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    The fate of myofibroblasts during the development of fibrosis in Crohn's disease. Li Chao,Kuemmerle John F Journal of digestive diseases Intestinal fibrosis is a devastating complication in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Its characteristics include the loss of regular peristalsis and nutrition absorption, excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, thickness of intestinal lumen due to the formation of strictures and of scar tissue. As a major cell type involved in fibrogenesis, the myofibroblasts have already been shown to have a plastic and heterogeneous function in producing abundant collagen, fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor. The primary sources of ECM-producing and vimentin-positive myofibroblasts come from different precursor cells, including bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, fibrocytes, pericytes, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and endothelial to mesenchymal transition. Recent immunological research findings suggest that numerous cytokines and chemokines made from macrophages, in addition to T cells and other myeloid cell types, are also important drivers of myofibroblast differentiation and hence of the activation of myofibroblast-mediated transforming growth factor and collagen production. In this review we discuss the origins, roles and cell signaling of myofibroblasts during the development of fibrosis in different organs, particularly in Crohn's disease. Finally, we suggest that the epigenetic and immunological regulation of myofibroblast differentiation may provide a novel antifibrotic strategy in the near future. 10.1111/1751-2980.12852
    Nr4A1 modulates inflammation-associated intestinal fibrosis and dampens fibrogenic signaling in myofibroblasts. Pulakazhi Venu Vivek Krishna,Alston Laurie,Iftinca Mircea,Tsai Yi-Cheng,Stephens Matthew,Warriyar K V Vineetha,Rehal Sonia,Hudson Grace,Szczepanski Holly,von der Weid Pierre-Yves,Altier Christophe,Hirota Simon A American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology Intestinal fibrosis is a common complication of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), contributing to tissue stiffening and luminal narrowing. Human nuclear receptor 4A 1 (NR4A1) was previously reported to regulate mesenchymal cell function and dampen fibrogenic signaling. NR4A1 gene variants are associated with IBD risk, and it has been shown to regulate intestinal inflammation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that NR4A1 acts as a negative regulator of intestinal fibrosis through regulating myofibroblast function. Using the SAMP1/YitFc mouse, we tested whether two pharmacological agents known to enhance NR4A1 signaling, cytosporone B (Csn-B) or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), could reduce fibrosis. We also used the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of colitis and assessed the magnitude of colonic fibrosis in mouse nuclear receptor 4A 1 () and their wild-type littermates (). Lastly, intestinal myofibroblasts isolated from and mice or primary human intestinal myofibroblasts were stimulated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), in the presence or absence of Csn-B or 6-MP, and proliferation and ECM gene expression assessed. Csn-B or 6-MP treatment significantly reduced ileal thickness, collagen, and overall ECM content in SAMP1/YitFc mice. This was associated with a reduction in proliferative markers within the mesenchymal compartment. mice exposed to DSS exhibited increased colonic thickening and ECM content. myofibroblasts displayed enhanced TGF-β1-induced proliferation. Furthermore, Csn-B or 6-MP treatment was antiproliferative in but not cells. Lastly, activating NR4A1 in human myofibroblasts reduced TGF-β1-induced collagen deposition and fibrosis-related gene expression. Our data suggest that NR4A1 can attenuate fibrotic processes in intestinal myofibroblasts and could provide a valuable clinical target to treat inflammation-associated intestinal fibrosis. Fibrosis and increased muscle thickening contribute to stricture formation and intestinal obstruction, a complication that occurs in 30%-50% of patients with CD within 10 yr of disease onset. More than 50% of those who undergo surgery to remove the obstructed bowel will experience stricture recurrence. To date, there are no drug-based approaches approved to treat intestinal strictures. In the current submission, we identify NR4A1 as a novel target to treat inflammation-associated intestinal fibrosis. 10.1152/ajpgi.00338.2019
    Thrombin Induced Apoptosis through Calcium-Mediated Activation of Cytosolic Phospholipase A in Intestinal Myofibroblasts. Biomolecules & therapeutics Thrombin is a serine protease that participates in a variety of biological signaling through protease-activated receptors. Intestinal myofibroblasts play central roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. In this study, we found that thrombin-induced apoptosis is mediated by the calcium-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A in the CCD-18Co cell. Thrombin reduced cell viability by inducing apoptosis and proteinase-activated receptor-1 antagonist attenuated thrombin-induced cell death. Endogenous ceramide did not affect the cell viability itself, but a ceramide-mediated pathway was involved in thrombin-induced cell death. Thrombin increased intracellular calcium levels and cytosolic phospholipase A activity. The ceramide synthase inhibitor Fumonisin B, intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, and cytosolic phospholipase A inhibitor AACOCF inhibited thrombin-induced cell death. Thrombin stimulated arachidonic acid release and reactive oxygen species generation, which was blocked by AACOCF, BAPTA-AM, and the antioxidant reagent Trolox. Taken together, thrombin triggered apoptosis through calcium-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A in intestinal myofibroblasts. 10.4062/biomolther.2022.043
    Lipopolysaccharide activates innate immune responses in murine intestinal myofibroblasts through multiple signaling pathways. Walton Kristen L W,Holt Lisa,Sartor R Balfour American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology Myofibroblasts (MF) play an important role in intestinal wound healing. A compromised epithelial barrier exposes intestinal subepithelial MF to luminal bacterial products. However, responses of murine intestinal MF to bacterial adjuvants and potential roles of intestinal MF in innate immune responses are not well defined. Our aims in this study were to determine innate immune responses and intracellular signaling pathways of intestinal MF exposed to LPS, a prototypic Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand. Expression of TLR4 in primary murine intestinal MF cultures was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. LPS-induced secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-6, and keratinocyte-derived chemokines (KC) was measured by ELISA. Intracellular responses to LPS were assessed by Western blotting for NF-kappaB p65, Ikappa-Balpha, Akt, p38 MAP kinase, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). LPS induced rapid phosphorylation of NF-kappaB p65, Akt, and p38 MAPK and degradation of Ikappa-Balpha. LPS induced expression of COX-2 and secretion of PGE2 (2.0+/-0.8-fold induction vs. unstimulated cells), IL-6 (6.6+/-0.4-fold induction), and KC (12.5+/-0.4-fold induction). Inhibition of phosphoinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase, p38 MAPK, or NF-kappaB pathways reduced LPS-induced PGE2, IL-6, and KC secretion. These studies show that primary murine intestinal MF respond to LPS, evidenced by activation of NF-kappaB, PI3-kinase, and MAPK signaling pathways and secretion of proinflammatory molecules. Inhibition of these pathways attenuated LPS-dependent PGE2, IL-6, and KC production, indicating that LPS activates MF by multiple signaling pathways. These data support the hypothesis that MF are a component of the innate immune system and may exert paracrine effects on adjacent epithelial and immune cells by responding to luminal bacterial adjuvants. 10.1152/ajpgi.00022.2008
    Carbachol induces Ca(2+)-dependent contraction via muscarinic M2 and M3 receptors in rat intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Iwanaga Koichi,Murata Takahisa,Okada Muneyoshi,Hori Masatoshi,Ozaki Hiroshi Journal of pharmacological sciences Intestinal myofibroblasts (IMFs) that exist adjacent to the basement membrane of intestines have contractility and contribute to physical barriers of the intestine. Nerve endings distribute adjacent to IMFs, suggesting neurotransmitters may influence IMFs motility; however, there is no direct evidence showing the interaction. Here, we isolated IMFs from rat colon and investigated the effect of acetylcholine on IMFs contractility. In the collagen gel contraction assay, carbachol (1 - 10 microM) and the muscarinic receptor agonist bethanechol (30 - 300 microM) dose-dependently induced IMFs contraction. Pretreatment with the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (1 - 10 nM) inhibited carbachol-induced contraction. In RT-PCR, mRNA expression of all muscarinic receptor subtypes (M(1) - M(5)) was detected in IMFs. Subsequently we found pretreatment with the muscarinic M(2) receptor antagonist 11-([2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperdinyl]acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX116) (10 and 30 nM) or the muscarinic M(3) receptor antagonist 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine (4-DAMP) (3 and 10 nM) dose-dependently inhibited carbachol-induced contraction. In Ca(2+) measurement, 1 - 10 microM carbachol and 30 - 300 microM bethanechol elevated the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in IMFs. Atropine (10 nM) eliminated carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) elevation. The Ca(2+)-channel blocker LaCl(3) (3 microM) abolished carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) elevation and contraction. Furthermore, AF-DX116 and 4-DAMP dose-dependently inhibited the carbachol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) elevation. These observations suggest that acetylcholine elicits Ca(2+)-dependent IMF contraction through muscarinic M(2) and M(3) receptors.
