (273 in the fresh FMT group and 264 in the control group). The recurrence rate of clinical diarrhea in the fresh FMT group was 11.0% (30/273), which was significantly lower than the control group (24.6%, 65/264; P < 0.05); the pooled relative risk (RR) was 0.38 (95%CI:0.16-0.87; I2 = 67%; P = 0.02) in the fresh FMT group, and the clinical heterogeneity was significant and random effects model was used; However, there was no significant difference neither for the effect of antibiotic treatment/frozen feces transplanted by enema (RR = 1.07; 95%CI: 0.64-1.80; I2 = 0%; P = 0.79) or capsule/frozen feces transplanted by colonoscopy (RR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.05-3.94; I2 = 43%; P = 0.45) compared with fresh FMT. The subgroup analysis showed that FMT by multiple infusions could effectively and significantly (RR = 0.24; 95%CI:0.10-0.58; I2 = 0%; P = 0.001) improve the clinical diarrhea remission rate. Most mild to moderate adverse events caused by FMT were self-limited and could be quickly alleviated; no severe adverse events happened because of FMT. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, the use of fresh feces for bacterial transplantation was the best efficiency for RCDI compared to antibiotic therapy or placebo. The fecal transmission method by enema was not ideal, but capsules or frozen feces transported by colonoscopy could be an alternative treatment compared to fresh FMT. For patients with severe RCDI, multiple fecal transplants can effectively improve their diarrhea remission rate. The focus of future research should be on how to standardize the production of capsules or frozen feces to better guide the clinical management of RCDI patients by FMT.
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii increases following fecal microbiota transplantation in recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection.
Björkqvist Olle,Rangel Ignacio,Serrander Lena,Magnusson Cecilia,Halfvarson Jonas,Norén Torbjörn,Bergman-Jungeström Malin
OBJECTIVE:Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). However, the fecal transplant's causal components translating into clearance of the CDI are yet to be identified. The commensal bacteria Faecalibacterium prausnitzii may be of great interest in this context, since it is one of the most common species of the healthy gut microbiota and produces metabolites with anti-inflammatory properties. Although there is mounting evidence that F. prausnitzii is an important regulator of intestinal homeostasis, data about its role in CDI and FMT are relatively scarce. METHODS:Stool samples from patients with recurrent CDI were collected to investigate the relative abundance of F. prausnitzii before and after FMT. Twenty-one patients provided fecal samples before the FMT procedure, at 2 weeks post-FMT, and at 2-4 months post-FMT. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:The abundance of F. prausnitzii was elevated in samples (N = 9) from donors compared to pre-FMT samples (N = 15) from patients (adjusted P<0.001). No significant difference in the abundance of F. prausnitzii between responders (N = 11) and non-responders (N = 4) was found before FMT (P = 0.85). In patients with CDI, the abundance of F. prausnitzii significantly increased in the 2 weeks post-FMT samples (N = 14) compared to the pre-FMT samples (N = 15, adjusted P<0.001). The increase persisted 2-4 months post-FMT (N = 15) compared to pre-FMT samples (N = 15) (adjusted P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:FMT increases the relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in patients with recurrent CDI, and this microbial shift remains several months later. The baseline abundance of F. prausnitzii in donors or recipients was not associated with future treatment response, although a true predictive capacity cannot be excluded because of the limited sample size. Further studies are needed to discern whether F. prausnitzii plays an active role in the resolution of CDI.
Freeze-dried fecal samples are biologically active after long-lasting storage and suited to fecal microbiota transplantation in a preclinical murine model of infection.
Reygner Julie,Charrueau Christine,Delannoy Johanne,Mayeur Camille,Robert Véronique,Cuinat Céline,Meylheuc Thierry,Mauras Aurélie,Augustin Jérémy,Nicolis Ioannis,Modoux Morgane,Joly Francisca,Waligora-Dupriet Anne-Judith,Thomas Muriel,Kapel Nathalie
Fecal microbiota transplantation is now recommended for treating recurrent forms of infection. Recent studies have reported protocols using capsules of either frozen or freeze-dried stool allowing oral administration in in- and out-patient settings. However, a central question remains the viability, engraftment, and efficacy of the microbiome over time during storage life. This study shows that both the freeze-drying and freezing procedures for fecal samples allowed preserving viability, short-chain fatty acids concentration, and anti- properties of microbiota without significant alteration after storage for 12 months. Fecal transplantation with freeze-dried microbiota allowed engraftment of microbiota leading to clearance of infection in a preclinical murine model with a survival rate of 70% 53-60% in mice treated with frozen inocula, and 20% in the untreated group. Moreover, the freeze-dried powder can be used to fill oral hard capsules using a very low amount (0.5%) of glidant excipient, allowing oral formulation. Altogether, this study showed that freeze-dried inocula can be used for the treatment of infection with long-lasting stability of the fecal microbiota. This formulation facilitates biobanking and allows the use of hard capsules, an essential step to simplify patient access to treatment.
Fecal Putative Uropathogen Abundance and Antibiotic Resistance Gene Carriage in Women With Refractory Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection Treated With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.
