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    Host-microorganism interactions in lung diseases. Marsland Benjamin J,Gollwitzer Eva S Nature reviews. Immunology Until recently, the airways were thought to be sterile unless infected; however, a shift towards molecular methods for the quantification and sequencing of bacterial DNA has revealed that the airways harbour a unique steady-state microbiota. This paradigm shift is changing the way that respiratory research is approached, with a clear need now to consider the effects of host-microorganism interactions in both healthy and diseased lungs. We propose that akin to recent discoveries in intestinal research, dysbiosis of the airway microbiota could underlie susceptibility to, and progression and chronicity of lung disease. In this Opinion article, we summarize current knowledge of the airway microbiota and outline how host-microorganism interactions in the lungs and other tissues might influence respiratory health and disease. 10.1038/nri3769
    Intestinal Microbiota-A Promising Target for Antiviral Therapy? Yang Mengling,Yang Yang,He Qingnan,Zhu Ping,Liu Mengqi,Xu Jiahao,Zhao Mingyi Frontiers in immunology The intestinal microbiota is thought to be an important biological barrier against enteric pathogens. Its depletion, however, also has curative effects against some viral infections, suggesting that different components of the intestinal microbiota can play both promoting and inhibitory roles depending on the type of viral infection. The two primary mechanisms by which the microbiota facilitates or inhibits viral invasion involve participation in the innate and adaptive immune responses and direct or indirect interaction with the virus, during which the abundance and composition of the intestinal microbiota might be changed by the virus. Oral administration of probiotics, faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and antibiotics are major therapeutic strategies for regulating intestinal microbiota balance. However, these three methods have shown limited curative effects in clinical trials. Therefore, the intestinal microbiota might represent a new and promising supplementary antiviral therapeutic target, and more efficient and safer methods for regulating the microbiota require deeper investigation. This review summarizes the latest research on the relationship among the intestinal microbiota, anti-viral immunity and viruses and the most commonly used methods for regulating the intestinal microbiota with the goal of providing new insight into the antiviral effects of the gut microbiota. 10.3389/fimmu.2021.676232
    COVID-19 - gastrointestinal and gut microbiota-related aspects. Kaźmierczak-Siedlecka K,Vitale E,Makarewicz W European review for medical and pharmacological sciences OBJECTIVE:The aim of this review paper was to discuss the gut microbiota-related aspects of COVID-19 patients. We presented the faecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2, gut microbiota imbalance, and fecal microbiota transplantation as a hidden source of this virus. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We analyzed the available literature (PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar databases) regarding COVID-19 and gut microbiota related aspects. RESULTS:The gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort/pain, may occur in these patients. Notably, these symptoms may contribute to the severity of COVID-19. Recent several studies have revealed a new SARS-CoV-2 transmission possibility, opening a fresh view on COVID-19. It is observed the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via faecal-oral route. Fecal microbiota transplantation may be a hidden source of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, the pharmacological treatment of COVID-19 and other factors may significantly alter the composition of gut microbiota. Among others, loss of bacterial diversity, the decrease of commensal microbes as well as the increase of opportunistic pathogens are observed. CONCLUSIONS:The alterations of gut microbiota in COVID-19 patients consequently may lead to the development of gut dysbiosis-related diseases even after recovery from COVID-19. Therefore, it is recommended to screen stool samples taken from recovered patients at least 35 days after clearance of virus from respiratory tract. Before 35 days period, SARS-CoV-2 may still be detected in feces. It is also recommended to screen the composition as well as the activity of gut microbiota to assess its balance. In the case of gut dysbiosis, there should be introduced an appropriate method of its modulation. Additionally, all the fecal samples which are prepared for fecal microbiota transplantation should be tested for SARS-CoV-2 to provide protection for its recipients. 10.26355/eurrev_202010_23448
    Importance of gut microbiome regulation for the prevention and recovery process after SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viral infection (Review). Najmi Nuroh,Megantara Imam,Andriani Lovita,Goenawan Hanna,Lesmana Ronny Biomedical reports Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported to affect organs other than the lungs, including the liver, brain, kidneys and intestine, and gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal discomfort, have also been reported. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 could potentially directly or indirectly regulate the gut microbiome profile and its homeostasis. The abundance of , and are associated with the severity of COVID-19, and , , and are also related to COVID-19 infection. The four phyla are correlated with the severity of COVID-19 infection in patients. The modulation of factors that control the physiological growth of the gut microbiome will determine the proportionate ratio of microbiome types (profile). Taken together, gut microbiome profile alterations in COVID-19 patients may have a cross effect with the modulation of cytokine levels in COVID-19 infection. With these findings, several factors that regulate gut microbiome homeostasis may support the degree of the clinical symptoms and hasten the recovery process after COVID-19 infection. 10.3892/br.2022.1508