    Collagen XVI induces formation of focal contacts on intestinal myofibroblasts isolated from the normal and inflamed intestinal tract. Ratzinger Sabine,Eble Johannes A,Pasoldt Anja,Opolka Alfred,Rogler Gerhard,Grifka Joachim,Grässel Susanne Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology In Crohn's disease (CD) the stress-shield of intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMF) provided by intact tissue is disturbed due to inflammation and thus, cells start with remodelling activities. This is characterized by increased numbers of collagen-producing ISEMF causing an uncontrolled, irreversible wound-healing response to the chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Reconstitution of the original ECM leads ISEMF to exit this cycle. In contrast, during fibrosis, ISEMF persist. It is known that ISEMF produce and deposit collagen types I, III, IV and V; however synthesis and the role of fibrillar peripheral molecules like collagen type XVI have not been addressed yet. Here, we have analyzed the distribution of collagen XVI in the normal and inflamed bowel wall, its gene and protein expression by ISEMF of different inflammation stages, the cell-matrix interactions in different phases of the inflammatory process and their effect on cell spreading, proliferation and migration. Collagen XVI is deposited in the submucosa of the intestinal wall where it co-localizes with fibrillin-1 and integrin alpha1. ISEMF reveal increasing gene and protein expression of collagen XVI concurrent to increasing inflammation. ISEMF reveal more mature focal adhesion contacts when seeded on collagen XVI resulting in an extensive cell spreading. This involves recruitment of alpha1beta1 integrin, which shows increased cell surface expression on ISEMF in late stages of inflammation. We assume that collagen XVI promotes persistence of ISEMF in the normal and, even stronger in the inflamed bowel wall by stabilizing focal adhesion contacts via cell-matrix interaction preferentially through recruitment of alpha1ss1 integrin into the tips of the focal adhesion contacts. 10.1016/j.matbio.2009.11.004
    Isolation and characterization of bovine intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Iwanaga Koichi,Murata Takahisa,Hori Masatoshi,Ozaki Hiroshi Journal of pharmacological sciences Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISMFs) are mesenchymal cells that exist under the epithelium of intestines. Primarily isolated ISMFs from rodents have been applied to experiments. However, due to the size of their intestines, the available cell number is limited. Thus, we attempted to isolate ISMFs from bovine colon as an alternative material. After detachment of smooth muscle and epithelial layers, colonic mucosa was explanted. After 2-week incubation, alpha-SMA+ / vimentin+ / desmin(-) ISMFs were harvested and applied for experiments. First we examined the effect of cell passage on morphology and proliferation activity of bovine ISMFs. Although 3rd and 7th passage bovine ISMFs did not exhibit any changes, 11th passage ISMFs showed rounded enlarged shape and lost proliferation potential. On the contrary, rat ISMFs displayed the above senescent changes at earlier passage (passage 4). In intracellular Ca2+ concentration measurement, bioactive substances (0.3-1 microM ATP, 0.1-1 microM serotonin, 10-100 nM endothelin-1, and 1-10 nM bradykinin) dose-dependently induced an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in bovine ISMFs (passage 3 and 7). However, at passage 11, impairment in intracellular Ca2+ responses was observed. Thus, bovine ISMFs might be a novel useful tool with long life span and good cellular responses to investigate physiological/pathophysiological roles of ISMFs.
    Amphiregulin promotes intestinal epithelial regeneration: roles of intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Shao Jinyi,Sheng Hongmiao Endocrinology Epidermal growth factor family plays critical roles in intestinal epithelial proliferation and differentiation. The precise function of amphiregulin (AREG), a member of the epidermal growth factor family, in intestinal biology is largely unknown. The present study attempted to address the functional roles of AREG in intestinal epithelial regeneration. Total body irradiation was performed, and intestinal regeneration was assessed in AREG knockout mice. Genetically disruption of AREG significantly impaired intestinal regeneration after radiation injury. It is known that prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) exerts radio-protective and growth-stimulatory effects on intestinal epithelium. We found that PGE(2) radio-protective action did not involve AREG. However, PGE(2) growth-stimulatory effects required functional AREG. Localization of AREG expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in regenerative intestine. The immunoreactivity of AREG was predominantly localized in intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMF). Primary ISEMF cultures were established, and growth-stimulatory actions of ISEMF-generated AREG were demonstrated in cell coculture system. In addition, we found that the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway robustly induced AREG in cultured ISEMF. These studies suggest that AREG plays critical roles in intestinal epithelial growth. Modulation of levels of AREG by targeting ISEMF represents a novel strategy for treatment of certain intestinal disorders. 10.1210/en.2010-0319
    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is generated via TGF-beta by myofibroblasts in gastric intestinal metaplasia and carcinoma without H. pylori infection. Mutoh Hiroyuki,Sashikawa Miho,Hayakawa Hiroko,Sugano Kentaro Cancer science Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) stimulates secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) from gastric mucosa. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression and macrophage infiltration are recognized in human gastric carcinoma. We have previously generated Cdx2-transgenic mice as model mice for intestinal metaplasia. Both chronic H. pylori-associated gastritis and Cdx2-transgenic mouse stomach develop intestinal metaplasia and finally gastric carcinoma. In this study we have directed our attention to MCP-1 expression in the intestinal metaplastic mucosa and the gastric carcinoma of Cdx2-transgenic mouse stomach. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to determine MCP-1 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA expression levels and single- or double-label immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the localization of MCP-1, TGF-beta type I receptor, and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA). We determined that MCP-1 mRNA dramatically increased in the intestinal metaplastic mucosa and the gastric carcinoma of Cdx2-transgenic mouse stomach, compared with normal mouse stomach. Both MCP-1 and TGF-beta type I receptor were co-expressed in the alphaSMA-positive myofibroblasts of intestinal metaplastic mucosa and gastric carcinoma. Exogenous application of TGF-beta1 increased MCP-1 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal metaplastic tissue. Furthermore, TGF-beta1 was overexpressed and macrophage was strongly infiltrated in the gastric carcinoma. In conclusion, MCP-1 expression, which was stimulated by TGF-beta1, was recognized in the TGF-beta type I receptor-expressing myofibroblasts of the intestinal metaplastic mucosa and the gastric carcinoma of Cdx2-transgenic mouse stomach. The present results suggest that intestinal metaplasia and gastric carcinoma themselves induce MCP-1 expression independently of H. pylori infection. 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2010.01609.x
    Influence of troglitazone, sodium butyrate, 5-aminosalicylic acid and BAY 11-7082 on the chemokine ENA-78/CXCL5 secretion in the intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Gruchlik Arkadiusz,Chodurek Ewa,Zajdel Alicja,Wilczok Adam,Weglarz Ludmiła,Dzierzewicz Zofia Acta poloniae pharmaceutica
    Expression profiling of Wnt family of genes in normal and inflammatory bowel disease primary human intestinal myofibroblasts and normal human colonic crypt epithelial cells. Hughes K R,Sablitzky F,Mahida Y R Inflammatory bowel diseases BACKGROUND:Wnt signaling regulates intestinal epithelial stem cell function. Wnt ligands bind Frizzled (Fz) receptors and low-density lipoprotein-receptor-related protein (LRP) 5 and 6. Secreted Frizzled-related protein (SFRP) and Dickkopf families inhibit Wnt signaling. Our aim was to study expression of Wnt family of genes in isolated intestinal myofibroblasts and crypt epithelial cells. METHODS:Myofibroblasts were isolated from normal colonic and small intestinal mucosal samples and those affected by ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease. Expression of the Wnt family of genes was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array. Epithelial proliferation was studied using IEC-6 cells. RESULTS:Most of the myofibroblast isolates expressed Wnt2, Wnt5A, Wnt5B, Fzd1, Fzd2, Fzd4, Fzd6, Fzd7, Fzd8, LRP6, Dickkopf1, and SFRP1. Compared to myofibroblasts isolated from normal colonic mucosal samples, real-time reverse transcription-PCR studies (using additional isolates) showed significantly reduced expression of SFRP1 in UC myofibroblasts (3.34-fold reduction, P < 0.01). Recombinant SFRP1 inhibited proliferation of IEC-6 epithelial cells. In colonic crypt epithelial cells, expression of Wnt ligands and their inhibitors was generally either absent or very weak. By contrast, all the crypt epithelial preparations expressed Fzd1, Fzd5, Fzd7, Fzd8, and LRP6. CONCLUSIONS:Human intestinal myofibroblasts expressed a number of Wnt ligands, their receptors, and inhibitors. In contrast, colonic crypt epithelial cells predominantly expressed Wnt receptors. Compared to myofibroblasts isolated from normal colonic mucosa, those affected by UC showed significantly reduced expression of SFRP1. Since reduced SFRP1 expression has been associated with malignancy, low myofibroblast expression of this Wnt inhibitor may be implicated in increased risk of cancer in UC. 10.1002/ibd.21353
    Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts support in vitro and in vivo growth of human small intestinal epithelium. Lahar Nicholas,Lei Nan Ye,Wang Jiafang,Jabaji Ziyad,Tung Stephaine C,Joshi Vaidehi,Lewis Michael,Stelzner Matthias,Martín Martín G,Dunn James C Y PloS one The intestinal crypt-niche interaction is thought to be essential to the function, maintenance, and proliferation of progenitor stem cells found at the bases of intestinal crypts. These stem cells are constantly renewing the intestinal epithelium by sending differentiated cells from the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn to the villus tips where they slough off into the intestinal lumen. The intestinal niche consists of various cell types, extracellular matrix, and growth factors and surrounds the intestinal progenitor cells. There have recently been advances in the understanding of the interactions that regulate the behavior of the intestinal epithelium and there is great interest in methods for isolating and expanding viable intestinal epithelium. However, there is no method to maintain primary human small intestinal epithelium in culture over a prolonged period of time. Similarly no method has been published that describes isolation and support of human intestinal epithelium in an in vivo model. We describe a technique to isolate and maintain human small intestinal epithelium in vitro from surgical specimens. We also describe a novel method to maintain human intestinal epithelium subcutaneously in a mouse model for a prolonged period of time. Our methods require various growth factors and the intimate interaction between intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) and the intestinal epithelial cells to support the epithelial in vitro and in vivo growth. Absence of these myofibroblasts precluded successful maintenance of epithelial cell formation and proliferation beyond just a few days, even in the presence of supportive growth factors. We believe that the methods described here can be used to explore the molecular basis of human intestinal stem cell support, maintenance, and growth. 10.1371/journal.pone.0026898
    Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical analysis of intestinal myofibroblasts during the early organogenesis of the human small intestine. Artells Rosa,Navarro Alfons,Diaz Tània,Monzó Mariano Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) Intestinal myofibroblasts (IMFs), also known as pericryptal fibroblasts, are found at the basement membrane of the intestinal epithelium. They are characterized by well-developed endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasmic fibers, and fibrous extensions called fibronexi. IMFs have structural features in common both with fibroblasts and smooth cells. Vimentin, desmin, and α-smooth-muscle actin (α-SM) are markers commonly used to discriminate between IMFs and smooth muscle cells. Immunohistochemical studies have shown that, when α-SM and vimentin are positive in both IMFs and smooth muscle cells, desmin is negative in IMFs but positive in smooth muscle cells. In the adult intestine, IMFs play an important role in various functions, especially in tissue repair and scar formation during wound healing. In the embryonic intestine, however, wound healing does not occur, and to date, no studies have investigated the first appearance and subsequent evolution of IMFs. In this study, we have examined the human small intestine in embryos at 7, 9, and 11 weeks of development by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical analysis to shed light on the formation of IMFs during these early phases of organogenesis. At 7 weeks, the embryonic mesenchymal cells are similar to proto-myofibroblasts and may be the precursors of the IMFs detected at 9 weeks and more abundantly at 11 weeks by immunohistochemistry. These IMFs seem to mediate information flow between the epithelium and the mesenchyme and thus contribute to the development of the small intestine. 10.1002/ar.21333
    ATP induces contraction mediated by the P2Y(2) receptor in rat intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Nakamura Tatsuro,Iwanaga Koichi,Murata Takahisa,Hori Masatoshi,Ozaki Hiroshi European journal of pharmacology Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (IMFs) exist just under the epithelial membrane directly facing the mucosal microvascular capillary surface distributed in the lamina propria. In the gastrointestinal tract, ATP is released from epithelial and endothelial cells in response to mechanical stimuli. Although it has been reported that mechanical stimuli evoke synchronized Ca(2+) waves in cultured IMFs, the contractile responses by ATP stimulation have not been examined. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of the contraction of IMFs in response to ATP. ATP (1-30μM) induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. These contractions were inhibited by LaCl(3) (100-300μM) and by Ca(2+)-free solution (0.5mM EGTA). Fura-2/Ca(2+) signals indicated that ATP (1-10μM) elicited transient increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). In addition, αβ-methylene-ATP (10, 30 and 300μM), a broad spectrum P2X agonist at a concentration higher than 100μM, induced neither contraction nor [Ca(2+)](i) rise. UTP (1-30μM), a selective P2Y(2) and P2Y(4) agonist in rodent, induced concentration-dependent contractions and [Ca(2+)](i) increases, whereas ADP and UDP (10μM) did not induce contractions. Pretreatment with suramin (30-100μM), a relatively selective P2Y(2) antagonist, strongly inhibited ATP- and UTP-induced contractions and [Ca(2+)](i) increases. However, pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonate (PPADS: 10-30μM), a receptor antagonist for several P2X and P2Y but less effective to P2Y(2) receptor, failed to inhibit ATP- and UTP-induced contractions and [Ca(2+)](i) increases. By RT-PCR, mRNA expressions of the P2Y(1) and P2Y(2) receptors, but not P2Y(4) or P2Y(6), were detected in IMFs. These results suggest that ATP induces [Ca(2+)](i)-dependent contraction in IMFs, which is mediated through the P2Y(2) receptor. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.01.047
    Intestinal myofibroblasts: targets for stem cell therapy. Mifflin R C,Pinchuk I V,Saada J I,Powell D W American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology The subepithelial intestinal myofibroblast is an important cell orchestrating many diverse functions in the intestine and is involved in growth and repair, tumorigenesis, inflammation, and fibrosis. The myofibroblast is but one of several α-smooth muscle actin-positive (α-SMA(+)) mesenchymal cells present within the intestinal lamina propria, including vascular pericytes, bone marrow-derived stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells or hematopoietic stem cells), muscularis mucosae, and the lymphatic pericytes (colon) and organized smooth muscle (small intestine) associated with the lymphatic lacteals. These other mesenchymal cells perform many of the functions previously attributed to subepithelial myofibroblasts. This review discusses the definition of a myofibroblast and reconsiders whether the α-SMA(+) subepithelial cells in the intestine are myofibroblasts or other types of mesenchymal cells, i.e., pericytes. Current information about specific, or not so specific, molecular markers of lamina propria mesenchymal cells is reviewed, as well as the origins of intestinal myofibroblasts and pericytes in the intestinal lamina propria and their replenishment after injury. Current concepts and research on stem cell therapy for intestinal inflammation are summarized. Information about the stem cell origin of intestinal stromal cells may inform future stem cell therapies to treat human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). 10.1152/ajpgi.00474.2010
    Endocrine differentiation of rat enterocytes in long-term three-dimensional co-culture with intestinal myofibroblasts. Yoshikawa Tetsuji,Hamada Shinshichi,Otsuji Eigo,Tsujimoto Hiroyuki,Hagiwara Akeo In vitro cellular & developmental biology. Animal The proliferation and differentiation of the small intestinal epithelium depends on the microenvironment surrounding the stem cells, such as intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Although there have been many culture studies of intestinal epithelial–mesenchymal interaction, a culture which allows long-term observations has been difficult. This study investigated the influence of intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts on the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells with a relatively long-term observation of 3 wk using a 3D co-culture system. Cultured rat intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts, obtained from the duodenum, were embedded in collagen gel and cells from the rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6 seeded onto it. Histologic sections of the cell-embedded gels were made and histochemical and immunohistochemical examinations were carried out in conjunction with expression analysis of the pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (pdx-1) transcription factor in IEC-6 cells. The IEC-6 cells showed increased proliferation and displayed characteristic endocrine features when co-cultured with rat intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts, arranging themselves into multilayer structures and becoming cuboidal, with abundant cytoplasm and oval nuclei. Some IEC-6 cells were immunohistochemically positive for chromogranin A and glicentin. They also expressed the pdx-1 transcription factor at both the mRNA and protein levels. The number and percentage of chromogranin A-positive cells increased with culture time, whereas no increase was observed in cells cultured without rat intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. The present study using a long-term 3D co-culture model has obtained evidence of the participation of intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts in enteroendocrine differentiation, supported by the expression of pdx-1 and glicentin production. 10.1007/s11626-011-9458-8
    Purinergic P2Y1 receptor signaling mediates wound stimuli-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Iwanaga Koichi,Murata Takahisa,Hori Masatoshi,Ozaki Hiroshi European journal of pharmacology Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISMFs) are crucial for barrier formation against inflammatory stimuli. Physical injury induces cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, which accelerates wound healing by ISMFs. However, the mechanism of COX-2 induction remains unclear. Physically damaged cells release ATP. Here, we investigate the role of ATP-purinergic signaling in wound-induced COX-2 induction in ISMFs. By 24h post-injury, bovine ISMFs had migrated to and closed the wounded area. A COX inhibitor, indomethacin or a purinergic P2 receptor antagonist, suramin, inhibited wound healing. However, additional treatment with indomethacin did not influence wound healing in suramin-treated ISMFs. RT-PCR showed an increase in COX-2 mRNA expression 2h post-injury, which was inhibited by suramin. These results suggest that ATP mediates wound-induced COX-2 elevation. We next assessed the contribution of various purinergic receptors in COX-2 induction. An ATP analog, ATPγS and a purinergic P2Y1, 11-13 receptors agonist, ADP, were among the agents tested which increased COX-2 expression. ATPγS-induced COX-2 mRNA expression was suppressed by suramin or a purinergic P2Xs, P2Y1, 4, 6, and 13 receptors antagonist, PPADS. These data suggest the involvement of Gq-coupled purinergic P2Y1 receptor or Gi-coupled purinergic P2Y13 receptor in COX-2 induction. U73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, which is a downstream signal of Gq protein, showed suppression of COX-2 mRNA expression. However, pertussis toxin, a Gi inhibitor, did not show suppression. We also revealed that inhibitors of p38 MAPK and PKC inhibited ATPγS-induced COX-2 mRNA expression. Collectively, purinergic P2Y1 receptor signaling mediates wound-induced COX-2 expression through p38 MAPK and PKC pathways in ISMFs. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.01.025