Female pelvic medicine & reconstructive surgery
OBJECTIVE:The aims of this study were to describe the fecal relative abundance of potentially uropathogenic bacteria and to analyze antibiotic resistance genes before and after fecal microbiota transplantation in women with recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS:Shotgun sequencing was performed on fecal samples from 3 donors and 4 women with recurrent UTI who underwent transplantation. Recipient samples were sequenced at baseline and at 4 time points through 6 months postintervention. Relative fecal uropathogen abundance was analyzed by species and participant using descriptive statistics. Antibiotic resistance gene abundance was assigned, normalized, and compared between donors and recipients at baseline and postintervention using an abundance bar plot, nonmetric multidimensional scaling, and pairwise permutational multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS:The median (range) relative abundance of Escherichia coli in all fecal samples from women with recurrent UTI was 0% (0%-5.10%); Enterococcus faecalis, 0% (0%-0.20%); Enterococcus faecium, 0% (0%-1.90%); Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0% (0%-0.10%); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 0% (0%-0.10%). Gut microbes carried genes conferring resistance to antibiotics used for UTI. No significant difference was seen in antibiotic resistance gene carriage after transplantation compared with baseline (P=0.22, R2=0.08 at 3 months). Antibiotic gene composition and abundance were significantly associated with the individual from whom the sample came (P=0.004, R2=0.78 at 3 months). CONCLUSIONS:Exploratory analysis of gut microbiomes in women with recurrent UTI identifies no or low relative putative uropathogen abundance for all species examined. Antibiotic resistance gene carriage persisted after fecal microbiota transplantation, although conclusions are limited by small sample size.
"Bacterial Consortium": A Potential Evolution of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for the Treatment of Infection.
BioMed research international
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) consists of infusion of feces from a donor to a recipient patient in order to restore the resident microbial population. FMT has shown to be a valid clinical option for infections (CDI). However, this approach shows several criticalities, such as the recruiting and screening of voluntary donors. Our aim was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a synthetic bacterial suspension defined "Bacterial Consortium" (BC) infused in the colon of CDI patients. The suspension was composed by 13 microbial species isolated by culturomics protocols from healthy donors' feces. The efficacy of the treatment was assessed both clinically and by metagenomics typing. Fecal samples of the recipient patients were collected before and after infusion. DNA samples obtained from feces at different time points (preinfusion, 7, 15, 30, and 90 days after infusion) were analyzed by next-generation sequencing. Before infusion, patient 1 showed an intestinal microbiota dominated by the phylum . Seven days after the infusion, decreased, followed by an implementation of and . Patient 2, before infusion, showed a strong abundance of and a significant deficiency of and . Seven days after infusion, strongly decreased, while and increased. Metagenomics data revealed an "awakening" by microbial species absent or low concentrated at time T0 and present after the infusion. In conclusion, the infusion of selected bacteria would act as a trigger factor for "bacterial repopulation" representing an innovative treatment in patients with infections.
Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Patients With Blood Disorders Inhibits Gut Colonization With Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria: Results of a Prospective, Single-Center Study.
Bilinski Jaroslaw,Grzesiowski Pawel,Sorensen Nikolaj,Madry Krzysztof,Muszynski Jacek,Robak Katarzyna,Wroblewska Marta,Dzieciatkowski Tomasz,Dulny Grazyna,Dwilewicz-Trojaczek Jadwiga,Wiktor-Jedrzejczak Wieslaw,Basak Grzegorz W
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Background:Patients with blood disorders colonized with antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) are prone to systemic infections that are difficult to treat. Reintroduction of commensal bacteria in a murine model of enterococcal colonization of the gut can lead to eradication of enterococci. We hypothesized that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could be used to eradicate ARB in humans. Methods:Participants colonized with ARB were treated with intraduodenal FMT according to a prospective protocol (NCT02461199). The primary endpoint was complete ARB decolonization at 1 month after FMT. Secondary endpoints included safety assessment and partial ARB decolonization. Microbiome sequencing was performed to investigate the influence of microbial composition of the transplanted material on the outcome of FMT. Results:Twenty-five FMTs were performed in 20 participants (including 40% who had neutropenia) who were colonized by a median of 2 (range, 1-4) strains of ARB. The primary endpoint was reached in 15/25 (60%) of the FMTs and more frequently in cases in which there was no periprocedural use of antibiotics (79% vs 36%, P < .05). Among participants, 15/20 (75%) experienced complete ARB decolonization. There were no severe adverse events, and partial ARB decolonization was observed in 20/25 (80%) of the FMTs. The microbiota composition analysis revealed higher abundance of Barnesiella spp., Bacteroides, and Butyricimonas and greater bacterial richness in the fecal material, resulting in eradication of Klebsiella pneumoniae compared with nonresponders. Conclusions:FMT in patients with blood disorders is safe and promotes eradication of ARB from the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical Trials Registration:NCT02461199.
The interplay of gut microbiota between donors and recipients determines the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation.
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising treatment for microbiota dysbiosis associated diseases, such as infection (CDI) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The engraftment of donor bacteria is essential for the effectiveness of FMT, which to some extent depends on the matching of donors and recipients. However, how different types of donor-derived bacteria affect FMT efficacy has not been fully dissected. We recruited two longitudinal IBD cohorts of 103 FMT recipients and further analyzed 1,280 microbiota datasets from 14 public CDI and IBD studies to uncover the effect of donor-derived microbiota in recipients. We found that two enterotypes, RCPT/E and RCPT/B (dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and , respectively), consistently exist in both CDI and IBD patients. Based on a time-course-based multi-cohort analysis of FMT fecal samples, we observed the interplay between recipient and donor-derived microbiota during FMT, in which the FMT outcome was significantly associated with the enterotype and microbiota distance between donor and recipient after FMT. We proposed a new measurement, the ratio of colonizers to residents after FMT (C2R), to quantify the engraftment of donor-derived bacteria in the recipients, and then constructed an enterotype-based statistical model for donor-recipient matching, which was validated by both cross-validation and an additional IBD FMT cohort (n = 42). We believe that with the accumulation of FMT multi-omics datasets, machine learning-based methods will be helpful for rational donor selection for improving efficacy and precision FMT practices.