    Intestinal myofibroblasts produce nitric oxide in response to combinatorial cytokine stimulation. Wu Jianfeng,Chitapanarux Taned,Chen Yishi,Soon Russell K,Yee Hal F Journal of cellular physiology Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients display elevated levels of intraluminal nitric oxide (NO). NO can react with other molecules to form toxic compounds, which has led to the idea that NO may be an important mediator of IBD. However, the cellular source of NO and how its production is regulated in the intestine are unclear. In this study we aimed to determine if intestinal myofibroblasts produce NO in response to the IBD-associated cytokines IL-1β, TNFα, and IFNγ. Intestinal myofibroblasts were isolated from mice and found to express inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA, but not endothelial NOS or neuronal NOS. Individual treatment of myofibroblasts with IL-1β, TNFα, or IFNγ had no effect on NO production, but stimulation with combinations of these cytokines synergistically increased iNOS mRNA and protein expression. Treatment with TNFα or IFNγ increased cell surface expression of IFNγRI or TNFRII, respectively, suggesting that these cytokines act in concert to prime NO production by myofibroblasts. Impairment of NF-κB activity with a small molecule inhibitor was sufficient to prevent increased expression of IFNγRI or TNFRII, and inhibition of Akt, JAK/STAT, or NF-κB blocked nearly all NO production induced by combinatorial cytokine treatment. These data indicate that intestinal myofibroblasts require stimulation by multiple cytokines to produce NO and that these cytokines act through a novel pathway involving reciprocal cytokine receptor regulation and signaling by Akt, JAK/STAT, and NF-κB. 10.1002/jcp.24164
    Inducible NOS mediates CNP-induced relaxation of intestinal myofibroblasts. Chen Yishi,Chitapanarux Taned,Wu Jianfeng,Soon Russell K,Melton Andrew C,Yee Hal F American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology Contraction of intestinal myofibroblasts (IMF) contributes to the development of strictures and fistulas seen in inflammatory bowel disease, but the mechanisms that regulate tension within these cells are poorly understood. In this study we investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) signaling in C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP)-induced relaxation of IMF. We found that treatment with ODQ, a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) or N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), inhibitors of NO production, all impaired the relaxation of human and mouse IMF in response to CNP. ODQ, L-NNA, and L-NMMA also prevented CNP-induced elevations in cGMP concentrations, and L-NNA or L-NMMA blocked CNP-induced decreases in myosin light phosphorylation. IMF isolated from transgenic mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) had reduced relaxation responses to CNP compared with IMF from control mice and were insensitive to the effects of ODQ, L-NNA, and L-NMMA on CNP treatment. Together these data indicate that stimulation of sGC though NO produced by iNOS activation is required for maximal CNP-induced relaxation in IMF. 10.1152/ajpgi.00214.2012
    Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts support the growth of intestinal epithelial stem cells. PloS one Intestinal epithelial stem cells (ISCs) are the focus of recent intense study. Current in vitro models rely on supplementation with the Wnt agonist R-spondin1 to support robust growth, ISC self-renewal, and differentiation. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) are important supportive cells within the ISC niche. We hypothesized that co-culture with ISEMF enhances the growth of ISCs in vitro and allows for their successful in vivo implantation and engraftment. ISC-containing small intestinal crypts, FACS-sorted single ISCs, and ISEMFs were procured from C57BL/6 mice. Crypts and single ISCs were grown in vitro into enteroids, in the presence or absence of ISEMFs. ISEMFs enhanced the growth of intestinal epithelium in vitro in a proximity-dependent fashion, with co-cultures giving rise to larger enteroids than monocultures. Co-culture of ISCs with supportive ISEMFs relinquished the requirement of exogenous R-spondin1 to sustain long-term growth and differentiation of ISCs. Mono- and co-cultures were implanted subcutaneously in syngeneic mice. Co-culture with ISEMFs proved necessary for successful in vivo engraftment and proliferation of enteroids; implants without ISEMFs did not survive. ISEMF whole transcriptome sequencing and qPCR demonstrated high expression of specific R-spondins, well-described Wnt agonists that supports ISC growth. Specific non-supportive ISEMF populations had reduced expression of R-spondins. The addition of ISEMFs in intestinal epithelial culture therefore recapitulates a critical element of the intestinal stem cell niche and allows for its experimental interrogation and biodesign-driven manipulation. 10.1371/journal.pone.0084651
    Wnt secretion from epithelial cells and subepithelial myofibroblasts is not required in the mouse intestinal stem cell niche in vivo. San Roman Adrianna K,Jayewickreme Chenura D,Murtaugh L Charles,Shivdasani Ramesh A Stem cell reports Wnt signaling is a crucial aspect of the intestinal stem cell niche required for crypt cell proliferation and differentiation. Paneth cells or subepithelial myofibroblasts are leading candidate sources of the required Wnt ligands, but this has not been tested in vivo. To abolish Wnt-ligand secretion, we used Porcupine (Porcn) conditional-null mice crossed to strains expressing inducible Cre recombinase in the epithelium, including Paneth cells (Villin-Cre (ERT2) ); in smooth muscle, including subepithelial myofibroblasts (Myh11-Cre (ERT2) ); and simultaneously in both compartments. Elimination of Wnt secretion from any of these compartments did not disrupt tissue morphology, cell proliferation, differentiation, or Wnt pathway activity. Thus, Wnt-ligand secretion from these cell populations is dispensable for intestinal homeostasis, revealing that a minor cell type or significant and unexpected redundancy is responsible for physiologic Wnt signaling in vivo. 10.1016/j.stemcr.2013.12.012
    PDGF and TGF-β promote tenascin-C expression in subepithelial myofibroblasts and contribute to intestinal mucosal protection in mice. Islam M S,Kusakabe M,Horiguchi K,Iino S,Nakamura T,Iwanaga K,Hashimoto H,Matsumoto S,Murata T,Hori M,Ozaki H British journal of pharmacology BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Tenascin-C (TnC) is a multi-domain extracellular matrix glycoprotein that is expressed at a high level during embryogenesis but is almost absent during normal postnatal life. This multi-domain complex molecule is reported to associate with both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signalling cascades. In this study, we examined how TnC modulated intestinal inflammation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:TnC pathophysiology was evaluated in cultures of rat intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMF) and intestinal epithelial cells. Wild-type and TnC(-/-) mice were treated with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis. KEY RESULTS:DSS-induced colitis in mice markedly increased TnC in the damaged mucosal areas and up-regulated mRNA for TnC, pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors (PDGF-B and TGF-β1). In addition, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis and SAMP1/Yit mice, a model of spontaneous Crohn's disease, also exhibited increased mucosal TnC in colon and ilea respectively. PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα) positive ISEMF were the primary TnC-producing cells in colon tissues. Accordingly, ISEMF collected from the rat colon constitutively expressed both TnC and PDGFRα. PDGF-BB and TGF-β1 up-regulated both TnC mRNA and protein levels in ISEMF. Knock-down of TnC gene increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis, compared with TnC(+/+) littermates. TnC(-/-) mice showed marked abrasion of intestinal mucosal barrier and increased inflammatory scores. Moreover, TnC accelerated both trans-well migration and wound healing in epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:The pharmacological profiles of PDGF-BB and TGF-β in colitis tissues and ISEMF suggest that increased TnC production during inflammation contributed to epithelial cell migration, remodelling and protection of intestinal barriers. 10.1111/bph.12452
    Redox regulation of MMP-3/TIMP-1 ratio in intestinal myofibroblasts: effect of N-acetylcysteine and curcumin. Fontani Filippo,Marcucci Tommaso,Picariello Lucia,Tonelli Francesco,Vincenzini Maria Teresa,Iantomasi Teresa Experimental cell research Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a critical role in inflammation and ulcerations in gut of Crohn׳s disease (CD) patients. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) secrete MMPs in response to inflammatory stimuli. Previous data showed in CD-ISEMFs increased oxidative status. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ISEMFs in modulating the production of MMP-3 and TIMP-1, an inhibitor of MMPs activity. A relationship among oxidative stress, activity of antioxidants and MMP-3/TIMP-1 was also studied. ISEMFs isolated from CD patient colon and human colonic cell line of myofibroblasts (18Co) were used. Oxidative state was modulated by buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), GSH precursor. An up-regulation of MMP-3 due to increased oxidative state was found in CD-ISEMFs. Stimulation by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α increased further MMP-3 levels. On the contrary, no change in TIMP-1 production was determined. NAC treatment decreased MMP-3 production in CD-ISMEFs and removed the enhancement due to TNFα. Similar effects were observed in 18Co cells treated with curcumin, antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties. The involvement of MAPKs on MMP-3 redox regulation was also shown. This study demonstrates the involvement of ISEMFs and high oxidative state in the increased MMP-3 production found in intestinal mucosa of CD patients. NAC and curcumin normalize MMP-3 levels mainly in TNFα stimulated cells. A modulation of MMP-3 production by NAC and curcumin due to their direct action on transcriptional factors has been also suggested. Therefore, they could have a therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of fistulaes in CD. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2014.02.019
    Toll-like receptor expression in crypt epithelial cells, putative stem cells and intestinal myofibroblasts isolated from controls and patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Brown M,Hughes K R,Moossavi S,Robins A,Mahida Y R Clinical and experimental immunology The aim of our studies was to investigate the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 (and in some studies TLR-5) in myofibroblasts and small and large intestinal crypt epithelial cells from control patients and those affected by Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Isolated and disaggregated crypt epithelial cells and monolayers of myofibroblasts were used for studies by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time RT-PCR, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis. Compared to control cells, crypt epithelial cells isolated from active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease colonic mucosal samples showed significantly higher expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 transcripts and protein (on the cell surface). There was also enhanced expression of TLR-4 in crypt cells from ileal Crohn's disease. Expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 transcripts in crypt epithelial cells isolated from inflamed mucosa of distal ulcerative colitis did not differ significantly from such cells obtained from the normal proximal colon. Crypt epithelial cells with side population characteristics (putative stem cells) also expressed transcripts and protein for TLR-2, TLR-4 and TLR-5. Colonic myofibroblast expression of these TLRs was much weaker than in crypt epithelial cells. In conclusion, enhanced TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression by crypt epithelial cells in active inflammatory bowel disease likely reflects greater ability to respond to microbial products. Results from our studies using mucosal samples from patients with distal ulcerative colitis suggest that the enhanced expression of these TLRs could be constitutive. TLR-2, TLR-4 and TLR-5 expression by stem cells imply ability to respond to distinct bacterial products. 10.1111/cei.12381
    Oxidative state and IL-6 production in intestinal myofibroblasts of Crohn's disease patients. Catarzi Serena,Favilli Fabio,Romagnoli Cecilia,Marcucci Tommaso,Picariello Lucia,Tonelli Francesco,Vincenzini Maria Teresa,Iantomasi Teresa Inflammatory bowel diseases BACKGROUND:Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) produce inflammatory cytokines in response to certain stimuli. In the intestine of patients with Crohn's disease (CD), cytokine synthesis is modified and an increased number of myofibroblasts has been observed. The intracellular redox state influences cytokine production and oxidative stress is present in the intestinal mucosa of CD patients. METHODS:This study was performed in ISEMFs isolated from the colon of patients with active CD and in a myofibroblast cell line derived from human colonic mucosa: 18Co cells. Cellular glutathione (GSH) levels were modulated by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, or N-acetylcysteine, a GSH precursor. GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. Interleukin (IL)-6 production was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS:ISEMFs of CD patients exhibited an increased oxidative state due to a decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio, which is related to an increase in basal IL-6 production or is stimulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) or bacterial products. This relationship was also confirmed in 18Co cells. Phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, which are signaling factors involved in the IL-6 synthesis, were also increased when there is oxidative stress in ISEMFs. CONCLUSIONS:This study shows for the first time in ISEMFs of CD patients an increased production of IL-6 synthesis related to the decrease in the GSH/GSSH ratio, suggesting redox regulation with the involvement of specific kinase activation. The present data shed light on the pathogenesis of inflammatory chronic processes and relapses that occur in this pathology. 10.1002/ibd.21552
    MiR-155 modulates the inflammatory phenotype of intestinal myofibroblasts by targeting SOCS1 in ulcerative colitis. Pathak Surajit,Grillo Alessia Rosaria,Scarpa Melania,Brun Paola,D'Incà Renata,Nai Laura,Banerjee Antara,Cavallo Donatella,Barzon Luisa,Palù Giorgio,Sturniolo Giacomo Carlo,Buda Andrea,Castagliuolo Ignazio Experimental & molecular medicine Abnormal levels of microRNA (miR)-155, which regulate inflammation and immune responses, have been demonstrated in the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), although its role in disease pathophysiology is unknown. We investigated the role of miR-155 in the acquisition and maintenance of an activated phenotype by intestinal myofibroblasts (IMF), a key cell population contributing to mucosal damage in IBD. IMF were isolated from colonic biopsies of healthy controls, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients. MiR-155 in IMF was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in basal condition and following exposure to TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or TGF-β1. The effects of miR-155 mimic or inhibitor transfection on cytokine release and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) expression were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot, respectively. Regulation of the target gene SOCS1 expression by miR-155 was assessed using luciferase reporter construct. We found that miR-155 was significantly upregulated in UC as compared with control- and CD-derived IMF. Moreover, TNF-α and LPS, but not TGF-β1 and IL-1β, significantly increased miR-155 expression in IMF. Ectopic expression of miR-155 in control IMF augmented cytokines release, whereas it downregulated SOCS1 expression. MiR-155 knockdown in UC-IMF reduced cytokine production and enhanced SOCS1 expression. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-155 directly targets SOCS1. Moreover, silencing of SOCS1 in control IMF significantly increased IL-6 and IL-8 release. In all, our data suggest that inflammatory mediators induce miR-155 expression in IMF of patients with UC. By downregulating the expression of SOCS1, miR-155 wires IMF inflammatory phenotype. 10.1038/emm.2015.21
    Role of intestinal myofibroblasts in HIV-associated intestinal collagen deposition and immune reconstitution following combination antiretroviral therapy. Asmuth David M,Pinchuk Irina V,Wu Jian,Vargas Gracie,Chen Xiaoli,Mann Surinder,Albanese Anthony,Ma Zhong-Min,Saroufeem Ramez,Melcher Gregory P,Troia-Cancio Paolo,Torok Natalie J,Miller Christopher J,Powell Don W AIDS (London, England) OBJECTIVE:To investigate the potential role of mucosal intestinal myofibroblasts (IMFs) in HIV and associated fibrosis in gut-associated lymphoid tissue. DESIGN:Profibrotic changes within the secondary lymphoid organs and mucosa have been implicated in failed immune reconstitution following effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Microbial translocation is believed to be sustaining these systemic inflammatory pathways. IMFs are nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells with both immunoregulatory and mesenchymal functions that are ideally positioned to respond to translocating microbial antigen. METHODS:Duodenal biopsies, obtained from patients naive to cART, underwent trichrome staining and were examined for tissue growth factor-beta (TGF-β) expression. Combined immunostaining and second harmonic generation analysis were used to determine IMF activation and collagen deposition. Confocal microscopy was performed to examine IMF activation and Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 expression. Finally, primary IMF cultures were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide to demonstrate the expression of the inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS:The expression of the fibrosis-promoting molecule, TGF-β1, is significantly increased in duodenal biopsies from HIV patients naïve to cART, and negatively correlated with subsequent peripheral CD4(+) recovery. The increase in TGF-β1 coincided with an increase in collagen deposition in the duodenal mucosa in the tissue area adjacent to the IMFs. We also observed that IMFs expressed TLR4 and had an activated phenotype since they were positive for fibroblast activation protein. Finally, stimulation of IMFs from HIV patients with TLR4 resulted in significantly increased expression of profibrotic molecules, TGF-β1, and interleukin-6. CONCLUSION:Our data support the hypothesis that activated IMFs may be among the major cells contributing to the profibrotic changes, and thus, the establishment and maintenance of systemic inflammation interfering with immune reconstitution in HIV patients. 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000636
    Prostaglandin E2 promotes wound-induced migration of intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts via EP2, EP3, and EP4 prostanoid receptor activation. Iwanaga Koichi,Okada Muneyoshi,Murata Takahisa,Hori Masatoshi,Ozaki Hiroshi The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISMFs) are mesenchymal cells that reside in the subepithelial region throughout the intestine. When the intestine is damaged, the migratory and mitotic responses of ISMFs are crucial for wound closure. However, their mechanism of action remains unknown. We have investigated the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) and its metabolite prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the wound repair process of bovine ISMFs. The action of a mechanical scratch in a layer of ISMFs in cell culture elevated the levels of both COX-2 mRNA expression and PGE(2) secretion 1 and 6 h after the event. After 24 h ISMFs had migrated to and reduced the wounded area around the site of the scratch. Treatment with the COX-1/2 inhibitor indomethacin, the COX-2 inhibitor 3-(4-methylsulphonylphenyl)-4-phenyl-5-trifluoromethylisoxazole (CAY10404), or E prostanoid receptor 2 to 4 (EP2-EP4) antagonists significantly inhibited wound repair. Conversely, inhibition of wound closure by indomethicin was reversed by treatment with PGE(2) or agonists of the receptors EP2, EP3, or EP4 but not of EP1. Although EP2 to EP4 stimulation did not influence ISMF proliferation, it did stimulate ISMF migration in the transwell cell migration assay. It is noteworthy that cell migration stimulated by EP2 and EP4 was inhibited by the tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor genistein and also by (Z)-3-[2,4-dimethyl-5-(2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-indol-3-ylidenemethyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl]-propionic acid (SU6668). However, cell migration stimulated by EP3 was unaffected. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed EP2 or EP4 stimulation elevated the level of mRNA expression for fibroblast growth factor-2, which stimulates ISMF migration. Collectively, COX-2-dependent PGE(2) secretion promotes wound healing by ISMFs. PGE(2)-EP3 signaling may directly stimulate ISMF migration. PGE(2)-EP2/4 signaling indirectly stimulates ISMF migration by elevating the level of growth factor secretion. 10.1124/jpet.111.189845
    Bovine lactoferrin induces interleukin-11 production in a hepatitis mouse model and human intestinal myofibroblasts. Kuhara Tetsuya,Yamauchi Koji,Iwatsuki Keiji European journal of nutrition PURPOSE:Orally administered bovine lactoferrin (bLF) exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on hepatitis and colitis animal models. To investigate the mechanism underlying the action of bLF, we explored the expression of inflammation-related factors in the intestine of a hepatitis mouse model after the oral administration of bLF and in several human intestinal cell lines treated with bLF. METHODS:The effects of bLF on the expression of interleukin-11 (IL-11) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in the intestinal mucosa of a hepatitis mouse model as well as in cell cultures of human intestinal epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, and monocytes were examined using the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Epithelial cells and myofibroblasts were also cocultured using transwells. bLF transport, and IL-11 and BMP2 induction, as well as the interactions between the two cell types, were then analyzed after bLF treatment. RESULTS:In vivo, oral bLF administration increased the production of IL-11 and BMP2 in intestinal specimens. In vitro, bLF only stimulated the production of IL-11 in human intestinal myofibroblasts; i.e., it had no effect on BMP2 production in any cell type. In the transwell cocultures, bLF passed through the epithelium and directly stimulated IL-11 production in the myofibroblasts on the basolateral side. The IL-11 produced in the myofibroblasts subsequently acted protectively on the epithelial cells of the coculture. CONCLUSIONS:bLF upregulated the activity of anti-inflammatory factors, such as IL-11, in the intestine of a hepatitis mouse model and human intestinal myofibroblasts. 10.1007/s00394-011-0219-y
    Inflammatory and Immune Activation in Intestinal Myofibroblasts Is Developmentally Regulated. Zawahir Sharmila,Li Guanghui,Banerjee Aditi,Shiu Jessica,Blanchard Thomas G,Okogbule-Wonodi Adora C Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research We previously demonstrated that intestinal myofibroblasts from immature tissue produce excessive IL-8 in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared to cells from mature tissue. However, it is unknown whether other cytokines and TLR agonists contribute to this developmentally regulated response. The aim of this study was to further characterize differences in inflammatory signaling in human primary intestinal fibroblasts from fetal (FIF) and infant (IIF) tissue and examine their potential to activate the adaptive immune response in vitro. Cytokine profiles of LPS-stimulated FIF and IIF were assessed by cytokine profile array. IL-8, IL-6, and IL-10 production in response to TLR2, TLR2/6, TLR4, and TLR5 agonists was determined by quantitative ELISA. The potential of activated myofibroblasts to activate adaptive immunity was determined by measuring surface class II MHC expression using flow cytometry. LPS-stimulated FIF produced a distinct proinflammatory cytokine profile consisting of MCP-1, GRO-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 expression. FIF produced significant IL-8 and IL-6 in response to TLR4 agonist. IIF produced significant levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in the presence of TLR5 and TLR2 agonists. IFN-γ-treated FIF expressed greater HLA-DR levels compared to unstimulated controls and IFN-γ- and LPS-treated IIF. Activated FIF produce a more diverse inflammatory cytokine profile and greater levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in response to TLR4 stimulation compared to IIF. FIF express class II MHC proteins associated with activation of the adaptive immune response. These data suggest that FIF may contribute to bacterial-associated gut inflammation in the immature intestine. 10.1089/jir.2014.0071
    Anti-inflammatory activity of polyphenolics from açai (Euterpe oleracea Martius) in intestinal myofibroblasts CCD-18Co cells. Dias Manoela Maciel dos Santos,Martino Hércia Stampini Duarte,Noratto Giuliana,Roque-Andrade Andrea,Stringheta Paulo César,Talcott Stephen,Ramos Afonso Mota,Mertens-Talcott Susanne U Food & function The demand for tropical fruits high in polyphenolics including açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been increasing based on ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of açai polyphenolics in human colon myofibroblastic CCD-18Co cells to investigate the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory proteins. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of açai extract, 1-5 mg gallic acid equivalent L(-1), were selected. The generation of ROS was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and açai extract partially reversed this effect to 0.53-fold of the LPS-control. Açai extract (5 mg GAE L(-1)) down-regulated LPS-induced mRNA-expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNF-α (to 0.42-fold), cyclooxygenase 2, COX-2 (to 0.61-fold), toll-like receptor-4, TLR-4 (to 0.52-fold), TNF receptor-associated factor 6, TRAF-6 (to 0.64-fold), nuclear factor kappa-B, NF-κB (to 0.76-fold), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, VCAM-1 (to 0.71-fold) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, ICAM-1 (to 0.68-fold). The protein levels of COX-2, TLR-4, p-NF-κB and ICAM-1 were induced by LPS and the açai extract partially reversed this effect in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest the anti-inflammatory effect of açai polyphenolic extract in intestinal cells are at least in part mediated through the inhibition of ROS and the expression of TLR-4 and NF-κB. Results indicate the potential for açai polyphenolics in the prevention of intestinal inflammation. 10.1039/c5fo00278h
    Proinflammatory cytokines induce crosstalk between colonic epithelial cells and subepithelial myofibroblasts: implication in intestinal fibrosis. Drygiannakis Ioannis,Valatas Vassilis,Sfakianaki Ourania,Bourikas Leonidas,Manousou Pinelopi,Kambas Konstantinos,Ritis Konstantinos,Kolios George,Kouroumalis Elias Journal of Crohn's & colitis BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Colonic epithelial cells and adjacent subepithelial myofibroblasts are important counterparts in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation and fibrosis. We investigated the possible crosstalk between them, whilst focusing on the mucosal inflammation pathways that potentially trigger intestinal fibrosis. METHODS:We studied the effects of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, TNF-α, IFN-γ) on human colonic epithelial cell lines and the effects of epithelial cell-conditioned media on primary human colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts isolated from normal controls or patients with inflammatory Crohn's disease along with the corresponding 18CO cell line. Readouts included production of TGF-β and TIMP-1, total collagen synthesis, matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and myofibroblast migration/mobility. RESULTS:Proinflammatory cytokines upregulated TGF-β and TIMP-1 in colonic epithelial cells. Conditioned medium from these epithelial cell cultures induced production of MMP-9 and collagen and inhibited the migration/mobility of subepithelial myofibroblasts. MMP-9 production depended on endothelin receptor A signalling on responding myofibroblasts. Collagen up-regulation was independent of TGF-β, CTGF, TF and endothelin. Subepithelial myofibroblasts isolated from Crohn's disease patients had similar responses to those isolated from normal controls, with the exception of higher basal collagen production. CONCLUSIONS:Our study indicates that colonic epithelial cells may respond to an inflammatory milieu by inducing myofibroblast functions similar to those observed during intestinal fibrosis. 10.1016/j.crohns.2012.04.008
    Role of N-acetylcysteine and GSH redox system on total and active MMP-2 in intestinal myofibroblasts of Crohn's disease patients. Romagnoli Cecilia,Marcucci Tommaso,Picariello Lucia,Tonelli Francesco,Vincenzini Maria Teresa,Iantomasi Teresa International journal of colorectal disease PURPOSE:Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs)(1) are the predominant source of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in gut, and a decrease in glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, intracellular redox state index, occurs in the ISEMFs of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study is to demonstrate a relationship between MMP-2 secretion and activation and changes of GSH/GSSG ratio in ISEMFs stimulated or not with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). METHODS:ISEMFs were isolated from ill and healthy colon mucosa of patients with active CD. Buthionine sulfoximine, GSH synthesis inhibitor, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), precursor of GSH synthesis, were used to modulate GSH/GSSG ratio. GSH and GSSG were measured by HPLC and MMP-2 by ELISA Kit. RESULTS:In cells, stimulated or not with TNFα, a significant increase in MMP-2 secretion and activation, related to increased oxidative stress, due to low GSH/GSSG ratio, was detected. NAC treatment, increasing this ratio, reduced MMP-2 secretion and exhibited a direct effect on the secreted MMP-2 activity. In NAC-treated and TNFα-stimulated ISEMFs of CD patients' MMP-2 activity were restored to physiological value. The involvement of c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway on redox regulation of MMP-2 secretion has been demonstrated. CONCLUSION:For the first time, in CD patient ISEMFs, a redox regulation of MMP-2 secretion and activation related to GSH/GSSG ratio and inflammatory state have been demonstrated. This study suggests that compounds able to maintain GSH/GSSG ratio to physiological values can be useful to restore normal MMP-2 levels reducing in CD patient intestine the dysfunction of epithelial barrier. 10.1007/s00384-012-1632-2
    Cytokine Receptor Profiling in Human Colonic Subepithelial Myofibroblasts: A Differential Effect of Th Polarization-Associated Cytokines in Intestinal Fibrosis. Filidou Eirini,Valatas Vasilis,Drygiannakis Ioannis,Arvanitidis Konstantinos,Vradelis Stergios,Kouklakis Georgios,Kolios George,Bamias Giorgos Inflammatory bowel diseases Background:Colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts (cSEMFs) are mesenchymal cells with a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease (CD) fibrosis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time a complete expression mapping of cytokine receptors, implicated in inflammatory bowel diseases, in primary human cSEMFs and how pro-inflammatory cytokines regulate this expression. Furthermore, we show the effect of Th1-, Th2-, Th17- and Treg-related cytokines on a fibrosis-related phenotype of cSEMFs. Methods:Colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts were isolated from healthy individuals' colonic biopsies. Interleukin (IL)-1α- and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced mRNA and protein expression of cytokine receptors was assayed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunofluorescence, respectively. Th-related cytokine effects on mRNA and protein profibrotic factor expression were analyzed by qRT-PCR and/or colorimetric assays and on the wound-healing capacity of cSEMFs by scratch test. Results:In cSEMFs, we observed basal cytokine receptor expression, which was modified by IL-1α and TNF-α. Th1-related cytokines upregulated tissue factor (TF), collagen, fibronectin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and downregulated α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), MMP-9, and wound healing rate. Th2-related cytokines upregulated collagen, TF, α-SMA, MMP-1, and wound healing rate and downregulated fibronectin and MMP-9. IL-17 and IL-23 upregulated fibronectin, and IL-22 downregulated TF. IL-17 and IL-22 decreased wound healing rate. Similar to TGF-β, IL-23 upregulated MMP-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, collagen expression, and wound healing rates. Conclusions:Our results suggest that cSEMFs have a central role in inflammation and fibrosis, as they express a great variety of Th-related cytokine receptors, making them responsive to pro-inflammatory cytokines, abundant in the inflamed mucosa of CD patients. 10.1093/ibd/izy204
    Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Up-Regulates ICAM-1 Expression and Release in Intestinal Myofibroblasts by Redox-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms. Fontani Filippo,Domazetovic Vladana,Marcucci Tommaso,Vincenzini Maria Teresa,Iantomasi Teresa Journal of cellular biochemistry Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is distributed and expressed on cell surface and is present in circulation as soluble form (sICAM-1). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and radical oxygen species (ROS) up-regulate the expression of ICAM-1. This study demonstrates for the first time in 18 Co cells, a myofibroblast cell line derived from human colonic mucosa, an up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release induced by oxidative stress and TNFα stimulation. The intracellular redox state was modulated by L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), inhibitor and precursor respectively of GSH synthesis. ROS production increases in cells treated with BSO or TNFα, and this has been related to an up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release. The involvement of metalloproteinases in ICAM-1 release has been demonstrated. Moreover, also expression and activation of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17, a membrane-bound enzyme known as TNFα-converting enzyme (TACE), have been related to ROS levels. This suggests the possible involvement of TACE in the cleavage of ICAM-1 on cell surface in condition of oxidative stress. NAC down-regulates the expression and release of ICAM-1 as well as the expression and activation of TACE. However, in TNFα stimulated cells NAC treatment reduces only in part ICAM-1 expression and sICAM-1 release. Given this TNFα may also act on these events by a redox-independent mechanism. 10.1002/jcb.25279
    Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts of the intestinal lamina propria in physiology and disease. Roulis Manolis,Flavell Richard A Differentiation; research in biological diversity In this Review we summarize our current understanding of the biology of mesenchymal cells of the intestinal lamina propria focusing mainly on fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. The topics covered include 1) the embryonic origin of mesenchymal cells of the intestinal lamina propria and their heterogeneity in adults, 2) the role of the mesenchyme in intestinal development, 3) the physiological function of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in adults as part of the intestinal stem cell niche and the mucosal immune system and 4) the involvement of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in epithelial homeostasis upon injury and in the pathogenesis of diseases such as Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, fibrosis and cancer. We emphasize studies addressing the function of intestinal mesenchymal cells in vivo, and also discuss major open questions and current challenges in this field. 10.1016/j.diff.2016.05.002
    Crohn's disease-associated mucosal factors regulate the expression of TNF-like cytokine 1A and its receptors in primary subepithelial intestinal myofibroblasts and intestinal epithelial cells. Bamias Giorgos,Filidou Eirini,Goukos Dimitris,Valatas Vasilis,Arvanitidis Konstantinos,Panagopoulou Maria,Kouklakis Georgios,Daikos George L,Ladas Spiros D,Kolios George Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (SEMFs) exert a profibrotic role in Crohn's disease (CD). Tumor necrosis factor-like cytokine 1A (TL1A) and its receptors, death-domain receptor 3 (DR3) and decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), are mucosal factors with significant involvement in experimental inflammation and CD. We aimed to determine the regulation of expression of this system of proteins in SEMFs and intestinal epithelial cells. The relative amount of mRNA transcripts for TL1A, DR3, and DcR3 was measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cultured primary SEMFs, colonic myofibroblast cell line 18CO, and epithelial cell line HT29. Protein expression was determined by immunofluorescence. The effect of various proinflammatory stimuli in mRNA and protein expression was studied. TL1A mRNA and protein expression in primary SEMFs (and 18CO cells) was significantly upregulated after stimulation with interleukin 1-alpha and/or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (32- to 44-fold increase, P < 0.05 vs unstimulated). Following stimulation with interleukin 1-alpha + TNF-α + IFN-γ, HT-29 cells highly expressed DR3 (4.1-fold over unstimulated, P = 0.008) and DcR3 (56-fold, P = 0.009) and secreted soluble factors that led to induction of TL1A mRNA in primary SEMFs (28-fold, P = 0.008). Activated epithelial cells significantly upregulated IL-8 expression in response to stimulation with recombinant TL1A. Supernatants from mucosal cultures of patients with CD were able to stimulate the expression of TL1A in cultured primary SEMFs, in comparison to supernatants from healthy controls (3.8-fold increase, P < 0.05) or culture media alone (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that proinflammatory cytokines are important regulators of the expression of TL1A in SEMFs and of its receptors in intestinal epithelial cells. Our results raise the possibility for involvement of TL1A/DR3/DR3-mediated mechanisms in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and the development of inflammation-induced intestinal fibrosis in CD. 10.1016/j.trsl.2016.08.007
    Tenascin-C Produced by Intestinal Myofibroblasts Promotes Colitis-associated Cancer Development Through Angiogenesis. Kawamura Takafumi,Yamamoto Masayoshi,Suzuki Katsunori,Suzuki Yuhi,Kamishima Megumu,Sakata Mayu,Kurachi Kiyotaka,Setoh Mitsutoshi,Konno Hiroyuki,Takeuchi Hiroya Inflammatory bowel diseases BACKGROUND:Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is one of the prognostic factors in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and prevention of CAC is a critical concern for patients with IBD. Component cells of the microenvironment, especially myofibroblasts, are known to affect tumor development, but the role of intestinal myofibroblasts (IMFs) in CAC has not been clarified. Here, we explored the role of IMFs in CAC and sought to identify candidate genes as novel therapeutic targets for the prevention of CAC. METHODS:We used the azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model for dysplasia and CAC. Flow cytometry and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) were performed to obtain an unbiased gene expression profile of IMFs. The transcriptome of significantly differentially expressed genes was analyzed by RNA-seq, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:Comparison of normal intestinal fibroblasts and IMFs revealed 1045 genes with significantly differential expression. Among them, we focused on tenascin-C (TNC; q = 0.00232, Log2(Fold Change) = 3.87). Tenascin-C gene expression was markedly increased in the dysplasia model compared with control and CAC model (P < 0.05). Tenascin-C protein was barely expressed in normal and nondysplastic mucosa but strongly expressed in the stroma around dysplastic lesions. Moreover, TNC surrounded and enclosed integrin αvβ3-positive microvessels. Administration of ATN-161, an antagonist of αvβ3-integrin, significantly suppressed tumorigenesis of CAC through inhibition of angiogenesis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:In the early stages of CAC, TNC produced by IMFs affects tumor development via integrin αvβ3-mediated angiogenesis. Intestinal myofibroblasts might be a novel therapeutic target for preventing CAC. 10.1093/ibd/izy368
    Umbilical cord/placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit fibrogenic activation in human intestinal myofibroblasts via inhibition of myocardin-related transcription factor A. Choi Yoon Jeong,Koo Jun Bon,Kim Hee Yeon,Seo Jin Won,Lee Eun Jeong,Kim Woo Ram,Cho Joo Young,Hahm Ki Baik,Hong Sung Pyo,Kim Duk Hwan,Yoo Jun-Hwan Stem cell research & therapy BACKGROUND:The lack of anti-fibrotic agents targeting intestinal fibrosis is a large unmet need in inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Previous studies have found that perinatal tissue (umbilical cord, UC; placenta, PL)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduce fibrosis in several organs. However, their effects on human intestinal fibrosis are poorly understood. This study investigated the anti-fibrogenic properties and mechanisms of MSCs derived from UC and PL (UC/PL-MSCs) on human primary intestinal myofibroblasts (HIMFs). METHODS:The HIMFs were treated with TGF-β1 and co-cultured with UC/PL-MSCs. We used a small molecular inhibitor CCG-100602 to examine whether serum response factor (SRF) and its transcriptional cofactor myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A) are involved in TGF-β1-induced fibrogenic activation in HIMFs. The anti-fibrogenic mechanism of UC/PL-MSCs on HIMFs was analyzed by detecting the expression of RhoA, MRTF-A, and SRF in HIMFs. RESULTS:UC/PL-MSCs reduced TGF-β1-induced procollagen1A1, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin expression in HIMFs. This anti-fibrogenic effect was more apparent in the UC-MSCs. TGF-β1 stimulation increased the expressions of RhoA, MRTF-A, and SRF in the HIMFs. TGF-β1 induced the synthesis of procollagen1A1, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin through a MRTF-A/SRF-dependent mechanism. Co-culture with the UC/PL-MSCs downregulated fibrogenesis by inhibition of RhoA, MRTF-A, and SRF expression. CONCLUSIONS:UC/PL-MSCs suppress TGF-β1-induced fibrogenic activation in HIMFs by blocking the Rho/MRTF/SRF pathway and could be considered as a novel candidate for stem cell-based therapy of intestinal fibrosis. 10.1186/s13287-019-1385-8
    Resveratrol decreases TNFα-induced ICAM-1 expression and release by Sirt-1-independent mechanism in intestinal myofibroblasts. Domazetovic Vladana,Bonanomi Andrea Giovanni,Stio Maria,Vincenzini Maria Teresa,Iantomasi Teresa Experimental cell research Up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and its soluble form are involved in the chronic inflammation. For the first time, we demonstrated that resveratrol (RE), a natural polyphenol with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, reduces the increase of expression and release of ICAM-1, due to TNFα-induced oxidative stress, in a myofibroblast cell line derived from human colonic (18Co cells). RE is scavenger of radical oxygen species (ROS) and modulates signaling pathways in which Sirt-1 and NF-κB are involved. Effectively, in TNFα-stimulated 18Co cells RE decreases ROS production and increases Sirt-1 expression and activity, but it reduces TNFα-induced ICAM-1 up-regulation by a Sirt-1-independent mechanism, as demonstrated by EX527 and Sirt-1 siRNA treatments. RE inhibits TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB by reducing both ROS and the degradation of IκB-α, an endogenous inhibitor of NF-κB, with consequent decrease of NF-κB nuclear translocation. This study also shows that NF-κB is not the only factor involved in the TNFα-induced ICAM-1 up-regulation and confirms our previous evidence according to which TNFα increases ICAM-1 levels by redox- and non-redox-regulated mechanisms. RE can represent good and useful support in therapies for intestinal inflammatory diseases in which TNFα plays a crucial role in the increase of adhesion molecule expression. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2019.06.024
    Regulation of intestinal myofibroblasts by KRas-mutated colorectal cancer cells through heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor. Kawasaki Hideyoshi,Saotome Takuya,Usui Tatsuya,Ohama Takashi,Sato Koichi Oncology reports In colorectal cancer, gain-of-function mutations in KRas play a critical role in malignant transformation. Tumor growth in colorectal cancer is known to be promoted by the intestinal myofibroblasts (IMFs) that localize adjacent to the cancer cells, but the mechanisms of interaction between KRas-mutated cancer cells and the myofibroblasts remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of KRas-mutated cells on the behavior of myofibroblasts by using mouse primary IMFs and cells of an IMF cell line (LmcMF) and a mouse colon epithelial cell line (aMoC1). Conditioned medium (CM) was collected from aMoC1 cells overexpressing a control vector or KRasV12 vector (KRasV12-CM), and the effects of KRasV12-CM on IMFs were analyzed by performing proliferation assays, wound-healing assays, Boyden chamber assays, and western blotting. Whereas KRasV12-CM exerted little effect on the differentiation and proliferation of primary IMFs, the CM promoted migration of both primary IMFs and LmcMF cells. In KRasV12-overexpressing aMoC1 cells, mRNA expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) was higher than in mock-transfected aMoC1 cells, and HB-EGF promoted the migration of primary IMFs and LmcMF cells. Moreover, KRasV12-CM-induced IMF migration was suppressed by dacomitinib, an inhibitor of HB-EGF receptors. Notably, in LmcMF cells, both KRasV12-CM and HB-EGF activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), whereas KRasV12-CM-induced migration of IMFs was suppressed following treatment with either an ERK inhibitor (FR180204) or a JNK inhibitor (SP600125). These results suggest that HB-EGF secreted from KRas-mutated colorectal cancer cells promotes IMF migration through ERK and JNK activation, which, in turn, could support cancer progression. 10.3892/or.2017.5520
    Anti-fibrogenic effect of PPAR-γ agonists in human intestinal myofibroblasts. Koo Jun Bon,Nam Myeong-Ok,Jung Younshin,Yoo Jongman,Kim Duk Hwan,Kim Gwangil,Shin Sung Jae,Lee Kee Myung,Hahm Ki Baik,Kim Jong Woo,Hong Sung Pyo,Lee Kwang Jae,Yoo Jun Hwan BMC gastroenterology BACKGROUND:Intestinal fibrosis is a serious complication of inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. There is no specific treatment for intestinal fibrosis. Studies have indicated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ (PPAR-γ) agonists have anti-fibrogenic properties in organs besides the gut; however, their effects on human intestinal fibrosis are poorly understood. This study investigated the anti-fibrogenic properties and mechanisms of PPAR-γ agonists on human primary intestinal myofibroblasts (HIFs). METHODS:HIFs were isolated from normal colonic tissue of patients undergoing resection due to colorectal cancer. HIFs were treated with TGF-β1 and co-incubated with or without one of two synthetic PPAR-γ agonists, troglitazone or rosiglitazone. mRNA and protein expression of procollagen1A1, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin were determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. LY294002 (Akt inhibitor) was used to examine whether Akt phosphorylation was a downstream mechanism of TGF-β1 induced expression of procollagen1A1, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin in HIFs. The irreversible PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 was used to investigate whether the effect of PPAR-γ agonists was PPAR-γ dependent. RESULTS:Both PPAR-γ agonists reduced the TGF-β1-induced expression of α-smooth muscle actin which was integrated into stress fibers in HIFs, as determined by actin microfilaments fluorescent staining and α-smooth muscle actin-specific immunocytochemistry. PPAR-γ agonists also inhibited TGF-β1-induced mRNA and protein expressions of procollagen1A1, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin. TGF-β1 stimulation increased phosphorylation of downstream signaling molecules Smad2, Akt, and ERK. TGF-β1 induced synthesis of procollagen1A1, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent mechanism. PPAR-γ agonists down regulated fibrogenesis, as shown by inhibition of Akt and Smad2 phosphorylation. This anti-fibrogenic effect was PPAR-γ independent. CONCLUSIONS:Troglitazone and rosiglitazone suppress TGF-β1-induced synthesis of procollagen1A1, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin in HIFs and may be useful in treating intestinal fibrosis. 10.1186/s12876-017-0627-4
    Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria or synthetic TLR2 agonist boost the growth of chicken embryo intestinal organoids in cultures comprising epithelial cells and myofibroblasts. Pierzchalska Malgorzata,Panek Malgorzata,Czyrnek Malgorzata,Gielicz Anna,Mickowska Barbara,Grabacka Maja Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases The intestinal epithelial cells reside in close proximity to myofibroblasts and microbiota, which are supposed to have an impact on intestinal stem cells fate and to influence processes of tissue maturation and regeneration. Mechanism underlying these phenomena and their diversity among vertebrates can be studied in 3D organoid cultures. We investigated the growth of chicken embryo intestinal epithelial organoids in Matrigel with and without Toll-like receptors (TLRs) stimulation. The organoid cultures contained also some myofibroblasts with potential to promote intestinal stem cell survival. Organoid cells, expressing TLR4, TLR2 type 1 and TLR2 type 2 were incubated with their agonists (lipopolysaccharide - LPS and Pam3CSK4) or co-cultured with Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria (LA-5). Pam3CSK4 and LA-5 promoted organoid growth, which was demonstrated by comparing the morphological parameters (mean number and area of organoids). The profile of prostaglandins (PG), known to promote intestinal regeneration, in supernatants from organoid and fibroblast cultures were evaluated. Both PGE and PGD were detected. As compared to unstimulated controls, supernatants from the Pam3CSK4-stimulated organoids contained twice as much of PGE and PGD. The changes in production of prostaglandins and the support of epithelial cell growth by myofibroblasts are factors potentially responsible for stimulatory effect of TLR2 activation. 10.1016/j.cimid.2017.06.002
    Protective role of benzoselenophene derivatives of resveratrol on the induced oxidative stress in intestinal myofibroblasts and osteocytes. Domazetovic Vladana,Fontani Filippo,Tanini Damiano,D'Esopo Veronica,Viglianisi Caterina,Marcucci Gemma,Panzella Lucia,Napolitano Alessandra,Brandi Maria Luisa,Capperucci Antonella,Menichetti Stefano,Vincenzini Maria Teresa,Iantomasi Teresa Chemico-biological interactions Resveratrol (RE), a polyphenolic compound present in some food and plants, is characterized by anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, it is quickly metabolized with consequent loss of its efficacy. In this study, the antioxidant effect of 2-phenyl-benzoselenophene derivatives (VD0, VD1 and VD2) was detected in intestinal myofibroblast and osteocyte cell lines in which the oxidative stress was induced by GSH depletion or starvation, respectively. In fact, the oxidative stress is involved in pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and in increased osteoclastogenesis in osteoporosis. Our results show that these derivatives have major antioxidant power in reducing and/or restoring radical oxygen species to control values than RE itself in both cell types. Moreover, derivatives have different antioxidant capacity in myofibroblasts and in osteocytes and this can be due to different degree of oxidative stress and structural characteristics of these compounds. Some of the synthesized RE analogs have shown anti-bacterial role in IBD and anti-resorptive activity in bone pathologies related to inflammatory and osteoporotic processes. Thus, we suggest benzoselenophene derivatives as good candidates for alternative therapy and/or therapeutic support in these pathologies. 10.1016/j.cbi.2017.07.015
    TRPing Up Fibrosis: A Novel Role for TRPA1 in Intestinal Myofibroblasts. Hirota Simon Andrew Cellular and molecular gastroenterology and hepatology 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2018.01.002